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The Info List - Timeline Of United States Diplomatic History


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The diplomatic history of the United States oscillated among three positions: isolation from diplomatic entanglements of other (typically European) nations (but with economic connections to the world); alliances with European and other military partners; and unilateralism, or operating on its own sovereign policy decisions. The US always was large in terms of area, but its population was small, only 4 million in 1790. Population growth was rapid, reaching 7.2 million in 1810, 32 million in 1860, 76 million in 1900, 132 million in 1940, and 316 million in 2013. Economic growth in terms of overall GDP was even faster. However, the nation's military strength was quite limited in peacetime before 1940. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. Brune (2003) and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., ed. The Almanac of American History (1983) have specifics for many incidents.

Contents

1 18th century 2 19th century 3 1900-1939 4 1939-1945 5 1945–2000 6 21st century 7 See also 8 Footnotes 9 Further reading

18th century[edit]

1721 – Treaty with South Carolina
South Carolina
established with the Cherokee
Cherokee
and the Province of South Carolina which ceded land between the Santee, Saluda, and Edisto Rivers to the Province of South Carolina. 1730 – Treaty of Nikwasi established a trade agreement between the Cherokee
Cherokee
and the Province of North Carolina 1761 – Treaty of Long-Island-on-the-Holston established with the Cherokee
Cherokee
and the Colony of Virginia
Colony of Virginia
which ended the Anglo- Cherokee
Cherokee
war with the colony. 1762 – Treaty of Charlestown established with the Cherokee
Cherokee
and the Province of South Carolina which ended the Anglo- Cherokee
Cherokee
war with the colony. 1776 – Thirteen Colonies declared independence as the United States of America on July 2; Declaration of Independence adopted on July 4 1776 – Three commissioners sent to Europe to negotiate treaties 1776 – Treaty of Watertown 1777 – European officers recruited to Continental Army, including Marquis de Lafayette, Johann de Kalb, Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, and Tadeusz Kościuszko 1777 – Treaty of Dewitt's Corner between the Overhill Cherokee
Cherokee
and the State of South Carolina
State of South Carolina
which ceded the lands of the Cherokee Lower Towns in the State of South Carolina, except for a narrow strip of what is now Oconee County. 1777 – France decides to recognize America in December after victory at Saratoga, New York 1778 – Treaty of Alliance with France. Negotiated by Benjamin Franklin, the US and France agreed to a military alliance; France sends naval and land forces, and much-needed munitions. 1778 – Carlisle Peace Commission
Carlisle Peace Commission
sent by Great Britain; offers Americans all the terms they sought in 1775, but not independence; rejected. 1779 – Spain enters the war as an ally of France (but not of America); John Jay
John Jay
appointed minister to Spain; he obtains money but not recognition.[1] 1779 – John Adams
John Adams
sent to Paris, to negotiate peace terms with Great Britain 1780 – Russia proclaims "armed neutrality" which helps Allies 1780–81 – Russia and Austria propose peace terms; rejected by Adams.[2] 1781 – Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens
Henry Laurens
and Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
named to assist Adams in peace negotiations; the Congress of the Confederation insists on independence; all else is negotiable

— Robert R. Livingston named first United States Secretary of Foreign Affairs

1782 – The Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
recognizes American independence and signs treaty of commerce and friendship; Dutch bankers loan US$2 million for war supplies 1783 – Treaty of Paris ends Revolutionary War; US boundaries confirmed as British North America
British North America
(Canada) on north, Mississippi River on west, Florida on south. Britain gives Florida to Spain. 1783 – A commercial treaty with Sweden[3] 1784 – British allow trade with America but forbid some American food exports to West Indies; British exports to America reach £3.7 million, imports only £750,000; imbalance causes shortage of gold in US.

— May 7 Congress votes to begin negotiations with Morocco.[4] — New York–based merchants open trade with China, followed by Salem, Boston and Philadelphia merchants. — October 11 Moroccan corsair seizes the American ship Betsey and enslaves the crew; the Moroccans demand that the US pay a ransom to release the crew and a treaty to pay tribute to avoid future such incidents.[4]

1784 – Treaty of Fort Stanwix in which the Iroquois Confederacy cedes all lands west of the Niagara River to the United States. 1785 – Treaty of Hopewell 1785 – Adams appointed first minister to Court of St James's
Court of St James's
(Great Britain); Jefferson replaces Franklin as minister to France.

— March 11 Congress votes to appropriate $80,000 to pay in tribute to the Barbary states of Morocco, Algiers, Tunis
Tunis
and Tripoli.[4] — July 9 The Moroccans release the Betsy and her crew.[4] — July 25 Algerine pirates seizes the American ship Maria off the coast of Portugal; Algiers
Algiers
declares war on the US, and the dey Muhammad V of Algiers
Algiers
demands that the US pay $1 million in tribute to end the war.[4]

1785-86 – A commercial treaty with Prussia[5] 1786 – Treaty of Coyatee established between the Overhill Cherokee and the State of Franklin. Signed at gunpoint, this treaty ceded the remaining Cherokee
Cherokee
land north and east of the Little Tennessee River to the ridge dividing it from Little River.

— March 25 A team of American diplomats arrive in Algiers
Algiers
to begin talks on paying tribute and a ransom to free the enslaved American sailors.[4] — June 23 Moroccan-American treaty is signed in the US agrees to pay tribute to Morocco
Morocco
in exchange for a promise that Moroccan corsairs will not attack American ships.[4]

1789 – Jay–Gardoqui Treaty with Spain, gave Spain exclusive right to navigate Mississippi River
Mississippi River
for 25 years; not ratified due to western opposition

— March 1 United States Congress
United States Congress
succeeds Congress of the Confederation — July 27 Department of Foreign Affairs signed into law — September, changed to Department of State; Jefferson appointed; John Jay
John Jay
continues to act as foreign affairs secretary until Jefferson's return from France; from 1789 to 1883. Much of the routine overseas business is the responsibility of navy officers.[6]

1789 – Treaty of Fort Harmar 1791 – Treaty of Holston 1792

— February 22 Congress votes to send another team of diplomats to Algiers
Algiers
to pay a ransom for the enslaved Americans and to negotiate a tribute treaty.[4]

1793–1815 – Major worldwide war between Great Britain and France (and their allies); America neutral until 1812 and does business with both sides 1794 -:— March 20 Congress votes to establish a navy and to spend $1 million building six frigates.[4] Birth of the United States Navy. 1795 –

— June 24 Jay Treaty
Jay Treaty
with Britain. Averts war, opens 10 years of peaceful trade with Britain, fails to settle neutrality issues; British eventually evacuate western forts; boundary lines and debts (in both directions) to be settled by arbitration. Barely approved by Senate (1795) after revision; intensely opposed, became major issue in the formation of First Party System.[7] — September 5 United States signs a treaty agreeing to pay tribute to Algiers
Algiers
in exchange for which the dey Ali Hassan will free the 85 surviving American slaves.[4] The treaty with Algiers
Algiers
is considered a national humiliation.

1796 – Treaty of Colerain 1796 – Treaty of Madrid established boundaries with the Spanish colonies of Florida and Louisiana
Louisiana
and guaranteed navigation rights on the Mississippi River. It becomes law.

— July 11 Algiers
Algiers
frees the 85 American slaves.[4] — The pasha Yusuf Karamanli of Tripoli, hoping for a similar treaty that Algiers
Algiers
has achieved starts attacking and seizing American ships.[4]

1797 -

— President Adams asks Congress to spend more money on the navy and to arm American merchantmen in response to the Barbary pirate attacks.[8] — August 28 Treaty of Tripoli; treaty with Barbary state of Tripoli approved unanimously by Senate and signed into law by President John Adams on June 10; states "the Government of the United States of America is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion."[9]

First Treaty of Tellico with the Cherokee
Cherokee
Nation 1798 – XYZ Affair; humiliation by French diplomats; threat of war with France 1798–1800 – Quasi-War; undeclared naval war with France. 1800 –

— April Tripoli
Tripoli
threatens war if the US does not pay more tribute.[10] — July The Tripolitan warship Tripolino takes the American merchantman Catherine and enslaves the crew.[10] Much outrage in the US — September 30 Convention of 1800
Convention of 1800
(Treaty of Mortefontaine) with France ends the Quasi-War
Quasi-War
and ends alliance of 1778. The treaty frees up the US Navy for operations against the Barbary pirates.[10]

19th century[edit]

Early 19th century – The Barbary states of Algiers, Morocco, Tripoli, and Tunis
Tunis
require America to pay protection money under the Barbary treaties. 1801-

[10] The beginning of the First Barbary War. President Jefferson does not ask Congress for a declaration of war against Tripoli, but instead decides to begin military operations against Tripoli, arguing that the President has the right to begin military operations in self-defense without asking for permission from Congress.[11]

— July 24 An American naval squadron begins the blockade of Tripoli.[10] — August 1 The U.S.S. Enterprise takes the Tripolitan ship Tripoli.[10]

1802 -

— April 27 Second American naval squadron sent to the Mediterranean.[10] — June 19 Morocco
Morocco
declares war on the United States.[10]

1803 – Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase from France for $15,000,000; financed by sale of American bonds in London, and shipment of gold from London to Paris.

— June 2 Captain David Porter leads raid into Tripoli; first American amphibious landing in the Old World.[10]

1805

— February 23 The American diplomat William Eaton meets with Hamet Karanmanli, the exiled brother of the pasha Yusuf Karamanli of Tripoli in Egypt and agrees that the US will depose Yusuf and put Hamet on the throne; the first American effort at "regime change".[12] — March 8 A force of American sailors, marines, Tripolian exiles and Egyptian mercenaries under the leadership of Eaton leaves Alexandria with the aim of deposing pasha Yusuf of Tripoli.[13] — April 28 Eaton's force takes Derna, the road is wide open to Tripoli.[14] — June 4 Tripoli
Tripoli
and the US sign a peace treaty.[14]

1806 – Essex Case; British reverse policy and seize American ships trading with French colonies; America responds with Non-Importation Act stopping imports of some items from Great Britain[15] 1806 – Napoleon issues Berlin Decree, a paper blockade of Great Britain 1806 – diplomats negotiate treaty with Britain to extend the expiring Jay Treaty; rejected by Jefferson and never in effect as relations deteriorate

HMS Leopard (right) mauls the USS Chesapeake in 1807

1807 – US Navy humiliated by Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in Chesapeake–Leopard Affair; demand for war; Jefferson responds with economic warfare using embargoes 1807-09 – Embargo Act, against Great Britain and France during their wars 1807-12 – Impressment of 6,000 sailors from American ships with US citizenship into the Royal Navy; Great Britain ignores vehement American protests 1812 – America declares war on Great Britain, beginning the War of 1812. 1812 – US forces invade Canada to gain a bargaining chip; they are repeatedly repulsed; The US Army at Detroit surrenders without a fight. 1813 – US wins control of Lake Erie and what is now Western Ontario; British and Indians defeated and Tecumseh killed; end of Indian threats to American settlement 1814 – Treaty of Fort Jackson 1814 – British raid and Burn Washington; are repulsed at Baltimore 1814 – British invasion of northern New York defeated 1814 – December 24: Treaty of Ghent
Treaty of Ghent
signed; providing status quo ante bellum (no change in boundaries); Great Britain no longer needs impressment and stops. 1815 – British invasion army decisively defeated at the Battle of New Orleans

Treaty of Ghent
Treaty of Ghent
goes in effect in February; opens long era of friendly trade and peaceful settlement of boundary issues. — March 2 The US declares war on Algiers.[14] The beginning of the Second Barbary War. — June 28 Commodore Stephen Decatur
Stephen Decatur
arrives off Algiers, after threatening bombardment, the dey agrees to a peace treaty two days later in which he releases the American slaves and agrees to the end of the United States's tributary status.[14]

1815 – Treaties of Portage des Sioux 1818 – London Convention of 1818, between the US and Great Britain 1819 – Adams-Onís Treaty: Spain cedes Florida to America for $5,000,000; America agrees to assume claims against Spain, America gives up claims to Texas. 1823 – Monroe Doctrine. British propose America join in stating that European powers will not be permitted further American colonization. President James Monroe
James Monroe
states it on December 2 as independent American policy. 1826 – Treaty of Mississinwas 1831 – Treaty of Wapakoneta 1832 – First Sumatran expedition, in retaliation for the seizing of American ship Friendship of Salem while engaged in the East Indies pepper trade. 1832 – Treaty of Cusseta 1832 – Treaty of Tippecanoe 1833 – Argentina. US Navy shells the Falkland Islands, at the time under Argentine control, in retaliation for the seizing of American ships fishing in Argentine waters.

— Siam. Roberts Treaty of 1833; stipulates free trade with few limitations, most favored nation status, and relief for US citizens in cases of shipwreck, piracy, or bankruptcy.

1837 – Caroline affair; Canadian military enters US territory to burn a ship used by Canadian rebels. 1838 – Aroostook War
Aroostook War
re: Maine-New Brunswick; no combat

— Second Sumatran expedition, in retaliation for the massacre of the crew of an American merchant ship.

1842 – Webster–Ashburton Treaty-settles US-Canada border, settling Aroostook War
Aroostook War
and Caroline affair. 1843 – Treaty of Bird’s Fort 1844 – Oregon
Oregon
Question; America and Great Britain at sword's point; "54–40 or fight" is American slogan[16] 1844 – Treaty of Wanghia. 1845 – Annexation of Republic of Texas; Mexico breaks relations in retaliation 1845 – Slidell Mission fails to avert war with Mexico 1846 – Oregon
Oregon
crisis ended by compromise that splits the region, with British Columbia
British Columbia
to Great Britain, and Washington, Idaho, and Oregon
Oregon
to America. 1846 – Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
begins; Oregon
Oregon
settlement with Britain. 1848 – Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; settled Mexican–American War, Rio Grande
Rio Grande
as US border; territory of New Mexico
New Mexico
rest of west ceded to America, especially California. US pays Mexico $15,000,000 and assumes $3,250,000 liability against Mexico. 1849 – Hawaiian–American Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation signed with the Kingdom of Hawaii 1850 – Clayton–Bulwer Treaty. America and Great Britain agreed that both nations were not to colonize or control any Central American republic, neither nation would seek exclusive control of Isthmian canal, if canal built protected by both nations for neutrality and security. Any canal built open to all nations on equal terms. 1851 – Treaty of Mendota 1853 – Gadsden Purchase: purchase of 30,000 square miles (78,700 km²) in southern Arizona
Arizona
for $10,000,000 for purpose of railroad connections 1854 – Kanagawa Treaty; Matthew Perry to Tokyo in 1853; returning 1854 with seven warships; treaty opened two Japanese ports and guaranteeing the safety of shipwrecked American seamen. 1855 – Quinault Treaty 1856 – Siam. Harris Treaty of 1856; adds extraterritoriality status for US citizens to provisions of Roberts Treaty of 1833, and appointment of a US consul (representative). 1857 – Nicaragua; US Navy forces the surrender of filibusterer William Walker, who had tried to seize control of the country. 1858 – Modern–era Japan. Harris Treaty of 1858. 1858 – Yankton Treaty 1858 – Outrages at Jaffa resulted in significant US efforts to coordinate with and pressure Ottoman officials, growing US influence and strength in the region. 1859 – Pig War: tense confrontation over the boundary between the US and British North America, settled by arbitration, the pig the only casualty 1861 – President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
proclaims blockade of Confederate States of America, giving it some legitimacy 1861-65 – Lincoln threatens war against any country that recognizes the Confederacy; no country does so 1864-65 – Maximilian Affair: In defiance of the Monroe Doctrine, French Emperor Napoleon III placed Archduke Maximilian on Mexican throne, America warns France against intervention, with 50,000 combat troops being sent to the Mexican border by President Andrew Johnson; Maximilian overthrown 1867 – Alaska Purchase: America purchases Alaska from Russia for $7,200,000. 1868 – Treaty on Naturalization with North German Confederation marked first recognition by a European power of the right of its subjects to become naturalized US citizens. 1868 – Burlingame Treaty established formal friendly relations with China and placed them on most favored nation status, Chinese immigration encouraged; reversed in 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act. 1871 – Alabama Claims. During the American Civil War, Confederate States of America raider CSS Alabama
CSS Alabama
built in Great Britain, America claimed direct and collateral damage against Great Britain, awarded $15,500,000 by international tribunal. 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty of 1875
Reciprocity Treaty of 1875
with the Kingdom of Hawaii established free access to American markets for Hawaiian sugar and other products, and also ceded Puʻu Loa, which became Pearl Harbor 1891 – Baltimore crisis, minor scuffle with Chile
Chile
over treatment of soldiers. 1893 – Hawaii; January 16 to April 1. American businessmen unhappy with Queen Liliuokalani
Liliuokalani
attempt to set up absolute monarchy; overthrows her with no violence and proclaims provisional government; US Marines landed to protect American lives; Hawaii and President Harrison agree to annexation but treaty withdrawn (1893) by President Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
who rejects annexation 1895 – Venezuela Crisis of 1895
Venezuela Crisis of 1895
is a dispute with Britain over the boundary of Venezuela and a British colony; it is finally settled by arbitration.[17] 1897 – The Olney-Pauncefote Treaty of 1897 is a proposed treaty with Britain in 1897 that required arbitration of major disputes. Despite wide public and elite support, the treaty was rejected by the US Senate, which was jealous of its prerogatives, and never went into effect.[18] 1897-98 – American public opinion is outraged by news of Spanish atrocities in Cuba. President McKinley demands reforms. 1898 – De Lôme Letter: Spanish minister to Washington writes disparagingly of President McKinley, casting doubt on Spain's promises to reform its role in Cuba

— Spanish–American War; "splendid little war" with American quick victory — Treaty of Paris; US gains Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico; pays Spain for claims; Cuba
Cuba
comes under temporary US control — Hawaii seeks to join US; with votes lacking for 2/3 approval of a treaty on July 7. The Newlands Resolution
Newlands Resolution
in Congress annexes the Republic of Hawaii, with full US citizenship for Hawaiian citizens regardless of race

1899–1901 – Philippine–American War, commonly known as the "Philippine Insurrection". 1899 – Open Door Policy
Open Door Policy
for equal trading rights inside China; accepted by Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Russia and Japan 1900 – US forces participate in international rescue in Peking, in Boxer Rebellion

1900-1939[edit]

1901 – Hay–Pauncefote Treaty. American agreement with Great Britain nullifying Clayton–Bulwer Treaty of 1850; guarantee of open passage for any nation through proposed Panama
Panama
Canal. 1901 – Platt Amendment, March 2. Rider attached to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901 designed to protect Cuba's independence from foreign intervention. The amendment effectively makes Cuba
Cuba
a US protectorate and allowed for American intervention in Cuban affairs in 1906, 1912, 1917, and 1920. It also permitted America to lease Guantanamo Bay Naval Base. Rising Cuban nationalism and widespread criticism led to its abrogation in 1934 by the Ramón Grau administration.[19] 1902 – Drago Doctrine. Foreign Minister Luis María Drago
Luis María Drago
of Argentina
Argentina
announced policy that no European power could use force against any American nation to collect debt, supplanted in 1904 by Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt Corollary
to Monroe Doctrine. 1903 – Big Stick diplomacy: Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
refers to US policy as "speaking softly and carrying a big stick", applied the same year by assisting Panama's independence movement from Colombia. US forces sought to protect American interests and lives during and following the Panamanian revolution over construction of the Isthmian Canal. US Marines were stationed on the isthmus (1903–1914) 1903 – Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty with Panama; leased strip of land increased to 10 miles (16 km) wide. 1903 – Alaska boundary treaty
Alaska boundary treaty
resolved the Alaska boundary dispute between the United States and Canada in favor of US; Canada angry at Britain. 1906 – Algeciras Conference. Roosevelt mediated the First Moroccan Crisis between France and Germany, essentially in French favor. 1908-09 – America negotiates arbitration treaties with 25 countries (not Germany) 1911 – Reciprocity treaty with Canada fails on surge of Canadian nationalism led by Conservative Party. 1911-20 – Mexican Revolution; hundreds of thousands of refugees flee to America; President William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
recognizes Francisco I. Madero's regime; Madero assassinated by Victoriano Huerta, not recognized by America 1912-25 – Nicaragua; America controls Nicaraguan affairs through control of tariff revenues under the Bryan–Chamorro Treaty. 1912-41 – China. US forces sent to protect American interests in China during chaotic revolution. In 1927, America had 5,670 troops ashore in China (mostly Marines) and 44 naval vessels in its waters. 1913-15 – Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan
negotiates 28 treaties that promised arbitration of disputes before war broke out between the signatory countries and the United States. He made several attempts to negotiate a treaty with Germany, but ultimately was never able to succeed. The agreements, known officially as "Treaties for the Advancement of Peace," set up procedures for conciliation rather than for arbitration.[20] 1914 – Veracruz Incident a standoff between America and Huerta; Congress authorizes force at president's discretion; ABC Powers
ABC Powers
try to mediate; America seizes Veracruz; Huerta breaks diplomatic relations; war seems near 1915 – British passenger liner RMS Lusitania
RMS Lusitania
torpedoed off Irish coast by German submarine; 1,200 dead include 128 Americans; Theodore Roosevelt demands war; Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
issues strong protest 1915-34 – Haiti. US forces maintained order and control customs revenue during a period of chronic political instability. 1916-24 – Dominican Republic; US naval forces maintained order and control customs revenue during a period of chronic and threatened insurrection. 1916 – Pancho Villa
Pancho Villa
raid into America; the Mexican Punitive Expedition under John J. Pershing
John J. Pershing
chases Villa deep into Mexico; verge of war 1917 – Zimmermann Telegram. Germany proposes military alliance between Germany and Mexico against America. Publication outrages American opinion; Mexico rejects proposal.

New York Times April 3, 1917

1917 – April. America declares war on Germany and later on Austria (but not Turkey
Turkey
or Bulgaria); remains independent of Great Britain and France 1917 – Lansing–Ishii Agreement. America recognizes Japan's claim to special interests in China, particularly in contiguous territory. Objection to Japan assuming German Asian territories. 1917 - November --Britain announces the Balfour Declaration
Balfour Declaration
which promises a homeland in Palestine to the Jews; it checked with Washington before hand, and gained America's quiet approval 1918 – Fourteen Points. Statement of American war aims by Wilson, served as basis for Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
and the League of Nations. 1918–20 – Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
sees US troops sent to Siberia 1919 – Versailles Treaty – Wilson one of "The Big Four" negotiators; signed by Wilson but not ratified by Senate. 1919 – League of Nations
League of Nations
– part of Versailles Treaty; US never joins. 1922 – Washington Naval Conference
Washington Naval Conference
held in Washington, D.C. concluding in the Four-Power Treaty, Five-Power Treaty, and Nine-Power Treaty; major naval disarmament 1924 – American-led conference results in the Dawes Plan. Eased reparations for Germany and improvement of its economic situation. 1924 – Rogers Act
Rogers Act
establishes the Foreign Service by merging the low-paid high prestige diplomatic service with the higher paid, middle class consul service. The act provided a merit-based career path, with guaranteed rotations and better pay.[21] 1926-33 – Nicaragua; The coup d'état of General Emiliano Chamorro Vargas aroused revolutionary activities leading to the landing of US Marines intermittently until January 3, 1933. 1927 – Naval Disarmament Conference in Geneva; failure to reach an agreement. 1927 – Clark Memorandum repudiates Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt Corollary
to Monroe Doctrine. 1928 – Kellogg–Briand Pact, multilateral treaty outlawing war by moral force of 60 signatory nations. 1929 – Young Plan
Young Plan
reduces amount of reparations due from Germany to $8.0 billion over 58 years. 1930 – Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act
Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act
raised American tariffs on imports; 1000 economists protest it will worsen depression; retaliation by Canada and others. 1931 – Stimson Doctrine
Stimson Doctrine
America will not recognize Japanese takeover of parts of China; policy endorsed by the League of Nations. 1932 – Lausanne Conference cancels 90 percent of reparations owed by Germany; the remainder was quietly paid off in October 2010 with a final payment of $94 million.[22] 1933 – Montevideo Convention. President Franklin D. Roosevelt declares the "Good Neighbor policy", US opposition to armed intervention in inter-American affairs. 1933 – London Economic Conference, to deal with Great Depression, collapses after US withdraws. 1933 – US extends diplomatic recognition of the Soviet Union. 1935 – Neutrality Act of 1935; when war breaks out prohibits all arms shipments (allowing shipment of oil, steel, chemicals); US citizens can travel on belligerent ships only at their own risk 1936 – Neutrality Act of 1936; no loans to belligerents 1936 – Spanish Civil War; US neutral; American Catholics support Nationalist forces; left-wing elements support Republican forces 1937 – Neutrality Act of 1937; 1935 laws apply to civil wars 1937 – Japan invades China, with full-scale war and many atrocities against Chinese; Japan conquers major cities and seacoast; Americans strongly sympathetic to China; Roosevelt does not invoke neutrality laws 1938 – Munich Pact
Munich Pact
sacrifices Czechoslovakia in the name of appeasement; US not involved but does not object

1939-1945[edit] Main article: Diplomatic history of World War II
World War II
§ United States

1939 – World War II
World War II
begins, America initially neutral. 1940- American intelligence breaks the Japanese diplomatic code with MAGIC.[23] 1941 -

— July 29 Japan occupies the southern half of French Indochina, seen as a threatening move. — July 30 US together with Britain and the Dutch government in exile imposes trade embargo against Japan, most crucially in oil. — August 13 Atlantic Charter. Anglo-American summit off the coast of Newfoundland. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
agree (1) no territorial gains sought by America or Great Britain, (2) territorial adjustments must conform to people involved, (3) people have right to choose their own govt. (4) trade barriers lowered, (5) there must be disarmament, (6) there must be freedom from want and fear ("Four Freedoms" of FDR), (7) there must be freedom of the seas, (8) there must be an association of nations. Charter is accepted by Allies, who call themselves "the United Nations". — October 31 American destroyer USS Reuben James sunk by a U-boat. Rise in German-American tensions. — December 6 American intelligence fails to predict attack on Pearl Harbor.[24] — December 7 Attack on Pearl Harbor. United States is hit by surprise by Japanese Navy. — December 11 Germany and Italy declare war on the U.S.

1942 -:— August 8 Riegner Telegram
Riegner Telegram
received in Washington. Gerhart M. Riegner of the World Jewish Congress has received reliable information that Germany is engaged in a campaign of extermination against the Jews of Europe. 1943 –

— January Casablanca Conference. Roosevelt and Churchill meet to plan European strategy. Unconditional surrender of Axis countries demanded, Soviet aid and participation, invasion of Sicily
Sicily
and Italy planned — October 30 Moscow Declaration. Joint statement by the United States, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
promises that German leaders will be tried for war crimes after the Allied victory. — November Cairo Conference. Roosevelt, Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek meet to make decisions about postwar Asia: Japan returns all territory, independent Korea. — November Tehran Conference. Roosevelt and Churchill meet with Stalin.

1944 – Monetary and Financial Conference held in July in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire; International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) created to aid nations devastated by the war and to stabilize the international monetary system. 1944 – Dumbarton Oaks Conference
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
held in August in Washington; 1945 – February 4–11 Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
with Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
and Churchill; agreement on division of Eastern Europe 1945 – Surrender of Germany (V-E Day) 1945 – July 17 – August 2 Potsdam Conference; President Harry S. Truman meets with Stalin and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee; tells Stalin of atomic bomb; gives Japan last warning to surrender; Germany (and Austria) divided into 4 zones of occupation

1945–2000[edit]

1945 – US eager to help establish United Nations
United Nations
at San Francisco Conference on International Organization. 1945 – June 26 – United Nations
United Nations
Charter signed in San Francisco. America becomes a founding member and has veto power on the Security Council along with Great Britain, France, China and the Soviet Union. 1945 – August—Nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; surrender of Japan (V-J Day); beginning of the nuclear age. 1945-47 – Marshall Mission
Marshall Mission
to China tries and fails to force coalition government of Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists and Mao Zedong's Communists 1945-53 – U.S. provides grants and credits amounting to $5.9 billion to Asian countries, especially China/Taiwan ($1.051 billion), India ($255 million), Indonesia ($215 million), Japan ($2.44 billion), South Korea ($894 million), Pakistan
Pakistan
($98 million) and the Philippines ($803 million). In addition, another $282 million went to Israel and $196 million to the rest of the Middle East.[25] All this aid was separate from the Marshall Plan.[26] 1946 – In the Blum–Byrnes agreement, the US forgives $2.8 billion in French debts (mostly World War I loans), and gives an additional low-interest loan of $650 million. In turn, France allows American films in its cinemas.[27] 1947 – Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine
gives military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey
Turkey
to halt spread of Communism 1947–89 – Cold War, an era of high tension and hostility—but no major "hot" war—between the US and its allies (Western Europe, Canada, Japan, etc.) and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its satellite states.[28] 1947 – General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT) includes US and 22 nations who agree to eliminate trade barriers of all kinds on industrial and agricultural goods. Replaced in 1995 by World Trade Organization/[29][30] 1948-51 – Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
(formally, "European Recovery Plan"); US gives out $13 billion to rebuild and modernize Western European economies. Increased trade between Europe and the America; no repayment asked for.[31] 1948

— June 24 Berlin Blockade
Berlin Blockade
imposed by the Soviet Union, blocking traffic into western sectors of Berlin, followed by Operation Vittles, America airlifted massive amounts of food, fuel and supplies into city. Soviet blockade lifted on May 12, 1949.[32]

1949

— January 21 Dean Acheson
Dean Acheson
appointed Secretary of State. He will hold this office until 1953 and is remembered as one of the more abler Secretaries of State. — April 4 America and eleven other nations sign the North Atlantic Treaty, creating NATO, a military alliance with the purpose of countering the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its allies. — 23 May 1949 The United States, Britain and France grant independence in their zones in Germany to a new state called the Federal Republic of Germany.

1950-53

— June 25 Korean War
Korean War
begins. US sends in troops to stop North Korean invasion; UN votes support; ( Soviet Union
Soviet Union
boycotted UN and did not veto.) US forces deployed in Korea exceeded 300,000 during the last year of the conflict. — September US-led invasion defeats North Korean army; UN authorizes rollback strategy, with North Korea to come under UN control — November Chinese forces enter North Korea; roll back UN-US-South Korean forces to below 38th parallel

1951

— March 28 President Vincent Auriol
Vincent Auriol
of France visits Washington to meet President Truman. During his visit, the US agrees to pay for entire French war effort in Vietnam, and to provide unlimited military aid. — April President Truman fires General Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
as blame game escalates regarding Korean war stalemate. — June Talks for an armistice in the Korean War
Korean War
open. The major issue that divides the Communist and UN sides is the return of the POWs with the Communists demanding that all POWs from their nations be repatriated while the UN insists on voluntary repatriation. — September 1 ANZUS Treaty
ANZUS Treaty
united America, Australia and New Zealand in a defensive regional pact

1952 – Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
defeats isolationist element in GOP; denounces stalemate in Korea and promises to go there himself; elected president in landslide 1953 –

— May Eisenhower threatens use of nuclear weapons in Korean War; China agrees to negotiate. — July 27 armistice signed ending the Korean War
Korean War
(it is still in effect).

1953 – Iran. US and UK governments support shah's coup against Iran's Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh 1954

— March 13 The Battle of Dien Bien Phu
Battle of Dien Bien Phu
begins. As the French are faced with defeat in Vietnam, Eisenhower considers intervention with tactical nuclear weapons to break the siege of Dien Bien Phu, and orders the Joint Chiefs of Staff to start work on Operation Vulture, the plan to intervene in Vietnam. Operation Vulture is ultimately rejected as a policy option. — April 26 Geneva
Geneva
conference opens. Through called to consider a peace treaty for the Korean War, the conference is soon dominated by the question of Vietnam. The Secretary of State John Foster Dulles heads the American delegation. — June 18 Guatemala. Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
authorizes Operation PBSUCCESS, a program of "psychological warfare and political action" against anti-US regime; Guatemalan military overthrows the left-wing government of Jacobo Árbenz
Jacobo Árbenz
and installs Carlos Castillo Armas. — July 20 The Geneva
Geneva
conference closes with an agreement on the partition of Vietnam into two states with a promise to hold a general election in both by June 1956. Dulles does not sign the Geneva accords, but promises that the US will abide by them. — September 8 SEATO
SEATO
alliance in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
is founded. South Vietnam not a signatory

1955

— February 24 Baghdad Pact
Baghdad Pact
is founded. Later known as the Central Treaty Organization (or CENTO) initiated by John Foster Dulles, members were Iran, Iraq, United Kingdom, Pakistan, and Turkey, US aid.

1957 – Eisenhower Doctrine
Eisenhower Doctrine
gives the president authority to determine the necessity to assist any nation requesting assistance against armed aggression from any country controlled by international communism, applied in Lebanon
Lebanon
the following year. 1957 – Americans embarrassed when Soviets launch Sputnik, the first space satellite and leapfrog America in high technology. 1958 – US foreign aid appropriation, $3.2 billion for military and economic aid; lending authority of the Export-Import Bank raised to $7 billion; US admits 32,000 Hungarian refugees from 1956 revolt 1959 – Cuba. Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
comes to power. The first of 1 million Cuban exiles go to US, concentrating in Miami 1960 – Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
cancels summit conference with Eisenhower after US U-2 spy plane shot down over the Soviet Union 1960 – Act of Bogotá
Bogotá
makes social reform a prior condition for American economic aid 1960 – Cuba
Cuba
seizes $1.5 billion of American properties; America imposes complete trade embargo (except food, medicine) continues in effect in 2012 1961 – President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
launches Space Race, promising Americans on the Moon; they landed July 20, 1969 1961 McGeorge Bundy becomes US National Security Advisor. 1961 – Cuba. America breaks diplomatic relations as Castro aligns with Soviet Union. 1961 – Alliance for Progress. inter-regional agreement funded by America to counter the growing regional appeal of the Cuban Revolution. 1961 – Bay of Pigs Invasion
Bay of Pigs Invasion
in April; CIA-trained Cuban exiles invaded Cuba
Cuba
and were defeated at the Bay of Pigs; captured and ransomed by President Kennedy 1961 – Berlin Crisis. Soviets give East Germany control over East Berlin; in August the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
is built to stem the wave of refugees escaping to the Western side. Kennedy proclaims "Ich bin ein Berliner" ("I am a citizen of Berlin") to cheering West Berliners. 1962 – Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS) excludes Cuba, sets up trade embargo; dropped in 1975. 1962 – Cuban missile crisis. John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
on October 22 announces that there exist Soviet missiles in Cuba
Cuba
and demanded their removal while imposing an air-sea blockade. Soviet missiles are withdrawn on condition that America will not invade Cuba. 1963 – Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. US and the Soviet Union agreed not to conduct nuclear tests in space, in the atmosphere or underwater. Underground tests permitted; signed by 100 nations, excluding France and the People's Republic of China. 1964 – Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
gives President Lyndon B. Johnson Congressional approval to act in Vietnam; repealed in 1970. 1965 – Intervention in Dominican Republic. 1968 – Tet Offensive
Tet Offensive
in Vietnam causes political crisis at home.

— November 1 The first "accelerated pacification" of launching land reforms in South Vietnam
South Vietnam
intended to persuade South Vietnamese peasants not to support the Viet Cong is launched; a success.

1969 – Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
as president and Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
as his National Security Advisor; Kissinger serves as Secretary of State 1973-77.

— January 28 Nixon launches policy of Vietnamization, in which American ground troops in Vietnam were to be steadily reduced and the American role was to provide military training, equipment, and air support for the South Vietnamese. Vietnamization
Vietnamization
was intended to reduce American losses in Vietnam, and thus reduce the domestic pressure for a total withdrawal of American forces. Nixon's aim in Vietnam is to force a Korean War-type armistice, which requires that the war go on until Hanoi agreed to the American terms while at the same time forcing Nixon to deflect pressure from domestic anti-war protests. With the same aim of achieving an armistice that would allow South Vietnam
South Vietnam
to continue to exist, Nixon begins a policy of seeking better relations with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and China, hoping those two states would reduce, if not end their arm supplies to North Vietnam
North Vietnam
in return for better relations with Washington, and thus forcing Hanoi to accept peace on American terms. — February Following the success of the first "accelerated pacification" and the Phoenix Program
Phoenix Program
of "neutralizing" (i.e. assassinating) Viet Cong operatives, Nixon applies strong pressure for more "accelerated pacification" campaigns and the Phoenix Program killings in South Vietnam
South Vietnam
as a part of the effort at breaking the Viet Cong. For Nixon, "accelerated pacification" and the Phoenix Program killings both have the effect of weakening the Viet Cong without the use of American troops, which serves to achieve both his aims of reducing American forces and applying pressure for the Vietnamese Communists to accept peace on American terms. — March 8 President Nasser of Egypt launches the War of Attrition against Israel. The US supports Israel while the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
supports Egypt. — July 25 Nixon announces the Nixon Doctrine
Nixon Doctrine
in which Nixon warns that the United States will not to any lengths to defend its allies, especially in Asia, and henceforth American allies must do more for their own defense. The doctrine is especially aimed at South Vietnam and is intended to pressure the South Vietnamese government to do a more effective job of fighting the Communists. — July Nixon visits Pakistan
Pakistan
and meets with the Pakistani President General Agha Yahya Khan, tells him that he wants to use Pakistan
Pakistan
as an intermediary for talks with China.[33] Yahya Khan agrees to Nixon's request. — September 9 Walter Stoessel, the American ambassador to Poland is ordered by Nixon to make contacts with Chinese diplomats in an informal way.[33] — October 16 Pakistani ambassador to the United States Agha Hilaly tells Kissinger that President Yahya is going to visit China early the next year, and is there any message that Kissinger would like Yahya to pass on to Mao.[33] — November 3 Nixon gives a TV speech claiming that there was a "silent majority" supporting his Vietnam policies, states that he needs some more time for his policies to work, denounces anti-war protestors as a threat to world peace, and asks for the support of the "silent majority" to help him "to end the war in a way that we could win the peace."

1970

— February 23 Hilaly tells Kissinger that after Yahya's visit to Beijing
Beijing
that the Chinese were interested in the American offer, but did not want to negotiate from a position of weakness.[33] — March Under the "accelerated pacification", more than million hectares of land have been redistributed in American-encouraged land reform in South Vietnam.[34] — March 7 Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
who has heard reports of Sino-American talks in Warsaw writes to Nixon to protest.[33] — April 29 Nixon orders the Cambodian Incursion. American and South Vietnamese force invade eastern provinces of Cambodia with the aim of clearing out the Viet Cong/North Vietnamese forces based there. Sparks much protest in the United States. — June By this point in the War of Attrition
War of Attrition
between Israel and Egypt, there are regular clashes occurring between Israel and Soviet forces in Egypt, leading to fears that this might cause a world war, which in turn leads to strong pressure for a ceasefire. — October 25 During a Pakistani-American summit, President Nixon asks President Yahya to pass on another message to Beijing
Beijing
about the American wish for rapprochement with China.[33] — October 31 Kissinger meets with Romanian President Nicolae Ceaușescu and asks him to pass on a message to China that the US wishes for a normalization of relations with the People's Republic of China.[33]

1971

— January 12 Corneliu Bogdan, the Romanian ambassador to the US tells Kissinger that Ceaușescu has passed on the American message, and that for Mao, normalization would be possible if the US would end the "occupation" of Taiwan as Mao calls American support for Taiwan.[33] This poses a major problem for Nixon as allow China to take Taiwan would greatly damage America's image and pose domestic problems. — March 4 Nixon gives press conference, and warns that better Sino-American relations cannot come at the expense of Taiwan.[33] — March 26 Pakistan
Pakistan
launches Operation Searchlight
Operation Searchlight
intended by President Agha Yahya Khan to crush the Awami League in East Pakistan, and to eliminate the intelligentsia, political class and Hindu minority of East Pakistan.[35] As General Yahya is a key conduit in the talks between the US and China, the Nixon administration does not protest Operation Searchlight
Operation Searchlight
as it fears this might offend General Yahya, as part of its marked "tilt" towards Pakistan.[35] — April 6 The Blood telegram sent by Archer Blood, the American consul in Dhaka and 20 other diplomats protesting the Nixon administration's silence about the Pakistani government's repression in East Pakistan
Pakistan
and what the telegram argues is a campaign of genocide by the government against the Hindu minority in East Pakistan.[35] The Blood telegram does not affect American policy towards Pakistan, and effectively cuts the career of Blood and the other diplomats.[35] — April 14 Ping-pong diplomacy. The American table tennis team is allowed to visit China, causes a sensation.[33] During a phone conversation, Kissinger says "It's a tragedy that it has to happen to Chiang at the end of his life but we have to be cold about it", to which Nixon replies "We have to do what's best for us".[33] — April 21 Pakistani President Yahya informs Nixon that he had spoken with Zhou Enlai, and that the Chinese wished for a senior American envoy to make a secret visit to Beijing.[33] — April 27 About the Chinese offer of a secret American envoy to visit Beijing, Kissinger tells Nixon that "If we get this thing working, we will end Vietnam this year."[33] — July 9 Kissinger visits Islamabad, Pakistan, and from there goes on to a secret trip to Beijing
Beijing
to meet Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
and Mao Zedong.[33] During the secret summit in Beijing, it is agreed that President Nixon will visit China the next year.[33] — December 3 Indo-Pakistani war begins. The US supports Pakistan while the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
supports India. — December 11 Nixon orders Task Force 74 to the Bay of Bengal in an attempt to intimidate India into accepting a ceasefire before the Indians defeat Pakistan. — December 16 The war ends in Pakistan's defeat. Nixon fails in his efforts preserve Pakistan's unity.

1972 -

— February 21 Nixon visits China. Nixon in Beijing
Beijing
opens era of détente with China. — May 9 Nixon orders Operation Linebacker
Operation Linebacker
with the aiming of destroying North Vietnam's logistical capacity. — May 22 Moscow summit. Nixon in Moscow opens era of détente with Soviet Union; SALT I. — June 3 Quadripartite Agreement governing the status of Berlin. — October 8 Kissinger meets with the North Vietnamese negotiator Le Duc Tho in Paris for peace talks to end the Vietnam War, and initially the talks go well. — October 18 President Nguyen Van Thieu
Nguyen Van Thieu
of South Vietnam
South Vietnam
rejects the proposed Paris peace agreement, complaining that Kissinger had not consulted him. — December 17 Paris peace talks break down. — December 18 Nixon orders "Christmas Bombings" against North Vietnam following the breakdown in the Paris peace talks.

1973 –

— 27 January Paris Peace Accords
Paris Peace Accords
ends the American war in Vietnam; POW's returned in March. — October 6 October War begins with a surprise attack on Israel by Egypt and Syria. The US supports Israel while the Soviet Union supports Egypt and Syria. — October 12 Nixon orders Operation Nickel Grass, a major American effort to supply Israel with weapons to make good the IDF's heavy initial losses. — October 20 Arab oil embargo led by King Faisal of Saudi Arabia against the US and other Western nations begins as punishment for support of Israel. The oil embargo sparks major inflation in the United States. — October 24 The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
announces that it will send troops to Egypt, which in turn leads Kissinger to warn that the United States will send troops to fight the Soviet forces deployed to Egypt. Nixon places the United States military on DEFCON 3, one of the highest states of alert. The Soviets back down. — October 25 A ceasefire brokered by the US and the Soviet Union ends the October War.

1974-

— January 18 Under an American disengagement plan negotiated by Kissinger, Israeli forces pull back from the Suez Canal. — March 17 Arab oil embargo against the West ends.

1975 – North Vietnam
North Vietnam
invades and conquers South Vietnam; over one million refugees eventually come to America. 1977 :— June 30 SEATO
SEATO
alliance is dissolved. 1978 – Camp David Accords, brokered by President Jimmy Carter, saw Egypt's president Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
and Israel's Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
come to terms, leading to their historic peace treaty in 1979[36] 1979 – The US switches diplomatic recognition from the Republic of China (Taiwan) to the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
and passes the Taiwan Relations Act. 1979–89 – The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
invades Afghanistan; America works with Pakistan
Pakistan
and Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
in funding, training, and arming Muslim mujahideen insurgency against Soviet occupation. 1979 – After Afghanistan, President Carter agrees détente has failed; leads worldwide boycott of Moscow 1980 Summer Olympics 1979–90 – Nicaragua; America supports the Contras
Contras
fighting against the pro-Communist Sandinista government in Nicaragua. 1979–81 – Iran
Iran
becomes an Islamic republic
Islamic republic
after the overthrow of American-backed Shah; militants seize 63 American diplomats for 444 days during the Iran
Iran
hostage crisis; America seizes $12 billion in Iranian assets; American rescue effort fails; hostages and assets are freed on January 20, 1981. 1980 – Cuba. 125,000 Cuban refugees arrive in America during the Mariel boatlift. 1980–88 – Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War. America officially neutral in the war between Iraq
Iraq
and Iran; America flags oil tankers to protect flow of oil in Persian Gulf, and sells arms and weaponry to both sides of the conflict. 1981 – President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
escalates Cold War
Cold War
with heavy new military spending and research in new weapons; forward strategy for Navy. 1982-

— September 29 MNF comprising forces from the United States, France, and Italy set to Lebanon
Lebanon
to stabilize the nation in the middle of its civil war.

1983 –

— April 18 A suicide attack by the Iranian-supported Hezbollah terrorist group destroys the American embassy in Beirut. — October 23 A suicide attack by Hezbollah
Hezbollah
kills 241 American servicemen, mostly Marines in Beirut. — October 25 US invades Grenada
Grenada
in response to a coup d’état by Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard on the Caribbean
Caribbean
island.

1984

— February 26 Reagan orders the Marines in Lebanon
Lebanon
to be "redeployed to the fleet" as the withdrawal from Lebanon
Lebanon
is euphemistically known. — April 10 Senate votes to condemn Reagan for mining Nicaraguan waters. — September 20 Another suicide attack by Hezbollah
Hezbollah
damages the American embassy in Beirut.

1985 – The US suspends its ANZUS obligations to New Zealand after David Lange's Labour government bans nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered warships.[37] 1986

— March 24 Gulf of Sidra incident. Libyan attacks on American warships in the Gulf of Sidra. — April 5 La Belle discotheque in Berlin bombed by Libyan agents. The discotheque is popular with American servicemen and two out of the three killed are American. As the NSA has broken the Libyan diplomatic codes, it is established that the bombing was planned out of the Libyan "people's bureau" (embassy) in East Berlin. — April 15 Operation El Dorado Canyon. The US bombs Libya in response to the bombing in Berlin. — November The news of the Iran–Contra affair
Iran–Contra affair
breaks: White House officials sell weapons to Iran
Iran
and give the profits to Contras; President Reagan embarrassed.

1987

— June 12 President Reagan gives the "Tear down this wall!" speech in Berlin, saying "Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!". Reagan argues that tearing the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
would be a symbol of Soviet good faith to prove Gorbachev was sincere in seeking better relations with the West.

1989 – End of Eastern Bloc; fall of Berlin Wall; all East European satellites break away from Moscow 1990 – Panama; America invades to oust Manuel Noriega.

— September 12 Four plus two treaty signed by the US, Britain, France, the Soviet Union, West Germany and East Germany formally ends World War II
World War II
in Europe, grants the two German states the right to unify and ends all of the sovereign rights held by the Allies in Germany since 1945.

1991 – Gulf War; America leads a UN-authorized coalition to repel an Iraqi invasion out of neighboring Kuwait. 1991–2003 – Iraq
Iraq
sanctions; America and Great Britain maintain no-fly-zones in the north and south of Iraq
Iraq
with periodic bombings. 1991–93 – START II
START II
accords held by America and Russia to limit nuclear weapons 1991 – The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
is dissolved; Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
resigns 1999 – The US and NATO
NATO
bomb the FR Yugoslavia, which brings an end to the Kosovo War.

21st century[edit]

2001 – September 11 terrorist attacks, orchestrated by Al-Qaeda terrorist network, occur on American soil. 2001 – US and NATO
NATO
forces invade Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and overthrow the Taliban. 2003 – US-led coalition invades Iraq
Iraq
to overthrow Saddam Hussein; troops remain to fight insurgency against the UN-approved elected government. 2004 to present – Drone attacks in Pakistan
Pakistan
CIA maintains drone surveillance and launches hundreds of attacks on pro- Taliban
Taliban
targets 2006 – President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
signs the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act into law; US no longer opposes India's civilian and military nuclear programs; bilateral relations improve 2009-2017 - Obama administration policy against terrorism downplays Bush's counterinsurgency model, and uses a light-footprint approach with expanded air strikes, extensive use of special forces and greater reliance on host-government militaries.[38] 2009 – President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
lifts all travel restrictions to see relatives in Cuba
Cuba
and send remittances. However, later that year, Obama approved continuing the Trading with the Enemy Act, which regulates sanctions on Cuba. 2011 – US removes all military forces from Iraq 2011 – New START
New START
treaty with Russia goes into effect. 2011 – CIA uses Navy Seals against the highest priority terrorism target. They raid Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
founder Osama bin Laden's compound in Pakistan, killing him and seizing his computers. Pakistan
Pakistan
was not informed.[39] 2013 – US threatens an air attack on Syria after it uses chemical weapons; resolved by agreement to destroy all the chemical weapons under international auspices 2014 – US implements economic sanctions against the Russian Federation after its illegal occupation of Crimea
Crimea
during the 2014 Ukraine conflict. 2015 – US reopens its diplomatic mission in Cuba, after over five decades of it being closed.. 2017 – US formally recognizes Jerusalem as the capital of Israel but does not move embassy yet. UN General Assembly condemns US plan by a vote of 128-9.[40] 2017 - Trump administration sounds alarm about development by North Korea of nuclear weapons and missiles that can hit North America. It tries to enlist support from Russia and China, as well as South Korea and Japan.[41] 2017 - Trump administration gives high priority to combating terrorism, especially from radical Islam. It prioritizes military action and deemphasizes soft power, political engagement, and diplomacy. It calls for a high wall across the southern border.[42]

See also[edit]

Timeline of United States history History of United States diplomatic relations by country Timeline of British diplomatic history List of United States treaties List of diplomatic missions of the United States

Footnotes[edit]

^ Mikulas Fabry (2010). Recognizing States: International Society and the Establishment of New States Since 1776. p. 31.  ^ Richard Dean Burns; et al. (2013). American Foreign Relations Since Independence. ABC-CLIO. p. 6.  ^ See text ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Fremont-Barnes, Gregory The Wars of the Barbary Pirates, London: Osprey, 2006 page 13 ^ See link ^ Long, David Foster (1988). Gold braid and foreign relations: diplomatic activities of US naval officers, 1798–1883. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9780870212284.  ^ Todd Estes, "Shaping the politics of public opinion: Federalists and the Jay treaty debate." Journal of the Early Republic 20.3 (2000): 393-422. online ^ Fremont-Barnes, Gregory The Wars of the Barbary Pirates, London: Osprey, 2006 page 14 ^ Tom Head (2009). Freedom of Religion. Infobase Publishing. p. 78.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Fremont-Barnes, Gregory The Wars of the Barbary States, London: Osprey, 2006 page 14. ^ Fremont-Barnes, Gregory The Wars of the Barbary States, London: Osprey, 2006 page 39. ^ Fremont-Barnes, Gregory The Wars of the Barbary States, London: Osprey, 2006 pages 57-58. ^ Fremont-Barnes, Gregory The Wars of the Barbary States, London: Osprey, 2006 page 58. ^ a b c d Fremont-Barnes, Gregory The Wars of the Barbary States, London: Osprey, 2006 page 15. ^ Bradford Perkins, Prologue to war: England and the United States, 1805-1812 (1961) full text online ^ David M. Pletcher, The Diplomacy of Annexation: Texas, Oregon, and the Mexican War (1973). ^ Nelson M. Blake, "Background of Cleveland's Venezuelan Policy," American Historical Review (1942) 47#2 pp. 259–277 in JSTOR ^ Nelson M. Blake, "The Olney-Pauncefote Treaty of 1897," American Historical Review, (1945) 50#2 pp. 228-243 in JSTOR ^ Louis A. Perez, Jr. Cuba
Cuba
under the Platt Amendment, 1902–1934. Univ of Pittsburgh Pr. ISBN 0-8229-3533-3 Platt Amendment. Our Documents.com National Archives. An Amendment's End. Time Magazine. ^ Genevieve Forbes Herrick; John Origen Herrick (2005) [1925]. The Life of William Jennings Bryan. Kessinger Publishing. p. 280.  ^ Priscilla Roberts, "'All the Right People: The Historiography of the American Foreign Policy Establishment." Journal of American Studies 26#3 (1992): 409–434. ^ Christian Science Monitor, 4 Oct. 2010 ^ David Kahn, "The intelligence failure of Pearl Harbor." Foreign Affairs 70.5 (1991): 138-152. online ^ Lt-Col Robert F. Piacine, Pearl Harbor: Failure of Intelligence? (Air War College, 1997) online ^ All data from the official document: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1954 (1955) table 1075 pp 899-902 online edition file 1954-08.pdf ^ Harry Bayard Price, The Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
and its Meaning (Cornell UP, 1955), pp 179-219. ^ Irwin M. Wall (1991). The United States and the Making of Postwar France, 1945-1954. Cambridge U.P. p. 55.  ^ John Lewis Gaddis, The Cold War: A New History (2006) excerpt and text search ^ Douglas A. Irwin, "The GATT in Historical Perspective," American Economic Review Vol. 85, No. 2, (May, 1995), pp. 323-328 in JSTOR ^ Francine McKenzie, "GATT and the Cold War," Journal of Cold War Studies, Summer 2008, 10#3 pp 78-109 ^ Scott Jackson, "Prologue to the Marshall Plan: The Origins of the American Commitment for a European Recovery Program," Journal of American History 65#4 (1979), pp. 1043-1068 in JSTOR ^ Deborah Welch Larson, "The Origins of Commitment: Truman and West Berlin," Journal of Cold War
Cold War
Studies, 13#1 Winter 2011, pp. 180–212 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Getting to Beijing: Henry Kissinger's Secret 1971 Trip". University of California. July 21, 2011. Retrieved 2013-08-26.  ^ "Accelerated Pacification Campaign". VietnamWar.net. Retrieved 2013-08-26.  ^ a b c d "Blood meridian". The Economist. September 21, 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-26.  ^ Clete Hinton. Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords
(2004) ^ 'U.S. Policy on the New Zealand Port Access Issue', National Security Decision Directive 193, 21 October 1985, Federation of American Scientists Intelligence Program, accessed 22 October 2012, https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsdd/nsdd-193.htm ^ Saskia Brechenmacher and Steven Feldstein, "Trump's War on Terror" The National Interest (Nov-Dec. 2017) Issue 152, pp 58-68 ^ Nicholas Schmidle, "Getting Bin Laden." The New Yorker (Aug 8 2011) online. ^ Louis Nelson, "U.N. votes 128-9 to criticize U.S. decision on Jerusalem" POLITICO 12-21-2017 ^ Scott D. Sagan, "The Korean Missile Crisis: Why Deterrence Is Still the Best Option." Foreign Affairs 96#1 (2017): 72+ online ^ Saskia Brechenmacher and Steven Feldstein, "Trump's War on Terror" The National Interest (Nov-Dec. 2017) Issue 152, pp 58-68

Further reading[edit]

Allen, Debra J. Historical Dictionary of U.S. Diplomacy from the Revolution to Secession(2012) excerpt and text search Anderson, Frank Maloy and Amos Shartle Hershey, eds. Handbook For The Diplomatic History Of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1870-1914 (1918) online Bailey, Thomas A. Diplomatic History of the American People (1940), standard older textbook Beisner, Robert L. ed, American Foreign Relations since 1600: A Guide to the Literature (2003), 2 vol. 16,300 annotated entries evaluate every major book and scholarly article. Bemis, Samuel Flagg. A Diplomatic History of the United States
History of the United States
(2nd ed. 1942) online; old standard textbook Bemis, Samuel Flagg and Grace Gardner Griffin. Guide to the Diplomatic History of the United States
History of the United States
1775–1921 (1935) bibliographies; out of date and replaced by Beisner (2003) Brune, Lester H. Chronological History of U.S. Foreign Relations (2003), 1400 pages Burns, Richard Dean, ed. Guide to American Foreign Relations since 1700 (1983) highly detailed annotated bibliography Deconde, Alexander, et al. eds. Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy 3 vol (2001), 2200 pages; 120 long articles by specialists. DeConde, Alexander; A History of American Foreign Policy (1963) online edition Ellis, Sylvia. Historical Dictionary of Anglo-American Relations (2009) Excerpt and text search Findling, John, ed. Dictionary of American Diplomatic History 2nd ed. 1989. 700pp; 1200 short articles. Folly, Martin and Niall Palmer. The A to Z of U.S. Diplomacy from World War I through World War II
World War II
(2010) excerpt and text search Herring, George. From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1776 (Oxford History of the United States) (2008), 1056pp Hahn, Peter L. Historical Dictionary of United States-Middle East Relations (2007) excerpt and text search Hogan, Michael J. ed. Paths to Power: The Historiography of American Foreign Relations to 1941 (2000) essays on main topics Hogan, Michael J., and Thomas G. Paterson, eds. Explaining the History of American Foreign Relations (1991) essays on historiography Lafeber, Walter. The American Age: United States Foreign Policy at Home and Abroad, 1750 to Present (2nd ed 1994) university textbook; 884pp online edition Leffler, Melvyn P. Safeguarding Democratic Capitalism: U.S. Foreign Policy and National Security, 1920–2015 (Princeton University Press, 2017) 348 pp. Mauch, Peter, and Yoneyuki Sugita. Historical Dictionary of United States-Japan Relations (2007) Excerpt and text search Paterson, Thomas, et al. American Foreign Relations: A History (7th ed. 2 vol. 2009), university textbook Saul, Norman E. Historical Dictionary of United States-Russian/Soviet Relations (2008) excerpt and text search Smith, Joseph. Historical Dictionary of United States-Latin American Relations (2006) excerpt and text search Sutter, Robert G. Historical Dictionary of United States-China Relations (2005) excerpt and text search Waters, Robert Anthony, Jr. Historical Dictionary of United States-Africa Relations (2009) Excerpt and text search Weatherbee, Donald E. Historical Dictionary of United States-Southeast Asia Relations (2008) Excer

.