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(i) (i) (i)

Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE

* Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE

* Demotic 7 c. BCE

* Meroitic 3 c. BCE

* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE

* Ugaritic 15 c. BCE

* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE

* Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

* Phoenician 12 c. BCE

* Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE

* Samaritan 6 c. BCE

* Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE

* Tifinagh

* Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE

* Aramaic 8 c. BCE

* Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE

* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE

* Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)

* E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE

* Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443

* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE

* Canadian syllabics 1840

* Hebrew 3 c. BCE

* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE

* Avestan 4 c. CE

* Palmyrene 2 c. BCE

* Syriac 2 c. BCE

* Nabataean 2 c. BCE

* Arabic 4 c. CE

* N\'Ko 1949 CE

* Sogdian 2 c. BCE

* Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE

* Old Hungarian c. 650 CE

* Old Uyghur

* Mongolian 1204 CE

* Mandaic 2 c. CE

* Greek 8 c. BCE

* Etruscan 8 c. BCE

* Latin 7 c. BCE

* Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

* Runic 2 c. CE * Ogham
Ogham
(origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

* Coptic 3 c. CE * Gothic 3 c. CE * Armenian 405 CE * Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE * Glagolitic 862 CE

* Cyrillic c. 940 CE

* Old Permic 1372 CE

Thaana 18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals
Brahmi numerals
)

* v * t * e

BRAHMIC SCRIPTS

The Brahmic script and its descendants

Northern Brahmic

* Gupta script

* Bhaiksuki alphabet * Tocharian alphabet * Khotanese

* Śāradā script

* Laṇḍā scripts

* Gurmukhī alphabet * Khojki * Khudabadi script * Multani alphabet * Mahajani

* Devāśeṣa

* Takri alphabet * Dogra

* Siddhaṃ script

* Tibetan alphabet
Tibetan alphabet

* \ 'Phags-pa script * Pungs-chen * Pungs-chung * Marchen * Marchung * Horizontal square script * Soyombo alphabet

* Lepcha alphabet

* Limbu alphabet

* Nāgarī script

* Devanagari
Devanagari

* Gujarati alphabet * Modi alphabet

* Nandinagari

* Kaithi
Kaithi

* Sylheti Nagari

* Kalinga alphabet

* Odia alphabet

* Gaudi

* Assamese-Bengali * Tirhuta * Bhujinmol * Newar * Ranjana alphabet

* Meithei script

Southern Brahmic

* Tamil-Brahmi

* Vatteluttu alphabet

* Kolezhuthu

* Tamil script

* Grantha alphabet

* Malayalam script
Malayalam script
* Tigalari alphabet * Sinhala alphabet

* Dhives Akuru
Dhives Akuru

* Thaana

* Saurashtra alphabet

* Khmer alphabet

* Lao alphabet * Thai alphabet

* Cham alphabet * Ahom alphabet

* Kawi script

* Balinese alphabet * Javanese script * Baybayin * Batak alphabet * Buhid alphabet * Hanunó\'o alphabet * Tagbanwa alphabet * Sundanese alphabet * Lontara alphabet * Makasar * Rejang alphabet * Mon alphabet * Burmese alphabet * Chakma alphabet

* Tai Tham alphabet

* New Tai Lue alphabet

* Tai Le alphabet * Tai Viet alphabet

* Bhattiprolu alphabet

* Kadamba alphabet

* Kannada alphabet * Telugu script

* v * t * e

The TIBETAN ALPHABET is an abugida used to write the Tibetic languages such as Tibetan , as well as Dzongkha , Sikkimese , Ladakhi , and sometimes Balti . The printed form of the alphabet is called uchen script while the hand-written cursive form used in everyday writing is called umê script .

The alphabet is very closely linked to a broad ethnic Tibetan identity, spanning across areas in Tibet
Tibet
, Bhutan
Bhutan
, India
India
, Nepal
Nepal
. The Tibetan alphabet
Tibetan alphabet
is of Indic origin and it is ancestral to the Limbu alphabet , the Lepcha alphabet , and the multilingual \ 'Phags-pa script .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Description

* 2.1 Basic alphabet

* 2.2 Consonant clusters

* 2.2.1 Head letters * 2.2.2 Sub-joined letters

* 2.3 Vowel marks and numerals * 2.4 Modifiers

* 3 Extended use

* 3.1 Extended alphabet * 3.2 Extended vowel marks and modifiers

* 4 Romanization and transliteration

* 5 Input method and keyboard layout

* 5.1 Tibetan * 5.2 Dzongkha

* 6 Unicode
Unicode
* 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links

HISTORY

The creation of the Tibetan alphabet
Tibetan alphabet
is attributed to Thonmi Sambhota of the mid-7th century. Tradition holds that Thonmi Sambhota, a minister of Songtsen Gampo (569-649), was sent to India
India
to study the art of writing, and upon his return introduced the alphabet. The form of the letters is based on an Indic alphabet of that period.

Three orthographic standardizations were developed. The most important, an official orthography aimed to facilitate the translation of Buddhist scriptures , emerged during the early 9th century. Standard orthography has not altered since then, while the spoken language has changed by, for example, losing complex consonant clusters . As a result, in all modern Tibetan dialects, in particular in the Standard Tibetan of Lhasa , there is a great divergence between current spelling (which still reflects the 9th-century spoken Tibetan) and current pronunciation. This divergence is the basis of an argument in favour of spelling reform , to write Tibetan as it is pronounced, for example, writing Kagyu instead of Bka'-rgyud. In contrast, the pronunciation of the Balti , Ladakhi and Burig languages adheres more closely to the archaic spelling.

DESCRIPTION

BASIC ALPHABET

In the Tibetan script, the syllables are written from left to right. Syllables are separated by a tsek; since many Tibetan words are monosyllabic, this mark often functions almost as a space. Spaces are not used to divide words.

The Tibetan alphabet
Tibetan alphabet
has thirty basic letters, sometimes known as "radicals", for consonants. As in other Indic scripts , each consonant letter assumes an inherent vowel ; in the Tibetan script it is ཨ /a/. The alphabet ཨ /a/ is also the base for dependent vowels marks.

Although some Tibetan dialects are tonal , the language had no tone at the time of the script's invention, and there are no dedicated symbols for tone. However, since tones developed from segmental features they can usually be correctly predicted by the archaic spelling of Tibetan words.

Unaspirated high Aspirated medium Voiced low Nasal low

ALPHABET IPA ALPHABET IPA ALPHABET IPA ALPHABET IPA

GUTTURAL ཀ /ka/ ཁ /kʰa/ ག /ga/ ང /ŋa/

PALATAL ཅ /tʃa/ ཆ /tʃʰa/ ཇ /dʒa/ ཉ /ɲa/

DENTAL ཏ /ta/ ཐ /tʰa/ ད /da/ ན /na/

LABIAL པ /pa/ ཕ /pʰa/ བ /ba/ མ /ma/

DENTAL ཙ /tsa/ ཚ /tsʰa/ ཛ /dza/ ཝ /wa/

LOW ཞ /ʒa/ ཟ /za/ འ /'a/ ཡ /ja/

MEDIUM ར /ra/ ལ /la/ ཤ /ʃa/ ས /sa/

HIGH ཧ /ha/ ཨ /a/

CONSONANT CLUSTERS

The unique aspect of the Tibetan script is that the consonants can be written either as radicals, or they can be written in other forms, such as subscript and superscript forming consonant clusters .

To understand how this works, one can look at the radical ཀ /ka/ and see what happens when it becomes ཀྲ /kra/ or རྐ /rka/. In both cases, the symbol for ཀ /ka/ is used, but when the ར /ra/ is in the middle of the consonant and vowel, it is added as a subscript. On the other hand, when the ར /ra/ comes before the consonant and vowel, it is added as a superscript. ར /ra/ actually changes form when it is above most other consonants; thus རྐ rka. However, an exception to this is the cluster རྙ /rnya/. Similarly, the consonants ཝ /wa/, ར /ra/, and ཡ /ja/ change form when they are beneath other consonants; thus ཀྭ /kwa/; ཀྲ /kra/; ཀྱ /kja/.

Besides being written as subscripts and superscripts, some consonants can also be placed in prescript, postscript, or post-postscript positions. For instance, the consonants ག /kʰa/, ད /tʰa/, བ /pʰa/, མ /ma/ and འ /a/ can be used in the prescript position to the left of other radicals, while the position after a radical (the postscript position), can be held by the ten consonants ག /kʰa/, ན /na/, བ /pʰa/, ད /tʰa/, མ /ma/, འ /a/, ར /ra/, ང /ŋa/, ས /sa/, and ལ /la/. The third position, the post-postscript position is solely for the consonants ད /tʰa/ and ས /sa/.

Head Letters

The superscript position above a radical is reserved for the consonants ར /ra/, ལ /la/, and ས /sa/.

* When ར /ra/, ལ /la/, and ས /sa/ are in superscript position with ཀ /ka/, ཅ /tʃa/, ཏ /ta/, པ /pa/ and ཙ /tsa/, there are no changes in the sound, they look and sound like:

* རྐ /ka/, རྕ /tʃa/, རྟ /ta/, རྤ /pa/, རྩ /tsa/ * ལྐ /ka/, ལྕ /tʃa/, ལྟ /ta/, ལྤ /pa/, ལྩ /tsa/ * སྐ /ka/, སྕ /tʃa/, སྟ /ta/, སྤ /pa/, སྩ /tsa/

* When ར /ra/, ལ /la/, and ས /sa/ are in superscript position with ག /kʰa/, ཇ /tʃʰa/, ད /tʰa/, བ /pʰa/ and ཛ /tsʰa/, they loose their aspiration and sounds change. They look and sound like:

* རྒ /ga/, རྗ /d͡ʒa/, རྡ /da/, རྦ /ba/, རྫ /dza/ * ལྒ /ga/, ལྗ /d͡ʒa/, ལྡ /da/, ལྦ /ba/, ལྫ /dza/ * སྒ /ga/, སྗ /d͡ʒa/, སྡ /da/, སྦ /ba/, སྫ /dza/

* When ར /ra/, ལ /la/, and ས /sa/ are in superscript position with ང /ŋa/, ཉ /ɲa/, ན /na/ and མ /ma/, the nasal sound gets high. They look and sound like:

* རྔ /ŋa/, རྙ /ɲa/, རྣ /na/, རྨ /ma/ * ལྔ /ŋa/, ལྙ /ɲa/, ལྣ /na/, ལྨ /ma/ * སྔ /ŋa/, སྙ /ɲa/, སྣ /na/, སྨ /ma/

Sub-joined Letters

The subscript position under a radical is for the consonants ཡ /ja/, ར /ra/, ལ /la/, and ཝ /wa/.

VOWEL MARKS AND NUMERALS

The vowels used in the alphabet are ཨ /a/, ཨི /i/, ཨུ /u/, ཨེ /e/, and ཨོ /o/. While the vowel /a/ is included in each consonant or radical, the other vowels are indicated by marks; thus ཀ /ka/, ཀི /ki/, ཀུ /ku/, ཀེ /ke/, ཀོ /ko/. The vowels ཨི /i/, ཨེ /e/, and ཨོ /o/ are placed above consonants as diacritics, while the vowel ཨུ /u/ is placed underneath consonants. Old Tibetan included a reversed form of the mark for /i/, the gigu 'verso', of uncertain meaning. There is no distinction between long and short vowels in written Tibetan, except in loanwords , especially transcribed from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
.

VOWEL MARK IPA VOWEL MARK IPA VOWEL MARK IPA VOWEL MARK IPA

ི /i/ ུ /u/ ེ /e/ ོ /o/

TIBETAN NUMERALS ༠ ༡ ༢ ༣ ༤ ༥ ༦ ༧ ༨ ༩

ARABIC NUMERALS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

MODIFIERS

Symbol/ Graphemes NAME FUNCTION

༄ ཡིག་མགོ་ yig mgo marks beginning of text

sbrul shad separates sections of meaning equivalent to topics and sub-topics

bskur yig mgo list enumerator ( Dzongkha )

tsek morpheme delimiter

tshig-grub full stop (marks end of a section of text)

don-tshan full stop (marks end of a whole topic)

bsdus rtags repetition

gug rtags g.yon left bracket

gug rtags g.yas right bracket

ang khang gyon left bracket used for bracketing with a roof over

ang khang gyas right bracket used for bracketing with a roof over

EXTENDED USE

The Tibetan alphabet, when used to write other languages such as Balti and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, often has additional and/or modified graphemes taken from the basic Tibetan alphabet
Tibetan alphabet
to represent different sounds.

EXTENDED ALPHABET

ALPHABET USED IN ROMANIZATION font-size:1.25em; vertical-align:top; word-wrap: break-word;">ཫ Balti kka /qa/

ཬ Balti rra /ɽa/

གྷ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
gha /ɡʱ/

ཛྷ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
jha /ɟʱ, d͡ʒʱ/

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ṭa /ʈ/

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ṭha /ʈʰ/

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ḍa /ɖ/

ཌྷ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ḍha /ɖʱ/

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ṇa /ɳ/

དྷ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
dha /d̪ʱ/

བྷ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
bha /bʱ/

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ṣa /ʂ/

ཀྵ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
kṣa /kʂ/

* In Balti , consonants ka, ra are represented by reversing the letters ཀ ར (ka, ra) to give ཫ ཬ (ka, ra). * In Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, "cerebral consonants " ṭa, ṭha, ḍa, ṇa, ṣa are represented by reversing the letters ཏ ཐ ད ན ཤ (ta, tha, da, na, sha) to give ཊ ཋ ཌ ཎ ཥ (Ta, Tha, Da, Na, Sa). * In Sanskrit, It is a classic rule to transliterate ca, cha, ja, jha, to ཙ ཚ ཛ ཛྷ (tsa, tsha, dza, dzha), respectively. Nowadays, ཅ ཆ ཇ ཇྷ (ca, cha, ja, jha) can also be used.

EXTENDED VOWEL MARKS AND MODIFIERS

VOWEL MARK USED IN ROMANIZATION font-size:1.25em; vertical-align:top; word-wrap: break-word;">ཱ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ā /ā/

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ī /ī/

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ū /ū/

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ai /ai/

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
au /au/

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ṛ /ṛi/

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ṝ /ṛī/

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ḷ /ḷi/

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ḹ /ḷī/

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
aṃ /ṃ/

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
aṃ /ṃ/

ཿ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
aḥ /ḥ/

Symbol/ Graphemes NAME USED IN FUNCTION

྄ srog med Sanskrit
Sanskrit
suppresses the inherent vowel sound

྅ paluta Sanskrit
Sanskrit
used for prolonging vowel sounds

ROMANIZATION AND TRANSLITERATION

Romanization and transliteration of the Tibetan script is the representation of the Tibetan script in the Latin script
Latin script
. There are various ways of Romanization and transliteration systems created in recent years, but failed to represent the true phonetic sound. While the Wylie transliteration system is widely used to romanize Standard Tibetan , others include the Library of Congress system and the IPA-based transliteration (Jacques 2012).

Below is a table with Tibetan alphabets and different Romanization and transliteration system for each alphabet, listed below systems are: Wylie transliteration (W), Tibetan pinyin (TP), Dzongkha phonetic (DP), ALA-LC Romanization (A) and THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription (THL).

ALPHABET W TP DP A THL ALPHABET W TP DP A THL ALPHABET W TP DP A THL ALPHABET W TP DP A THL

ཀ ka g ka ka ka ཁ kha k kha kha kha ག ga k kha ga ga ང nga ng nga nga nga

ཅ ca j ca ca cha ཆ cha q cha cha cha ཇ ja q cha ja ja ཉ nya ny nya nya nya

ཏ ta d ta ta ta ཐ tha t tha tha ta ད da t tha da da ན na n na na na

པ pa b pa pa pa ཕ pha p pha pha pa བ ba p pha ba ba མ ma m ma ma ma

ཙ tsa z tsa tsa tsa ཚ tsha c tsha tsha tsa ཛ dza c tsha dza dza ཝ wa w wa wa wa

ཞ zha x sha zha zha ཟ za s sa za za འ 'a - a 'a a ཡ ya y ya ya ya

ར ra r ra ra ra ལ la l la la la ཤ sha x sha sha sha ས sa s sa sa sa

ཧ ha h ha ha ha ཨ a a a a a

INPUT METHOD AND KEYBOARD LAYOUT

TIBETAN

Tibetan keyboard layout

The first version of Microsoft Windows to support the Tibetan keyboard layout is MS Windows Vista
Windows Vista
. The layout has been available in Linux since September 2007. In Ubuntu 12.04, one can install Tibetan language support through Dash / Language Support / Install/Remove Languages, the input method can be turned on from Dash / Keyboard Layout, adding Tibetan keyboard layout. The layout applies the similar layout as in Microsoft Windows.

Mac OS-X introduced Tibetan Unicode
Unicode
support with OS-X version 10.5 and later, now with three different keyboard layouts available: Tibetan-Wylie, Tibetan QWERTY and Tibetan-Otani.

DZONGKHA

Dzongkha keyboard layout Main article: Dzongkha keyboard layout

The Dzongkha keyboard layout scheme is designed as a simple means for inputting Dzongkha text on computers. This keyboard layout was standardized by the Dzongkha Development Commission (DDC) and the Department of Information Technology (DIT) of the Royal Government of Bhutan
Bhutan
in 2000.

It was updated in 2009 to accommodate additional characters added to the Unicode
Unicode
font-size:small">TIBETAN Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+0F0x ༀ ༁ ༂ ༃ ༄ ༅ ༆ ༇ ༈ ༉ ༊ ་ ༌ NB ། ༎ ༏

U+0F1x ༐ ༑ ༒ ༓ ༔ ༕ ༖ ༗ ༘ ༙ ༚ ༛ ༜ ༝ ༞ ༟

U+0F2x ༠ ༡ ༢ ༣ ༤ ༥ ༦ ༧ ༨ ༩ ༪ ༫ ༬ ༭ ༮ ༯

U+0F3x ༰ ༱ ༲ ༳ ༴ ༵ ༶ ༷ ༸ ༹ ༺ ༻ ༼ ༽ ༾ ༿

U+0F4x ཀ ཁ ག གྷ ང ཅ ཆ ཇ

ཉ ཊ ཋ ཌ ཌྷ ཎ ཏ

U+0F5x ཐ ད དྷ ན པ ཕ བ བྷ མ ཙ ཚ ཛ ཛྷ ཝ ཞ ཟ

U+0F6x འ ཡ ར ལ ཤ ཥ ས ཧ ཨ ཀྵ ཪ ཫ ཬ

U+0F7x

ཱ ི ཱི ུ ཱུ ྲྀ ཷ ླྀ ཹ ེ ཻ ོ ཽ ཾ ཿ

U+0F8x ྀ ཱྀ ྂ ྃ ྄ ྅ ྆ ྇ ྈ ྉ ྊ ྋ ྌ ྍ ྎ ྏ

U+0F9x ྐ ྑ ྒ ྒྷ ྔ ྕ ྖ ྗ

ྙ ྚ ྛ ྜ ྜྷ ྞ ྟ

U+0FAx ྠ ྡ ྡྷ ྣ ྤ ྥ ྦ ྦྷ ྨ ྩ ྪ ྫ ྫྷ ྭ ྮ ྯ

U+0FBx ྰ ྱ ྲ ླ ྴ ྵ ྶ ྷ ྸ ྐྵ ྺ ྻ ྼ

྾ ྿

U+0FCx ࿀ ࿁ ࿂ ࿃ ࿄ ࿅ ࿆ ࿇ ࿈ ࿉ ࿊ ࿋ ࿌

࿎ ࿏

U+0FDx ࿐ ࿑ ࿒ ࿓ ࿔ ࿕ ࿖ ࿗ ࿘ ࿙ ࿚

U+0FEx

U+0FFx

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points 3.^ Unicode
Unicode
code points U+0F77 and U+0F79 are deprecated in Unicode
Unicode
5.2 and later

SEE ALSO

* Tibetan calligraphy * Tibetan Braille * Dzongkha Braille
Braille
* Tibetan typefaces * Wylie transliteration * Tibetan pinyin * THDL Simplified Phonetic Transcription * Tise - input method for Tibetan script * Limbu script

NOTES

* ^ Chamberlain 2008 * ^ A B C D E F Daniels, Peter T. and William Bright. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. * ^ Which specific Indic script inspired the Tibetan alphabet remains controversial. Recent study suggests Tibetan script was based on an adaption from Khotan of the Indian Brahmi and Gupta scripts taught to Thonmi Sambhota in Kashmir (Berzin, Alexander. A Survey of Tibetan History - Reading Notes Taken by Alexander Berzin from Tsepon, W. D. Shakabpa, Tibet: A Political History. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1967: http://studybuddhism.com/web/en/archives/e-books/unpublished_manuscripts/survey_tibetan_history/chapter_1.html). * ^ See for instance * ^

* Asher, R. E. ed. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Tarrytown, NY: Pergamon Press, 1994. 10 vol. * Beyer, Stephan V. (1993). The Classical Tibetan Language. Reprinted by Delhi: Sri Satguru. * Chamberlain, Bradford Lynn. 2008. Script Selection for Tibetan-related Languages in Multiscriptal Environments. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 192:117–132. * Csoma de Kőrös, Alexander. (1983). A Grammar of the Tibetan Language. Reprinted by Delhi: Sri Satguru. * Csoma de Kőrös, Alexander (1980–1982). Sanskrit-Tibetan-English Vocabulary. 2 vols. Reprinted by Delhi: Sri Satguru. * Daniels, Peter T. and William Bright. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. * Das, Sarat Chandra: "The Sacred and Ornamental Characters of Tibet". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. 57 (1888), pp. 41–48 and 9 plates. * Das, Sarat Chandra. (1996). An Introduction to the Grammar of the Tibetan Language. Reprinted by Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. * Jacques, Guillaume 2012. A new transcription system for Old and Classical Tibetan, Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, 35.3:89-96. * Jäschke, Heinrich August. (1989). Tibetan Grammar. Corrected by Sunil Gupta. Reprinted by Delhi: Sri Satguru.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Tibetan Calligraphy—how to write the Tibetan script. * Elements of the Tibetan writing system. * Unicode
Unicode
area U0F00-U0FFF, Tibetan script (162KB) * Encoding Model of the Tibetan Script in the UCS * Digital Tibetan * Tibetan Scripts, Fonts free cross-platform OpenType fonts— Unicode
Unicode
compatible. * Free Tibetan Fonts Project * Ancient Scripts: Tibetan

* v * t * e

Tibetan language topics

* Tibetic languages * Old Tibetan * Classical Tibetan * Standard Tibetan * Grammar

* Script: Umê (Zhuza, Bêcug), Uchen (Chuyik/Khyungyik), Bamyik * Braille
Braille
* Regional (Joyig, Monyig and Lhoyig )

* Transcription: Wylie , Tibetan pinyin , THL Transcription

* v * t * e

Types of writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing * Grapheme

LISTS

* Writing systems

* undeciphered * inventors * constructed

* Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

TYPES

ABJADS

* Numerals

* Aramaic

* Hatran

* Arabic * Pitman shorthand

* Hebrew

* Ashuri * Cursive * Rashi * Solitreo

* Tifinagh * Manichaean * Nabataean * Old North Arabian * Pahlavi * Pegon

* Phoenician

*

.