Tiberias (/taɪˈbɪəriəs/; Hebrew: טְבֶרְיָה, Tverya,
(audio) (help·info); Arabic: طبرية, Ṭabariyyah)
is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
Established around 20 CE, it was named in honour of the second emperor
of the Roman Empire, Tiberius. In 2016 it had a population of
Tiberias was held in great respect in
Judaism from the middle of the
2nd century CE and since the 16th century has been considered one
of Judaism's Four Holy Cities, along with Jerusalem,
Safed. In the 2nd–10th centuries,
Tiberias was the largest Jewish
city in the
Galilee and the political and religious hub of the
Israel. Its immediate neighbour to the south, Hammat Tiberias, which
is now part of modern Tiberias, has been known for its hot springs,
believed to cure skin and other ailments, for some two thousand
1.1 Jewish biblical tradition
1.2 Herodian period
1.3 Roman period
1.4 Byzantine period
1.5 Early Muslim period
1.6 Crusader period
1.7 Mamluk period
1.8 Ottoman period
1.8.1 Dr. Torrance's hospital
1.9 British Mandate
2.1 Demographic history
3.1 Urban renewal and preservation
4 Geography and Climate
6 Twin towns — sister cities
7 Notable residents
8 See also
11 External links
"Leaning tower" at SE corner of Zahir al-Umar's walls, part of Greek
Orthodox Monastery of the Twelve Apostles
Diocese of Tiberias
Diocese of Tiberias for ecclesiastical history
Jewish biblical tradition
Jewish tradition holds that
Tiberias was built on the site of the
ancient Israelite village of
Rakkath or Rakkat, first mentioned in the
Book of Joshua. In Talmudic times, the
Jews still referred to it
by this name.
Tiberias was founded sometime around 20 CE in the Herodian Tetrarchy
Peraea by the Roman client king Herod Antipas, son of
Herod the Great.
Herod Antipas made it the capital of his realm in the
Galilee and named it for the
Roman Emperor Tiberius. The city was
built in immediate proximity to a spa which had developed around 17
natural mineral hot springs, Hammat Tiberias.
Tiberias was at first a
strictly pagan city, but later became populated mainly by Jews, with
its growing spiritual and religious status exerting a strong influence
on balneological practices.[dubious – discuss] Conversely, in The
Antiquities of the Jews, the Roman-Jewish historian
Josephus calls the
village with hot springs Emmaus, today's Hammat Tiberias, located near
Tiberias. This name also appears in The Wars of the Jews.
In the days of Herod Antipas, some of the most religiously orthodox
Jews, who were struggling against the process of Hellenization, which
had affected even some priestly groups, refused to settle there: the
presence of a cemetery rendered the site ritually unclean for the Jews
and particularly for the priestly caste. Antipas settled many non-Jews
there from rural
Galilee and other parts of his domains in order to
populate his new capital, and built a palace on the
acropolis.[dubious – discuss] The prestige of
Tiberias was so
great that the
Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee soon came to be named the Sea of
Tiberias; however, the Jewish population continued to call it 'Yam
Ha-Kineret', its traditional name. The city was governed by a city
council of 600 with a committee of 10 until
44 CE when a Roman
procurator was set over the city after the death of Herod Agrippa
Tiberias is mentioned in John 6:23 as the location from which boats
had sailed to the eastern side of the Sea of Galilee. The crowd
Jesus after the miraculous feeding of the 5000 used these
boats to travel back to
Capernaum on the north-western part of the
Under the Roman Empire, the city was known by its Greek name
Modern Greek Τιβεριάδα
Tiveriáda), an adaptation of the taw-suffixed Semitic form that
preserved its feminine grammatical gender. In 61 CE Herod Agrippa II
annexed the city to his kingdom whose capital was Caesarea
Philippi. During the First Jewish–Roman War, the seditious took
control of the city and destroyed Herod's palace, and were able to
prevent the city from being pillaged by the army of Agrippa II, the
Jewish ruler who had remained loyal to Rome. Eventually, the
seditious were expelled from Tiberias, and while most other cities in
the provinces of Judaea,
Galilee and Idumea were razed,
spared this fate because its inhabitants had decided not to fight
against Rome. It became a mixed city after the fall of
Jerusalem in 70 CE; with Judea subdued, the surviving southern Jewish
population migrated to the Galilee.
The Roman-Byzantine southern city gate
Remains of Crusader fortress gate with ancient lintel in secondary use
There is no direct indication that Tiberias, as well as the rest of
Galilee, took part in the
Bar Kokhba revolt
Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136 CE, thus
allowing it to exist, despite a heavy economic decline due to the war.
Following the expulsion of
Jews from Judea after 135 CE,
Hebrew name: Tzippori) became the major Jewish
cultural centres, competing within the Jewish world for status and
recognition with Babylon, Alexandria,
Aleppo and the Persian
In 145 CE,
Rabbi Simeon bar Yochai, who was very familiar with the
Galilee, hiding there for over a decade, "cleansed the city of ritual
impurity", allowing the Jewish leadership to resettle there from
the Judea Province, where they were fugitives. The Sanhedrin, the
Jewish court, also fled from
Jerusalem during the Great Jewish Revolt
against Rome, and after several attempted moves, in search of
stability, eventually settled in
Tiberias in about 150 CE. It
was to be its final meeting place before its disbanding in the early
Byzantine period. When
Johanan bar Nappaha
Johanan bar Nappaha (d. 279) settled in
Tiberias, the city became the focus of Jewish religious scholarship in
the land. The Mishnah, the collected theological discussions of
generations of rabbis in the Land of
Israel – primarily in the
Caesarea – was probably compiled in
Judah haNasi around 200 CE.[dubious – discuss] The
Talmud would follow being compiled by
Rabbi Jochanan between
230–270 CE. Tiberias' 13 synagogues served the spiritual needs
of a growing Jewish population.
In the 6th century
Tiberias was still the seat of Jewish religious
learning. In light of this, a letter of Syriac bishop Simeon of Beth
Arsham urged the Christians of Palaestina to seize the leaders of
Judaism in Tiberias, to put them to the rack, and to compel them to
command the Jewish king, Dhu Nuwas, to desist from persecuting the
Christians in Najran.
Tiberias was the site where, during the final Jewish revolt
against the Byzantine Empire, parts of the Jewish population supported
the Persian invaders; the Jewish rebels were financed by Benjamin of
Tiberias, a man of immense wealth; according to Christian sources,
during the revolt Christians were massacred and churches destroyed. In
628, the Byzantine army returned to
Tiberias upon the surrender of
Jewish rebels and the end of the Persian occupation after they were
defeated in the battle of Nineveh. A year later, influenced by radical
Christian monks, Emperor
Heraclius instigated a wide-scale slaughter
of the Jews, which practically emptied
Galilee of most its Jewish
population, with survivors fleeing to Egypt.
Early Muslim period
Tiberias, or Tabariyyah in Arab transcription, was "conquered by (the
Arab commander) Shurahbil in the year 634/15 [CE/AH] by capitulation;
one half of the houses and churches were to belong to the Muslims, the
other half to the Christians." Since 636 CE,
Tiberias served as
the regional capital, until
Beit She'an took its place, following the
Rashidun conquest. The Caliphate allowed 70 Jewish families from
Tiberias to form the core of a renewed Jewish presence in Jerusalem
and the importance of
Tiberias to Jewish life declined. The
caliphs of the Umayyad Dynasty built one of its square-plan palaces on
the waterfront to the north of Tiberias, at Khirbat al-Minya. Tiberias
was revitalised in 749, after Bet Shean was destroyed in an
earthquake. An imposing mosque, 90 metres (300 feet) long by 78
metres (256 feet) wide, resembling the Great
Mosque of Damascus, was
raised at the foot of Mount Berenice next to a Byzantine church, to
the south of the city, as the eighth century ushered in Tiberias's
golden age, when the multicultural city may have been the most
tolerant of the Middle East. Jewish scholarship flourished from
the beginning of the 8th century to the end of the 10th., when the
oral traditions of ancient Hebrew, still in use today, were codified.
One of the leading members of the Tiberian masoretic community was
Aaron ben Moses ben Asher, who refined the oral tradition now known as
Tiberian Hebrew. Ben Asher is also credited with putting the finishing
touches on the
Aleppo Codex, the most accurate existing manuscript of
Remains of Roman theatre
Tiberias synagogue floor
The Arab geographer al-Muqaddasi writing in 985, describes
a hedonistic city afflicted by heat:-'For two months they dance; for
two months they gobble; for two months they swat; for two months they
go about naked; for two months they play the reed flute; and for two
months they wallow in the mud. As "the capital of Jordan Province,
and a city in the Valley of Canaan...The town is narrow, hot in summer
and unhealthy...There are here eight natural hot baths, where no fuel
need be used, and numberless basins besides of boiling water. The
mosque is large and fine, and stands in the market-place. Its floor is
laid in pebbles, set on stone drums, placed close one to another."
According to Muqaddasi, those who suffered from scab or ulcers, and
other such diseases came to
Tiberias to bathe in the hot springs for
three days. "Afterwards they dip in another spring which is cold,
whereupon...they become cured."
Tiberias was again destroyed by an earthquake. A further
earthquake in 1066 toppled the great mosque. Nasir-i Khusrou
Tiberias in 1047, and describes a city with a "strong wall"
which begins at the border of the lake and goes all around the town
except on the water-side. Furthermore, he describes
numberless buildings erected in the very water, for the bed of the
lake in this part is rock; and they have built pleasure houses that
are supported on columns of marble, rising up out of the water. The
lake is very full of fish.  The Friday
Mosque is in the midst of the
town. At the gate of the mosque is a spring, over which they have
built a hot bath.  On the western side of the town is a mosque known
Mosque (Masjid-i-Yasmin). It is a fine building and in
the middle part rises a great platform (dukkan), where they have their
mihrabs (or prayer-niches). All round those they have set
jasmine-shrubs, from which the mosque derives its name.
Scots Hotel in the restored former hospital of Dr. Torrance
Tiberias was occupied by the
after the capture of Jerusalem. The city was given in fief to Tancred,
who made it his capital of the Principality of
Galilee in the Kingdom
of Jerusalem; the region was sometimes called the Principality of
Tiberias, or the Tiberiad. In 1099 the original site of the city
was abandoned, and settlement shifted north to the present
location. St. Peter's Church, originally built by the Crusaders,
is still standing today, although the building has been altered and
reconstructed over the years.
At the beginning of the 12th century the Jewish community of Tiberias
numbered about 50 families; and at that time the best manuscripts of
Torah were said to be found there. In the 12th-century, the
city was the subject of negative undertones in Islamic tradition. A
hadith recorded by Ibn Asakir of
Damascus (d. 1176) names
one of the "four cities of hell." This could have been reflecting
the fact that at the time, the town had a notable non-Muslim
Saladin ordered his son al-Afdal to send an envoy to Count
Raymond of Tripoli requesting safe passage through his fiefdom of
Galilee and Tiberias. Raymond was obliged to grant the request under
the terms of his treaty with Saladin. Saladin's force left Caesarea
Philippi to engage the fighting force of the Knights Templar. The
Templar force was destroyed in the encounter.
Saladin then besieged
Tiberias; after six days the town fell. On July 4, 1187 Saladin
Crusaders coming to relieve
Tiberias at the Battle of
Hattin, 10 kilometres (6 miles) outside the city. However, during
the Third Crusade, the
Crusaders drove the Muslims out of the city and
Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, (Maimonides) also known as Rambam, a leading
Jewish legal scholar, philosopher and physician of his period, died in
Egypt and was later buried in Tiberias. His tomb is one of the
city's important pilgrimage sites. Yakut, writing in the 1220s,
Tiberias as a small town, long and narrow. He also describes
the "hot salt springs, over which they have built Hammams which use no
The tomb of Maimonides
In 1265 the
Crusaders were driven from the city by the Egyptian
Mamluks, who ruled
Tiberias until the Ottoman conquest in 1516.
Inquisition and the Jews: the
Doña Gracia museum.
Ottoman Empire expanded along the southern Mediterranean coast
under Great Sultan Selim I, the Reyes Católicos (Catholic Monarchs)
Inquisition commissions. Many Conversos, (Marranos
and Moriscos) and
Jews fled in fear to the Ottoman provinces,
settling at first in Constantinople, Salonika, Sarajevo,
Anatolia. The Sultan encouraged them to settle in
Palestine. In 1558, a Portuguese-born marrano, Doña
Gracia, was granted tax collecting rights in
Tiberias and its
surrounding villages by Suleiman the Magnificent. She envisaged the
town becoming a refuge for
Jews and obtained a permit to establish
Jewish autonomy there. In 1561 her nephew Joseph Nasi, Lord of
Jews to settle in Tiberias. Securing a
firman from the Sultan, he and Joseph ben Adruth rebuilt the city
walls and lay the groundwork for a textile (silk) industry, planting
mulberry trees and urging craftsmen to move there. Plans were made
Jews to move from the Papal States, but when the Ottomans and the
Republic of Venice went to war, the plan was abandoned.
In 1624, when the Sultan recognized
Fakhr-al-Din II as Lord of
Aleppo to the borders of Egypt), the
Tiberias his capital. The
1660 destruction of Tiberias by the
Druze resulted in abandonment of the city by its Jewish
community, Unlike Tiberias, the nearby city of
from its destruction, and wasn't entirely abandoned, remaining
an important Jewish center in the Galilee.
In the 1720s, the Arab ruler Zahir al-Umar, of the Zaydani clan,
fortified the town and signed an agreement with the neighboring
Bedouin tribes to prevent looting. Accounts from that time tell of the
great admiration people had for Zahir, especially his war against
bandits on the roads. Richard Pococke, who visited
Tiberias in 1727,
witnessed the building of a fort to the north of the city, and the
strengthening of the old walls, attributing it to a dispute with the
Pasha of Damascus. Under instructions from the Ottoman Porte,
Sulayman Pasha al-Azm of
Damascus laid siege to
Tiberias in 1742, with
the intention of eliminating Zahir, but his siege was unsuccessful. In
the following year, Sulayman set out to repeat the attempt with even
greater reinforcements, but he died en route.
Under Zahir's patronage, Jewish families were encouraged to settle in
Tiberias. He invited
Chaim Abulafia of
Smyrna to rebuild the
Jewish community. The synagogue he built still stands today,
located in the Court of the Jews.
In 1775, Ahmed el-Jazzar "the Butcher" brought peace to the region
with an iron fist. In 1780, many Polish
Jews settled in the
town. During the 18th and 19th centuries it received an influx of
rabbis who re-established it as a center for Jewish learning.
Around 600 people, including nearly 500 Jews, died when the town
was devastated by the 1837
Rabbi Haim Shmuel
Hacohen Konorti, born in
Spain in 1792, settled in
Tiberias at the age
of 45 and was a driving force in the restoration of the city.
However, an American expedition reported that
Tiberias was still in a
state of disrepair in 1847/1848.
Dr. Torrance's hospital
In 1885, a Scottish doctor and minister, David Watt Torrance, opened a
mission hospital in
Tiberias that accepted patients of all races and
religions. In 1894, it moved to larger premises at Beit abu
Shamnel abu Hannah. In 1923 his son, Dr. Herbert Watt Torrance, was
appointed head of the hospital. After the establishment of the State
of Israel, it became a maternity hospital supervised by the Israeli
Department of Health. After its closure in 1959, the building became a
guesthouse until 1999, when it was renovated and reopened as the Scots
Initially the relationship between Arabs and
good, with few incidents occurring in the Nebi Musa riots and the
disturbances throughout Palestine in 1929. The first modern spa
was built in 1929.
The landscape of the modern town was shaped by the great flood of
November 11, 1934. Deforestation on the slopes above the town combined
with the fact that the city had been built as a series of closely
packed houses and buildings – usually sharing walls – built in
narrow roads paralleling and closely hugging the shore of the lake.
Flood waters carrying mud, stones, and boulders rushed down the slopes
and filled the streets and buildings with water so rapidly that many
people did not have time to escape; the loss of life and property was
great. The city rebuilt on the slopes and the British Mandatory
government planted the
Swiss Forest on the slopes above the town to
hold the soil and prevent similar disasters from recurring. A new
seawall was constructed, moving the shoreline several yards out form
the former shore. In October 1938, Arab militants murdered 20
Tiberias during the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine.
Hamei Tveriya hot springs and spa
Between the April 8–9, 1948, sporadic shooting broke out between the
Jewish and Arab neighborhoods of Tiberias. On April 10, the Haganah
launched a mortar barrage, killing some Arab residents. The local
National Committee refused the offer of the
Arab Liberation Army
Arab Liberation Army to
take over defense of the city, but a small contingent of outside
irregulars moved in. During April 10–17, the Haganah attacked
the city and refused to negotiate a truce, while the British refused
to intervene. Newly arrived Arab refugees from Nasir ad-Din told of
the civilians there being killed, news which brought panic to the
residents of Tiberias. The Arab population of
residents or 47.5% of the population) was evacuated under British
military protection on 18 April 1948.
Widespread looting of the Arab areas by the Jewish population had to
be suppressed by force by the Haganah and Jewish police, who killed or
injured several looters. At the end of the year Ben-Gurion was
Tiberias when US ambassador to Israel, James MacDonald
called to see him on 30 December 1948. The envoy presented a British
Ultimatum for Israeli troops to leave the Sinai, Egyptian territory.
Israel rejected it, but
Tiberias became famous.
View of Tiberias
The city of
Tiberias has been almost entirely Jewish since 1948. Many
Jews settled in the city, following the Jewish
exodus from Arab countries in late 1940s and the early 1950s. Over
time, government housing was built to accommodate much of the new
population, like in many other development towns.
In 1959, during Wadi Salib riots, the "Union des Nords-africains led
by David Ben Haroush, organised a large-scale procession walking
towards the nice suburbs of
Haifa creating little damage but a great
fear within the population. This small incident was taken as an
occasion to express the social malaise of the different Oriental
Israel and riots spread quickly to other parts of the
country; mostly in towns with a high percentage of the population
having North African origins like in Tiberias, in Beer-Sheva, in
Over time, the city came to rely on tourism, becoming a major
Galileean center for Christian pilgrims and internal Israeli tourism.
The ancient cemetery of
Tiberias and its old synagogues are also
drawing religious Jewish pilgrims during religious holidays. PM
Yitzhak Rabin mentioned the town in his memoirs on the occasion of
signing the historic peace agreement with
Egypt in 1979; and again at
the Casablanca Conference in 1994.
Tiberias consists of a small port on the shores of the
for both fishing and tourist activities. Since the 1990s, the
importance of the port for fishing was gradually decreasing, with the
decline of the
Tiberias lake level, due to continuing droughts and
increased pumping of fresh water from the lake. It is expected that
the lake of
Tiberias will regain its original level (almost 6 metres
(20 feet) higher than today), with the full operational capacity of
Israeli desalination facilities by 2014.
Plans are underway to expand the city with a new neighborhood, Kiryat
Sanz, built on a slope on the western side of the Kinneret and
catering exclusively to Haredi Jews.
According to the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), as of December
2011, 41,700 inhabitants lived in Tiberias. According to CBS, as of
December 2010 the city was rated 5 out of 10 on the socio-economic
scale. The average monthly salary of an employee for the year 2009 was
4,845 NIS. Almost all of the population is Jewish, in modern
times, as the Arab population of
Tiberias was evacuated under British
military protection on 18 April 1948. Among the Jews, many are Mizrahi
Tiberias had a large Jewish majority until the 7th century. No
Jews were mentioned in the Ottoman registers of 1525,
1533, 1548, 1553, and 1572. The registers in 1596 recorded the
population to consist of 50 Muslim families and 4 bachelors. In
1780, there were about 4,000 inhabitants, two thirds being Jews.
In 1842, there were about 3,900 inhabitants, around a third of whom
were Jews, the rest being Turks and a few Christians. In 1850,
Tiberias contained three synagogues which served the Sephardi
community, which consisted of 80 families, and the Ashkenazim,
numbering about 100 families. It was reported that the Jewish
Tiberias enjoyed more peace and security than those of
Safed to the north. In 1863, it was recorded that the Christian
and Muslim elements made up three-quarters of the population (2,000 to
4,000). A population list from about 1887 showed that
a population of about 3,640; 2,025 Jews, 30 Latins, 215 Catholics, 15
Greek Catholics, and 1,355 Muslims. In 1901, the
Jews of Tiberias
numbered about 2,000 in a total population of 3,600. By 1912, the
population reached 6,500. This included 4,500 Jews, 1,600 Muslims and
1922 census of Palestine
1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate
Tiberias had a population of 6950 inhabitants, consisting
of 4,427 Jews, 2,096 Muslims, 422 Christians, and five others.
There were 5,381 Jews, 2,645 Muslims, 565 Christians and ten others in
the 1931 census. By 1945, the population had increased to 6,000
Jews, 4,540 Muslims, 760 Christians with ten others.
Urban renewal and preservation
Beachfront of modern Tiberias
Ancient and medieval
Tiberias was destroyed by a series of devastating
earthquakes, and much of what was built after the major earthquake of
1837 was destroyed or badly damaged in the great flood of 1934. Houses
in the newer parts of town, uphill from the waterfront, survived. In
1949, 606 houses, comprising almost all of the built-up area of the
old quarter other than religious buildings, were demolished over the
objections of local
Jews who owned about half the houses.
Wide-scale development began after the Six-Day War, with the
construction of a waterfront promenade, open parkland, shopping
streets, restaurants and modern hotels. Carefully preserved were
several churches, including one with foundations dating from the
Crusader period, the city's two Ottoman-era mosques, and several
ancient synagogues. The city's old masonry buildings constructed
of local black basalt with white limestone windows and trim have been
designated historic landmarks. Also preserved are parts of the ancient
wall, the Ottoman-era citadel, historic hotels, Christian pilgrim
hostels, convents and schools.
A 2,000 year-old Roman theatre was discovered 15 metres (49 feet)
under layers of debris and refuse at the foot of Mount Bernike south
of modern Tiberias. It once seated over 7,000 people.
In 2004, excavations in
Tiberias conducted by the
Authority uncovered a structure dating to the 3rd century CE that may
have been the seat of the Sanhedrin. At the time it was called Beit
Geography and Climate
Tiberias is located on the shore of the
Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee and the western
slopes of the
Jordan Rift Valley
Jordan Rift Valley overlooking the lake, in the
elevation range of −200 to 200 metres (−660–660 feet).
Tiberias has a climate that borders a Hot-summer Mediterranean climate
(koppen Csa) and a Hot
Semi-arid climate (koppen BSh), with an annual
precipitation of about 400 mm (15.75 in). Summers in
Tiberias are very hot, with an average maximum temperature of
36 °C (97 °F) and average minimum temperature of
21 °C (70 °F) in July and August. The winters are mild,
with temperatures ranging from 8 to 18 °C
(46–64 °F). Extremes have ranged from 0 °C (32 °F)
to 46 °C (115 °F).
Climate data for Tiberias,
Israel (1981–2010 normals),
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Source: WMO (World Weather Information Service)
Tiberias has been severely damaged by earthquakes since antiquity.
Earthquakes are known to have occurred in 30, 33, 115, 306, 363, 419,
447, 631–32 (aftershocks continued for a month), 1033, 1182, 1202,
1546, 1759, 1837, 1927 and 1943. See
Galilee earthquake of 1837,
Galilee earthquake of 363, and Near East earthquakes of 1759.
The city is located above the
Dead Sea Transform
Dead Sea Transform and is one of the
Israel that is most at risk to earthquakes (along with
Safed, Beit She'an, Kiryat Shmona, and Eilat).
Tiberias Football Stadium
Tiberias Football Stadium (under construction), designed by Moti Bodek
Tiberias represented the city in the top division of football
for several seasons in the 1960s and 1980s, but eventually dropped
into the regional leagues and folded due to financial difficulties.
Following Hapoel's demise, a new club, Ironi Tiberias, was
established, which currently plays in Liga Alef. 6 Nations
Heineken Cup winner
Jamie Heaslip was born in
Tiberias Marathon is an annual road race held along the Sea of
Israel with a field in recent years of approximately 1000
competitors.The course follows an out-and-back format around the
southern tip of the sea, and was run concurrently with a 10k race
along an abbreviated version of the same route. In 2010 the 10k race
was moved to the afternoon before the marathon. At approximately 200
metres (660 feet) below sea level, this is the lowest course in the
Twin towns — sister cities
Tiberias is twinned with:
Montpellier, France, since 1983
Worms, Germany, since 1986
Tudela, Navarre, Spain
Allentown, Pennsylvania, United States, since 1996
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States
Great Neck Plaza, New York, United States, since 2002
Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States
Wuxi, People's Republic of China, since 2007
Saint-Raphael, France, since 2007
List by surname (titles and articles are ignored):
Shemariah Catarivas, 18th-century Talmudic writer
Gadi Eizenkot (born 1960), IDF Chief of General Staff
Shlomit Nir, Olympic swimmer
Patrick Denis O'Donnell
Yisroel Ber Odesser
Eldad Ronen (born 1976), Olympic competitive sailor
Shem-Tov Sabag, Olympic marathoner
1660 destruction of Tiberias
List of modern names for biblical place names
^ a b "List of localities, in Alphabetical order" (PDF). Israel
Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
^ a b Josephus, Antiquities of the
^ The Sunday at home. Religious Tract Society. 1861. p. 805.
Retrieved 17 October 2010.
Tiberias is esteemed a holy city by
Israel's children, and has been so dignified ever since the middle of
the second century.
^ "PALESTINE, HOLINESS OF - JewishEncyclopedia.com".
^ a b c Patricia Erfurt-Cooper; Malcolm Cooper (27 July 2009). Health
and Wellness Tourism: Spas and Hot Springs. Channel View Publications.
p. 78. ISBN 978-1-84541-363-7.
^ a b "TIBERIAS - JewishEncyclopedia.com".
^ Joshua 19:35
^ Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Megillah 5b
^ Josephus, Flavius, The Jewish Wars, translated by William Whiston,
Book 4, chapter 1, paragraph 3
^ a b c d e f g Mercer Dictionary of the Bible Edited by Watson E.
Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard, Mercer University Press, (1998)
ISBN 0-86554-373-9 p 917
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Winter, Dave (1999)
Israel Handbook: With
the Palestinian Authority Areas Footprint Travel Guides,
ISBN 1-900949-48-2, pp 660–661
^ Crossan, John Dominic (1999) Birth of Christianity: Discovering What
Happened in the Years Immediately After the Execution of Christ.
Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 0-567-08668-2, p
^ Thomson, 1859, vol 2, p. 72
^ Safrai Zeev (1994) The Economy of Roman Palestine Routledge,
ISBN 0-415-10243-X, p 199
^ a b c Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol. 3, p. 269
^ a b c "TIBERIAS - JewishEncyclopedia.com".
^ Le Strange, 1890, p. 340, quoting Yakut
^ a b c Nir Hasson, 'In excavation of ancient mosque, volunteers dig
up Israeli city's Golden Age,' at Haaretz, 17 August 2012.
^ Muk. p.161 and 185, quoted in Le Strange, 1890, pp. 334- 337
^ Le Strange, 1890, pp. 336-7
^ Richard, Jean (1999) The
Crusades c. 1071-c 1291, Cambridge
University Press, ISBN 0-521-62369-3 p 71
^ Angeliki E. Laiou; Roy P. Mottahedeh (2001). The
Crusades from the
perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim world. Dumbarton Oaks.
p. 63. ISBN 978-0-88402-277-0. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
This hadith is also found in the bibliographical work of the Damascene
Ibn ‘Asakir (d. 571/1176), although slightly modified: the four
cities of paradise are Mecca, Medina,
Jerusalem and Damascus; and the
four cities of hell are Constantinople, Tabariyya, Antioch and
^ Moshe Gil (1997). A history of Palestine, 634–1099. Cambridge
University Press. p. 175; ft. 49. ISBN 978-0-521-59984-9.
Retrieved 17 October 2010.
^ Wilson, John Francis. (2004)
Caesarea Philippi: Banias, the Lost
City of Pan I.B.Tauris, ISBN 1-85043-440-9 p 148
^ Toby Green (2007) Inquisition; The Reign of Fear Macmillan Press
ISBN 978-1-4050-8873-2 pp xv–xix
^ Alfassa.com Archived 2007-10-12 at the Wayback Machine. Sephardic
Contributions to the Development of the State of Israel, Shelomo
^ Schaick, Tzvi. Who is Dona Gracia? Archived 2011-05-10 at the
Wayback Machine., The House of Dona Gracia Museum.
^ Naomi E. Pasachoff, Robert J. Littman, A Concise History of the
Jewish People, Lanham, Rowman & Littlefield, 2005, p.163
^ a b c Benjamin Lee Gordon, New Judea: Jewish Life in Modern
Palestine and Egypt, Manchester, New Hampshire, Ayer Publishing, 1977,
Druze of the Levant".
^ Joel Rappel, History of Eretz
Israel from Prehistory up to 1882
(1980), Vol.2, p.531. 'In 1662 Sabbathai Sevi arrived to Jerusalem. It
was the time when the Jewish settlements of
Galilee were destroyed by
Tiberias was completely desolate and only a few of former
Safed residents had returned..."
^ Barnay, Y. The
Jews in Palestine in the eighteenth century: under
the patronage of the Istanbul Committee of Officials for Palestine
(University of Alabama Press 1992) ISBN 978-0-8173-0572-7 p. 149
^ Sidney Mendelssohn. The
Jews of Asia: especially in the sixteenth
and seventeenth century. (1920) p.241. "Long before the culmination of
Sabbathai's mad career,
Safed had been destroyed by the Arabs and the
Jews had suffered severely, while in the same year (1660) there was a
great fire in
Constantinople in which they endured heavy losses..."
^ Gershom Gerhard Scholem (1976-01-01). Sabbatai Sevi: The Mystical
Messiah, 1626–1676. Princeton University Press. p. 368.
ISBN 978-0-691-01809-6. "In Safed, too, the [Sabbatai] movement
gathered strength during the autumn of 1665. The reports about the
utter destruction, in 1662 [sic], of the Jewish settlement there seem
greatly exaggerated, and the conclusions based on them are false. ...
Rosanes' account of the destruction of the
Safed community is based on
a misunderstanding of his sources; the community declined in numbers
but continued to exist."
^ Pococke, 1745, pp. 68–70
^ Amnon Cohen (1975). Palestine in the 18th Century. Magnes Press.
pp. 34–36. ISBN 1-59045-955-5.
^ Moammar, Tawfiq (1990), Zahir Al Omar, Al Hakim Printing Press,
Nazareth, p. 70.
^ a b c Joseph Schwarz. Descriptive Geography and Brief Historical
Sketch of Palestine, 1850
Jews in Palestine in the eighteenth century: under the patronage
of the Istanbul Committee of Officials for Palestine, Y. Barnay,
translated by Naomi Goldblum, University of Alabama Press, 1992, p.
^ The Jews: their history, culture, and religion, Louis Finkelstein,
Edition: 3 Harper, New York, 1960, p. 659
^ Parfitt, Tudor (1987) The
Jews in Palestine, 1800–1882. Royal
Historical Society studies in history (52). Woodbridge: Published for
the Royal Historical Society by Boydell
^ Ashkenazi, Eli (27 December 2009). "Crumbling
Tiberias Synagogue to
Regain Its Former Glory". www.haaretz.com.
^ Lynch, 1850, p. 154
Tiberias – Walking with the sages in
Tiberias Archived 2012-01-12
at the Wayback Machine.
^ "MS 38 Torrance Collection". Archive Services Online Catalogue.
University of Dundee. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
^ "The Scots Hotel- History". The Scots Hotel. Retrieved 10 October
^ Roxburgh, Angus (2012-10-31). "BBC News – Scots Hotel: Why the
Scotland has a
Galilee getaway". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved
^ Mandated landscape: British imperial rule in Palestine, 1929–1948,
Roza El-Eini, (Routledge, 2006) p. 250
^ The Changing Land: Between the Jordan and the Sea: Aerial
Photographs from 1917 to the Present, Benjamin Z. Kedar, Wayne State
University Press, 2000, p. 198
^ "United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine"
(.JPG). United Nations Information System on the Question of
Palestine. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
^ a b c Morris, 2004, pp. 183–185
^ Harry Levin,
Jerusalem Embattled – A diary of a city under siege.
Cassel, 1997. ISBN 0-304-33765-X., p.81: 'Extraordinary news from
Tiberias. The whole Arab population has fled. Last night the Haganah
blew up the Arab bands' headquarters there; this morning the
up to see a panic flight in progress. By tonight not one of the 6,000
Arabs remained.' (19 April).
^ M Gilbert, p.172
^ Gilbert, p.245
^ Jeremy Allouche. "The Oriental Communities in
^ M.Gilbert, p.566, 578
^ New ultra-Orthodox neighborhood to be built in Israel's north, Apr.
3, 2012, Haaretz
^ Lewis, Bernard (1954), Studies in the Ottoman archives—I, Bulletin
of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London,
Vol. 16, pp 469–501.
^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 188
^ Jolliffe, Thomas Robert 1780-1872 (11 February 2018). "Letters from
Palestine, descriptive of a tour through Gallilee and Judaea, with
some account of the Dead Sea, and of the present state of Jerusalem".
London, J. Black – via Internet Archive.
^ The Penny cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful
Knowledge: v. 1–27, Volume 23, C. Knight, 1842.
^ M.Gilbert, Israel: A History (1998), p.3
^ Smith, William (1863) A Dictionary of the Bible: Comprising Its
Antiquities, Biography, and Natural History Little, Brown, p 149
^ Schumacher, 1888, p. 185
^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Tiberias". www.newadvent.org.
^ Barron, 1923, p. 6
^ Mills, 1932, p. ?
^ Village Statistics, 1945
^ Arnon Golan, The Politics of Wartime Demolition and Human Landscape
Transformation, War in History, vol 9 (2002), pp 431–445.
Tiberias synagogue to regain its former glory".
^ 2,000-year-old amphitheater Archived 2009-09-22 at the Wayback
^ Ashkenazi, Eli (22 March 2004). "Researchers Say
May Have Housed Sanhedrin" – via Haaretz.
Tiberias 1981-2010 Climate Normals". World Weather Information
Service. Retrieved 2017-05-13.
^ A crack in the earth: a journey up Israel's Rift Valley By Haim
Watzman, Macmillan, 2007, p. 161
^ Experts Warn: Major
Earthquake Could Hit
Israel Any Time By Rachel
Avraham, staff writer for United With
Israel Date: Oct 22, 2013
^ "Choose your family". www.haaretz.com.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tiberias.
Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of
the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, H. H. (1881). The Survey of
Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography,
and Archaeology. 1. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration
Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945.
Government of Palestine.
Guérin, Victor (1880). Description Géographique Historique et
Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). vol.3: Galilee, pt. 1.
Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.
Hadawi, Sami (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of
Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation
Organization Research Center.
Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical
Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late
16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen,
Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft.
Lynch, William F. (1850). Narrative of the United States' Expedition
to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea. Philadelphia: Lea and
Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of
Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of
Morris, Benny (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem
Revisited. Cambridge University Press.
Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and
English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder
and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer.
Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
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(British Academy Monographs in Archaeology). 1. Oxford University
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countries. 2. London: Printed for the author, by W. Bowyer : And
sold by J. and P. Knapton, W. Innys, W. Meadows, G. Hawkins, S. Birt,
T. Longman, C. Hitch, R. Dodsley, J. Nourse, and J. Rivington.
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Jerusalem: an archaeological Gazetter. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0521 46010 7.
Pringle, Denys (1998). The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of
Jerusalem: L-Z (excluding Tyre). vol.II. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 0 521 39037 0.
Robinson, Edward; Smith, Eli (1841). Biblical Researches in Palestine,
Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838.
vol.3. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
Schumacher, G. (1888). "Population list of the Liwa of Akka".
Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund. 20: 169–191.
Strange, Guy le (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of
Syria and the
Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. Committee of the
Palestine Exploration Fund.
Thomson, William McClure (1859). The Land and the Book: Or, Biblical
Illustrations Drawn from the Manners and Customs, the Scenes and
Scenery, of the Holy Land. 1 (1 ed.). New York: Harper &
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Illustrations Drawn from the Manners and Customs, the Scenes and
Scenery, of the Holy Land. 2 (1 ed.). New York: Harper &
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tiberias.
the official English Facebook page of Tiberias
City council website (in Hebrew) Municipality Site in English
Place To Visit in
Tiberias – City of Treasures: The official website of the Tiberias
Hamat Tiberias National Park: description, photo gallery
Nefesh B'Nefesh Community Guide for Tiveria-Tiberias, Israel
Survey of Western Palestine, Map 6: IAA, Wikimedia commons
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