The diplomatic history of the United States oscillated among three
positions: isolation from diplomatic entanglements of other (typically
European) nations (but with economic connections to the world);
alliances with European and other military partners; and
unilateralism, or operating on its own sovereign policy decisions. The
US always was large in terms of area, but its population was small,
only 4 million in 1790. Population growth was rapid, reaching 7.2
million in 1810, 32 million in 1860, 76 million in 1900, 132 million
in 1940, and 316 million in 2013. Economic growth in terms of overall
GDP was even faster. However, the nation's military strength was quite
limited in peacetime before 1940.
This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular
standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably
Brune (2003) and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., ed. The Almanac of
American History (1983) have specifics for many incidents.
1 18th century
2 19th century
6 21st century
7 See also
9 Further reading
1721 – Treaty with
South Carolina established with the
Province of South Carolina which ceded land between the Santee,
Saluda, and Edisto Rivers to the Province of South Carolina.
1730 – Treaty of Nikwasi established a trade agreement between the
Cherokee and the Province of North Carolina
1761 – Treaty of Long-Island-on-the-Holston established with the
Cherokee and the
Colony of Virginia
Colony of Virginia which ended the Anglo-
with the colony.
1762 – Treaty of Charlestown established with the
Cherokee and the
Province of South Carolina which ended the Anglo-
Cherokee war with the
1776 – Thirteen Colonies declared independence as the United States
of America on July 2; Declaration of Independence adopted on July 4
1776 – Three commissioners sent to Europe to negotiate treaties
1776 – Treaty of Watertown
1777 – European officers recruited to Continental Army, including
Marquis de Lafayette, Johann de Kalb, Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben,
and Tadeusz Kościuszko
Treaty of Dewitt's Corner between the Overhill
State of South Carolina
State of South Carolina which ceded the lands of the Cherokee
Lower Towns in the State of South Carolina, except for a narrow strip
of what is now Oconee County.
1777 – France decides to recognize America in December after victory
at Saratoga, New York
1778 – Treaty of Alliance with France. Negotiated by Benjamin
Franklin, the US and France agreed to a military alliance; France
sends naval and land forces, and much-needed munitions.
Carlisle Peace Commission
Carlisle Peace Commission sent by Great Britain; offers
Americans all the terms they sought in 1775, but not independence;
1779 – Spain enters the war as an ally of France (but not of
John Jay appointed minister to Spain; he obtains money but
John Adams sent to Paris, to negotiate peace terms with Great
1780 – Russia proclaims "armed neutrality" which helps Allies
1780–81 – Russia and Austria propose peace terms; rejected by
1781 – Benjamin Franklin,
Henry Laurens and
Thomas Jefferson named
to assist Adams in peace negotiations; the Congress of the
Confederation insists on independence; all else is negotiable
— Robert R. Livingston named first United States Secretary of
1782 – The
Dutch Republic recognizes American independence and signs
treaty of commerce and friendship; Dutch bankers loan US$2 million for
1783 – Treaty of Paris ends Revolutionary War; US boundaries
British North America
British North America (Canada) on north, Mississippi
River on west, Florida on south. Britain gives Florida to Spain.
1783 – A commercial treaty with Sweden
1784 – British allow trade with America but forbid some American
food exports to West Indies; British exports to America reach £3.7
million, imports only £750,000; imbalance causes shortage of gold in
— May 7 Congress votes to begin negotiations with Morocco.
— New York–based merchants open trade with China, followed by
Salem, Boston and Philadelphia merchants.
— October 11 Moroccan corsair seizes the American ship Betsey and
enslaves the crew; the Moroccans demand that the US pay a ransom to
release the crew and a treaty to pay tribute to avoid future such
1784 – Treaty of Fort Stanwix in which the Iroquois Confederacy
cedes all lands west of the Niagara River to the United States.
1785 – Treaty of Hopewell
1785 – Adams appointed first minister to
Court of St James's
Court of St James's (Great
Britain); Jefferson replaces Franklin as minister to France.
— March 11 Congress votes to appropriate $80,000 to pay in tribute
to the Barbary states of Morocco, Algiers,
Tunis and Tripoli.
— July 9 The Moroccans release the Betsy and her crew.
— July 25 Algerine pirates seizes the American ship Maria off the
coast of Portugal;
Algiers declares war on the US, and the dey
Muhammad V of
Algiers demands that the US pay $1 million in tribute to
end the war.
1785-86 – A commercial treaty with Prussia
1786 – Treaty of Coyatee established between the Overhill Cherokee
and the State of Franklin. Signed at gunpoint, this treaty ceded the
Cherokee land north and east of the Little Tennessee River
to the ridge dividing it from Little River.
— March 25 A team of American diplomats arrive in
Algiers to begin
talks on paying tribute and a ransom to free the enslaved American
— June 23 Moroccan-American treaty is signed in the US agrees to pay
Morocco in exchange for a promise that Moroccan corsairs
will not attack American ships.
Jay–Gardoqui Treaty with Spain, gave Spain exclusive right
Mississippi River for 25 years; not ratified due to
— March 1
United States Congress
United States Congress succeeds Congress of the
— July 27 Department of Foreign Affairs signed into law
— September, changed to Department of State; Jefferson appointed;
John Jay continues to act as foreign affairs secretary until
Jefferson's return from France; from 1789 to 1883. Much of the routine
overseas business is the responsibility of navy officers.
1789 – Treaty of Fort Harmar
1791 – Treaty of Holston
— February 22 Congress votes to send another team of diplomats to
Algiers to pay a ransom for the enslaved Americans and to negotiate a
1793–1815 – Major worldwide war between Great Britain and France
(and their allies); America neutral until 1812 and does business with
1794 -:— March 20 Congress votes to establish a navy and to spend $1
million building six frigates. Birth of the United States Navy.
— June 24
Jay Treaty with Britain. Averts war, opens 10 years of
peaceful trade with Britain, fails to settle neutrality issues;
British eventually evacuate western forts; boundary lines and debts
(in both directions) to be settled by arbitration. Barely approved by
Senate (1795) after revision; intensely opposed, became major issue in
the formation of First Party System.
— September 5 United States signs a treaty agreeing to pay tribute
Algiers in exchange for which the dey Ali Hassan will free the 85
surviving American slaves. The treaty with
Algiers is considered a
1796 – Treaty of Colerain
1796 – Treaty of Madrid established boundaries with the Spanish
colonies of Florida and
Louisiana and guaranteed navigation rights on
the Mississippi River. It becomes law.
— July 11
Algiers frees the 85 American slaves.
— The pasha
Yusuf Karamanli of Tripoli, hoping for a similar treaty
Algiers has achieved starts attacking and seizing American
— President Adams asks Congress to spend more money on the navy and
to arm American merchantmen in response to the Barbary pirate
— August 28 Treaty of Tripoli; treaty with Barbary state of Tripoli
approved unanimously by Senate and signed into law by President John
Adams on June 10; states "the Government of the United States of
America is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion."
Treaty of Tellico with the
1798 – XYZ Affair; humiliation by French diplomats; threat of war
1798–1800 – Quasi-War; undeclared naval war with France.
Tripoli threatens war if the US does not pay more
— July The Tripolitan warship Tripolino takes the American
merchantman Catherine and enslaves the crew. Much outrage in the
— September 30
Convention of 1800
Convention of 1800 (Treaty of Mortefontaine) with
France ends the
Quasi-War and ends alliance of 1778. The treaty frees
up the US Navy for operations against the Barbary pirates.
Early 19th century – The Barbary states of Algiers, Morocco,
Tunis require America to pay protection money under the
 The beginning of the First Barbary War. President Jefferson does
not ask Congress for a declaration of war against Tripoli, but instead
decides to begin military operations against Tripoli, arguing that the
President has the right to begin military operations in self-defense
without asking for permission from Congress.
— July 24 An American naval squadron begins the blockade of
— August 1 The U.S.S. Enterprise takes the Tripolitan ship
— April 27 Second American naval squadron sent to the
— June 19
Morocco declares war on the United States.
Louisiana Purchase from France for $15,000,000; financed by
sale of American bonds in London, and shipment of gold from London to
— June 2 Captain David Porter leads raid into Tripoli; first
American amphibious landing in the Old World.
— February 23 The American diplomat William Eaton meets with Hamet
Karanmanli, the exiled brother of the pasha
Yusuf Karamanli of Tripoli
in Egypt and agrees that the US will depose Yusuf and put Hamet on the
throne; the first American effort at "regime change".
— March 8 A force of American sailors, marines, Tripolian exiles and
Egyptian mercenaries under the leadership of Eaton leaves Alexandria
with the aim of deposing pasha Yusuf of Tripoli.
— April 28 Eaton's force takes Derna, the road is wide open to
— June 4
Tripoli and the US sign a peace treaty.
1806 – Essex Case; British reverse policy and seize American ships
trading with French colonies; America responds with Non-Importation
Act stopping imports of some items from Great Britain
1806 – Napoleon issues Berlin Decree, a paper blockade of Great
1806 – diplomats negotiate treaty with Britain to extend the
expiring Jay Treaty; rejected by Jefferson and never in effect as
HMS Leopard (right) mauls the USS Chesapeake in 1807
1807 – US Navy humiliated by
Royal Navy in Chesapeake–Leopard
Affair; demand for war; Jefferson responds with economic warfare using
1807-09 – Embargo Act, against Great Britain and France during their
1807-12 – Impressment of 6,000 sailors from American ships with US
citizenship into the Royal Navy; Great Britain ignores vehement
1812 – America declares war on Great Britain, beginning the War of
1812 – US forces invade Canada to gain a bargaining chip; they are
repeatedly repulsed; The US Army at Detroit surrenders without a
1813 – US wins control of Lake Erie and what is now Western Ontario;
British and Indians defeated and Tecumseh killed; end of Indian
threats to American settlement
1814 – Treaty of Fort Jackson
1814 – British raid and Burn Washington; are repulsed at Baltimore
1814 – British invasion of northern New York defeated
1814 – December 24:
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty of Ghent signed; providing status quo
ante bellum (no change in boundaries); Great Britain no longer needs
impressment and stops.
1815 – British invasion army decisively defeated at the Battle of
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty of Ghent goes in effect in February; opens long era of
friendly trade and peaceful settlement of boundary issues.
— March 2 The US declares war on Algiers. The beginning of the
Second Barbary War.
— June 28 Commodore
Stephen Decatur arrives off Algiers, after
threatening bombardment, the dey agrees to a peace treaty two days
later in which he releases the American slaves and agrees to the end
of the United States's tributary status.
1815 – Treaties of Portage des Sioux
1818 – London Convention of 1818, between the US and Great Britain
1819 – Adams-Onís Treaty: Spain cedes Florida to America for
$5,000,000; America agrees to assume claims against Spain, America
gives up claims to Texas.
1823 – Monroe Doctrine. British propose America join in stating that
European powers will not be permitted further American colonization.
James Monroe states it on December 2 as independent American
1826 – Treaty of Mississinwas
1831 – Treaty of Wapakoneta
1832 – First Sumatran expedition, in retaliation for the seizing of
American ship Friendship of Salem while engaged in the East Indies
1832 – Treaty of Cusseta
1832 – Treaty of Tippecanoe
1833 – Argentina. US Navy shells the Falkland Islands, at the time
under Argentine control, in retaliation for the seizing of American
ships fishing in Argentine waters.
— Siam. Roberts Treaty of 1833; stipulates free trade with few
limitations, most favored nation status, and relief for US citizens in
cases of shipwreck, piracy, or bankruptcy.
1837 – Caroline affair; Canadian military enters US territory to
burn a ship used by Canadian rebels.
Aroostook War re: Maine-New Brunswick; no combat
— Second Sumatran expedition, in retaliation for the massacre of the
crew of an American merchant ship.
1842 – Webster–Ashburton Treaty-settles US-Canada border, settling
Aroostook War and Caroline affair.
1843 – Treaty of Bird’s Fort
Oregon Question; America and Great Britain at sword's point;
"54–40 or fight" is American slogan
1844 – Treaty of Wanghia.
1845 – Annexation of Republic of Texas; Mexico breaks relations in
1845 – Slidell Mission fails to avert war with Mexico
Oregon crisis ended by compromise that splits the region,
British Columbia to Great Britain, and Washington, Idaho, and
Oregon to America.
Mexican–American War begins;
Oregon settlement with
1848 – Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; settled Mexican–American War,
Rio Grande as US border; territory of
New Mexico rest of west ceded to
America, especially California. US pays Mexico $15,000,000 and assumes
$3,250,000 liability against Mexico.
1849 – Hawaiian–American Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and
Navigation signed with the Kingdom of Hawaii
1850 – Clayton–Bulwer Treaty. America and Great Britain agreed
that both nations were not to colonize or control any Central American
republic, neither nation would seek exclusive control of Isthmian
canal, if canal built protected by both nations for neutrality and
security. Any canal built open to all nations on equal terms.
1851 – Treaty of Mendota
1853 – Gadsden Purchase: purchase of 30,000 square miles
(78,700 km²) in southern
Arizona for $10,000,000 for purpose of
1854 – Kanagawa Treaty; Matthew Perry to Tokyo in 1853; returning
1854 with seven warships; treaty opened two Japanese ports and
guaranteeing the safety of shipwrecked American seamen.
1855 – Quinault Treaty
1856 – Siam. Harris Treaty of 1856; adds extraterritoriality status
for US citizens to provisions of Roberts Treaty of 1833, and
appointment of a US consul (representative).
1857 – Nicaragua; US Navy forces the surrender of filibusterer
William Walker, who had tried to seize control of the country.
1858 – Modern–era Japan. Harris Treaty of 1858.
1858 – Yankton Treaty
Outrages at Jaffa resulted in significant US efforts to
coordinate with and pressure Ottoman officials, growing US influence
and strength in the region.
1859 – Pig War: tense confrontation over the boundary between the US
and British North America, settled by arbitration, the pig the only
1861 – President
Abraham Lincoln proclaims blockade of Confederate
States of America, giving it some legitimacy
1861-65 – Lincoln threatens war against any country that recognizes
the Confederacy; no country does so
1864-65 – Maximilian Affair: In defiance of the Monroe Doctrine,
French Emperor Napoleon III placed Archduke Maximilian on Mexican
throne, America warns France against intervention, with 50,000 combat
troops being sent to the Mexican border by President Andrew Johnson;
1867 – Alaska Purchase: America purchases Alaska from Russia for
1868 – Treaty on Naturalization with North German Confederation
marked first recognition by a European power of the right of its
subjects to become naturalized US citizens.
Burlingame Treaty established formal friendly relations with
China and placed them on most favored nation status, Chinese
immigration encouraged; reversed in 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act.
1871 – Alabama Claims. During the American Civil War, Confederate
States of America raider
CSS Alabama built in Great Britain, America
claimed direct and collateral damage against Great Britain, awarded
$15,500,000 by international tribunal.
Reciprocity Treaty of 1875
Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 with the Kingdom of Hawaii
established free access to American markets for Hawaiian sugar and
other products, and also ceded Puʻu Loa, which became Pearl Harbor
1891 – Baltimore crisis, minor scuffle with
Chile over treatment of
1893 – Hawaii; January 16 to April 1. American businessmen unhappy
Liliuokalani attempt to set up absolute monarchy;
overthrows her with no violence and proclaims provisional government;
US Marines landed to protect American lives; Hawaii and President
Harrison agree to annexation but treaty withdrawn (1893) by President
Grover Cleveland who rejects annexation
Venezuela Crisis of 1895
Venezuela Crisis of 1895 is a dispute with Britain over the
boundary of Venezuela and a British colony; it is finally settled by
1897 – The
Olney-Pauncefote Treaty of 1897 is a proposed treaty with
Britain in 1897 that required arbitration of major disputes. Despite
wide public and elite support, the treaty was rejected by the US
Senate, which was jealous of its prerogatives, and never went into
1897-98 – American public opinion is outraged by news of Spanish
atrocities in Cuba. President McKinley demands reforms.
1898 – De Lôme Letter: Spanish minister to Washington writes
disparagingly of President McKinley, casting doubt on Spain's promises
to reform its role in Cuba
— Spanish–American War; "splendid little war" with American quick
— Treaty of Paris; US gains Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico; pays
Spain for claims;
Cuba comes under temporary US control
— Hawaii seeks to join US; with votes lacking for 2/3 approval of a
treaty on July 7. The
Newlands Resolution in Congress annexes the
Republic of Hawaii, with full US citizenship for Hawaiian citizens
regardless of race
1899–1901 – Philippine–American War, commonly known as the
Open Door Policy
Open Door Policy for equal trading rights inside China;
accepted by Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Russia and Japan
1900 – US forces participate in international rescue in Peking, in
1901 – Hay–Pauncefote Treaty. American agreement with Great
Clayton–Bulwer Treaty of 1850; guarantee of open
passage for any nation through proposed
1901 – Platt Amendment, March 2. Rider attached to the Army
Appropriations Bill of 1901 designed to protect Cuba's independence
from foreign intervention. The amendment effectively makes
Cuba a US
protectorate and allowed for American intervention in Cuban affairs in
1906, 1912, 1917, and 1920. It also permitted America to lease
Guantanamo Bay Naval Base. Rising Cuban nationalism and widespread
criticism led to its abrogation in 1934 by the Ramón Grau
1902 – Drago Doctrine. Foreign Minister
Luis María Drago
Luis María Drago of
Argentina announced policy that no European power could use force
against any American nation to collect debt, supplanted in 1904 by
Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine.
1903 – Big Stick diplomacy:
Theodore Roosevelt refers to US policy
as "speaking softly and carrying a big stick", applied the same year
by assisting Panama's independence movement from Colombia. US forces
sought to protect American interests and lives during and following
the Panamanian revolution over construction of the Isthmian Canal. US
Marines were stationed on the isthmus (1903–1914)
Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty with Panama; leased strip of land
increased to 10 miles (16 km) wide.
Alaska boundary treaty
Alaska boundary treaty resolved the Alaska boundary dispute
between the United States and Canada in favor of US; Canada angry at
1906 – Algeciras Conference. Roosevelt mediated the First Moroccan
Crisis between France and Germany, essentially in French favor.
1908-09 – America negotiates arbitration treaties with 25 countries
1911 – Reciprocity treaty with Canada fails on surge of Canadian
nationalism led by Conservative Party.
1911-20 – Mexican Revolution; hundreds of thousands of refugees flee
to America; President
William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft recognizes Francisco I.
Madero's regime; Madero assassinated by Victoriano Huerta, not
recognized by America
1912-25 – Nicaragua; America controls Nicaraguan affairs through
control of tariff revenues under the Bryan–Chamorro Treaty.
1912-41 – China. US forces sent to protect American interests in
China during chaotic revolution. In 1927, America had 5,670 troops
ashore in China (mostly Marines) and 44 naval vessels in its waters.
1913-15 – Secretary of State
William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan negotiates 28
treaties that promised arbitration of disputes before war broke out
between the signatory countries and the United States. He made several
attempts to negotiate a treaty with Germany, but ultimately was never
able to succeed. The agreements, known officially as "Treaties for the
Advancement of Peace," set up procedures for conciliation rather than
1914 – Veracruz Incident a standoff between America and Huerta;
Congress authorizes force at president's discretion;
ABC Powers try to
mediate; America seizes Veracruz; Huerta breaks diplomatic relations;
war seems near
1915 – British passenger liner
RMS Lusitania torpedoed off Irish
coast by German submarine; 1,200 dead include 128 Americans; Theodore
Roosevelt demands war;
Woodrow Wilson issues strong protest
1915-34 – Haiti. US forces maintained order and control customs
revenue during a period of chronic political instability.
1916-24 – Dominican Republic; US naval forces maintained order and
control customs revenue during a period of chronic and threatened
Pancho Villa raid into America; the Mexican Punitive
John J. Pershing
John J. Pershing chases Villa deep into Mexico; verge
1917 – Zimmermann Telegram. Germany proposes military alliance
between Germany and Mexico against America. Publication outrages
American opinion; Mexico rejects proposal.
New York Times April 3, 1917
1917 – April. America declares war on Germany and later on Austria
Turkey or Bulgaria); remains independent of Great Britain and
1917 – Lansing–Ishii Agreement. America recognizes Japan's claim
to special interests in China, particularly in contiguous territory.
Objection to Japan assuming German Asian territories.
1917 - November --Britain announces the
Balfour Declaration which
promises a homeland in Palestine to the Jews; it checked with
Washington before hand, and gained America's quiet approval
1918 – Fourteen Points. Statement of American war aims by Wilson,
served as basis for
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations.
Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War sees US
troops sent to Siberia
1919 – Versailles Treaty – Wilson one of "The Big Four"
negotiators; signed by Wilson but not ratified by Senate.
League of Nations
League of Nations – part of Versailles Treaty; US never
Washington Naval Conference
Washington Naval Conference held in Washington, D.C.
concluding in the Four-Power Treaty, Five-Power Treaty, and Nine-Power
Treaty; major naval disarmament
1924 – American-led conference results in the Dawes Plan. Eased
reparations for Germany and improvement of its economic situation.
Rogers Act establishes the Foreign Service by merging the
low-paid high prestige diplomatic service with the higher paid, middle
class consul service. The act provided a merit-based career path, with
guaranteed rotations and better pay.
1926-33 – Nicaragua; The coup d'état of General Emiliano Chamorro
Vargas aroused revolutionary activities leading to the landing of US
Marines intermittently until January 3, 1933.
1927 – Naval Disarmament Conference in Geneva; failure to reach an
Clark Memorandum repudiates
Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe
1928 – Kellogg–Briand Pact, multilateral treaty outlawing war by
moral force of 60 signatory nations.
Young Plan reduces amount of reparations due from Germany to
$8.0 billion over 58 years.
Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act
Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act raised American tariffs on imports;
1000 economists protest it will worsen depression; retaliation by
Canada and others.
Stimson Doctrine America will not recognize Japanese takeover
of parts of China; policy endorsed by the League of Nations.
1932 – Lausanne Conference cancels 90 percent of reparations owed by
Germany; the remainder was quietly paid off in October 2010 with a
final payment of $94 million.
1933 – Montevideo Convention. President Franklin D. Roosevelt
declares the "Good Neighbor policy", US opposition to armed
intervention in inter-American affairs.
1933 – London Economic Conference, to deal with Great Depression,
collapses after US withdraws.
1933 – US extends diplomatic recognition of the Soviet Union.
1935 – Neutrality Act of 1935; when war breaks out prohibits all
arms shipments (allowing shipment of oil, steel, chemicals); US
citizens can travel on belligerent ships only at their own risk
1936 – Neutrality Act of 1936; no loans to belligerents
1936 – Spanish Civil War; US neutral; American Catholics support
Nationalist forces; left-wing elements support Republican forces
1937 – Neutrality Act of 1937; 1935 laws apply to civil wars
1937 – Japan invades China, with full-scale war and many atrocities
against Chinese; Japan conquers major cities and seacoast; Americans
strongly sympathetic to China; Roosevelt does not invoke neutrality
Munich Pact sacrifices Czechoslovakia in the name of
appeasement; US not involved but does not object
Diplomatic history of
World War II
World War II § United States
World War II
World War II begins, America initially neutral.
1940- American intelligence breaks the Japanese diplomatic code with
— July 29 Japan occupies the southern half of French Indochina, seen
as a threatening move.
— July 30 US together with Britain and the Dutch government in exile
imposes trade embargo against Japan, most crucially in oil.
— August 13 Atlantic Charter. Anglo-American summit off the coast of
Newfoundland. Roosevelt and
Winston Churchill agree (1) no territorial
gains sought by America or Great Britain, (2) territorial adjustments
must conform to people involved, (3) people have right to choose their
own govt. (4) trade barriers lowered, (5) there must be disarmament,
(6) there must be freedom from want and fear ("Four Freedoms" of FDR),
(7) there must be freedom of the seas, (8) there must be an
association of nations. Charter is accepted by Allies, who call
themselves "the United Nations".
— October 31 American destroyer USS Reuben James sunk by a U-boat.
Rise in German-American tensions.
— December 6 American intelligence fails to predict attack on Pearl
— December 7 Attack on Pearl Harbor. United States is hit by
surprise by Japanese Navy.
— December 11 Germany and Italy declare war on the U.S.
1942 -:— August 8
Riegner Telegram received in Washington. Gerhart
M. Riegner of the World Jewish Congress has received reliable
information that Germany is engaged in a campaign of extermination
against the Jews of Europe.
— January Casablanca Conference. Roosevelt and Churchill meet to
plan European strategy. Unconditional surrender of Axis countries
demanded, Soviet aid and participation, invasion of
Sicily and Italy
— October 30 Moscow Declaration. Joint statement by the United
United Kingdom and the
Soviet Union promises that German
leaders will be tried for war crimes after the Allied victory.
— November Cairo Conference. Roosevelt, Churchill and Chiang
Kai-shek meet to make decisions about postwar Asia: Japan returns all
territory, independent Korea.
— November Tehran Conference. Roosevelt and Churchill meet with
1944 – Monetary and Financial Conference held in July in Bretton
Woods, New Hampshire;
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund and International
Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) created to aid
nations devastated by the war and to stabilize the international
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
Dumbarton Oaks Conference held in August in Washington;
1945 – February 4–11
Yalta Conference with
Joseph Stalin and
Churchill; agreement on division of Eastern Europe
1945 – Surrender of Germany (V-E Day)
1945 – July 17 – August 2 Potsdam Conference; President Harry S.
Truman meets with Stalin and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee;
tells Stalin of atomic bomb; gives Japan last warning to surrender;
Germany (and Austria) divided into 4 zones of occupation
1945 – US eager to help establish
United Nations at San Francisco
Conference on International Organization.
1945 – June 26 –
United Nations Charter signed in San Francisco.
America becomes a founding member and has veto power on the Security
Council along with Great Britain, France, China and the Soviet Union.
1945 – August—Nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; surrender
of Japan (V-J Day); beginning of the nuclear age.
Marshall Mission to China tries and fails to force
coalition government of Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists and Mao
1945-53 – U.S. provides grants and credits amounting to $5.9 billion
to Asian countries, especially China/Taiwan ($1.051 billion), India
($255 million), Indonesia ($215 million), Japan ($2.44 billion), South
Korea ($894 million),
Pakistan ($98 million) and the Philippines ($803
million). In addition, another $282 million went to Israel and $196
million to the rest of the Middle East. All this aid was separate
from the Marshall Plan.
1946 – In the Blum–Byrnes agreement, the US forgives $2.8 billion
in French debts (mostly World War I loans), and gives an additional
low-interest loan of $650 million. In turn, France allows American
films in its cinemas.
Truman Doctrine gives military and economic aid to Greece and
Turkey to halt spread of Communism
1947–89 – Cold War, an era of high tension and hostility—but no
major "hot" war—between the US and its allies (Western Europe,
Canada, Japan, etc.) and the
Soviet Union and its satellite
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) includes US and
22 nations who agree to eliminate trade barriers of all kinds on
industrial and agricultural goods. Replaced in 1995 by World Trade
Marshall Plan (formally, "European Recovery Plan"); US
gives out $13 billion to rebuild and modernize Western European
economies. Increased trade between Europe and the America; no
repayment asked for.
— June 24
Berlin Blockade imposed by the Soviet Union, blocking
traffic into western sectors of Berlin, followed by Operation Vittles,
America airlifted massive amounts of food, fuel and supplies into
city. Soviet blockade lifted on May 12, 1949.
— January 21
Dean Acheson appointed Secretary of State. He will hold
this office until 1953 and is remembered as one of the more abler
Secretaries of State.
— April 4 America and eleven other nations sign the North Atlantic
Treaty, creating NATO, a military alliance with the purpose of
Soviet Union and its allies.
— 23 May 1949 The United States, Britain and France grant
independence in their zones in Germany to a new state called the
Federal Republic of Germany.
— June 25
Korean War begins. US sends in troops to stop North Korean
invasion; UN votes support; (
Soviet Union boycotted UN and did not
veto.) US forces deployed in Korea exceeded 300,000 during the last
year of the conflict.
— September US-led invasion defeats North Korean army; UN authorizes
rollback strategy, with North Korea to come under UN control
— November Chinese forces enter North Korea; roll back UN-US-South
Korean forces to below 38th parallel
— March 28 President
Vincent Auriol of France visits Washington to
meet President Truman. During his visit, the US agrees to pay for
entire French war effort in Vietnam, and to provide unlimited military
— April President Truman fires General
Douglas MacArthur as blame
game escalates regarding Korean war stalemate.
— June Talks for an armistice in the
Korean War open. The major
issue that divides the Communist and UN sides is the return of the
POWs with the Communists demanding that all POWs from their nations be
repatriated while the UN insists on voluntary repatriation.
— September 1
ANZUS Treaty united America, Australia and New Zealand
in a defensive regional pact
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower defeats isolationist element in GOP;
denounces stalemate in Korea and promises to go there himself; elected
president in landslide
— May Eisenhower threatens use of nuclear weapons in Korean War;
China agrees to negotiate.
— July 27 armistice signed ending the
Korean War (it is still in
1953 – Iran. US and UK governments support shah's coup against
Iran's Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh
— March 13 The
Battle of Dien Bien Phu
Battle of Dien Bien Phu begins. As the French are
faced with defeat in Vietnam, Eisenhower considers intervention with
tactical nuclear weapons to break the siege of Dien Bien Phu, and
orders the Joint Chiefs of Staff to start work on Operation Vulture,
the plan to intervene in Vietnam.
Operation Vulture is ultimately
rejected as a policy option.
— April 26
Geneva conference opens. Through called to consider a
peace treaty for the Korean War, the conference is soon dominated by
the question of Vietnam. The Secretary of State John Foster Dulles
heads the American delegation.
— June 18 Guatemala.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower authorizes Operation
PBSUCCESS, a program of "psychological warfare and political action"
against anti-US regime; Guatemalan military overthrows the left-wing
Jacobo Árbenz and installs Carlos Castillo Armas.
— July 20 The
Geneva conference closes with an agreement on the
partition of Vietnam into two states with a promise to hold a general
election in both by June 1956. Dulles does not sign the Geneva
accords, but promises that the US will abide by them.
— September 8
SEATO alliance in
Southeast Asia is founded. South
Vietnam not a signatory
— February 24
Baghdad Pact is founded. Later known as the Central
Treaty Organization (or CENTO) initiated by John Foster Dulles,
members were Iran, Iraq, United Kingdom, Pakistan, and Turkey, US aid.
Eisenhower Doctrine gives the president authority to
determine the necessity to assist any nation requesting assistance
against armed aggression from any country controlled by international
communism, applied in
Lebanon the following year.
1957 – Americans embarrassed when Soviets launch Sputnik, the first
space satellite and leapfrog America in high technology.
1958 – US foreign aid appropriation, $3.2 billion for military and
economic aid; lending authority of the Export-Import Bank raised to $7
billion; US admits 32,000 Hungarian refugees from 1956 revolt
1959 – Cuba.
Fidel Castro comes to power. The first of 1 million
Cuban exiles go to US, concentrating in Miami
Nikita Khrushchev cancels summit conference with Eisenhower
after US U-2 spy plane shot down over the Soviet Union
1960 – Act of
Bogotá makes social reform a prior condition for
American economic aid
Cuba seizes $1.5 billion of American properties; America
imposes complete trade embargo (except food, medicine) continues in
effect in 2012
1961 – President
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy launches Space Race, promising
Americans on the Moon; they landed July 20, 1969
1961 McGeorge Bundy becomes US National Security Advisor.
1961 – Cuba. America breaks diplomatic relations as Castro aligns
with Soviet Union.
1961 – Alliance for Progress. inter-regional agreement funded by
America to counter the growing regional appeal of the Cuban
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Bay of Pigs Invasion in April; CIA-trained Cuban exiles
Cuba and were defeated at the Bay of Pigs; captured and
ransomed by President Kennedy
1961 – Berlin Crisis. Soviets give East Germany control over East
Berlin; in August the
Berlin Wall is built to stem the wave of
refugees escaping to the Western side. Kennedy proclaims "Ich bin ein
Berliner" ("I am a citizen of Berlin") to cheering West Berliners.
Organization of American States
Organization of American States (OAS) excludes Cuba, sets up
trade embargo; dropped in 1975.
1962 – Cuban missile crisis.
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy on October 22 announces
that there exist Soviet missiles in
Cuba and demanded their removal
while imposing an air-sea blockade. Soviet missiles are withdrawn on
condition that America will not invade Cuba.
1963 – Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. US and the Soviet Union
agreed not to conduct nuclear tests in space, in the atmosphere or
underwater. Underground tests permitted; signed by 100 nations,
excluding France and the People's Republic of China.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gives President Lyndon B. Johnson
Congressional approval to act in Vietnam; repealed in 1970.
1965 – Intervention in Dominican Republic.
Tet Offensive in Vietnam causes political crisis at home.
— November 1 The first "accelerated pacification" of launching land
South Vietnam intended to persuade South Vietnamese
peasants not to support the Viet Cong is launched; a success.
Richard Nixon as president and
Henry Kissinger as his
National Security Advisor; Kissinger serves as Secretary of State
— January 28 Nixon launches policy of Vietnamization, in which
American ground troops in Vietnam were to be steadily reduced and the
American role was to provide military training, equipment, and air
support for the South Vietnamese.
Vietnamization was intended to
reduce American losses in Vietnam, and thus reduce the domestic
pressure for a total withdrawal of American forces. Nixon's aim in
Vietnam is to force a Korean War-type armistice, which requires that
the war go on until Hanoi agreed to the American terms while at the
same time forcing Nixon to deflect pressure from domestic anti-war
protests. With the same aim of achieving an armistice that would allow
South Vietnam to continue to exist, Nixon begins a policy of seeking
better relations with the
Soviet Union and China, hoping those two
states would reduce, if not end their arm supplies to
North Vietnam in
return for better relations with Washington, and thus forcing Hanoi to
accept peace on American terms.
— February Following the success of the first "accelerated
pacification" and the
Phoenix Program of "neutralizing" (i.e.
assassinating) Viet Cong operatives, Nixon applies strong pressure for
more "accelerated pacification" campaigns and the Phoenix Program
South Vietnam as a part of the effort at breaking the Viet
Cong. For Nixon, "accelerated pacification" and the Phoenix Program
killings both have the effect of weakening the Viet Cong without the
use of American troops, which serves to achieve both his aims of
reducing American forces and applying pressure for the Vietnamese
Communists to accept peace on American terms.
— March 8 President Nasser of Egypt launches the War of Attrition
against Israel. The US supports Israel while the
Soviet Union supports
— July 25 Nixon announces the
Nixon Doctrine in which Nixon warns
that the United States will not to any lengths to defend its allies,
especially in Asia, and henceforth American allies must do more for
their own defense. The doctrine is especially aimed at South Vietnam
and is intended to pressure the South Vietnamese government to do a
more effective job of fighting the Communists.
— July Nixon visits
Pakistan and meets with the Pakistani President
General Agha Yahya Khan, tells him that he wants to use
Pakistan as an
intermediary for talks with China. Yahya Khan agrees to Nixon's
— September 9 Walter Stoessel, the American ambassador to Poland is
ordered by Nixon to make contacts with Chinese diplomats in an
— October 16 Pakistani ambassador to the United States Agha Hilaly
tells Kissinger that President Yahya is going to visit China early the
next year, and is there any message that Kissinger would like Yahya to
pass on to Mao.
— November 3 Nixon gives a TV speech claiming that there was a
"silent majority" supporting his Vietnam policies, states that he
needs some more time for his policies to work, denounces anti-war
protestors as a threat to world peace, and asks for the support of the
"silent majority" to help him "to end the war in a way that we could
win the peace."
— February 23 Hilaly tells Kissinger that after Yahya's visit to
Beijing that the Chinese were interested in the American offer, but
did not want to negotiate from a position of weakness.
— March Under the "accelerated pacification", more than million
hectares of land have been redistributed in American-encouraged land
reform in South Vietnam.
— March 7
Chiang Kai-shek who has heard reports of Sino-American
talks in Warsaw writes to Nixon to protest.
— April 29 Nixon orders the Cambodian Incursion. American and South
Vietnamese force invade eastern provinces of Cambodia with the aim of
clearing out the Viet Cong/North Vietnamese forces based there. Sparks
much protest in the United States.
— June By this point in the
War of Attrition
War of Attrition between Israel and
Egypt, there are regular clashes occurring between Israel and Soviet
forces in Egypt, leading to fears that this might cause a world war,
which in turn leads to strong pressure for a ceasefire.
— October 25 During a Pakistani-American summit, President Nixon
asks President Yahya to pass on another message to
Beijing about the
American wish for rapprochement with China.
— October 31 Kissinger meets with Romanian President Nicolae
Ceaușescu and asks him to pass on a message to China that the US
wishes for a normalization of relations with the People's Republic of
— January 12 Corneliu Bogdan, the Romanian ambassador to the US
tells Kissinger that Ceaușescu has passed on the American message,
and that for Mao, normalization would be possible if the US would end
the "occupation" of Taiwan as Mao calls American support for
Taiwan. This poses a major problem for Nixon as allow China to
take Taiwan would greatly damage America's image and pose domestic
— March 4 Nixon gives press conference, and warns that better
Sino-American relations cannot come at the expense of Taiwan.
— March 26
Operation Searchlight intended by
President Agha Yahya Khan to crush the Awami League in East Pakistan,
and to eliminate the intelligentsia, political class and Hindu
minority of East Pakistan. As General Yahya is a key conduit in
the talks between the US and China, the Nixon administration does not
Operation Searchlight as it fears this might offend General
Yahya, as part of its marked "tilt" towards Pakistan.
— April 6 The Blood telegram sent by Archer Blood, the American
consul in Dhaka and 20 other diplomats protesting the Nixon
administration's silence about the Pakistani government's repression
Pakistan and what the telegram argues is a campaign of
genocide by the government against the Hindu minority in East
Pakistan. The Blood telegram does not affect American policy
towards Pakistan, and effectively cuts the career of Blood and the
— April 14 Ping-pong diplomacy. The American table tennis team is
allowed to visit China, causes a sensation. During a phone
conversation, Kissinger says "It's a tragedy that it has to happen to
Chiang at the end of his life but we have to be cold about it", to
which Nixon replies "We have to do what's best for us".
— April 21 Pakistani President Yahya informs Nixon that he had
spoken with Zhou Enlai, and that the Chinese wished for a senior
American envoy to make a secret visit to Beijing.
— April 27 About the Chinese offer of a secret American envoy to
visit Beijing, Kissinger tells Nixon that "If we get this thing
working, we will end Vietnam this year."
— July 9 Kissinger visits Islamabad, Pakistan, and from there goes
on to a secret trip to
Beijing to meet
Zhou Enlai and Mao Zedong.
During the secret summit in Beijing, it is agreed that President Nixon
will visit China the next year.
— December 3 Indo-Pakistani war begins. The US supports Pakistan
Soviet Union supports India.
— December 11 Nixon orders
Task Force 74 to the Bay of Bengal in an
attempt to intimidate India into accepting a ceasefire before the
Indians defeat Pakistan.
— December 16 The war ends in Pakistan's defeat. Nixon fails in his
efforts preserve Pakistan's unity.
— February 21 Nixon visits China. Nixon in
Beijing opens era of
détente with China.
— May 9 Nixon orders
Operation Linebacker with the aiming of
destroying North Vietnam's logistical capacity.
— May 22 Moscow summit. Nixon in Moscow opens era of détente with
Soviet Union; SALT I.
— June 3 Quadripartite Agreement governing the status of Berlin.
— October 8 Kissinger meets with the North Vietnamese negotiator Le
Duc Tho in Paris for peace talks to end the Vietnam War, and initially
the talks go well.
— October 18 President
Nguyen Van Thieu
Nguyen Van Thieu of
South Vietnam rejects the
proposed Paris peace agreement, complaining that Kissinger had not
— December 17 Paris peace talks break down.
— December 18 Nixon orders "Christmas Bombings" against North
Vietnam following the breakdown in the Paris peace talks.
— 27 January
Paris Peace Accords
Paris Peace Accords ends the American war in Vietnam;
POW's returned in March.
— October 6 October War begins with a surprise attack on Israel by
Egypt and Syria. The US supports Israel while the Soviet Union
supports Egypt and Syria.
— October 12 Nixon orders Operation Nickel Grass, a major American
effort to supply Israel with weapons to make good the IDF's heavy
— October 20 Arab oil embargo led by King Faisal of Saudi Arabia
against the US and other Western nations begins as punishment for
support of Israel. The oil embargo sparks major inflation in the
— October 24 The
Soviet Union announces that it will send troops to
Egypt, which in turn leads Kissinger to warn that the United States
will send troops to fight the Soviet forces deployed to Egypt. Nixon
places the United States military on DEFCON 3, one of the highest
states of alert. The Soviets back down.
— October 25 A ceasefire brokered by the US and the Soviet Union
ends the October War.
— January 18 Under an American disengagement plan negotiated by
Kissinger, Israeli forces pull back from the Suez Canal.
— March 17 Arab oil embargo against the West ends.
North Vietnam invades and conquers South Vietnam; over one
million refugees eventually come to America.
1977 :— June 30
SEATO alliance is dissolved.
1978 – Camp David Accords, brokered by President Jimmy Carter, saw
Anwar Sadat and Israel's
Menachem Begin come to
terms, leading to their historic peace treaty in 1979
1979 – The US switches diplomatic recognition from the Republic of
China (Taiwan) to the People's
Republic of China
Republic of China and passes the Taiwan
1979–89 – The
Soviet Union invades Afghanistan; America works with
Saudi Arabia in funding, training, and arming Muslim
mujahideen insurgency against Soviet occupation.
1979 – After Afghanistan, President Carter agrees détente has
failed; leads worldwide boycott of Moscow 1980 Summer Olympics
1979–90 – Nicaragua; America supports the
Contras fighting against
the pro-Communist Sandinista government in Nicaragua.
Iran becomes an
Islamic republic after the overthrow of
American-backed Shah; militants seize 63 American diplomats for 444
days during the
Iran hostage crisis; America seizes $12 billion in
Iranian assets; American rescue effort fails; hostages and assets are
freed on January 20, 1981.
1980 – Cuba. 125,000 Cuban refugees arrive in America during the
1980–88 – Iran–
Iraq War. America officially neutral in the war
Iraq and Iran; America flags oil tankers to protect flow of
oil in Persian Gulf, and sells arms and weaponry to both sides of the
1981 – President
Ronald Reagan escalates
Cold War with heavy new
military spending and research in new weapons; forward strategy for
— September 29 MNF comprising forces from the United States, France,
and Italy set to
Lebanon to stabilize the nation in the middle of its
— April 18 A suicide attack by the Iranian-supported Hezbollah
terrorist group destroys the American embassy in Beirut.
— October 23 A suicide attack by
Hezbollah kills 241 American
servicemen, mostly Marines in Beirut.
— October 25 US invades
Grenada in response to a coup d’état by
Deputy Prime Minister
Bernard Coard on the
— February 26 Reagan orders the Marines in
Lebanon to be "redeployed
to the fleet" as the withdrawal from
Lebanon is euphemistically known.
— April 10 Senate votes to condemn Reagan for mining Nicaraguan
— September 20 Another suicide attack by
Hezbollah damages the
American embassy in Beirut.
1985 – The US suspends its ANZUS obligations to New Zealand after
David Lange's Labour government bans nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered
— March 24 Gulf of Sidra incident. Libyan attacks on American
warships in the Gulf of Sidra.
— April 5 La Belle discotheque in Berlin bombed by Libyan agents.
The discotheque is popular with American servicemen and two out of the
three killed are American. As the NSA has broken the Libyan diplomatic
codes, it is established that the bombing was planned out of the
Libyan "people's bureau" (embassy) in East Berlin.
— April 15 Operation El Dorado Canyon. The US bombs Libya in
response to the bombing in Berlin.
— November The news of the
Iran–Contra affair breaks: White House
officials sell weapons to
Iran and give the profits to Contras;
President Reagan embarrassed.
— June 12 President Reagan gives the "Tear down this wall!" speech
in Berlin, saying "Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!". Reagan argues
that tearing the
Berlin Wall would be a symbol of Soviet good faith to
prove Gorbachev was sincere in seeking better relations with the West.
1989 – End of Eastern Bloc; fall of Berlin Wall; all East European
satellites break away from Moscow
1990 – Panama; America invades to oust Manuel Noriega.
— September 12 Four plus two treaty signed by the US, Britain,
France, the Soviet Union, West Germany and East Germany formally ends
World War II
World War II in Europe, grants the two German states the right to
unify and ends all of the sovereign rights held by the Allies in
Germany since 1945.
1991 – Gulf War; America leads a UN-authorized coalition to repel an
Iraqi invasion out of neighboring Kuwait.
Iraq sanctions; America and Great Britain maintain
no-fly-zones in the north and south of
Iraq with periodic bombings.
START II accords held by America and Russia to limit
1991 – The
Soviet Union is dissolved;
Mikhail Gorbachev resigns
1999 – The US and
NATO bomb the FR Yugoslavia, which brings an end
to the Kosovo War.
2001 – September 11 terrorist attacks, orchestrated by Al-Qaeda
terrorist network, occur on American soil.
2001 – US and
NATO forces invade
Afghanistan and overthrow the
2003 – US-led coalition invades
Iraq to overthrow Saddam Hussein;
troops remain to fight insurgency against the UN-approved elected
2004 to present – Drone attacks in
Pakistan CIA maintains drone
surveillance and launches hundreds of attacks on pro-
2006 – President
George W. Bush
George W. Bush signs the United States-India
Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act into law; US no longer opposes
India's civilian and military nuclear programs; bilateral relations
2009-2017 - Obama administration policy against terrorism downplays
Bush's counterinsurgency model, and uses a light-footprint approach
with expanded air strikes, extensive use of special forces and greater
reliance on host-government militaries.
2009 – President
Barack Obama lifts all travel restrictions to see
Cuba and send remittances. However, later that year,
Obama approved continuing the Trading with the Enemy Act, which
regulates sanctions on Cuba.
2011 – US removes all military forces from Iraq
New START treaty with Russia goes into effect.
2011 – CIA uses Navy Seals against the highest priority terrorism
target. They raid
Al-Qaeda founder Osama bin Laden's compound in
Pakistan, killing him and seizing his computers.
Pakistan was not
2013 – US threatens an air attack on Syria after it uses chemical
weapons; resolved by agreement to destroy all the chemical weapons
under international auspices
2014 – US implements economic sanctions against the Russian
Federation after its illegal occupation of
Crimea during the 2014
2015 – US reopens its diplomatic mission in Cuba, after over five
decades of it being closed..
2017 – US formally recognizes Jerusalem as the capital of Israel but
does not move embassy yet. UN General Assembly condemns US plan by a
vote of 128-9.
2017 - Trump administration sounds alarm about development by North
Korea of nuclear weapons and missiles that can hit North America. It
tries to enlist support from Russia and China, as well as South Korea
2017 - Trump administration gives high priority to combating
terrorism, especially from radical Islam. It prioritizes military
action and deemphasizes soft power, political engagement, and
diplomacy. It calls for a high wall across the southern border.
Timeline of United States history
History of United States diplomatic relations by country
Timeline of British diplomatic history
List of United States treaties
List of diplomatic missions of the United States
^ Mikulas Fabry (2010). Recognizing States: International Society and
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^ Francine McKenzie, "GATT and the Cold War," Journal of Cold War
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^ Scott Jackson, "Prologue to the Marshall Plan: The Origins of the
American Commitment for a European Recovery Program," Journal of
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^ Deborah Welch Larson, "The Origins of Commitment: Truman and West
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^ Louis Nelson, "U.N. votes 128-9 to criticize U.S. decision on
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Revolution to Secession(2012) excerpt and text search
Anderson, Frank Maloy and Amos Shartle Hershey, eds. Handbook For The
Diplomatic History Of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1870-1914 (1918)
Bailey, Thomas A. Diplomatic History of the American People (1940),
standard older textbook
Beisner, Robert L. ed, American Foreign Relations since 1600: A Guide
to the Literature (2003), 2 vol. 16,300 annotated entries evaluate
every major book and scholarly article.
Bemis, Samuel Flagg. A Diplomatic
History of the United States
History of the United States (2nd
ed. 1942) online; old standard textbook
Bemis, Samuel Flagg and Grace Gardner Griffin. Guide to the Diplomatic
History of the United States
History of the United States 1775–1921 (1935) bibliographies; out of
date and replaced by Beisner (2003)
Brune, Lester H. Chronological History of U.S. Foreign Relations
(2003), 1400 pages
Burns, Richard Dean, ed. Guide to American Foreign Relations since
1700 (1983) highly detailed annotated bibliography
Deconde, Alexander, et al. eds. Encyclopedia of American Foreign
Policy 3 vol (2001), 2200 pages; 120 long articles by specialists.
DeConde, Alexander; A History of American Foreign Policy (1963) online
Ellis, Sylvia. Historical Dictionary of Anglo-American Relations
(2009) Excerpt and text search
Findling, John, ed. Dictionary of American Diplomatic History 2nd ed.
1989. 700pp; 1200 short articles.
Folly, Martin and Niall Palmer. The A to Z of U.S. Diplomacy from
World War I through
World War II
World War II (2010) excerpt and text search
Herring, George. From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations
since 1776 (Oxford History of the United States) (2008), 1056pp
Hahn, Peter L. Historical Dictionary of United States-Middle East
Relations (2007) excerpt and text search
Hogan, Michael J. ed. Paths to Power: The Historiography of American
Foreign Relations to 1941 (2000) essays on main topics
Hogan, Michael J., and Thomas G. Paterson, eds. Explaining the History
of American Foreign Relations (1991) essays on historiography
Lafeber, Walter. The American Age: United States Foreign Policy at
Home and Abroad, 1750 to Present (2nd ed 1994) university textbook;
884pp online edition
Leffler, Melvyn P. Safeguarding Democratic Capitalism: U.S. Foreign
Policy and National Security, 1920–2015 (Princeton University Press,
2017) 348 pp.
Mauch, Peter, and Yoneyuki Sugita. Historical Dictionary of United
States-Japan Relations (2007) Excerpt and text search
Paterson, Thomas, et al. American Foreign Relations: A History (7th
ed. 2 vol. 2009), university textbook
Saul, Norman E. Historical Dictionary of United States-Russian/Soviet
Relations (2008) excerpt and text search
Smith, Joseph. Historical Dictionary of United States-Latin American
Relations (2006) excerpt and text search
Sutter, Robert G. Historical Dictionary of United States-China
Relations (2005) excerpt and text search
Waters, Robert Anthony, Jr. Historical Dictionary of United
States-Africa Relations (2009) Excerpt and text search
Weatherbee, Donald E. Historical Dictionary of United States-Southeast
Asia Relations (2008) Excer