The Rocks, New South Wales
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The Rocks is an urban locality,
tourist at the archaeological site of Chichén Itza. in Vienna. Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring (disambiguation), touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and th ...

tourist
precinct and historic area of
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
's city centre, in the state of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
. It is located on the southern shore of
Sydney Harbour Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour Middle Harbour (or ''Warring-Ga''), a semi–mature tide (U.S.), low tide occurs roughly at moonrise and high tide with a high Moon, corresponding to the simple ...

Sydney Harbour
, immediately north-west of the
Sydney central business district The Sydney Central Business District (CBD) is the historical and main commercial centre of Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Au ...
.


Boundaries

The formal boundaries of the suburb named "The Rocks" cover the western side of Sydney Cove (
Circular Quay Circular Quay is a harbour, former working port and now international passenger shipping port, public piazza and tourism precinct, heritage area, and transport node located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia on the northern edge of the Sydn ...

Circular Quay
) east of the
Sydney Harbour Bridge The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a heritage-listed steel through arch bridge in Sydney, spanning Port Jackson, Sydney Harbour from the Sydney central business district, central business district (CBD) to the North Shore (Sydney), North Shore. The vi ...

Sydney Harbour Bridge
approaches. In the north it extends to the southern base of the Sydney Harbour Bridge, in the east to the shoreline of Circular Quay and
George Street
George Street
, in the south to Jamison Street (thus including the area known as "Church Hill"), and in the west to southern approaches of the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the Western Distributor overpass.


History

The Rocks became established shortly after the colony's formation in 1788. It was known as Tallawoladah by the
Cadigal The Cadigal, also spelled as Gadigal and Caddiegal, are a group of Indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred ...
people. The original buildings were first traditional vernacular houses, of
wattle and daub Wattle and daub is a composite Composite or compositing may refer to: Materials * Composite material, a material that is made from several different substances ** Metal matrix composite, composed of metal and other parts ** Cermet, a composite o ...

wattle and daub
, with
thatched roofs Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, Phragmites, water reed, Cyperaceae, sedge (''Cladium mariscus''), Juncus, rushes, Calluna, heather, or palm branches, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away fr ...
, and later of local sandstone, from which the area derives its name. From the earliest history of the settlement, the area had a reputation as a
slum A slum is a highly populated urban Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and cities. Urban may also refer to: Ge ...

slum
and the arriving convicts' side of town, often frequented by visiting sailors and prostitutes. After November 1790, many of the inhabitants were also aboriginals. In 1823, the district had a population of about 1,200. During the late nineteenth century, the area was dominated by a gang known as the
Rocks Push The Rocks Push was a notorious larrikin gang, which dominated The Rocks, New South Wales, The Rocks area of Sydney from the 1870s to the end of the 1890s. In its day it was referred to as The Push, a title which has since come to be more widely ...
. It maintained this rough reputation until approximately the 1870s. By the early 20th century, many of the area's historic buildings were in serious decay. In 1900,
bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of biological cell The cell (from Latin ''cella'', meaning "small room") is the basic ...
broke out, and the state government resumed areas around The Rocks and
Darling Harbour Darling Harbour is a harbour adjacent to the city centre of Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, sur ...

Darling Harbour
, with the intention of demolishing them and rebuilding them. More than 3,800 houses, buildings and wharves were inspected and hundreds demolished, but the continuation of these plans were brought to a halt due to the outbreak of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. During the 1920s, several hundred buildings were demolished during the construction of the
Sydney Harbour Bridge The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a heritage-listed steel through arch bridge in Sydney, spanning Port Jackson, Sydney Harbour from the Sydney central business district, central business district (CBD) to the North Shore (Sydney), North Shore. The vi ...

Sydney Harbour Bridge
.
Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority The Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority was an agency of the Government of New South Wales The Government of New South Wales, also known as the NSW Government, is the States and territories of Australia, Australian state democratic administrativ ...
, with the intention of demolishing most of the original buildings, re-developing them as high-density residential dwellings. In February 1971, a group of local residents formed the Rocks Residents Group to oppose the plans. They felt that the new dwellings would result in increased rents, which would force out the traditional residents of the area. The residents' group requested a
green ban A green ban is a form of strike action Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage, caused by the mass refusal of employee Employment is the relationship between two parties Image:'Hip, ...
from the
Builder's Labourers Federation The Builders Labourers Federation (BLF) was an Australian trade union that existed from 1911 until 1972, and from 1976 until 1986, when it was permanently deregistered in various States and territories of Australia, Australian states by the fed ...
, who had become increasingly active in preventing controversial developments over the previous four years. By 1973, the union had imposed the ban, and after discussions with the Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority, a 'People's Plan' was developed. By October 1973, it appeared that the redevelopment would proceed as originally planned, using non-union labour. For two weeks, demonstrations by local residents and unionists followed, with numerous arrests being made.
Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...
Premier
Robert Askin Sir Robert William Askin, GCMG The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British founded on 28 April 1818 by , later , while he was acting as regent for his father, . It is named in honour of two , and . The ...
was in the midst of an election campaign, and used the protests as a means of conveying his law and order message to voters. However, the green ban stayed in place until 1975 when the state union leadership was overthrown and was ultimately successful, as can be seen in the buildings that survive today. Instead of demolishing The Rocks, renovations transformed the area into a commercial and tourist precinct. Today the Rocks is a partly
gentrified Gentrification is the process of changing the character of a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West G ...

gentrified
area, but still contains a significant proportion of Housing Commission properties, and there is still a significant problem of urban poverty and street crime in this district. As housing stock becomes dilapidated, government policy is to sell the now extremely valuable public housing units to private owners, in the expectation that they will restore the properties. The Sirius building and the associated "Save Our Sirius" protest group was formed to protest relocation of its residents.


Church Hill

"Church Hill" is located in the southern part of The Rocks, sometimes identified as the northern part of the
Sydney central business district The Sydney Central Business District (CBD) is the historical and main commercial centre of Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Au ...
. It is so named because the earliest churches in Australia were formed on this site, including St Patrick's (Roman Catholic), St Philip's (Anglican) and (Presbyterian) The significance of Church Hill dates back to the time of Governor
Arthur Phillip Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer ...

Arthur Phillip
, who mandated compulsory Sunday church attendance for all convicts, until they rebelled and burned down the area’s first church in 1798. The area gained greater prominence as Church Hill on Wednesday 1 October 1800, when incoming Governor
Philip Gidley King Captain (Royal Navy), Captain Philip Gidley King (23 April 1758 – 3 September 1808) was the third Governor of New South Wales. When the First Fleet arrived in January 1788, King was detailed to colonise Norfolk Island for defence and foragin ...
had the foundation stone laid for St Philip’s Church, which subsequently he proclaimed one of Australia’s first two parishes in 1802 (the other being St John’s in
Parramatta Parramatta () is a major commercial suburb and Central business district, centre in Greater Western Sydney, located in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located approximately west of the Sydney central business district on the ban ...
). The site where St Patrick’s Church currently stands is where the
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
Eucharist The Eucharist (; grc-gre, εὐχαριστία, eucharistía, thanksgiving) also known as Holy Communion and the Lord's Supper, among other names, is a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monothe ...

Eucharist
was first preserved in Australia, in May 1818. Celebrations for the bicentenary of this occasion were held in St Patrick’s Church on Sunday 6 May 2018.


Heritage listings

The Rocks has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: * Argyle Street: * 12-20 Argyle Street: Argyle Stores * 39-43 Argyle Street: British Seamen's Hotel * 45-47 Argyle Street: Gannon House * 1-7 Atherden Street: Playfair's Terrace * 2-4 Atherden Street: Avery Terrace * Circular Quay Concourse, Circular Quay East and West: Sydney Cove railings * 7-27 Circular Quay West: Campbell's Stores * Cumberland Place: Cumberland Place and Steps * Cumberland Street: Argyle Bridge * 96-98 Cumberland Street: Glenmore Hotel * 100-104 Cumberland Street: Australian Hotel * 106-128 Cumberland Street: Cumberland Street Archaeological Site * 130, 132-134, 136-138 and 140-142 Cumberland Street: Long's Lane Precinct * 176 Cumberland Street: Lilyvale, The Rocks, Lilyvale * 178-180 Cumberland Street: Butchery Building * 182 Cumberland Street: 182 Cumberland Street, The Rocks, 182 Cumberland Street * 182.5-188 Cumberland Street: 182.5-188 Cumberland Street, The Rocks, 182.5-188 Cumberland Street * 212-218 Cumberland Street: Lawson House * 10-14 Essex Street: Harts Buildings * 25-27 George Street: Mercantile Hotel * 29-31 George Street: 29-31 George Street, The Rocks, 29-31 George Street * 33-41 George Street: Sergeant Major's Row * 36-64 George Street: Old Mining Museum Building * 43-45 George Street: Merchant's House * 47 George Street: Union Bond Store * 53-65 George Street: Harrington's Buildings * 68-84 George Street: Metcalfe Bond Stores * 69 George Street: Observer Hotel * 73 George Street: Old Ambulance Station, The Rocks, Old Ambulance Station * 75-75.5 George Street: Samson's Cottage * 77-85 George Street: Unwin's Stores * 86-88 George Street: Old Bushells Factory * 87-89 George Street: Orient Hotel, The Rocks, Orient Hotel * 91 George Street: ASN Hotel Building * 93 George Street: 93 George Street, The Rocks * 95-99 George Street: 95-99 George Street, The Rocks, 95-99 George Street * 98-100 George Street: Mariners' Church, The Rocks, Mariners' Church * 101 George Street: 101 George Street, The Rocks, 101 George Street * 102-104 George Street: Old Coroner's Court, The Rocks, Old Coroner's Court * 103 George Street: 103 George Street, The Rocks, 103 George Street * 105 George Street: 105 George Street, The Rocks, 105 George Street * 106-108 George Street: Sydney Sailors' Home * 107-109 George Street: 107-109 George Street, The Rocks, 107-109 George Street * 110 George Street: Cadman's Cottage * 111-115 George Street: Captain Tench Arcade * 112-156 George Street: Sydney Cove West Archaeological Precinct * 117-119 George Street: Julian Ashton Art School * 121 George Street: 121 George Street, The Rocks, 121 George Street * 123-125 George Street: 123-125 George Street, The Rocks, 123-125 George Street * 127-129 George Street: Old Police Station, The Rocks, Old Police Station * 131-135 George Street: English, Scottish and Australian Bank, The Rocks, English, Scottish and Australian Bank * 137 George Street: Fortune of War Hotel * 139-141 George Street: 139-141 George Street, The Rocks, 139-141 George Street * 143-143a George Street: Russell Hotel, The Rocks, Russell Hotel * 145 George Street: 145 George Street, The Rocks, 145 George Street * 147 George Street: 147 George Street, The Rocks, 147 George Street * 149-151 George Street: 149-151 George Street, The Rocks, 149-151 George Street * 153-155 George Street: New York Hotel * 229 George Street: Brooklyn Hotel, The Rocks, Brooklyn Hotel * 231 George Street: 231 George Street, The Rocks, 231 George Street * 233-235 George Street: Johnson's Building, The Rocks, Johnson's Building * 26-30 Gloucester Street: View Terrace facades * 32-36 Gloucester Street: 32-36 and 38-40 Gloucester Street facades, The Rocks, 32-36 and 38-40 Gloucester Street facades * 46-56 Gloucester Street: 46-56 Gloucester Street, The Rocks, 46-56 Gloucester Street * 58-64 Gloucester Street: Susannah Place * 66-68, 70-72 Gloucester Street: Baker's Terrace * 103-111 Gloucester Street: Jobbins Terrace * 113-115 Gloucester Street: 113-115 Gloucester Street, The Rocks, 113-115 Gloucester Street * 117-117a Gloucester Street: 117-117a Gloucester Street, The Rocks, 117-117a Gloucester Street * 120 Gloucester Street: NSW Housing Board Building, Gloucester Street, The Rocks, NSW Housing Board Building, Gloucester Street * 157-169 Gloucester Street and Essex Street: Science House * 16-18 Grosvenor Street: NSW Housing Board Building, Grosvenor Street, The Rocks, NSW Housing Board Building, Grosvenor Street * 24-30 Grosvenor Street: Federation Hall * 32-34 Grosvenor Street: Royal Naval House * 28-30 Harrington Street: Reynolds' Cottages * 32 Harrington Street: 32 Harrington Street, The Rocks, 32 Harrington Street * 34-40 Harrington Street: Harbour Rocks Hotel, Evans' Stores * 42-52 Harrington Street: 42-52 Harrington Street, The Rocks, 42-52 Harrington Street * 55-59 Harrington Street: 55-59 Harrington Street, The Rocks, 55-59 Harrington Street * 61-65 Harrington Street: 61-65 Harrington Street, The Rocks, 61-65 Harrington Street * 67 Harrington Street: 67 Harrington Street, The Rocks, 67 Harrington Street * 71 Harrington Street: 71 Harrington Street, The Rocks, 71 Harrington Street * 117-119 Harrington Street: Accountants House * 121-127 Harrington Street: Bushells Building * Hickson Road: Dawes Point Battery remains * 1-5 Hickson Road: ASN Co building * 4-6 Kendall Lane: Raphael Mackeller Stores * 8 Kendall Lane: Samson's Cottage wall remains * 13-15 Playfair Street: Argyle Terrace * 17-31 Playfair Street: Playfair Street Terraces * 22-26 Playfair Street: Penrhyn House * 33 Playfair Street: Cleland Bond Store


Population

In the 2016 Census, there were 774 people in The Rocks. 39.8% of people were born in Australia and 51.1% of people only spoke English at home.


Culture

The close proximity to
Circular Quay Circular Quay is a harbour, former working port and now international passenger shipping port, public piazza and tourism precinct, heritage area, and transport node located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia on the northern edge of the Sydn ...

Circular Quay
and the views of the iconic Sydney Harbour Bridge, Harbour Bridge, as well as the historic nature of many of the buildings, makes the Rocks very popular with tourists. It features a variety of souvenir and craft shops, as well as many themed and historic pubs. The Rocks Market operates each weekend, with around 100 stalls. During the week, shopping options include galleries exhibiting Australian artists, such as Ken Done and Ken Duncan, as well as Australian clothing and Australian opal shops. There are numerous historic walks through the area, visiting historical buildings such as Heritage homes of Sydney#Cadmans Cottage, Cadmans Cottage and Sydney Observatory, and the Dawes Point Battery, which was the first fortified position in
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
. Two separate pubs in The Rocks claim to be Sydney's oldest surviving pubs: the Fortune of War and the Lord Nelson. Others in the area include the Observer, the Orient, the Mercantile, the Palisade and the Hero of Waterloo. A passenger boat terminal and the Museum of Contemporary Art Australia, Museum of Contemporary Art is also situated beside the Rocks area. The precinct can also be accessed by rail, as it is within walking distance of Circular Quay railway station, Circular Quay station. Water Polo by the Sea is held there every year by Australian Water Polo with the Australia men's national water polo team take on the International All Stars.http://www.waterpolobythesea.com/ Susannah Place Museum is a historic house museum situated in The Rocks. It is a block of four terrace houses that was built in 1844 and had domestic occupants until 1990. It is a documentation of the urban working class community in The Rocks. The terraces in various states of modernity show the evolution of occupation over 150 years


In popular culture

The Rocks, as it was in 1873, is the setting for the time-slip portion of the novel ''Playing Beatie Bow'.


Gallery

TheRocksBackstreets.jpg, Harrington Street. SydneyTheRocks3_gobeirne.jpg, Old Mining Museum Building, Arts Exchange building from Hickson Street. SydneyTheRocks5 gobeirne.jpg, Terrace Houses, Lower Fort Street. Cad0001.jpg, The rear of Cadmans Cottage. Therocks-historicalphoto-powerhousemuseum.jpg, Historical image. SydneyTheRocks2 gobeirne.jpg, Campbell's Stores. City of Sydney Essex and Harrington Street Subdivision.jpg, Essex and Harrington Street subdivision plan. Princes St - the first hotel on The Rocks from The Powerhouse Museum Collection.jpg, Princes Street – the first hotel on The Rocks from The Powerhouse Museum Collection. Argyle Cut.jpg, A transverse section showing the bridges over the , 1832. Argyle Cutting, The Rocks, Sydney (cropped, retouched).jpg, , pictured in the 1870s. Argyle Cut 001.jpg, The , constructed with convict labour. Cahill expressway from bridge.jpg, Southern approach of the
Sydney Harbour Bridge The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a heritage-listed steel through arch bridge in Sydney, spanning Port Jackson, Sydney Harbour from the Sydney central business district, central business district (CBD) to the North Shore (Sydney), North Shore. The vi ...

Sydney Harbour Bridge
with The Rocks to the left. Argyle Street2.JPG, Argyle Street. City of Sydney Observatory Hill auction 1910.jpg, Observatory Hill, lands auction, 1910. Harbour Bridge over terrace housing in Sydney.jpg, Terrace houses in The Rocks. Harbour Bridge from The Rocks.jpg,
Sydney Harbour Bridge The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a heritage-listed steel through arch bridge in Sydney, spanning Port Jackson, Sydney Harbour from the Sydney central business district, central business district (CBD) to the North Shore (Sydney), North Shore. The vi ...

Sydney Harbour Bridge
from The Rocks. The bridge is visible from most areas of the district. Playfair's Terrace - The Rocks, Sydney, NSW (7875762514).jpg, Playfair's Terrace. Former English, Scottish & Australian Chartered Bank - The Rocks, Sydney, NSW (7889979044).jpg, The former English, Scottish and Australian Bank, ES&A Bank English, Scottish and Australian Bank, The Rocks, branch building (middle) and Old Police Station, The Rocks, Old Police Station (right).


Literature

* Ambrose Pratt: ''King of the Rocks'', novel. Hutchinson, London 1900 * D. Manning Richards. ''Destiny in Sydney (novel), Destiny in Sydney: An epic novel of convicts, Aborigines, and Chinese embroiled in the birth of Sydney, Australia''. First book in Sydney series. Washington DC: Aries Books, 2012. * Grace Karskens, ''The Rocks: Life in Early Sydney'', Melbourne University Press, 1997.


References


External links


The Rocks


Dictionary of Sydney entries

* [Creative Commons license, CC-By-SA] * [Creative Commons license, CC-By-SA] * [Creative Commons license, CC-By-SA] * [Creative Commons license, CC-By-SA] {{DEFAULTSORT:Rocks, The The Rocks, New South Wales, Historic sites in New South Wales, Rocks, Sydney Slums in Australia Green bans