_TIME_ is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City
. It was founded in 1923 and for decades was dominated by
Henry Luce ,
who built a highly profitable stable of magazines.
A European edition (_
Time Europe_, formerly known as _
is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa and,
since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (_
Time Asia_) is based in
Hong Kong . The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New
Zealand and the
Pacific Islands , is based in
Sydney , Australia. In
December 2008, _Time_ discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser
_Time_ has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news
magazine, and has a readership of 26 million, 20 million of which are
based in the United States.
In mid-2016, its circulation was 3,032,581, having fallen from 3.3
million in 2012.
Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October
2013, when he joined the U.S. State Department .
Nancy Gibbs has
been the managing editor since October 2013.
* 1 History
* 2 Circulation
* 3 Style
* 4.1 Person of the Year
* 4.2 _Time_ 100
* 4.3 Red X covers
* 5 _
Time for Kids_
* 7 Staff
* 7.1 Editors
* 7.2 Managing editors
* 7.3 Notable contributors
* 7.4 Snapshot: 1940 editorial staff
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 Bibliography
* 11 External links
_ The first issue of Time_ (March 3, 1923), featuring Speaker
Joseph G. Cannon .
_Time_ magazine was created in 1923 by
Briton Hadden and
Henry Luce ,
making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States. The
two had previously worked together as chairman and managing editor
respectively of the _
Yale Daily News ._ They first called the proposed
magazine _Facts_. They wanted to emphasize brevity, so that a busy man
could read it in an hour. They changed the name to _Time_ and used the
slogan "Take Time–It's Brief". Hadden was considered carefree and
liked to tease Luce and saw _Time_ as important but also fun, which
accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities (including
politicians), the entertainment industry, and pop culture—criticized
as too light for serious news.
It set out to tell the news through people, and for many decades the
magazine's cover depicted a single person. More recently,
incorporated "People of the Year" issues which grew in popularity over
the years. Notable mentions of them were Barack Obama, Steve Jobs,
Matej Turk, etc. The first issue of _Time_ was published on March 3,
1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon , the retired Speaker of the House of
Representatives , on its cover; a facsimile reprint of Issue No. 1,
including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the
original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a
commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary. The cover price was
15¢ (equivalent to $2.11 today) On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce
became the dominant man at _Time_ and a major figure in the history of
20th-century media. According to _
Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a
Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004_ by Robert Elson, "Roy Edward Larsen
was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time
Inc". In his book, _The March of
Time , 1935–1951_, Raymond Fielding
also noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and then
general manager of _Time_, later publisher of _Life _, for many years
Time Inc., and in the long history of the corporation the
most influential and important figure after Luce".
Around the time they were raising $100,000 from wealthy
like Henry P. Davison, partner of
J.P. Morgan & Co. , publicity man
Martin Egan and
J.P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce,
Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922 – although Larsen was a
Harvard graduate and Luce and Hadden were
Yale graduates. After Hadden
died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of
Time Inc., using money he
obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his
father, who was the head of the
Benjamin Franklin Keith theatre chain
New England . However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest
Time stockholder was
Henry Luce , who ruled the media conglomerate in
an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen", Time's
second-largest stockholder, according to _
Time Inc.: The Intimate
History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941_. In 1929, Roy Larsen
was also named a
Time Inc. director and vice-president. J. P. Morgan
retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of
stocks, both over _Time_ and _Fortune_. Other shareholders were Brown
W. A. Harriman
W. A. Harriman ">
Time Inc. stock owned by Luce at the time of his death was worth
about $109 million, and it had been yielding him a yearly dividend of
more than $2.4 million, according to Curtis Prendergast's _The World
Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise
1957–1983_. The Larsen family's
Time stock was worth around $80
million during the 1960s, and Roy Larsen was both a
Time Inc. director
and the chairman of its Executive Committee, later serving as Time's
vice-chairman of the board until the middle of 1979. According to the
September 10, 1979 issue of _The New York Times_, "Mr. Larsen was the
only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its
policy of mandatory retirement at age 65."
After _Time_ magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March
1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by utilizing
U.S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It often promoted both
_Time_ magazine and U.S. political and corporate interests. According
to _The March of
Time _, as early as 1924, Larsen had brought _Time_
into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute
sustaining quiz show entitled _Pop Question_ which survived until
1925". Then, in 1928, Larsen "undertook the weekly broadcast of a
10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current
issues of _Time_ magazine which was originally broadcast over 33
stations throughout the United States".
Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, _The March of
Time _, to be broadcast over
CBS , beginning on March 6, 1931. Each
week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its
listeners, thus _Time_ magazine itself was brought "to the attention
of millions previously unaware of its existence", according to _Time
Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941_,
leading to an increased circulation of the magazine during the 1930s.
Between 1931 and 1937, Larsen's _The March of
Time _ radio program was
CBS radio and between 1937 and 1945 it was broadcast
over NBC radio – except for the 1939 to 1941 period when it was not
aired. _People Magazine _ was based on _Time'_s People page.
In 1989, when Time, Inc. and Warner Communications merged, _Time_
became part of
Time Warner , along with
Warner Bros. .
Jason McManus succeeded Henry Grunwald as Editor-in-Chief
and oversaw the transition before
Norman Pearlstine succeeded him in
Time magazine became part of AOL
Time Warner, which reverted
to the name
Time Warner in 2003.
In 2007, _Time_ moved from a Monday subscription/newsstand delivery
to a schedule where the magazine goes on sale Fridays, and is
delivered to subscribers on Saturday. The magazine actually began in
1923 with Friday publication.
During early 2007, the year's first issue was delayed for roughly a
week due to "editorial changes", including the layoff of 49 employees.
In 2009 _Time_ announced that they were introducing a personalized
print magazine, _Mine_, mixing content from a range of
publications based on the reader's preferences. The new magazine met
with a poor reception, with criticism that its focus was too broad to
be truly personal.
The magazine has an online archive with the unformatted text for
every article published. The articles are indexed and were converted
from scanned images using optical character recognition technology.
There are still minor errors in the text that are remnants of the
conversion into digital format.
Time Inc. and Apple have come to an agreement wherein U.S.
subscribers to _Time_ will be able to read the iPad versions for free,
at least until the two companies sort out a viable digital
In January 2013,
Time Inc. announced that it would cut nearly 500
jobs – roughly 6% of its 8,000 staff worldwide. Although _Time_
magazine has maintained high sales, its ad pages have declined
significantly over time.
Also in January 2013,
Time Inc. named Martha Nelson as the first
female editor-in-chief of its magazine division. In September 2013,
Nancy Gibbs was named as the first female managing editor of _Time_
_Time_ magazine paid circulation by year
During the second half of 2009, the magazine saw a 34.9% decline in
newsstand sales. During the first half of 2010, there was another
decline of at least one-third in _Time_ magazine sales. In the second
half of 2010, _Time_ magazine newsstand sales declined by about 12% to
just over 79,000 copies per week. As of 2012, it has a circulation of
3.3 million, making it the eleventh most circulated magazine in the
United States, and the second most circulated weekly behind _People _.
As of 2014, its circulation was 3,286,467
_Time_ initially possessed a distinctive writing style, making
regular use of inverted sentences . This was parodied in 1936 by
Wolcott Gibbs in _
The New Yorker _: "Backward ran sentences until
reeled the mind Where it all will end, knows God!"
Until the mid-1970s, _Time_ had a weekly section called "Listings",
which contained capsule summaries and/or reviews of then-current
significant films, plays, musicals, television programs, and literary
bestsellers similar to _
The New Yorker '_s "Current Events" section.
_Time_ is also known for its signature red border, first introduced
in 1927. The iconic red border was homaged or satirized by Seattle's
_The Stranger _ newspaper in 2010.
The border has only been changed four times since 1927: The issue
released shortly after the
September 11 attacks on the United States
featured a black border to symbolize mourning . However, this edition
was a special "extra" edition published quickly for the breaking news
of the event; the next regularly scheduled issue contained the red
border. Additionally, the April 28, 2008
Earth Day issue, dedicated to
environmental issues , contained a green border. The next change in
border was in the September 19, 2011 issue, commemorating the 10th
September 11 attacks with a metallic silver border. The
most recent change (again with a silver border) was in the December
31, 2012 issue, noting
Barack Obama 's selection as Person of the
In 2007, _Time_ engineered a style overhaul of the magazine. Among
other changes, the magazine reduced the red cover border in order to
promote featured stories, enlarged column titles, reduced the number
of featured stories, increased white space around articles, and
accompanied opinion pieces with photographs of the writers. The
changes have met both criticism and praise.
PERSON OF THE YEAR
Time Person of the Year
_Time_'s most famous feature throughout its history has been the
annual "Person of the Year" (formerly "Man of the Year") cover story,
in which _Time_ recognizes the individual or group of individuals who
have had the biggest impact on news headlines over the past 12 months.
The distinction is supposed to go to the person who, _for good or
ill_, has most affected the course of the year; it is therefore not
necessarily an honor or a reward. In the past, such figures as Adolf
Joseph Stalin have been Man of the Year.
In 2006, Person of the Year was designated as "You" , a move that was
met with split reviews. Some thought the concept was creative; others
wanted an actual person of the year. Editors Pepper and Timmer
reflected that, if it had been a mistake, "we're only going to make it
In recent years, _Time_ has assembled an annual list of the 100 most
influential people of the year. Originally, they had made a list of
the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. These issues
usually have the front cover filled with pictures of people from the
list and devote a substantial amount of space within the magazine to
the 100 articles about each person on the list. There have, in some
cases, been over 100 people, when two people have made the list
together, sharing one spot.
The magazine also compiled "All-_TIME_ 100 best novels" and
"All-_TIME_ 100 best movies " lists in 2005, "The 100 Best TV Shows
of All-_TIME_" in 2007, and "All-_TIME_ 100 Fashion Icons" in 2012.
In February 2016, _Time_ included the British and male author Evelyn
Waugh on its "100 Most Read Female Writers in College Classes" list
(he was 97th on the list) which created much media attention and
concerns about the level of basic education among the magazine's
staff. _Time_ later issued a retraction. In a
BBC interview with
Justin Webb , Professor
Valentine Cunningham of Corpus Christi
College, Oxford , described the mistake as "a piece of profound
ignorance on the part of _Time_ magazine".
RED X COVERS
_ Time_ red X covers: from left to right, Adolf Hitler, Saddam
Hussein, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, and Osama bin Laden
During its history, for five non-consecutive occasions, _Time_ has
released a special issue with a cover showing an X scrawled over the
face of a man or a national symbol. The first _Time_ magazine with a
red X cover was released on May 7, 1945, showing a red X over Adolf
Hitler 's face. The second X cover was released more than three months
later on August 20, 1945, with a black X (to date, the magazine's only
such use of a black X) covering the flag of Japan , representing the
recent surrender of Japan and which signaled the end of
World War II
World War II .
Fifty-eight years later, on April 21, 2003, _Time_ released another
issue with a red X over
Saddam Hussein 's face, two weeks after the
invasion. On June 13, 2006, _Time_ magazine printed a red X cover
issue following the death of
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi in a U.S. airstrike
Iraq . The most recent red X cover issue of _Time_ was published on
May 2, 2011, after the death of Osama bin Laden .
_TIME FOR KIDS_
Time for Kids
Time for Kids _ is a division magazine of _Time_ that is especially
published for children and is mainly distributed in classrooms. _TFK_
contains some national news, a "
Cartoon of the Week", and a variety of
articles concerning popular culture . An annual issue concerning the
environment is distributed near the end of the U.S. school term. The
publication rarely exceeds ten pages front and back.
Time LightBox is a photography blog created and curated by Time's
photo department, that was launched in 2011. In 2011 _Life _ picked
LightBox for its Photo Blog Awards.
Briton Hadden (1923–1929)
Henry Luce (1929–1949)
T. S. Matthews (1949–1953)
T. S. Matthews
James R. Gaines
Aravind Adiga , _Time_ correspondent for three years, winner of
Man Booker Prize
Man Booker Prize for fiction
James Agee , book and movie editor for _Time_
Ann Blackman , deputy news chief in Washington
Ian Bremmer , current Editor-at-Large
Margaret Carlson , the first female columnist for _Time_
Robert Cantwell , writer, editor 1936—1941
Whittaker Chambers , writer, senior editor 1939—1948
Richard Corliss , film critic for the magazine since 1980
Brad Darrach , film critic
Nigel Dennis , drama critic
John Gregory Dunne , reporter; later author and screenwriter
Peter Economy , author and editor
Alexander Eliot , art editor from 1945 to 1961, author of 18 books
on art, mythology, and history, including _Three Hundred Years of
American Painting_, published by
Dean E. Fischer , reporter and editor, 1964–81
Nancy Gibbs , essayist and editor-at-large ; has written more than
100 _Time_ cover stories
Lev Grossman , writes primarily about books for the magazine
Deena Guzder , a human rights journalist and author
* Jerry Bernard Hannifin, award-winning chief aerospace
correspondent for four decades, as well as specialist on Latin
America, and licensed pilot
Wilder Hobson , reporter in 1930s and '40s
* Robert Hughes , _Time'_s long-tenured art critic
Pico Iyer , essayist and novelist, essayist for _Time_ since 1986
Alvin M. Josephy, Jr. , photo editor 1952–60; also a historian
and Hollywood screenwriter
Weldon Kees , critic
* Joe Klein , author (_Primary Colors _) and a _Time_ columnist who
wrote the "In the Arena" column
Louis Kronenberger , drama critic 1938–1961
Andre Laguerre , Paris bureau chief 1948–1956, London bureau
chief 1951–1956, also wrote about sports for _Time_; later longtime
managing editor of _
Sports Illustrated _
Nathaniel Lande , author, filmmaker, and former creative director
Will Lang Jr. _1936–1968_,
Time Life International
Marshall Loeb , writer and editor from 1956 through 1980
* John Moody , Vatican and Rome correspondent 1986 through 1996
* Jim Murray , West Coast correspondent 1948–1955
Lance Morrow , backpage essayist from 1976 through 2000
Richard Schickel , film critic from 1965 through 2010
Hugh Sidey , political reporter and columnist, beginning in 1957
Donald L. Barlett and
James B. Steele , investigative reporters
who won two National Magazine Awards while at _Time_
Joel Stein , columnist who wrote the _Joel 100_ just after _Time_
Magazine's Most Influential issue in 2006
Calvin Trillin , food writer, was a reporter for _Time_ from 1960
David Von Drehle , current Editor-at-Large
Lasantha Wickrematunge , journalist
* Robert Wright , contributing editor
Fareed Zakaria , current Editor-at-Large
SNAPSHOT: 1940 EDITORIAL STAFF
William Saroyan lists the full _Time_ editorial department
in the play, _Love's Old Sweet Song_.
This 1940 snapshot includes:
* Editor: Henry R. Luce
* Managing Editors: Manfred Gottfried, Frank Norris, T.S. Matthews
* Associate Editors: Carlton J. Balliett Jr., Robert Cantwell, Laird
S. Goldsborough, David W. Hulburd Jr., John Stuart Martin, Fanny Saul,
Walter Stockly, Dana Tasker, Charles Weretenbaker
* Contributing Editors: Roy Alexander, John F. Allen, Robert W. Boyd
Jr., Roger Butterfield, Whittaker Chambers, James G. Crowley, Robert
Fitzgerald, Calvin Fixx, Walter Graebner, John Hersey, Sidney L.
James, Eliot Janeway, Pearl Kroll, Louis Kronenberger, Thomas K. Krug,
John T. McManus, Sherry Mangan, Peter Matthews, Robert Neville,
Emeline Nollen, Duncan Norton-Taylor, Sidney Olsen, John Osborne,
Content Peckham, Green Peyton, Williston C. Rich Jr., Winthrop
Sargeant, Robert Sherrod, Lois Stover, Leon Svirsky, Felice Swados,
Samuel G. Welles Jr., Warren Wilhelm, and Alfred Wright Jr.
* Editorial Assistants: Ellen May Ach, Sheila Baker, Sonia Bigman,
Elizabeth Budelrnan, Maria de Blasio, Hannah Durand, Jean Ford,
Dorothy Gorrell, Helen Gwynn, Edith Hind, Lois Holsworth, Diana
Jackson, Mary V. Johnson, Alice Lent, Kathrine Lowe, Carolyn Marx,
Helen McCreery, Gertrude McCullough, Mary Louise Mickey, Anna North,
Mary Palmer, Tabitha Petran, Elizabeth Sacartoff, Frances Stevenson,
Helen Vind, Eleanor Welch, and Mary Welles.
* _United States portal
Heroes of the Environment
* List of people on the cover of Time_ magazine
The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power ", 1991 article about
Scientology , by
Richard Behar , which received the
Gerald Loeb Award
Is God Dead? , one of _Time'_s most famous covers
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Consumer Magazines".
Alliance for Audited Media .
Retrieved October 6, 2016.
* ^ "
Time Canada to close". _mastheadonline.com_. December 10,
2008. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Byers, Dylan (August 7, 2012). "
Time Magazine still on
top in circulation".
Time Inc (30 July 2012). "Richard Stengel". _TIME Media Kit_.
Time Inc. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Maza, Erik (17 September 2013). "
Nancy Gibbs Named
Time\'s Managing Editor". WWD. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
* ^ "History of TIME". _TIME magazine_.
* ^ Brinkley, _The Publisher_, pp 88–89
* ^ "Instant History: Review of First Issue with Cover".
Brycezabel.com. 1923-03-03. Retrieved 2014-01-26.
* ^ "
Time Inc. Layoffs: Surveying the Wreckage". Gawker. Retrieved
December 15, 2007.
* ^ "Time\'s foray into personal publishing". April 27, 2009.
Retrieved December 15, 2007.
* ^ Adams, Russell (2011-05-02). "WSJ.com,
Time Inc. in iPad Deal
With Apple". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2014-01-26.
* ^ "
Time Inc. Cutting Staff", _Wall Street Journal_, January 30,
2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
* ^ "
Time Inc to Shed 500 Jobs", Greenslade Blog, _The Guardian_,
January 31, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Haughney, Christine (September 17, 2013). "Time
Magazine Names Its First Female Managing Editor". _The New York
* ^ Clifford, Stephanie (February 8, 2010). "Magazines\' Newsstand
Sales Fall 9.1 Percent". _The New York Times_.
* ^ _
The New Yorker - Google Books_. Books.google.com. Retrieved
* ^ "TIME Magazine archives". _Time_.
* ^ Lin, Tao (September 21, 2010). "Great American Novelist".
_TheStranger.com _. Retrieved May 30, 2011.
* ^ MSNBC-TV report by Andrea Mitchell, April 17, 2008, 1:45 pm .
* ^ Joe Hagan (4 March 2007). "The
Time of Their Lives".
_NYMag.com_. New York Magazine. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
* ^ Bruce Nussbaum (25 March 2007). "Does The Redesign of Time
Magazine Mean It Has A New Business Model As Well?". _Bloomberg
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* ^ Will, George F. (December 21, 2006). "Full Esteem Ahead". _The
* ^ "The
Time of Their Lives". Retrieved April 22, 2007.
* ^ Corliss, Richard ; Schickel, Richard (February 12, 2005).
"All-_TIME_ 100 Movies". _Time_.
* ^ "Best Soundtracks". _Time_. February 12, 2005.