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_TIME_ is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City . It was founded in 1923 and for decades was dominated by Henry Luce
Henry Luce
, who built a highly profitable stable of magazines.

A European edition (_ Time
Time
Europe_, formerly known as _ Time
Time
Atlantic_) is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (_ Time
Time
Asia_) is based in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
. The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands , is based in Sydney
Sydney
, Australia. In December 2008, _Time_ discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition.

_Time_ has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine, and has a readership of 26 million, 20 million of which are based in the United States.

In mid-2016, its circulation was 3,032,581, having fallen from 3.3 million in 2012.

Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the U.S. State Department . Nancy Gibbs has been the managing editor since October 2013.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Circulation * 3 Style

* 4 Special
Special
editions

* 4.1 Person of the Year * 4.2 _Time_ 100 * 4.3 Red X covers

* 5 _ Time
Time
for Kids_ * 6 Time
Time
LightBox

* 7 Staff

* 7.1 Editors * 7.2 Managing editors * 7.3 Notable contributors * 7.4 Snapshot: 1940 editorial staff

* 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links

HISTORY

_ The first issue of Time_ (March 3, 1923), featuring Speaker Joseph G. Cannon .

_Time_ magazine was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce
Henry Luce
, making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States. The two had previously worked together as chairman and managing editor respectively of the _ Yale Daily News ._ They first called the proposed magazine _Facts_. They wanted to emphasize brevity, so that a busy man could read it in an hour. They changed the name to _Time_ and used the slogan "Take Time–It's Brief". Hadden was considered carefree and liked to tease Luce and saw _Time_ as important but also fun, which accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities (including politicians), the entertainment industry, and pop culture—criticized as too light for serious news.

It set out to tell the news through people, and for many decades the magazine's cover depicted a single person. More recently, Time
Time
has incorporated "People of the Year" issues which grew in popularity over the years. Notable mentions of them were Barack Obama, Steve Jobs, Matej Turk, etc. The first issue of _Time_ was published on March 3, 1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon , the retired Speaker of the House of Representatives , on its cover; a facsimile reprint of Issue No. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary. The cover price was 15¢ (equivalent to $2.11 today) On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at _Time_ and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media. According to _ Time
Time
Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004_ by Robert Elson, "Roy Edward Larsen was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time Inc". In his book, _The March of Time
Time
, 1935–1951_, Raymond Fielding also noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and then general manager of _Time_, later publisher of _Life _, for many years president of Time
Time
Inc., and in the long history of the corporation the most influential and important figure after Luce".

Around the time they were raising $100,000 from wealthy Yale
Yale
alumni like Henry P. Davison, partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. , publicity man Martin Egan and J.P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce, and Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922 – although Larsen was a Harvard graduate and Luce and Hadden were Yale
Yale
graduates. After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time
Time
Inc., using money he obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his father, who was the head of the Benjamin Franklin Keith theatre chain in New England
New England
. However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time
Time
stockholder was Henry Luce
Henry Luce
, who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen", Time's second-largest stockholder, according to _ Time
Time
Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941_. In 1929, Roy Larsen was also named a Time
Time
Inc. director and vice-president. J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over _Time_ and _Fortune_. Other shareholders were Brown Brothers W. A. Harriman
W. A. Harriman
">

The Time
Time
Inc. stock owned by Luce at the time of his death was worth about $109 million, and it had been yielding him a yearly dividend of more than $2.4 million, according to Curtis Prendergast's _The World of Time
Time
Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983_. The Larsen family's Time
Time
stock was worth around $80 million during the 1960s, and Roy Larsen was both a Time
Time
Inc. director and the chairman of its Executive Committee, later serving as Time's vice-chairman of the board until the middle of 1979. According to the September 10, 1979 issue of _The New York Times_, "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65."

After _Time_ magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by utilizing U.S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It often promoted both _Time_ magazine and U.S. political and corporate interests. According to _The March of Time
Time
_, as early as 1924, Larsen had brought _Time_ into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled _Pop Question_ which survived until 1925". Then, in 1928, Larsen "undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of _Time_ magazine which was originally broadcast over 33 stations throughout the United States".

Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, _The March of Time
Time
_, to be broadcast over CBS
CBS
, beginning on March 6, 1931. Each week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus _Time_ magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions previously unaware of its existence", according to _Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941_, leading to an increased circulation of the magazine during the 1930s. Between 1931 and 1937, Larsen's _The March of Time
Time
_ radio program was broadcast over CBS
CBS
radio and between 1937 and 1945 it was broadcast over NBC radio – except for the 1939 to 1941 period when it was not aired. _People Magazine _ was based on _Time'_s People page.

In 1989, when Time, Inc. and Warner Communications merged, _Time_ became part of Time
Time
Warner , along with Warner Bros. .

In 1988, Jason McManus succeeded Henry Grunwald as Editor-in-Chief and oversaw the transition before Norman Pearlstine succeeded him in 1995.

In 2000, Time
Time
magazine became part of AOL Time
Time
Warner, which reverted to the name Time
Time
Warner in 2003.

In 2007, _Time_ moved from a Monday subscription/newsstand delivery to a schedule where the magazine goes on sale Fridays, and is delivered to subscribers on Saturday. The magazine actually began in 1923 with Friday publication.

During early 2007, the year's first issue was delayed for roughly a week due to "editorial changes", including the layoff of 49 employees.

In 2009 _Time_ announced that they were introducing a personalized print magazine, _Mine_, mixing content from a range of Time
Time
Warner publications based on the reader's preferences. The new magazine met with a poor reception, with criticism that its focus was too broad to be truly personal.

The magazine has an online archive with the unformatted text for every article published. The articles are indexed and were converted from scanned images using optical character recognition technology. There are still minor errors in the text that are remnants of the conversion into digital format.

Time
Time
Inc. and Apple have come to an agreement wherein U.S. subscribers to _Time_ will be able to read the iPad versions for free, at least until the two companies sort out a viable digital subscription model.

In January 2013, Time
Time
Inc. announced that it would cut nearly 500 jobs – roughly 6% of its 8,000 staff worldwide. Although _Time_ magazine has maintained high sales, its ad pages have declined significantly over time.

Also in January 2013, Time
Time
Inc. named Martha Nelson as the first female editor-in-chief of its magazine division. In September 2013, Nancy Gibbs was named as the first female managing editor of _Time_ magazine.

CIRCULATION

_Time_ magazine paid circulation by year YEAR 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

CIRCULATION (MILLIONS) 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.1 3.4 3.4 3.4

During the second half of 2009, the magazine saw a 34.9% decline in newsstand sales. During the first half of 2010, there was another decline of at least one-third in _Time_ magazine sales. In the second half of 2010, _Time_ magazine newsstand sales declined by about 12% to just over 79,000 copies per week. As of 2012, it has a circulation of 3.3 million, making it the eleventh most circulated magazine in the United States, and the second most circulated weekly behind _People _. As of 2014, its circulation was 3,286,467

STYLE

_Time_ initially possessed a distinctive writing style, making regular use of inverted sentences . This was parodied in 1936 by Wolcott Gibbs in _ The New Yorker _: "Backward ran sentences until reeled the mind Where it all will end, knows God!"

Until the mid-1970s, _Time_ had a weekly section called "Listings", which contained capsule summaries and/or reviews of then-current significant films, plays, musicals, television programs, and literary bestsellers similar to _ The New Yorker '_s "Current Events" section.

_Time_ is also known for its signature red border, first introduced in 1927. The iconic red border was homaged or satirized by Seattle's _The Stranger _ newspaper in 2010.

The border has only been changed four times since 1927: The issue released shortly after the September 11 attacks on the United States featured a black border to symbolize mourning . However, this edition was a special "extra" edition published quickly for the breaking news of the event; the next regularly scheduled issue contained the red border. Additionally, the April 28, 2008 Earth Day
Earth Day
issue, dedicated to environmental issues , contained a green border. The next change in border was in the September 19, 2011 issue, commemorating the 10th anniversary of September 11 attacks with a metallic silver border. The most recent change (again with a silver border) was in the December 31, 2012 issue, noting Barack Obama
Barack Obama
's selection as Person of the Year.

In 2007, _Time_ engineered a style overhaul of the magazine. Among other changes, the magazine reduced the red cover border in order to promote featured stories, enlarged column titles, reduced the number of featured stories, increased white space around articles, and accompanied opinion pieces with photographs of the writers. The changes have met both criticism and praise.

SPECIAL EDITIONS

PERSON OF THE YEAR

Main article: Time
Time
Person of the Year

_Time_'s most famous feature throughout its history has been the annual "Person of the Year" (formerly "Man of the Year") cover story, in which _Time_ recognizes the individual or group of individuals who have had the biggest impact on news headlines over the past 12 months. The distinction is supposed to go to the person who, _for good or ill_, has most affected the course of the year; it is therefore not necessarily an honor or a reward. In the past, such figures as Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin have been Man of the Year.

In 2006, Person of the Year was designated as "You" , a move that was met with split reviews. Some thought the concept was creative; others wanted an actual person of the year. Editors Pepper and Timmer reflected that, if it had been a mistake, "we're only going to make it once".

_TIME_ 100

Main article: Time
Time
100

In recent years, _Time_ has assembled an annual list of the 100 most influential people of the year. Originally, they had made a list of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. These issues usually have the front cover filled with pictures of people from the list and devote a substantial amount of space within the magazine to the 100 articles about each person on the list. There have, in some cases, been over 100 people, when two people have made the list together, sharing one spot.

The magazine also compiled "All-_TIME_ 100 best novels" and "All-_TIME_ 100 best movies " lists in 2005, "The 100 Best TV Shows of All-_TIME_" in 2007, and "All-_TIME_ 100 Fashion Icons" in 2012.

In February 2016, _Time_ included the British and male author Evelyn Waugh on its "100 Most Read Female Writers in College Classes" list (he was 97th on the list) which created much media attention and concerns about the level of basic education among the magazine's staff. _Time_ later issued a retraction. In a BBC
BBC
interview with Justin Webb
Justin Webb
, Professor Valentine Cunningham of Corpus Christi College, Oxford , described the mistake as "a piece of profound ignorance on the part of _Time_ magazine".

RED X COVERS

_ Time_ red X covers: from left to right, Adolf Hitler, Saddam Hussein, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, and Osama bin Laden

During its history, for five non-consecutive occasions, _Time_ has released a special issue with a cover showing an X scrawled over the face of a man or a national symbol. The first _Time_ magazine with a red X cover was released on May 7, 1945, showing a red X over Adolf Hitler 's face. The second X cover was released more than three months later on August 20, 1945, with a black X (to date, the magazine's only such use of a black X) covering the flag of Japan , representing the recent surrender of Japan and which signaled the end of World War II
World War II
.

Fifty-eight years later, on April 21, 2003, _Time_ released another issue with a red X over Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
's face, two weeks after the invasion. On June 13, 2006, _Time_ magazine printed a red X cover issue following the death of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi in a U.S. airstrike in Iraq
Iraq
. The most recent red X cover issue of _Time_ was published on May 2, 2011, after the death of Osama bin Laden .

_TIME FOR KIDS_

Main article: Time
Time
for Kids

_ Time
Time
for Kids _ is a division magazine of _Time_ that is especially published for children and is mainly distributed in classrooms. _TFK_ contains some national news, a " Cartoon
Cartoon
of the Week", and a variety of articles concerning popular culture . An annual issue concerning the environment is distributed near the end of the U.S. school term. The publication rarely exceeds ten pages front and back.

TIME LIGHTBOX

Time
Time
LightBox is a photography blog created and curated by Time's photo department, that was launched in 2011. In 2011 _Life _ picked LightBox for its Photo Blog Awards.

STAFF

EDITORS

* Briton Hadden (1923–1929) * Henry Luce
Henry Luce
(1929–1949) * T. S. Matthews (1949–1953)

MANAGING EDITORS

MANAGING EDITOR EDITOR FROM EDITOR TO

T. S. Matthews 1943 1949

Roy Alexander 1949 1960

Otto Fuerbringer 1960 1968

Henry Grunwald 1968 1977

Ray Cave 1979 1985

Jason McManus 1985 1987

Henry Muller 1987 1993

James R. Gaines 1993 1995

Walter Isaacson 1996 2001

Jim Kelly 2001 2005

Richard Stengel 2006 2013

Nancy Gibbs 2013 Present

NOTABLE CONTRIBUTORS

* Aravind Adiga , _Time_ correspondent for three years, winner of the 2008 Man Booker Prize
Man Booker Prize
for fiction * James Agee , book and movie editor for _Time_ * Ann Blackman , deputy news chief in Washington * Ian Bremmer , current Editor-at-Large * Margaret Carlson , the first female columnist for _Time_ * Robert Cantwell , writer, editor 1936—1941 * Whittaker Chambers
Whittaker Chambers
, writer, senior editor 1939—1948 * Richard Corliss , film critic for the magazine since 1980 * Brad Darrach , film critic * Nigel Dennis , drama critic * John Gregory Dunne , reporter; later author and screenwriter * Peter Economy , author and editor * Alexander Eliot , art editor from 1945 to 1961, author of 18 books on art, mythology, and history, including _Three Hundred Years of American Painting_, published by Time-Life Books
Time-Life Books
* Dean E. Fischer , reporter and editor, 1964–81 * Nancy Gibbs , essayist and editor-at-large ; has written more than 100 _Time_ cover stories * Lev Grossman , writes primarily about books for the magazine * Deena Guzder , a human rights journalist and author * Jerry Bernard Hannifin, award-winning chief aerospace correspondent for four decades, as well as specialist on Latin America, and licensed pilot * Wilder Hobson , reporter in 1930s and '40s * Robert Hughes , _Time'_s long-tenured art critic * Pico Iyer , essayist and novelist, essayist for _Time_ since 1986 * Alvin M. Josephy, Jr. , photo editor 1952–60; also a historian and Hollywood screenwriter * Weldon Kees , critic * Joe Klein , author (_Primary Colors _) and a _Time_ columnist who wrote the "In the Arena" column * Louis Kronenberger , drama critic 1938–1961 * Andre Laguerre , Paris bureau chief 1948–1956, London bureau chief 1951–1956, also wrote about sports for _Time_; later longtime managing editor of _ Sports Illustrated _ * Nathaniel Lande , author, filmmaker, and former creative director of _Time_ * Will Lang Jr. _1936–1968_, Time
Time
Life International * Marshall Loeb , writer and editor from 1956 through 1980 * John Moody , Vatican and Rome correspondent 1986 through 1996 * Jim Murray , West Coast correspondent 1948–1955 * Lance Morrow , backpage essayist from 1976 through 2000 * Richard Schickel , film critic from 1965 through 2010 * Hugh Sidey , political reporter and columnist, beginning in 1957 * Donald L. Barlett and James B. Steele , investigative reporters who won two National Magazine Awards while at _Time_ * Joel Stein , columnist who wrote the _Joel 100_ just after _Time_ Magazine's Most Influential issue in 2006 * Calvin Trillin
Calvin Trillin
, food writer, was a reporter for _Time_ from 1960 to 1963 * David Von Drehle , current Editor-at-Large * Lasantha Wickrematunge , journalist * Robert Wright , contributing editor * Fareed Zakaria , current Editor-at-Large

SNAPSHOT: 1940 EDITORIAL STAFF

In 1940, William Saroyan lists the full _Time_ editorial department in the play, _Love's Old Sweet Song_.

This 1940 snapshot includes:

* Editor: Henry R. Luce * Managing Editors: Manfred Gottfried, Frank Norris, T.S. Matthews * Associate Editors: Carlton J. Balliett Jr., Robert Cantwell, Laird S. Goldsborough, David W. Hulburd Jr., John Stuart Martin, Fanny Saul, Walter Stockly, Dana Tasker, Charles Weretenbaker * Contributing Editors: Roy Alexander, John F. Allen, Robert W. Boyd Jr., Roger Butterfield, Whittaker Chambers, James G. Crowley, Robert Fitzgerald, Calvin Fixx, Walter Graebner, John Hersey, Sidney L. James, Eliot Janeway, Pearl Kroll, Louis Kronenberger, Thomas K. Krug, John T. McManus, Sherry Mangan, Peter Matthews, Robert Neville, Emeline Nollen, Duncan Norton-Taylor, Sidney Olsen, John Osborne, Content Peckham, Green Peyton, Williston C. Rich Jr., Winthrop Sargeant, Robert Sherrod, Lois Stover, Leon Svirsky, Felice Swados, Samuel G. Welles Jr., Warren Wilhelm, and Alfred Wright Jr. * Editorial Assistants: Ellen May Ach, Sheila Baker, Sonia Bigman, Elizabeth Budelrnan, Maria de Blasio, Hannah Durand, Jean Ford, Dorothy Gorrell, Helen Gwynn, Edith Hind, Lois Holsworth, Diana Jackson, Mary V. Johnson, Alice Lent, Kathrine Lowe, Carolyn Marx, Helen McCreery, Gertrude McCullough, Mary Louise Mickey, Anna North, Mary Palmer, Tabitha Petran, Elizabeth Sacartoff, Frances Stevenson, Helen Vind, Eleanor Welch, and Mary Welles.

SEE ALSO

* _United States portal

* Heroes of the Environment * List of people on the cover of Time_ magazine * " The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power ", 1991 article about Scientology
Scientology
, by Richard Behar , which received the Gerald Loeb Award * Is God Dead? , one of _Time'_s most famous covers

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Consumer Magazines". Alliance for Audited Media . Retrieved October 6, 2016. * ^ " Time
Time
Canada to close". _mastheadonline.com_. December 10, 2008. Retrieved September 6, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ Byers, Dylan (August 7, 2012). " Time
Time
Magazine still on top in circulation". Politico
Politico
. * ^ Time
Time
Inc (30 July 2012). "Richard Stengel". _TIME Media Kit_. Time
Time
Inc. Retrieved 22 August 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Maza, Erik (17 September 2013). " Nancy Gibbs Named Time\'s Managing Editor". WWD. Retrieved 17 September 2013. * ^ "History of TIME". _TIME magazine_. * ^ Brinkley, _The Publisher_, pp 88–89 * ^ "Instant History: Review of First Issue with Cover". Brycezabel.com. 1923-03-03. Retrieved 2014-01-26. * ^ " Time
Time
Inc. Layoffs: Surveying the Wreckage". Gawker. Retrieved December 15, 2007. * ^ "Time\'s foray into personal publishing". April 27, 2009. Retrieved December 15, 2007. * ^ Adams, Russell (2011-05-02). "WSJ.com, Time
Time
Inc. in iPad Deal With Apple". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2014-01-26. * ^ " Time
Time
Inc. Cutting Staff", _Wall Street Journal_, January 30, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013. * ^ " Time
Time
Inc to Shed 500 Jobs", Greenslade Blog, _The Guardian_, January 31, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Haughney, Christine (September 17, 2013). "Time Magazine Names Its First Female Managing Editor". _The New York Times_. * ^ Clifford, Stephanie (February 8, 2010). "Magazines\' Newsstand Sales Fall 9.1 Percent". _The New York Times_. * ^ _ The New Yorker - Google Books_. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-01-26. * ^ "TIME Magazine archives". _Time_. * ^ Lin, Tao (September 21, 2010). "Great American Novelist". _TheStranger.com _. Retrieved May 30, 2011. * ^ MSNBC-TV report by Andrea Mitchell, April 17, 2008, 1:45 pm . * ^ Joe Hagan (4 March 2007). "The Time
Time
of Their Lives". _NYMag.com_. New York Magazine. Retrieved 22 August 2012. * ^ Bruce Nussbaum (25 March 2007). "Does The Redesign of Time Magazine Mean It Has A New Business Model As Well?". _Bloomberg Businessweek_. BLOOMBERG L.P. Retrieved 22 August 2012. * ^ Will, George F. (December 21, 2006). "Full Esteem Ahead". _The Washington Post_. * ^ "The Time
Time
of Their Lives". Retrieved April 22, 2007. * ^ Corliss, Richard ; Schickel, Richard (February 12, 2005). "All-_TIME_ 100 Movies". _Time_. * ^ "Best Soundtracks". _Time_. February 12, 2005.