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TOLMIN (pronounced ( listen ); Italian : Tolmino, German Tolmein) is a small town in northwestern Slovenia. It is the administrative centre of the Municipality of Tolmin .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Main sights * 4 Notable natives and residents

* 5 International relations

* 5.1 Twin towns — Sister cities

* 6 References * 7 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Tolmin
Tolmin
is situated on the southern rim of the Julian Alps
Julian Alps
, the largest settlement in the Upper Soča
Soča
Valley (Slovene : Zgornje Posočje), close to the border with Italy
Italy
. It is located on a terrace above the confluence of the Soča
Soča
and Tolminka rivers, positioned beneath steep mountainous valleys. The old town gave its name to the entire Tolmin
Tolmin
area (Slovene : Tolminsko) as its economic, cultural and administrative centre.

The area is located in the historic Goriška
Goriška
region, itself part of the larger Slovene Littoral
Slovene Littoral
, about 41 km (25 mi) north of Nova Gorica and 87 km (54 mi) west of the Slovene capital Ljubljana
Ljubljana
. In the north, the road leads further up the Soča
Soča
River to Bovec
Bovec
, with an eastern branch-off to Škofja Loka and Idrija
Idrija
.

HISTORY

Assumption of Mary
Assumption of Mary
Parish Church

Early inhabitants were Illyrians
Illyrians
in Tolmin
Tolmin
area. It was ruled successively by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, Odoacer
Odoacer
, the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
, the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and part of the Lombard Duchy of Friuli until it was conquered by the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in 774 and replaced by the Carolingian March of Friuli .

Ancestors of Slovenes had come to this area during the Slavic settlement of the Eastern Alps from about 600 onwards, embattled by Avar raids. It was passed to Middle Francia
Francia
in 843 after the Treaty of Verdun and in 952 passed to the vast March of Verona , which was initially ruled by the Dukes of Bavaria , from 976 by the Carinthian dukes. King Henry IV of Germany ceded it to the newly established Patria del Friuli
Patria del Friuli
in 1077, before it was occupied by the Republic of Venice in 1420. Finally the Tolmin
Tolmin
area was conquered by the Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I during the War of the League of Cambrai
War of the League of Cambrai
in 1509.

Tolmin
Tolmin
was then ruled with the possessions of the extinct Counts of Gorizia as part of the Inner Austrian territories of the Habsburg Monarchy . In 1713 it was the centre of a peasant revolt against increased taxation and the local Count Coronini. It was part of the Illyrian Provinces
Illyrian Provinces
, which were part of Napoleonic French Empire between 1809 and 1814 before returning to Austrian rule. Until 1918, the town (under bilingual names Tolmein - Tolmin) was part of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy (Austrian side after the compromise of 1867 ) and head of the district of the same name, one of the 11 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral
province. A post-office was opened in October 1850 under the German name (only).

After World War I
World War I
it was ruled by the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
between 1918 and 1943 (nominally to 1947). It was a county (comune) center in Province of Gorizia between 1918 and 1923 and again between 1927 and 1943 (nominally to 1947) and in Province of Friuli between 1923 and 1927 during Italian rule as Tolmino. After the Italian caputilation, it was occupied by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in 1943 and was part of Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral before liberation by Yugoslav partisans. After temporary division of Julian March
Julian March
by Morgan Line
Morgan Line
, Tolmin
Tolmin
was part of Zone-B, which was under Yugoslav administrators. It was officially passed from Italy
Italy
to Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in 1947 after the Treaty of Paris . Finally Tolmin
Tolmin
was passed to Slovenia
Slovenia
after breakup of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in 1991.

MAIN SIGHTS

City square and museum

Tolmin's main sights are its old town centre, a modern sports park, and thousand-year-old castle ruins at the hill known as Kozlov rob .

The area is home to a multitude of vestiges from World War I
World War I
. The most significant relic of the time is the Javorca Church , dedicated to the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
built above the Polog
Polog
shepherds outpost in the Tolminka Valley by Austro-Hungarian soldiers to commemorate their deceased comrades.

The museum, library, schools, and the town’s open spaces provide venues for a variety of events, exhibitions, and presentations all year round. The Tolmin
Tolmin
region is also a popular destination for artists from Slovenia
Slovenia
and abroad.

The parish church in the town is dedicated to the Assumption of Mary and belongs to the Diocese of Koper .

Tolmin
Tolmin
is known for the "Metalcamp" festival since 2004, which since 2013 is called Metaldays , which every year attracts about 10,000 people from whole Europe and other parts of world. Other festivals held in Tolmin
Tolmin
are Punk Rock Holiday and the Overjam reggae festival.

NOTABLE NATIVES AND RESIDENTS

Notable natives and residents of Tolmin
Tolmin
include:

* Andrea Bresciani (1923–2006), illustrator * Pino Bosi (1933–2017), writer and historian * Ivan Čargo (1898–1958), painter * Jan Cvitkovič (1966–), film director * Anton Haus
Anton Haus
(1851–1917), grand admiral of the Austro-Hungarian Navy * Ciril Kosmač
Ciril Kosmač
(1910–1980), writer * Karel Lavrič
Karel Lavrič
(1818–1876), politician * Giancarlo Movia (1937–), philosopher * Ivan Pregelj (1883–1960), writer * Albert Rejec (1899–1976), founder and head of TIGR
TIGR
* Jožko Šavli
Jožko Šavli
(1943–2011), writer and historian * Saša Vuga (1930–2016), writer

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

TWIN TOWNS — SISTER CITIES

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Slovenia
Slovenia

Tolmin
Tolmin
is twinned with:

* Vicchio
Vicchio
, Italy
Italy
, since 1981

REFERENCES

* ^ "Tolmin". Place Names. Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 16 August 2012. * ^ trilingual name Tolmein, Tolmino, Tolmin
Tolmin
in: Gemeindelexikon, der im Reichsrate Vertretenen Königreiche und Länder. Bearbeit auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Volkszählung vom 31. Dezember 1900. Herausgegeben von der K.K. Statistischen Zentralkommission. VII. Österreichisch-Illyrisches Küstenland (Triest, Görz und Gradiska, Istrien). Wien 1906 * ^ Treasures of Yugoslavia, An encyclopedic touring guide, Beograd, 1982. * ^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm KLEIN, 1967 * ^ Tolmin
Tolmin
museum site * ^ Koper Diocese list of parishes and churches * ^ http://www.punkrockholiday.com/ * ^ http://www.overjamfestival.com/

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