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A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarns or threads, which are produced by spinning raw fibres (from either natural or synthetic sources) into long and twisted lengths. Textiles are then formed by
weaving Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarn, yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a textile, fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting, crocheting, felting, and braid, braiding or plaiting. ...
,
knitting File:Ibarra (Aramayona), yarn bombing 2.JPG, Yarn bombing in Ibarra de Aramayona, Aramaio, Spain Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or knitted fabric, fabric; it's used in many types of garments. Knitting m ...
, crocheting, knotting, tatting, felting, bonding or braiding these yarns together. The related words "fabric" and "cloth" and "material" are often used in textile assembly trades (such as
tailor A tailor is a person who makes, repairs, or alters clothing professionally, especially suits and men's clothing. Although the term dates to the thirteenth century, ''tailor'' took on its modern sense in the late eighteenth century, and now pro ...
ing and dressmaking) as synonyms for ''textile''. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A ''textile'' is any material made of the interlacing fibres, including carpeting and geotextiles, which may not necessarily be used in the production of further goods, such as
clothing File:KangaSiyu1.jpg, A kanga (African garment), kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the body. Clothing is typically made of fabrics or textiles but over t ...
and upholstery. A ''fabric'' is a material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, felting, stitching, crocheting or bonding that may be used in the production of further products, such as clothing and upholstery, thus requiring a further step of the production. ''Cloth'' may also be used synonymously with ''fabric'', but often specifically refers to a piece of fabric that has been processed or cut.


Etymology

The word 'textile' comes from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...
adjective , meaning 'woven', which itself stems from , the past participle of the verb , 'to weave'. The word 'fabric' also derives from Latin, with roots in the
Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family. Its proposed features have been derived by linguistic reconstruction from documented Indo-European languages. No direct record of Proto-Indo-Europea ...
. Stemming most recently from the
Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the 16th century. It is a period of transition during which: * the French language became clearly distinguished from the ...
, or 'building, thing made', and earlier from the Latin ('workshop; an art, trade; a skilful production, structure, fabric'), the noun stems from the Latin , or 'artisan who works in hard materials', which itself is derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''dhabh-'', meaning 'to fit together'. The word 'cloth' derives from the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventu ...
, meaning a 'cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one', from the Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germanic , similar to the Old Frisian language, Old Frisian , the Middle Dutch , the Middle High German and the German language, German , all meaning 'garment'.


History

The Banton Burial Cloth, the oldest existing example of Warp (weaving), warp ikat in Southeast Asia, displayed at the National Museum of the Philippines. The cloth was most likely made by the native Asia people of northwest Romblon. The first clothes, worn at least 70,000 years ago and perhaps much earlier, were probably made of animal skins and helped protect early humans from the elements. At some point, people learned to weave plant fibers into textiles. The discovery of dyed flax fibers in a cave in the Georgia (country), Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests that textile-like materials were made as early as the Paleolithic era. , Wales in the 1940s The speed and scale of textile production has been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques.


Uses

Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for
clothing File:KangaSiyu1.jpg, A kanga (African garment), kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the body. Clothing is typically made of fabrics or textiles but over t ...
and for containers such as bags and baskets. In the household, textiles are used in carpeting, upholstered furniture, furnishings, window shades, towels, coverings for tables, beds, and other flat surfaces, and in art. In the workplace, textiles can be used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, backpacks, tents, Net (device), nets, handkerchiefs, cleaning wikt:rag, rags, transportation devices such as balloons, kite flying, kites, sails, and parachutes; textiles are also used to provide strengthening in composite materials such as fiberglass, fibreglass and industrial geotextiles. Textiles are used in many traditional crafts such as sewing, quilting and embroidery. Textiles produced for industrial purposes, and designed and chosen for technical characteristics beyond their appearance, are commonly referred to as ''technical textiles.'' Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles (such as implants), geotextiles (reinforcement of embankments), agrotextiles (textiles for crop protection), protective clothing (such as clothing resistant to heat and radiation for fire fighter clothing, against molten metals for welders, stab protection, and bullet proof vests). Due to the often highly technical and legal requirements of these products, these textiles are typically tested in order to ensure they meet stringent performance requirements. Other forms of technical textiles may be produced to experiment with their scientific qualities and to explore the possible benefits they may have in the future. Threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, when woven into fabric, have been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems", using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements to generate energy.


Fibre sources and types

Textiles are made from many materials, with four main sources: animal (wool, silk), plant (cotton, flax, jute, bamboo textile, bamboo), mineral (asbestos, glass (fiber), glass fibre), and synthetic (nylon, polyester, Acrylic fiber, acrylic, rayon). The first three are natural. In the 20th century, they were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum. Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest microfibre made of strands thinner than one Units of textile measurement#Denier, denier to the sturdiest canvas. Textile manufacturing terminology has a wealth of descriptive terms, from light gauze-like Gossamer (fabric), gossamer to heavy grosgrain cloth and beyond.


Animal

Animal textiles are commonly made from hair, fur, skin or silk (in the case of silkworms). * Wool refers to the hair of the domestic sheep or goat, which is distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and tightly crimped, and the wool as a whole is coated with a wax mixture known as lanolin (sometimes called wool grease), which is waterproof and dirtproof. The lanolin and other contaminants are removed from the raw wool before further processing. Woollen refers to a yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while worsted refers to a finer yarn spun from longer fibers which have been combed to be parallel. Wool is commonly used for warm clothing. ** Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are ''alpaca wool'', ''Vicuña, vicuña wool'', ''llama wool'', and ''camel hair'', generally used in the production of Coat (clothing), coats, jackets, ponchos, blankets, and other warm coverings. ** ''Cashmere wool, Cashmere'', the hair of the Indian cashmere goat, and mohair, the hair of the North African angora goat, are types of wool known for their softness. ** ''Angora wool, Angora'' refers to the long, thick, soft hair of the angora rabbit. Qiviut is the fine inner wool of the muskox. ** ''Wadmal'' is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia, mostly 1000~1500 CE. * Sea silk is an extremely fine, rare, and valuable fabric that is made from the silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells. * Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the Cocoon (silk), cocoon of the Chinese silkworm which is spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness. There are two main types of the silk: 'mulberry silk' produced by the Bombyx mori, Bombyx Mori, and 'wild silk' such as Wild silk, Tussah silk (wild silk). Silkworm larvae produce the first type if cultivated in habitats with fresh mulberry leaves for consumption, while Tussah silk is produced by silkworms feeding purely on oak leaves. Around four-fifths of the world's silk production consists of cultivated silk.


Plant

Poaceae, Grass, Juncaceae, rush, hemp, and sisal are all used in making rope. In the first two, the entire plant is used for this purpose, while in the last two, only fibres from the plant are utilized. Coir (coconut fibre) is used in making twine, and also in floormats, Mat, doormats, brushes, mattresses, floor tiles, and Bag, sacking. * Straw and bamboo textiles, bamboo are both used to make hats. Straw, a dried form of grass, is also used for stuffing, as is Ceiba pentandra, kapok. * Fibres from pulpwood trees, cotton, rice paper, rice, hemp, and Urtica dioica, nettle are used in making paper. * Cotton, Linen, flax, jute, hemp, Modal (textile), modal and even banana fiber, banana and bamboo fibre are all used in clothing. Piña (pineapple fibre) and ramie are also fibres used in clothing, generally with a blend of other fibres such as cotton. Nettles have also been used to make a fibre and fabric very similar to hemp or flax. The use of milkweed stalk fibre has also been reported, but it tends to be somewhat weaker than other fibres like hemp or flax. * The inner bark of the Lagetta lagetto, lacebark tree is a fine netting that has been used to make clothing and accessories as well as utilitarian articles such as rope. * cellulose acetate, Acetate is used to increase the shininess of certain fabrics such as silks, velvets, and taffetas. * Seaweed is used in the production of textiles: a water-soluble fibre known as Alginic acid, alginate is produced and is used as a holding fibre; when the cloth is finished, the alginate is dissolved, leaving an open area. * Rayon is a manufactured fabric derived from plant pulp. Different types of rayon can imitate the feel and texture of silk, cotton, wool, or linen. Fibres from the stalks of plants, such as hemp, flax, and nettles, are also known as 'bast' fibres.


Mineral

* Asbestos and basalt fibre are used for vinyl tiles, sheeting and adhesives, "transite" panels and siding, acoustical ceilings, stage curtains, and fire blankets. * Glass fibre is used in the production of ironing board and mattress covers, ropes and cables, reinforcement fibre for composite materials, insect netting, flame-retardant and protective fabric, soundproof, fireproof, and insulating fibres. Glass fibres are woven and coated with Teflon to produce beta cloth, a virtually fireproof fabric which replaced nylon in the outer layer of United States space suits since 1968. * Metal fibre, metal foil, and metal wire have a variety of uses, including the production of cloth-of-gold and jewellery. Hardware cloth (US term only) is a coarse woven mesh of steel wire, used in construction. It is much like standard window screening, but heavier and with a more open weave. Minerals and natural and synthetic fabrics may be combined, as in emery cloth, a layer of Emery (rock), emery abrasive glued to a cloth backing. Also, "sand cloth" is a U.S. term for fine wire mesh with abrasive glued to it, employed like emery cloth or coarse sandpaper.


Synthetic

File:Tartan Clan Campbell.png, Woven tartan of Clan Campbell, Scotland Synthetic textiles are used primarily in the production of clothing, as well as the manufacture of geotextiles. * Polyester fibre is used in all types of clothing, either alone or blended with fibres such as cotton. * Aramid fibre (e.g. Twaron) is used for flame-retardant clothing, cut-protection, and armour. * Acrylic fibre, Acrylic is a fibre used to imitate wools, including cashmere, and is often used in replacement of them. * Nylon is a fibre used to imitate silk; it is used in the production of pantyhose. Thicker nylon fibres are used in rope and outdoor clothing. * Spandex (trade name ''Lycra'') is a polyurethane product that can be made tight-fitting without impeding movement. It is used to make activewear, Brassiere, bras, and swimsuits. * Olefin fibre is a fibre used in activewear, linings, and warm clothing. Olefins are hydrophobic, allowing them to dry quickly. A sintered felt of olefin fibres is sold under the trade name Tyvek. * Ingeo is a polylactide fibre blended with other fibres such as cotton and used in clothing. It is more hydrophilic than most other synthetics, allowing it to wick away perspiration. * Lurex (yarn), Lurex is a metallic fibre used in clothing embellishment. * Milk proteins have also been used to create synthetic fabric. Milk or casein fibre cloth was developed during World War I in Germany, and further developed in Italy and America during the 1930s. Milk fibre fabric is not very durable and wrinkles easily, but has a pH similar to human skin and possesses anti-bacterial properties. It is marketed as a biodegradation, biodegradable, renewable resource, renewable synthetic fibre. * Carbon fibre is mostly used in composite materials, together with resin, such as carbon fibre reinforced plastic. The fibres are made from polymer fibres through carbonization.


Blends (Blended textiles)

Fabric or yarn produced with a combination of two or more types of different Fibre, fibers, or yarns to obtain desired traits. Blending is possible at various stages of textile manufacturing. Final composition is liable for the properties of the resultant product. Natural fiber, Natural and Synthetic fiber, Synthetic fibers are blended to overcome disadvantage of single fiber properties and to achieve better performance characteristics and aesthetic effects such as devoré, Heather (fabric), heather effect, cross dyeing and stripes pattern etc. Clothing woven from a blend of cotton and polyester can be more durable and easier to maintain than material woven solely from cotton. Other than sharing functional properties, blending makes the products more economical. Fiber composition is an important criteria to analyze the behavior, properties such as functional aspects and commercial classification of the merchandise. The fiber composition in textile materials is termed as "fiber identification".


Production methods

* Weaving is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of longer Yarn, threads (called the warp (weaving), warp) with a set of crossing threads (called the weft). This is done on a frame or machine known as a loom, of which there are a number of types. Some weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanized. * Knitting, Nålebinding, looping, and crocheting involve interlacing loops of yarn, which are formed either on a knitting needle, needle, or on a crochet hook, together in a line. The processes are different in that knitting has several active loops at one time, on the knitting needle waiting to interlock with another loop, while looping and crocheting never have more than one active loop on the needle. Knitting can be performed by machine, but crochet can only be performed by hand. * Spread tow fabric, Spread tow is a production method where the tow fibres are spread into thin tapes, and then the tapes are woven as warp and weft. This method is mostly used for composite materials; spread tow fabrics can be made in carbon fibers, carbon, aramid and other fibres. * Braiding or plaiting involves intertwining threads together into cloth. Knot, Knotting involves tying threads together and is used in making tatting and macrame. * Lace is made by interlocking threads together independently, using a backing alongside any of the methods described above, to create a fine fabric with open holes in the work. Lace can be made by either hand or machine. * Carpets, rugs, velvet, velour, and velveteen, referred to as pile fabrics, are made by interlacing a secondary yarn through woven cloth, creating a tufted layer known as a nap (fabric), nap or pile (textile), pile. * Non-woven textiles are manufactured by the bonding of fibres to make fabric. Bonding may be thermal, mechanical, chemical, or adhesives can be used. :* ''Felting'' involves applying pressure and friction to a mat of fibres, working and rubbing them together until the fibres become interlocked and tangled, forming a nonwoven textile. A liquid, such as soapy water, is usually added to lubricate the fibres, and to open up the microscopic scales on strands of wool. :* ''Barkcloth'' is made by pounding bark until it is soft and flat.


Treatments

Textiles are often dyeing, dyed, with fabrics available in almost every colour. The dyeing process often requires several dozen gallons of water for each pound of clothing. Coloured designs in textiles can be created by weaving together fibres of different colours (tartan or Uzbek Ikat), adding coloured stitches to finished fabric (embroidery), creating patterns by resist dyeing methods, tying off areas of cloth and dyeing the rest (tie-dyeing), drawing wax designs on cloth and dyeing in between them (batik), or using various printing processes on finished fabric. Woodblock printing, still used in India and elsewhere today, is the oldest of these dating back to at least 220 CE in China. Textiles are also sometimes bleached, making the textile pale or white. , meaning "iron yarn" in English, is a light-reflecting, strong material invented in Germany in the 19th century. It is made by soaking cotton threads in a starch and paraffin wax solution. The threads are then stretched and polished by steel rollers and brushes. The end result of the process is a lustrous, tear-resistant yarn which is extremely hardwearing.''Industriegeschichte aus dem Bergischen land''
(in German). (Accessed: 27 November 2016)
WDR digit project. ''Eisengarnfabrikation in Barmen''.
(Video (16 min) in German). (Accessed: 27 November 2016).
Since the 1990s, with advances in technologies such as permanent press process, Finishing (textiles), finishing agents have been used to strengthen fabrics and make them wrinkle free. More recently, nanomaterials research has led to additional advancements, with companies such as Nano-Tex and NanoHorizons developing permanent treatments based on metallic nanoparticles for making textiles more resistant to things such as water, stains, wrinkles, and pathogens such as bacteria and fungi. Textiles receive a range of treatments before they reach the end-user. From formaldehyde finishes (to improve crease-resistance) to biocidic finishes and from flame retardants to dyeing of many types of fabric, the possibilities are almost endless. However, many of these finishes may also have detrimental effects on the end user. A number of disperse, acid and reactive dyes, for example, have been shown to be allergenic to sensitive individuals. Further to this, specific dyes within this group have also been shown to induce purpuric contact dermatitis. Although formaldehyde levels in clothing are unlikely to be at levels high enough to cause an allergic reaction, due to the presence of such a chemical, quality control and testing are of utmost importance. Flame retardants (mainly in the brominated form) are also of concern where the environment, and their potential toxicity, are concerned. Testing for these additives is possible at a number of commercial laboratories, it is also possible to have textiles tested according to the Oeko-tex certification standard, which contains limits levels for the use of certain chemicals in textiles products.


See also

* List of textile fibres * Textile arts * Textile manufacturing (Textile manufacturing terminology, terminology) * Textile printing * Technical textile * Timeline of clothing and textiles technology


References


Further reading

* Introduction by Teresa Archuleta-Sagel. 196 pages with 125 black and white as well as colour plates. Fisher is Curator Emirta, Textiles & Costumes of the Museum of International Folk Art. * * Arai, Masanao (Textile Industry Research Institute of Gunma).
From Kitsch to Art Moderne: Popular Textiles for Women in the First Half of Twentieth-Century Japan

Archive
. ''Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings''. Textile Society of America, January 1, 1998. * {{Authority control Textiles, Clothing industry