Thames Water Utilities Ltd, known as Thames Water, is the monopoly
private utility company responsible for the public water supply and
waste water treatment in large parts of Greater London, Luton, the
Thames Valley, Surrey, Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Kent, and some
other areas of the United Kingdom.
Thames Water is the UK's largest
water and wastewater services company, and supplies
2.6 billion litres (570 million imperial gallons) of
drinking water per day, and treats 4.4 billion litres
(970 million imperial gallons) of wastewater per day. Thames
Water's 15 million customers comprise 27% of the UK population.
Thames Water is responsible for a range of water management
infrastructure projects including: the
Thames Water Ring Main around
London; the Lee Tunnel; Europe's largest wastewater treatment works
 and the UK's first large-scale desalination plant, both at
Thames Water awarded Bazalgette Tunnel Ltd the contract to
build the £4.2 billion London Tideway Tunnel  Infrastructure
Thames Water include the proposed reservoir at Abingdon,
Oxfordshire, which would be the largest enclosed or bunded reservoir
in the UK.
Thames Water is regulated under the
Water Industry Act 1991 and is
owned by Kemble Water Holdings Ltd, a consortium formed in late 2006
and formerly owned by Australian-based Macquarie Group's European
Infrastructure Funds specifically for the purpose of purchasing Thames
Water. Currently the largest shareholders are Canadian pensions group
OMERS (23%), BT Pension Scheme (13%), the Abu Dhabi Investment
Authority (9.9%), the
China Investment Corporation
China Investment Corporation (8.7%) and
Kuwait Investment Authority (8.5%). The name of the company
reflects its role providing water to the drainage basin of the River
Thames and not the source of its water, which is taken from a range of
rivers and boreholes.
In March 2017 a judge imposed a record fine of £20.3m on Thames Water
after large leaks of untreated sewage, totalling 1.4bn litres,
occurred over a number of years.
1.2 Privatisation and listing
1.4 Recent years
3.1 Health and safety
3.2.1 2001–06 (RWE's ownership)
3.2.2 Since 2007 (Kemble's ownership)
3.3.1 Other incidents
3.4 Local planning
Thames Tideway scheme
6 External links
Thames Water can trace its history back to numerous earlier companies
and individuals stretching back to the early 17th century.
In the early 1600s, Edmund Colthurst,
Hugh Myddelton and later Sir
John Backhouse were the driving forces behind the New River Company
and the New River, which routed water from
Hertfordshire to New River
Head in Islington, and provided an additional source of drinking water
During the 1850s, Dr John Snow and William Farr's identification of
1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak
1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak provided a stimulus to the
better treatment of sewage. The
Thames Conservancy was established in
1857 with unified control over water supply, drainage and navigation.
The Great Stink
The Great Stink occurred in 1858, and focussed government and public
opinion on cleaning up the Thames. Joseph Bazalgette's remediation of
The Great Stink
The Great Stink provided the company with much of London's present
Victorian sewerage infrastructure and several listed buildings within
its portfolio of sites.
In 1973 the
Thames Water Authority was founded under the terms of the
Water Act 1973, and took over the following water supply utilities and
catchment area management bodies:
Cotswold Water Board
Epsom and Ewell
Epsom and Ewell Corporation
The Lee Conservancy
Metropolitan Water Board, responsible for water supply in London
Southern Water Company
Thames Water Board
Oxfordshire and District Water Board
South West Suburban Water Company
Thames Conservancy, responsible for managing the non-tidal River
Thames (powers taken until 1989)
Thames Valley Water Board
Surrey Water Board
Privatisation and listing
In 1989, responsibility for navigation, regulatory, river and channels
management was transferred to the
National Rivers Authority and later
became part of the Environment Agency. The remainder of Thames
Water Authority was privatised as
Thames Water Utilities Limited. The
company became listed on the
London Stock Exchange
London Stock Exchange and was a
constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.
Following international expansion,
Thames Water became the world's
third largest water company in 1995.
Thames Water plc was acquired by the German utility company
2001. As well as its British operations, it continued as an
international water treatment consultancy and acquired further
On 17 October 2006, following several years of criticism about failed
leakage targets in the UK,
RWE announced it would sell Thames Water
for £8 billion to Kemble Water Holdings Ltd, a consortium led by the
Australian Macquarie Group. In December 2006, the sale of Thames
Water's British operation went ahead, with
RWE keeping the overseas
Under the new ownership, the company re-focused its efforts on
improving its operational performance and in 2007 announced the
largest-ever capital investment programme (£1 billion p.a.) of any UK
In 2012 some of the company's stock was acquired by the BT Pension
Scheme (13%), the
Abu Dhabi Investment Authority
Abu Dhabi Investment Authority (9.9%) and the China
Investment Corporation (8.7%).
Thames Water was a Tier Three sponsor
2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics in London.
In 2017, under the Government's Open Water programme, and in common
with all Water and Sewerage companies,
Thames Water must provide
entirely separate Retail and Wholesale operations for its commercial
customers, working through a central Market Operator.
On 14 March 2017,
Macquarie Group sold its remaining stake in Thames
Water's holding company to
OMERS and the Kuwait Investment
Water pumping station at Littleton
As of 2014[update],
Thames Water provides the second cheapest
residential water and sewerage charges of all the combined Water and
Since 2007, it has made capital investments at least £1 billion a
year in its infrastructure – the largest such annual investment
within the UK water industry. In 2015–2016, this figure was £1.2
billion. This level of investment has allowed the company to defer,
but not avoid, substantial portions of its corporation tax liability
in line with UK tax law.
Water pumping station at
Thames Water abstracts / extracts, treats and supplies
2.6 billion litres (570 million imperial gallons) of potable
tap water from 100 water treatment works via 288 clean water pumping
stations through 31,100 km (19,300 mi) of managed water
mains to 9 million customers (3.6 million properties) across London
and the Thames Valley. It maintains 30 raw water reservoirs and
235 underground service reservoirs. As well as direct customers,
Thames Water supplies bulk clean water to some inset companies. Other
inset companies maintain their own independent means of supply.
Likewise, it daily removes, treats and disposes 4.4 billion
litres (970 million imperial gallons) of wastewater from 15
million customers (5.1 million properties) using 2530 sewage pumping
stations through 109,400 km (68,000 mi) of managed sewerage
mains to 348 sewage treatment works across an area of 13,000 km2
(5,000 sq mi) of South England. On 1 October 2011, it
adopted 40,000 km (25,000 mi) - an additional 60% - of
private sewers and lateral drains to add to its then stock of
68,000 km (42,000 mi) giving a new network of
108,000 km (67,000 mi). By 2015, this figure had grown to
109,400 km (68,000 mi) managed sewerage mains. Before 1
October 2016, it is obliged to adopt 5,000+ private sewage pumping
stations to add to its current stock of 2530 managed sewage pumping
stations  Again,
Thames Water treats and disposes bulk sewage
on behalf of some inset companies.
Chalk aquifer borehole under the
North Downs at Albury
Thames Water produces biosolid fertiliser as a by-product from the
waste treatment, and supplies this to local farms.
It also recovers phosphates – an increasingly important source of a
dwindling naturally occurring mineral.
Sewage Treatment Works at Crossness
As of 2013[update], it recovered approximately 18 MW
(156 GWh per year), or 12.5% of its total energy requirements
from renewable electricity generated from biogas collected from the
sewage. Further biogas capacity, the burning of 'fatbergs' removed
from London's sewers and substantial solar farms have enabled the
company to announce a 2015–16 target of generating 36 MW
(318 GWh per annum) or 20% of its total energy requirements from
renewable sources, a 2020 target of self-generating 33%
of electricity needs, and a commitment to 100% renewable energy
Health and safety
In December 2014
Thames Water pleaded guilty to a charge under the
Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 after the death at work of one
of its workers. They were fined £300,000 with £61,000 prosecution
costs. The incident occurred at their Coppermill Water Treatment Works
in Walthamstow, London E17 in April 2010 when an excavator reversed
over and killed the worker in a slow sand filter. The prosecution
followed an investigation by the Health and Safety Executive.
2001–06 (RWE's ownership)
Thames Water was repeatedly criticised for the amount of water that
leaked from its pipes by the industry regulator
Ofwat and was fined
In May 2006 the leakage was nearly 900 million litres
(200 million imperial gallons) per day and in June that year
Thames Water missed its target for leakage reduction for the third
year in a row. The Consumer Council for Water, a customers' group,
Thames Water for continuing to miss their targets for the past
five years. In July 2006, instead of a fine which would have gone "to
the exchequer", the company was required to spend an extra £150
million on repairs.
Since 2007 (Kemble's ownership)
Thames Water has hit its Ofwat-agreed annual leakage-reduction target
for the past ten years running (2006 to 2016).
In 2006–07, the company stated that it had reduced its daily loss
through leaks by 120 million litres (26 million imperial
gallons) to an average of 695 million litres (153 million
imperial gallons) per day. For 2009–10 the Ofwat-reported daily
leakage was 668.9 million litres (147.1 million imperial
gallons). In its price control determination for the period 2010
Ofwat did not allow the funds needed to finance a significant
further reduction in leakage and used the assumption that daily
leakage would be 674 million litres (148 million imperial
gallons) in 2010–11 and 673 million litres (148 million
imperial gallons) from 2011 to 2012. In 2011–12, actual daily
leakage was 637×10^6 l (140×10^6 imp gal); in
2012–13, 646×10^6 l (142×10^6 imp gal); in
2013–14, 644×10^6 l (142×10^6 imp gal); in
2014–2015, 654×10^6 l (144×10^6 imp gal); in
2015–2016, 642×10^6 l (141×10^6 imp gal).
The company has achieved these reductions by:
better pressure management of known problem sectors of its older water
replacing 2,736 km (1,700 mi) of worn-out Victorian pipes,
mainly under London
The recent successes in meeting leakage targets have mitigated the
earlier failures to meet targets. As a result, and in spite of a
larger distribution network,
Thames Water now leaks slightly less
water than at privatisation in 1989, having reduced leakage from its
31,100 km (19,300 mi) network of water pipes by more than a
third since its 2004 peak to its current lowest-ever level. As of
2013[update] and with an older network profile,
Thames Water leaked
25.8% of supply, slightly less than
Severn Trent at 27%. As of
Thames Water leaked 25.1% of supply.
In the period 2005–13
Thames Water was the most heavily fined water
company in the UK for pollution incidents, paying £842,500 for 87
events. In 2016, it paid the largest fine for a single pollution
incident of £1 million. In March 2017,
Thames Water was fined a
record £20.3 million after it pumped nearly 1.5 billion litres of
untreated sewage into the River Thames. The company also admitted
other water pollution and offences in
Oxfordshire. In awarding the fine, Judge Francis Sheridan noted
the company's "continual failure to report incidents" and "history of
non-compliance", saying: "This is a shocking and disgraceful state of
affairs. It should not be cheaper to offend than to take appropriate
precautions. I have to make the fine sufficiently large that [Thames
Water] get the message", adding that, "One has to get the message
across to the shareholders that the environment is to be treasured and
protected, and not poisoned."
Conversely, in 2014,
Thames Water admitted that it had accidentally
over-reported the number of properties at high risk of sewage flooding
between 2005 and 2010. It agreed a compensation package for customers
of £86 million.
In September 2007, 5 km (3.1 mi) of the River Wandle,
Greater London was polluted. In January 2009,
Thames Water pleaded
guilty and was "fined £125,000 and ordered to pay £21,335 in
clean-up and investigation costs". In February 2010, on appeal,
the fine was found to be "manifestly excessive" and was reduced to
On 5–8 June 2011, more than 230,000 cubic metres (8.1 million
cubic feet), or 230,000 tonnes, of sewage were released from Mogden
Sewage Treatment works, killing 26,000 fish.
Between 14 and 16 August 2011,
Thames Water polluted the Faringdon
Stream, in Faringdon, Oxfordshire. The company was fined £10,000 and
ordered to pay costs of £4,488 
On 29 October 2011,
Thames Water released thousands of tonnes of raw
sewage into the River Crane,
Greater London killing thousands of fish,
when a six-tonne valve jammed during routine maintenance. Despite
tankering and alternative routing, the volume of sewage from Heathrow
overwhelmed the operations. Thames Anglers Conservancy's Robin Vernon
said: “It will take a decade to repair all the damage done by the
sewage spill. Everything in there is just dead now.” In 2013,
fungus and slime in the River Crane was attributed to runoff of
de-icer from Heathrow getting into the river  In 2014, Thames
Water blamed recent pollution on fat poured down drains by local
On 9 December 2011,
Thames Water was fined £60,000 after releasing
sewage sludge into the
Foudry Brook killing up to 20,000 fish in a
three-mile stretch from Silchester, Hampshire.
In September 2012, clogged-up pumps caused sewage to be released into
the Chase Brook, near Newbury. A £250,000 fine imposed in August 2014
was adjudged "lenient" on appeal in 2015. The pumps were replaced by
In January 2016,
Thames Water was fined a record £1m for polluting
Grand Union Canal
Grand Union Canal between July 2012 and April 2013 in
Hertfordshire. In addition, it was required to pay costs of £18,000
and a victim surcharge of £120. In its defence,
Thames Water said it
had spent £30,000 replacing equipment at Tring.
On Christmas Day 2016
Thames Water Hampton pump failed and as a
consequence thousands of Londoners in TW and W postcode areas were
left without water and with a huge strain on their Christmas
In 2011, the company found itself involved in a controversial
redevelopment plan for the
Bath Road Reservoir
Bath Road Reservoir in its home town of
Reading. An appeal against Reading Borough Council's rejection of the
plan was dismissed by the planning inspector in January 2011. Full
planning permission was subsequently granted on 10 December 2012.
The exceptional rain and weather conditions of 2013–14 caused
swollen rivers and several low-lying Thames
Water treatment works to
be submerged under flood water.
In February 2014, the River Ash caused flooding in homes in
Staines-upon-Thames. This flooding was exacerbated by a two-day delay
Surrey County Council's 'Gold Control' flood control group in
Thames Water to close a sluice gate on a Thames Water
Thames Water considered it had been following an existing
protocol agreed with
Surrey County Council and the Environment
Thames Water maintains commercial flocks of sheep on the borders of
several of its reservoirs, which are used as the cheapest way to stop
large plants growing and damaging the banks.
Thames Tideway scheme
Thames Tideway Scheme
Over centuries of London's growth from medieval times to the Victorian
age, the natural tributary system of the
Thames Tideway was converted
first into public open sewers and then closed over into covered sewers
which emptied directly into the River Thames. Joseph Bazalgette's
remediation of the ensuing 1850s
Great Stink renewed much of London's
sewerage mains infrastructure during the period 1859 to 1865. However,
the new design was not intended to cope with the doubling of London's
population over the following 150 years. The concreting of huge
amounts of London's green spaces causes substantial rainwater run-off
into the drainage and sewerage systems which had been expected to soak
into the ground. As a result, even small amounts of rainfall in
certain circumstances can cause London's outdated Victorian sewerage
system to fail over, and release untreated sewage mixed with rainwater
directly into the Thames Tideway.
Each year, on average, there are 50–60 such incidents and a total of
39 million cubic metres (1.4 billion cubic feet), or 39
million tonnes, is released. In 2013–14, exceptional weather
conditions and flooding caused a total release of 55 million
cubic metres (1.9 billion cubic feet), or 55 million tonnes.
The released effluent follows the ebb and flow of the tidal Thames,
and can take up to 3 days to exit the Tideway into the Estuary. For
Thames Water advises against swimming in the Thames
Tideway and, by extension, walking in the tidal strand area.
Despite this pollution, large marine mammals are increasingly found in
Thames Tideway and Estuary, indicating some level of year-on-year
To mitigate and resolve the above problems, the
Thames Tideway Scheme
proposed a three-stage series of improvements. The first two stages of
the improvements were upgrades to 5 sewage treatment works and
construction of the 6.9 km (4.3 mi) Lee Tunnel, formally
opened on 28 January 2016. Together, these are expected to result
in an annual discharge reduction of 40%. This is equivalent to a
reduction of 16 million cubic metres (570 million cubic
feet) or 16 million tonnes per year, down to about 23 million
cubic metres (810 million cubic feet) or 23 million tonnes of
effluent per year. The third stage is the 25 km (16 mi)
Thames Tideway Tunnel, which was proposed by the Thames Tideway
Strategic Study, including Thames Water, as an effective solution to
deal with most of the remaining problem. On 12 September 2014,
planning consent was formally approved by the UK Government. On 24
August 2015, the building contracts were awarded for the western
section (Ealing to Hammersmith: £416 million, to BAM Nuttall, Morgan
Sindall and Balfour Beatty), the central section (Hammersmith to Tower
Bridge: £746 million, to Ferrovial Agroman and Laing O'Rourke) and
the eastern section (Tower Bridge to Stratford and Greenwich: £605
million, to Costain, Vinci Construction Grands Projets and Bachy
Soletanche). On 3 November 2015, Bazalgette Tunnel Ltd received
its operating licence from OFWAT, ensuring the start of the
The necessity for action has added urgency because of imminent water
quality fines of up to £1bn by the
European Commission on the UK
Thames Water AMP6 alliance already working on delivery plans".
Waterbriefing.org. London. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 28 May
^ a b c d e f g h i "Annual Performance Report 2015–2016" (PDF).
Thames Water. June 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
^ "Facts and Figures". Thames Water. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
^ a b "Mayor of London opens Lee Tunnel". Water and Wastewater
Treatment. 29 Jan 2016. Retrieved 4 Feb 2016.
^ "Bye-bye big stink" (PDF). Beckton in Focus, The Newham Mag, London
Borough of Newham. April 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
Thames Tideway Tunnel". London Councils website. Retrieved 9 March
^ a b "Green light for £4.2bn London 'super sewer'". Thames Tideway
Forum. 3 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
^ "Need for reservoir 'not proven'". BBC News. 5 January 2007.
Retrieved 12 February 2011.
^ Harrington, Ben (30 May 2012). "BT Pension Scheme seals deal for
13pc stake in Thames Water". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 23 March
^ "Macquarie sells 9.9% stake in
Thames Water to Abu Dhabi Investment
Authority". Waterbriefing.org. 13 December 2011. Retrieved 23 March
^ "China wealth fund buys nearly 9% of Thames Water". BBC News. 20
January 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
^ a b c Carrington, Damian (22 March 2017). "
Thames Water hit with
record £20m fine for huge sewage leaks". The Guardian. London.
Retrieved 22 March 2017.
Thames Water Authority Constitution Order 1973
^ Larry Elliott and Jill Treanor (22 November 2000). "A whole world
sold on sell-offs". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 9 March
^ "1995–2001 - International expansion". Thames Water. Retrieved 13
^ Hope, Christopher (19 February 2002). "Germany's
RWE in frame for
Thames Water owner Takeover bid for power giant sparks surge in share
price". The Herald, Scotland. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
Thames Water to be sold for £8bn". BBC News. 16 October 2006.
Retrieved 12 August 2013.
^ Edmund Conway and Ben Harrington (17 October 2006). "Macquarie buys
Thames Water in £8bn deal". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 9 March
Thames Water in £1bn leaks plan". BBC News. 29 June 2007.
Retrieved 9 March 2013.
^ Mackay, Duncan (31 May 2011). "London 2012 sign up
Thames Water as
sponsor". insidethegames.biz. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
^ "Open Water - About Us". Open Water programme. Retrieved 1 June
^ Ambrose, Jillian (14 March 2017). "Macquarie sells off final stake
in Thames Water". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
^ "Average household bills information: 2013–14". www.ofwat.gov.uk.
Ofwat - UK Government regulator. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
^ Worstall, Tim (6 November 2013). "Another Silly Corporate Tax Story:
This Time It's Thames Water". Forbes magazine. Retrieved 28 May
^ Rankin, Jennifer (10 June 2013). "
Thames Water pays no corporation
tax on £1.8bn turnover". The Guardian. London.
^ a b "GIS Foundation at Thames Water". Barnsnape Consulting. 2008.
Retrieved 2 September 2012.
Thames Water Utilities Limited: Annual Report & Financial
Statements for the Period ended 31 March 2012" (PDF). Thames Water. 26
June 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
^ "On board London's giant floating solar farm". BBC News. 22 March
2016. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
Thames Water and 2OC in £200m deal to turn 'fatbergs' into
energy". waterbriefing.org. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
Thames Water to generate 20 per cent of energy needs with sewage
scheme". utilityweek.co.uk. 5 March 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
^ "Utility company sentenced for worker death". Health and Safety
Executive Media Centre. 8 December 2014. Retrieved 4 January
Thames Water misses leak target". BBC News. 22 June 2006. Retrieved
9 March 2013.
Thames Water escapes leakage fine". BBC News. 4 July 2006.
Retrieved 9 March 2013.
Thames Water hails leak progress". BBC News. 26 November 2007.
Retrieved 12 February 2011.
^ "Service and delivery – performance of the water companies in
England and Wales 2009–10 - Supporting information" (PDF). Ofwat. 27
October 2010. p. 46. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
^ "Future water and sewerage charges 2010–15: Final determinations"
(PDF). Ofwat. 26 November 2010. pp. 50–52. Retrieved 12
Thames Water leakage - explanatory graphs" (PDF). Ofwat. Retrieved
9 March 2013.
^ 2012/13 figures: 646×10^6 l (142×10^6 imp gal)
daily leakage; 2.5×10^9 l (550×10^6 imp gal) daily
^ Pearce, Fred (8 May 2012). "The water industry is burying a leaking
pipes scandal". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
^ 2014–2015 figures: 654×10^6 l (144×10^6 imp gal)
daily leakage; 2.6×10^6 l (0.57×10^6 imp gal) daily
^ a b "Record £1m fine for
Thames Water after sewage leaked was into
canal". Evening Standard newspaper. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 5
Thames Water fined £20m for sewage spill". BBC News. 22 March
Thames Water to pay £86m package after mis-reporting data". BBC
News. 5 June 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
^ Britain’s largest water company prosecuted for 5km river
pollution, Environment Agency, February 2009; retrieved on 5 February
Thames Water fine for toxic spill in
River Wandle cut". BBC News.
15 February 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
^ "Thousands of
River Thames fish killed by storm sewage". BBC News. 8
June 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
Thames Water ordered to pay £14K+ for stream pollution".
waterbriefing.org. 25 February 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
^ Bishop, Rachel (1 November 2011). "River Crane 'destroyed' by sewage
spill". Richmond and Twickenham Times. Retrieved 2 September
^ Cumber, Robert (21 March 2013). "Heathrow blamed for slime pollution
in river". Hounslow Chronicle. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
^ Cumber, Robert (8 July 2014). "Latest pollution to River Crane
blamed on fat blockage". GetWestLondon. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
Thames Water forced to pay out £60,000 over sewage spill". Reading
Post. 9 December 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
Thames Water brook sewage £250,000 fine deemed 'lenient'". BBC
News. 3 June 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
^ "Bath Road reservoir homes appeal rejected after inquiry". BBC News.
15 January 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
^ "Consultation on Construction of Homes at
Bath Road Reservoir
Bath Road Reservoir Site".
Reading Borough Council. 7 February 2013. Retrieved 23 March
^ "Staines residents seek flooding compensation". BBC News. 13 Nov
2014. Retrieved 14 Nov 2014.
^ "The real-life reservoir dogs (press release)". PR Newswire. Thames
Water. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
^ Dangerfield, Andy (4 October 2015). "The lost rivers that lie
beneath London". BBC News. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
^ "Thames Tunnel Consultation". Thames Tunnel partnership. Retrieved 9
^ "Tideway Times, March 2014" (PDF). Thames Water. Retrieved 6 June
^ "David Walliams given
River Thames sewage warning". BBC News. 10
September 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
^ Morelle, Rebecca (20 Aug 2015). "Marine mammals thriving in Thames".
BBC News. Retrieved 21 Aug 2015.
^ Hardach, Sophie (12 November 2015). "How the
River Thames was
brought back from the dead". BBC News. Retrieved 14 November
River Thames whale 'evoked huge public response'". BBC
News. 9 Jan 2016. Retrieved 9 Jan 2016.
^ Cross, Luke (13 November 2012). "Open Doors:
Lee Tunnel lifts lid on
'exciting' world of construction". Construction News. Retrieved 9
^ "London's 'super sewer' gets the go ahead". BBC News. 12 September
2014. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
^ Farrell, Sean (24 Aug 2015). "London super sewer to cost less than
expected, says Ofwat". theguardian.com. Retrieved 25 Aug 2015.
^ "UK faces fine on EU water breach". BBC News. 18 October 2012.
Retrieved 8 June 2013.
^ Harvey, Fiona (26 January 2012). "Thames super-sewer a 'necessity'
to prevent EU fines". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 8 June
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thames Water.
London sewerage system
London water supply
Metropolitan Board of Works
Metropolitan Water Board
William Chadwell Mylne
New River Company
John Snow (physician)
1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak
Thames Tideway Scheme, including
Thames Tideway Tunnel and Lee Tunnel
Thames Water Desalination Plant
Thames Water Ring Main
Water supply and sanitation in London
Essex and Suffolk Water
Sutton and East
Northern Outfall Sewer
Southern Outfall Sewer
United Kingdom water industry
Water and sewerage companies
in England and Wales
Severn Trent Water
South West Water
Welsh Water (Not For Profit)
in England and Wales
Cambridge Water Company
Cholderton and District Water Company
Dee Valley Water
Essex and Suffolk Water
South East Water
South Staffordshire Water
Sutton and East
Scottish Water (government)
Northern Ireland Water
Northern Ireland Water (government)
Isle of Man Water and Sewerage Authority
Consumer Council for Water
Drinking Water Inspectorate
Water Services Regulation