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A textile[1] is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread). Yarn
Yarn
is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, hemp, or other materials to produce long strands.[2] Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or felting. The related words fabric[3] and cloth[4] are often used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A textile is any material made of interlacing fibres, including carpeting and geotextiles. A fabric is a material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods (garments, etc.). Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is often a piece of fabric that has been processed.

Alpaca
Alpaca
textiles at the Otavalo Artisan Market in the Andes Mountains, Ecuador

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Uses 4 Sources and types

4.1 Animal 4.2 Plant 4.3 Mineral 4.4 Synthetic

5 Production methods 6 Treatments 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading

Etymology[edit] The word 'textile' is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning 'woven', from textus, the past participle of the verb texere, 'to weave'.[5] The word 'fabric' also derives from Latin, most recently from the Middle French fabrique, or 'building, thing made', and earlier as the Latin
Latin
fabrica 'workshop; an art, trade; a skilful production, structure, fabric', which is from the Latin
Latin
faber, or 'artisan who works in hard materials', from PIE dhabh-, meaning 'to fit together'.[6] The word 'cloth' derives from the Old English
Old English
clað, meaning a cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz (compare O.Frisian 'klath', Middle Dutch 'cleet', Dutch 'kleed', Middle High German 'kleit', and German 'kleid', all meaning "garment").[7] History[edit] Main article: History of clothing and textiles The discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE
BCE
suggests textile-like materials were made even in prehistoric times.[8][9]

Textile
Textile
machinery at the Cambrian Factory, Llanwrtyd, Wales
Wales
in the 1940s

The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods. Uses[edit] Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for containers such as bags and baskets. In the household they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, towels, coverings for tables, beds, and other flat surfaces, and in art. In the workplace they are used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, backpacks, tents, nets, handkerchiefs, cleaning rags, transportation devices such as balloons, kites, sails, and parachutes; textiles are also used to provide strengthening in composite materials such as fibreglass and industrial geotextiles. Textiles are used in many traditional crafts such as sewing, quilting and embroidery. Textiles for industrial purposes, and chosen for characteristics other than their appearance, are commonly referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles (e.g. implants), geotextiles (reinforcement of embankments), agrotextiles (textiles for crop protection), protective clothing (e.g. against heat and radiation for fire fighter clothing, against molten metals for welders, stab protection, and bullet proof vests). In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met. Woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems" using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements.[10][11] Sources and types[edit] Textiles are made from many materials, with four main sources: animal (wool, silk), plant (cotton, flax, jute), mineral (asbestos, glass fibre), and synthetic (nylon, polyester, acrylic). The first three are natural. In the 20th century, they were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum. Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest microfibre made of strands thinner than one denier to the sturdiest canvas. Textile manufacturing terminology
Textile manufacturing terminology
has a wealth of descriptive terms, from light gauze-like gossamer to heavy grosgrain cloth and beyond. Animal[edit] Animal textiles are commonly made from hair, fur, skin or silk (in the silkworms case). Wool
Wool
refers to the hair of the domestic goat or sheep, which is distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and tightly crimped, and the wool as a whole is coated with a wax mixture known as lanolin (sometimes called wool grease), which is waterproof and dirtproof[citation needed]. Woollen refers to a bulkier yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while worsted refers to a finer yarn spun from longer fibres which have been combed to be parallel. Wool
Wool
is commonly used for warm clothing. Cashmere, the hair of the Indian cashmere goat, and mohair, the hair of the North African angora goat, are types of wool known for their softness. Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are alpaca wool, vicuña wool, llama wool, and camel hair, generally used in the production of coats, jackets, ponchos, blankets, and other warm coverings. Angora refers to the long, thick, soft hair of the angora rabbit. Qiviut
Qiviut
is the fine inner wool of the muskox. Wadmal
Wadmal
is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia, mostly 1000~1500 CE. Silk
Silk
is an animal textile made from the fibres of the cocoon of the Chinese silkworm which is spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness. There are two main types of the silk: 'mulberry silk' produced by the Bombyx Mori, and 'wild silk' such as Tussah silk. Silkworm
Silkworm
larvae produce the first type if cultivated in habitats with fresh mulberry leaves for consumption, while Tussah silk is produced by silkworms feeding purely on oak leaves. Around four-fifths of the world's silk production consists of cultivated silk.[12] Plant[edit] Grass, rush, hemp, and sisal are all used in making rope. In the first two, the entire plant is used for this purpose, while in the last two, only fibres from the plant are utilized. Coir
Coir
(coconut fibre) is used in making twine, and also in floormats, doormats, brushes, mattresses, floor tiles, and sacking. Straw
Straw
and bamboo are both used to make hats. Straw, a dried form of grass, is also used for stuffing, as is kapok. Fibres from pulpwood trees, cotton, rice, hemp, and nettle are used in making paper. Cotton, flax, jute, hemp, modal and even bamboo fibre are all used in clothing. Piña
Piña
(pineapple fibre) and ramie are also fibres used in clothing, generally with a blend of other fibres such as cotton. Nettles have also been used to make a fibre and fabric very similar to hemp or flax. The use of milkweed stalk fibre has also been reported, but it tends to be somewhat weaker than other fibres like hemp or flax. The inner bark of the lacebark tree is a fine netting that has been used to make clothing and accessories as well as utilitarian articles such as rope. Acetate is used to increase the shininess of certain fabrics such as silks, velvets, and taffetas. Seaweed
Seaweed
is used in the production of textiles: a water-soluble fibre known as alginate is produced and is used as a holding fibre; when the cloth is finished, the alginate is dissolved, leaving an open area. Lyocell
Lyocell
is a synthetic fabric derived from wood pulp. It is often described as a synthetic silk equivalent; it is a tough fabric that is often blended with other fabrics – cotton, for example. Fibres from the stalks of plants, such as hemp, flax, and nettles, are also known as 'bast' fibres. Mineral[edit] Asbestos
Asbestos
and basalt fibre are used for vinyl tiles, sheeting and adhesives, "transite" panels and siding, acoustical ceilings, stage curtains, and fire blankets. Glass fibre
Glass fibre
is used in the production of ironing board and mattress covers, ropes and cables, reinforcement fibre for composite materials, insect netting, flame-retardant and protective fabric, soundproof, fireproof, and insulating fibres. Glass fibres are woven and coated with Teflon
Teflon
to produce beta cloth, a virtually fireproof fabric which replaced nylon in the outer layer of United States space suits since 1968.[verification needed] Metal fibre, metal foil, and metal wire have a variety of uses, including the production of cloth-of-gold and jewellery. Hardware cloth (US term only) is a coarse woven mesh of steel wire, used in construction. It is much like standard window screening, but heavier and with a more open weave. Minerals and natural and synthetic fabrics may be combined, as in emery cloth, a layer of emery abrasive glued to a cloth backing. Also, "sand cloth" is a U.S. term for fine wire mesh with abrasive glued to it, employed like emery cloth or coarse sandpaper. Synthetic[edit]

A variety of contemporary fabrics. From the left: evenweave cotton, velvet, printed cotton, calico, felt, satin, silk, hessian, polycotton

Woven tartan of Clan Campbell, Scotland

Embroidered skirts by the Alfaro-Nùñez family of Cochas, Peru, using traditional Peruvian embroidery methods[13]

Synthetic textiles are used primarily in the production of clothing, as well as the manufacture of geotextiles. Polyester
Polyester
fibre is used in all types of clothing, either alone or blended with fibres such as cotton. Aramid
Aramid
fibre (e.g. Twaron) is used for flame-retardant clothing, cut-protection, and armour. Acrylic is a fibre used to imitate wools,[14] including cashmere, and is often used in replacement of them. Nylon
Nylon
is a fibre used to imitate silk; it is used in the production of pantyhose. Thicker nylon fibres are used in rope and outdoor clothing. Spandex
Spandex
(trade name Lycra) is a polyurethane product that can be made tight-fitting without impeding movement. It is used to make activewear, bras, and swimsuits. Olefin fibre is a fibre used in activewear, linings, and warm clothing. Olefins are hydrophobic, allowing them to dry quickly. A sintered felt of olefin fibres is sold under the trade name Tyvek. Ingeo is a polylactide fibre blended with other fibres such as cotton and used in clothing. It is more hydrophilic than most other synthetics, allowing it to wick away perspiration. Lurex is a metallic fibre used in clothing embellishment. Milk
Milk
proteins have also been used to create synthetic fabric. Milk
Milk
or casein fibre cloth was developed during World War I
World War I
in Germany, and further developed in Italy and America during the 1930s.[15] Milk fibre fabric is not very durable and wrinkles easily, but has a pH similar to human skin and possesses anti-bacterial properties. It is marketed as a biodegradable, renewable synthetic fibre.[16] Carbon fibre
Carbon fibre
is mostly used in composite materials, together with resin, such as carbon fibre reinforced plastic. The fibres are made from polymer fibres through carbonization.

A. C. Lawrence Leather
Leather
Co. c. 1910 Peabody, Massachusetts, US

Production methods[edit] Main articles: Textile manufacturing
Textile manufacturing
and Textile
Textile
industry

Top five exporters of textiles—2013 ($ billion)

China 274

India 40

Italy 36

Germany 35

Bangladesh 28

Source:[17]

Weaving
Weaving
is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of longer threads (called the warp) with a set of crossing threads (called the weft). This is done on a frame or machine known as a loom, of which there are a number of types. Some weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanized. Knitting, looping, and crocheting involve interlacing loops of yarn, which are formed either on a knitting needle, needle, or on a crochet hook, together in a line. The processes are different in that knitting has several active loops at one time, on the knitting needle waiting to interlock with another loop, while Looping and crocheting never have more than one active loop on the needle. Knitting
Knitting
can be performed by machine, but crochet can only be performed by hand.[18] Spread Tow is a production method where the yarn are spread into thin tapes, and then the tapes are woven as warp and weft. This method is mostly used for composite materials; spread tow fabrics can be made in carbon, aramide, etc. Braiding or plaiting involves twisting threads together into cloth. Knotting involves tying threads together and is used in making macrame. Lace
Lace
is made by interlocking threads together independently, using a backing and any of the methods described above, to create a fine fabric with open holes in the work. Lace
Lace
can be made by either hand or machine. Carpets, rugs, velvet, velour, and velveteen are made by interlacing a secondary yarn through woven cloth, creating a tufted layer known as a nap or pile. Felting involves pressing a mat of fibres together, and working them together until they become tangled. A liquid, such as soapy water, is usually added to lubricate the fibres, and to open up the microscopic scales on strands of wool. Nonwoven
Nonwoven
textiles are manufactured by the bonding of fibres to make fabric. Bonding may be thermal or mechanical, or adhesives can be used. Bark cloth is made by pounding bark until it is soft and flat. Treatments[edit] Textiles are often dyed, with fabrics available in almost every colour. The dyeing process often requires several dozen gallons of water for each pound of clothing.[19] Coloured designs in textiles can be created by weaving together fibres of different colours (tartan or Uzbek Ikat), adding coloured stitches to finished fabric (embroidery), creating patterns by resist dyeing methods, tying off areas of cloth and dyeing the rest (tie-dyeing), or drawing wax designs on cloth and dyeing in between them (batik), or using various printing processes on finished fabric. Woodblock printing, still used in India and elsewhere today, is the oldest of these dating back to at least 220 CE in China. Textiles are also sometimes bleached, making the textile pale or white.

Brilliantly dyed traditional woven textiles of Guatemala, and woman weaving on a backstrap loom

Textiles are sometimes finished by chemical processes to change their characteristics. In the 19th century and early 20th century starching was commonly used to make clothing more resistant to stains and wrinkles. Eisengarn, meaning "iron yarn" in English, is a light-reflecting, strong material invented in Germany
Germany
in the 19th century. It is made by soaking cotton threads in a starch and paraffin wax solution. The threads are then stretched and polished by steel rollers and brushes. The end result of the process is a lustrous, tear-resistant yarn which is extremely hardwearing.[20][21] Since the 1990s, with advances in technologies such as permanent press process, finishing agents have been used to strengthen fabrics and make them wrinkle free.[22] More recently, nanomaterials research has led to additional advancements, with companies such as Nano-Tex and NanoHorizons developing permanent treatments based on metallic nanoparticles for making textiles more resistant to things such as water, stains, wrinkles, and pathogens such as bacteria and fungi.[23] More so today than ever before, textiles receive a range of treatments before they reach the end-user. From formaldehyde finishes (to improve crease-resistance) to biocidic finishes and from flame retardants to dyeing of many types of fabric, the possibilities are almost endless. However, many of these finishes may also have detrimental effects on the end user. A number of disperse, acid and reactive dyes (for example) have been shown to be allergenic to sensitive individuals.[24] Further to this, specific dyes within this group have also been shown to induce purpuric contact dermatitis.[25] Although formaldehyde levels in clothing are unlikely to be at levels high enough to cause an allergic reaction,[26] due to the presence of such a chemical, quality control and testing are of utmost importance. Flame retardants (mainly in the brominated form) are also of concern where the environment, and their potential toxicity, are concerned.[27] Testing for these additives is possible at a number of commercial laboratories, it is also possible to have textiles tested for according to the Oeko-tex certification standard which contains limits levels for the use of certain chemicals in textiles products. See also[edit]

Bangladesh University of Textiles Bangladesh textile industry Bettsometer Cotton List of textile fibres Maya textiles Fibre
Fibre
art Quipu Realia (library science) Smart textiles Textile
Textile
arts Textile
Textile
manufacturing (terminology) Textile
Textile
museum Textile
Textile
preservation Textile
Textile
printing Textile
Textile
recycling Textile
Textile
Research Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands Textiles of Lampung / Mexico / Oaxaca Timeline of clothing and textiles technology Units of textile measurement List of fabric names

References[edit]

^ "Textile". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 2011-11-09. Retrieved 2012-05-25.  ^ "An Introduction to Textile
Textile
Terms" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2006. Retrieved August 6, 2006.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-10-19. Retrieved 2017-10-18.  ^ "Cloth". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 2012-06-06. Retrieved 2012-05-25.  ^ "Textile". The Free Dictionary By Farlex. Retrieved 2012-05-25.  ^ Harper, Douglas. "fabric". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-12-11.  ^ Harper, Douglas. "cloth". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-12-11.  ^ Balter, M. (2009). "Clothes Make the (Hu) Man". Science. 325 (5946): 1329. doi:10.1126/science.325_1329a. PMID 19745126.  ^ Kvavadze, E.; Bar-Yosef, O.; Belfer-Cohen, A.; Boaretto, E.; Jakeli, N.; Matskevich, Z.; Meshveliani, T. (2009). "30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers". Science. 325 (5946): 1359. doi:10.1126/science.1175404. PMID 19745144.  Supporting Online Material Archived 2009-11-27 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Keim, Brandon (February 13, 2008). "Piezoelectric Nanowires Turn Fabric Into Power Source". Wired News. CondéNet. Archived from the original on February 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-13.  ^ Yong Qin, Xudong Wang & Zhong Lin Wang (October 10, 2007). "Letter/abstract: Microfibre–nanowire hybrid structure for energy scavenging". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 451 (7180): 809–813. doi:10.1038/nature06601. PMID 18273015. Archived from the original on February 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-13.  cited in "Editor's summary: Nanomaterial: power dresser". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. February 14, 2008. Archived from the original on February 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-13.  ^ Trevisan, Adrian. "Cocoon Silk: A Natural Silk
Silk
Architecture". Sense of Nature. Archived from the original on 2012-05-07.  ^ Art-Gourds.com Archived 2008-10-13 at the Wayback Machine. Traditional Peruvian embroidery production methods ^ Hammerskog, Paula; Wincent, Eva (2009). Swedish Knits: Classic and Modern Designs in the Scandinavian Tradition. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. ISBN 9781602397248. Archived from the original on 2017-11-23.  ^ Euroflax Industries Ltd. "Euroflaxx Industries (Import of Textiles)" Archived 2010-01-13 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Fonte, Diwata (August 23, 2005). "Milk-fabric clothing raises a few eyebrows". The Orange County Register. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved 2009-10-21.  ^ "India overtakes Germany
Germany
and Italy, is new world No. 2 in textile exports". Archived from the original on 2015-02-15. Retrieved 2015-02-03.  ^ Rowe, Ann Pollard (1997). Looping and Knitting. Washington, D.C.: The Textile
Textile
Museum. p. 2.  ^ Green Inc. Blog "Cutting Water Use in the Textile
Textile
Industry." Archived 2009-07-24 at the Wayback Machine. The New York Times. July 21, 2009. July 28, 2009. ^ Industriegeschichte aus dem Bergischen land (in German). (Accessed: 27 November 2016) ^ WDR digit project. Eisengarnfabrikation in Barmen. Archived 2016-11-28 at the Wayback Machine. (Video (16 min) in German). (Accessed: 27 November 2016). ^ "What makes fabric "wrinkle-free"? Is it the weave or a special type of fiber?". Ask.yahoo.com. 2001-03-15. Archived from the original on 2012-01-17. Retrieved 2011-12-04.  ^ "The Materials Science and Engineering of Clothing". Tms.org. Archived from the original on 2012-01-21. Retrieved 2011-12-04.  ^ Lazarov, A (2004). " Textile
Textile
dermatitis in patients with contact sensitization in Israel: A 4-year prospective study". Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 18 (5): 531–7. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3083.2004.00967.x. PMID 15324387.  ^ Lazarov, A; Cordoba, M; Plosk, N; Abraham, D (2003). "Atypical and unusual clinical manifestations of contact dermatitis to clothing (textile contact dermatitis): Case presentation and review of the literature". Dermatology online journal. 9 (3): 1. PMID 12952748.  ^ Scheman, AJ; Carroll, PA; Brown, KH; Osburn, AH (1998). "Formaldehyde-related textile allergy: An update". Contact dermatitis. 38 (6): 332–6. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1998.tb05769.x. PMID 9687033.  ^ Alaee, M; Arias, P; Sjödin, A; Bergman, A (2003). "An overview of commercially used brominated flame retardants, their applications, their use patterns in different countries/regions and possible modes of release" (PDF). Environment International. 29 (6): 683–9. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00121-1. PMID 12850087. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-28. 

Further reading[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Textile

Look up cloth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Textiles and Fabrics.

Fisher, Nora. Rio Grande Textiles (Paperbound ed.). Museum of New Mexico Press. [year needed] Introduction by Teresa Archuleta-Sagel. 196 pages with 125 black and white as well as colour plates. Fisher is Curator Emirta, Textiles & Costumes of the Museum of International Folk Art. Good, Irene (2006). "Textiles as a Medium of Exchange in Third Millennium B.C.E. Western Asia". In Mair, Victor H. Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. pp. 191–214. ISBN 978-0-8248-2884-4.  Arai, Masanao ( Textile
Textile
Industry Research Institute of Gunma). "From Kitsch to Art
Art
Moderne: Popular Textiles for Women in the First Half of Twentieth-Century Japan" (Archive). Textile
Textile
Society of America Symposium Proceedings. Textile
Textile
Society of America, January 1, 1998.

v t e

Textile
Textile
arts

Fundamentals

Applique Beadwork Crochet Dyeing Embroidery Fabric Felting Fiber Knitting Lace Macramé Nålebinding Needlework Patchwork Passementerie Plying Quilting Rope Rug making Sewing Stitch Textile
Textile
printing Weaving Yarn

History of ...

Byzantine silk Clothing
Clothing
and textiles Silk Quilting Silk
Silk
in the Indian subcontinent Textile manufacturing
Textile manufacturing
by pre-industrial methods Textiles in the Industrial Revolution Modern Industrial Textile
Textile
Production Timeline of textile technology

Regional and ethnic

African Andean Australian Aboriginal Hmong Indigenous peoples of the Americas Korean Māori Mapuche Maya Mexican Navajo Oaxacan

Related

Blocking Fiber
Fiber
art Mathematics and fiber arts Manufacturing Preservation Recycling Textile
Textile
industry Textile
Textile
museums Units of measurement Wearable fiber art

Glossaries

Dyeing
Dyeing
terms Sewing
Sewing
terms Textile
Textile
terms

v t e

Fabric

Woven

Aertex Airdura Airguard Barathea Barkcloth Batiste Bedford cord Bengaline Beta cloth Bombazine Brilliantine Broadcloth Buckram Bunting Burlap C change Calico Cambric Canvas Chambray Capilene Cedar bark Challis Char cloth Charmeuse Charvet Cheesecloth Chiffon Chino Chintz Cloqué Cloth of gold Cordura Corduroy Duck Coutil Crape Crêpe Cretonne Dazzle Denim Dimity Donegal tweed Dornix Dowlas Drill Drugget Eolienne Flannel Foulard Fustian Gabardine Gauze Gazar Georgette Ghalamkar Gingham Grenadine Grenfell Cloth Grosgrain Habutai Haircloth Harris Tweed Herringbone Himroo Hodden Irish linen Jamdani Kerseymere Khādī Khaki drill Kente cloth Lamé Lawn Linsey-woolsey Loden Longcloth Mackinaw Madapolam Madras Moleskin Muslin Nainsook Nankeen Ninon Oilskin Organdy Organza Osnaburg Ottoman Oxford Paduasoy Percale Pongee Poplin Rakematiz Rayadillo Rep Rinzu Ripstop Russell cord Saga Nishiki Samite Sateen Satin Saye Scarlet Seersucker Sendal Serge Scrim Shot silk Stuff Taffeta Tais Toile Tucuyo Tweed Twill Ultrasuede Vegetable flannel Ventile Vinyl coated polyester Viyella Voile Wadmal Wigan Whipcord Zephyr Zorbeez

Figured woven

Brocade Camlet Damask Lampas Songket

Pile woven

Baize Chenille Corduroy Crimplene Fustian Mockado Moquette Plush Polar fleece Terrycloth Velours du Kasaï Velvet Velveteen Zibeline

Nonwoven

Felt Cedar bark

Knitted

Boiled wool Coolmax Machine knitting Milliskin Jersey Velour

Netted

Bobbinet Carbon
Carbon
fiber Lace Mesh Needlerun net Ninon Tulle

Technical

Ballistic nylon Ban-Lon Conductive Darlexx E-textiles Gannex Gore-Tex Silnylon Spandex Stub-tex SympaTex Windstopper

Patterns

Argyle Bizarre silk Chiné Herringbone Houndstooth Paisley Pin
Pin
stripes Polka dot Shweshwe Tartan
Tartan
(plaid) Tattersall

Textile
Textile
fibers

Acrylic Alpaca Angora Cashmere Coir Cotton Eisengarn Hemp Jute Kevlar Linen Mohair Nylon Microfiber Olefin Pashmina Polyester Piña Ramie Rayon Sea silk Silk Sisal Spandex Spider silk Wool

Finishing and printing

Androsia Batik Beetling Bingata Bògòlanfini Burnout Calendering Decatising Devoré Finishing Fulling Heatsetting Mercerization Moire Nap Rogan printing Rōketsuzome Roller printing Sanforization Tenterhook Textile
Textile
printing Warp printing Waxed cotton Woodblock printing Indienne

Fabric mills

Carlo Barbera Cerruti Dormeuil Drago Ermenegildo Zegna E. Thomas Holland & Sherry Larusmiani Loro Piana Reda Scabal Vitale Barberis Canonico

Related

Dyeing Fiber History of textiles History of silk Knitting Pandy Shrinkage Swatches and strike-offs Synthetic fabric Terminology Manufacturing Preservation Weaving Yarn

v t e

Clothing
Clothing
materials and parts

Garment Structures

Armscye Collar Cuff Dart Facing Fly Lapel Gore Hem Lining Placket Pleat Pocket Revers Ruffle Shoulder pad Strap Sleeve Train Waistband Yoke

Textiles

Artificial leather Cotton Elastic Fur Linen Nylon Polyester Rayon Silk Spandex Wool

Animals hide / Leather

Calf Deer Goat Kangaroo Ostrich Seal Sheep Snake Stingray

Fasteners

Back closure Belt hook Buckle Button

Buttonhole Frog Shank

Hook-and-eye Hook and loop

Velcro

Snap Zipper

Seams

Neckline Bustline Waistline Hemline

v t e

Sewing

Techniques

Basting Cut Darning Ease Embellishment Fabric tube turning Floating canvas Gather Godet Gusset Heirloom sewing Shirring

Stitches

List of sewing stitches Backstitch Bar tack Blanket Blind stitch Buttonhole Catch stitch Chain stitch Cross-stitch Embroidery
Embroidery
stitch Hemstitch Lockstitch Overlock Pad stitch Pick stitch Rantering Running Sashiko Stoating Tack Topstitch Zigzag

Seams

Neckline Felled seam Seam allowance Style line

Notions Trims

Bias tape Collar stays Elastic Grommet
Grommet
/ Eyelet Interfacing Passementerie Piping Ruffle Rickrack Self-fabric Soutache Trim Twill
Twill
tape Wrights

Closures

Buckle Button Buttonhole Frog Hook-and-eye Hook and loop fastener Shank Snap Zipper

Materials

Bias Yarn
Yarn
/ Thread Selvage Textiles / Fabrics

Tools

Bobbin Dress form Needlecase Needle threader Pattern notcher Pin Pincushion Pinking shears Scissors Seam ripper Sewing
Sewing
needle Stitching awl Tailor's ham Tape measure Thimble Tracing paper Tracing wheel

Trades Suppliers

Cloth merchant Draper Dressmaker Haberdasher Mercer Sewing
Sewing
occupations Tailor

Sewing
Sewing
machine manufacturers

List of sewing machine brands
List of sewing machine brands
and companies Barthélemy Thimonnier Bernina International Brother Industries Elias Howe Elna Feiyue Frister & Rossmann Janome Jones Sewing
Sewing
Machine Company Juki Merrow New Home Pfaff Sewmor Singer Tapemaster Viking / Husqvarna White

Pattern manufacturers

Butterick Burda Clothkits McCall's Simplicity

Glossary of sewing terms

Authority control

GND: 41357

.