Tatars (Tatar: татарлар; Russian: татары) are a
Turkic people living mainly in
Russia and other Post-Soviet
countries. The name "Tatar" first appears in written form on the Kul
Tigin monument as 𐱃𐱃𐰺 (Ta-tar). Historically, the term
"Tatars" was applied to a variety of
Turco-Mongol semi-nomadic empires
who controlled the vast region known as Tartary. More recently,
however, the term refers more narrowly to people who speak one of the
Mongol Empire, established under
Genghis Khan in 1206, allied with
the Tatars. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan's grandson Batu Khan
(c. 1207–1255), the
Mongols moved westwards, driving with them many
Mongol tribes toward the plains of Kievan Rus'. The "Tatar"
clan still exists among the Mongols,
Hazaras and Uzbeks.
The largest group by far that the
Russians have called "Tatars" are
Volga Tatars, native to the
Volga region (
Bashkortostan), who for this reason are often also simply known as
"Tatars", with their language known as the
Tatar language. As of
2002[update] they had an estimated population close to 6 million.
There is a common belief that
Tatars are closely
intermingled, illustrated by the famous saying "scratch any Russian
just a little and you will discover a
Tatar underneath" and the
fact that a number of noble families in Tsardom of
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had
Tatar origins; however, genetics
show that majority of
Russians form a cluster with Northern and
Eastern Europeans (especially Belarusians, Ukrainians and Poles), and
are relatively far from
Due to multicultural marriage many inhabitants in
well as Slavic roots. Especially in
are very common. 
Tatars comprise a spectrum of physical appearance, ranging
Mongoloid to Caucasoid.
4 Contemporary groups
4.2 Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars in
Romania and Bulgaria
4.3 Lipka Tatars
4.4 Astrakhan Tatars
4.5 Siberian Tatars
7 See also
9 External links
Tatarstan and Tartary
Ottoman miniature of the Szigetvár campaign showing Ottoman troops
Tatars as vanguard
The name "Tatar" likely originated amongst the nomadic Mongolic Tatar
confederation in the north-eastern
Gobi desert in the 5th century.
The name "Tatar" was first recorded on the Orkhon inscriptions: Kul
Tigin (CE 732) and
Bilge Khagan (CE 735) monuments as :: Otuz Tatar
Bodun ('Thirty Tatar' clan) and : Tokuz
Tatar') referring to the
"Tatar" became a name for populations of the former
Golden Horde in
Europe, such as those of the former Kazan, Crimean, Astrakhan, Qasim,
and Siberian Khanates. The form "Tartar" has its origins in either
Latin or French, coming to Western European languages from Turkish and
Persian (tātār, "mounted messenger"). From the beginning, the extra
r was present in the Western forms, and according to the Oxford
English Dictionary this was most likely due to an association with
The Persian word is first recorded in the 13th century in reference to
the hordes of
Genghis Khan and is of unknown origin, according to OED
"said to be" ultimately from tata, a name of the
Arabic word for
Tatars is تتار.
wrote their name as تاتار or طاطار. The Chinese term for
Tatars was Dada 韃靼, especially after the end of the Yuan period
(14th century), but also recorded as a term for Mongolian-speaking
peoples of the northern steppes during the
Tang period (8th
century). The name "Tatars" was used as an alternative term for
the Shiwei, a nomadic confederation to which these
Russians and Europeans used the name
Tatar to denote
Mongols as well
Turkic peoples under
Mongol rule (especially in the Golden Horde).
Later, it applied to any Turkic- or Mongolic-speaking people
encountered by Russians. Eventually, however, the name became
associated with the Turkic Muslims of
Ukraine and Russia, namely the
descendants of Muslim
Volga Bulgars, Kipchaks, Cumans, and Turkicized
Mongols or Turko-
Mongols (Nogais), as well as other Turkic-speaking
peoples (Siberian Tatars, Qasim Tatars, and Mishar
Tatars) in the territory of the former Russian
Empire (and as such generally includes all Northwestern
Tatar is usually used to refer to the people, but Tartar is
still almost always used for derived terms such as tartar sauce or
Turkic peoples living within the
Russian Empire were named Tatar
(as a Russian exonym). Some of these populations still use
Tatar as a
self-designation, others do not.
Kipchak–Bulgar branch, or "Tatar" in the narrow sense
Karachays and Balkars: Mountain Tatars
Kumyks: Daghestan Tatars
Nogais: Nogai Tatars, includes the Karagash subgroup of
Altay people: Altay Tatars, including the
Tubalar or Chernevo
Chulyms or Chulym Tatars
Khakas people: Yenisei
Tatars (also Abakan
Tatars or Achin Tatars),
still use the
Shors: Kuznetsk Tatars
Azerbaijani people: Caucasus
Tatars (also Transcaucasia
Tatar is also an endonym to a number of peoples of Siberia
and Russian Far East, namely the Khakas people.
Main articles: History of
Mongols of the
Golden Horde outside Vladimir, presumably
demanding submission, before sacking the city
Map of Tartaria (1705)
As various nomadic groups became part of Genghis Khan's army in the
early 13th century, a fusion of
Mongol and Turkic elements took place,
and the invaders of Rus' and the
Pannonian Basin became known to
Tatars or Tartars (see
Tatar yoke). After the breakup
Mongol Empire, the
Tatars became especially identified with the
western part of the empire, known as the Golden Horde.
Tatar khanates of the early modern period represent the
remnants of the breakup of the
Golden Horde and of its successor, the
Great Horde. These include:
Kazan (1438), conquered by the Tsardom of
1552; continued as a Russian vassal state within the Qasim Khanate
(established 1452), until 1681
Nogai Horde (1440s), conquered by
Russia in 1634
Crimea (1441), conquered by the
Russian Empire in 1783
Khanate (1456), gradual Russian conquest in the 18th
century, finally absorbed into the
Russian Empire in 1847
Khanate of Astrakhan (1466), conquered by
Russia in 1556
Khanate (1468, later
Khanate of Sibir), conquered by the
Russia in 1598
Mongol dominance in Central Asia was absolute during the 14th and
15th centuries. The Crimean-Nogai raids into
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth aimed especially at the capture of
slaves, most of whom were exported to the Ottoman Empire. The raids
were an important drain of the human and economic resources of both
countries. They largely prevented the settlement of the "Wild Fields"
– the steppe and forest-steppe land that extends from a hundred or
so miles south of
Moscow to the Black Sea. The raids were also
important in the development of the Cossacks.
The end of absolute
Tatar dominance came in the late 15th century,
heralded by the
Great stand on the Ugra river
Great stand on the Ugra river in 1480. During the 16th
through 18th centuries, the gradual expansion of
Russia led to the
absorption of the
Tatar khanates into Russian territory. The Crimean
Russia in 1507, followed by two centuries of
Russo-Crimean Wars for the
Volga basin. Similarly, the Russo-Kazan
Wars lasted for the best part of a century and ended with the Russian
conquest of the
The last of the
Tatar khanates, the Kazakhs, remained independent
until 1822. Their last ruler, Kenesary Khan, was proclaimed khan of
Kazakhs when the
Russian Empire was already fully in control of
Kazakhstan; Russian law prohibited the
Kazakhs from selecting their
leader after 1822. The popular rise of
Kenesary Khan was in defiance
of Russian control of Kazakhstan, and his time as khan was spent on
continuous fighting with the Russian imperial forces until his death
Further information: Kipchak languages
Tatar language and Crimean
Contemporary distribution of Kipchak languages:
Kipchak–Nogay and Kyrgyz–Kipchak
Tatar language together with the
Bashkir language forms the
Kypchak-Bolgar (also "Uralo-Caspian") group within the Kipchak
languages, also known as Northwestern Turkic.
There are three
Tatar dialects: Eastern, Central, Western. The
Western dialect (Misher) is spoken mostly by Mishärs, the Central
dialect is spoken by
Kazan and Astrakhan Tatars, and the Eastern
(Sibir) dialect is spoken by
Siberian Tatars in western Siberia. All
three dialects have subdialects. Central
Tatar is the base of literary
Tatar dialects are independent of Volga–Ural Tatar.
The dialects are quite remote from Standard
Tatar and from each other,
often preventing mutual comprehension. The claim that this language is
part of the modern
Tatar language is typically supported by linguists
Kazan and denounced by Siberian Tatars.
Crimean Tatar is the indigenous language of the Crimean Tatar
peoples. Because of its common name, Crimean
Tatar is sometimes
mistaken to be a dialect of
Kazan Tatar. Although these languages are
related (as both are Turkic), the Kypchak languages closest to Crimean
Tatar are (as mentioned above) Kumyk and Karachay-Balkar, not Kazan
The majority of the
Tatar population are
Volga Tatars, native to the
Volga region, and the
Crimean Tatars of Crimea. There are smaller
Lipka Tatars and
Astrakhan Tatars in
Europe and the Siberian
Tatars in Asia.
The area of the settlement of
Tatars in Russia. According to the
National Population Census 2010
The present territory of
Tatarstan was inhabited by the
who settled on the
Volga river in the 7th century AD and converted to
Islam in 922 during the missionary work of Ahmad ibn Fadlan.[citation
needed] After the
Bulgaria was annexed by the
Golden Horde. Most of the population survived, and there may have been
a certain degree of mixing between it and the
Kipchaks of the Horde
during the ensuing period. The group as a whole accepted the exonym
"Tatars" (finally in the end of the 19th century; although the name
Bulgars persisted in some places; the majority identified themselves
simply as the Muslims) and the language of the Kipchaks; on the other
hand, the invaders eventually converted to Islam. As the Horde
disintegrated in the 15th century, the area became the territory of
Kazan khanate, which was ultimately conquered by
Russia in the
Volga Tatars speak different dialects of
Therefore, they form distinct groups such as the
Mişär group and the
Mişär-Tatars (or Mishars) are a group of Tatars
speaking a dialect of the
Tatar language. They live in Chelyabinsk,
Tambov, Penza, Ryazan, Nizhegorodskaya oblasts of
Russia and in
Bashkortostan and Mordovia. They lived near and along the
in Tatarstan. The Western
Tatars have their capital in the town of
Kasimov in Russian transcription) in
Ryazan Oblast, with a
Tatar population of 1100. A minority of Christianized
Volga Tatars are known as Keräşens.
Volga Tatars used the Turkic Old
Tatar language for their
literature between the 15th and 19th centuries. It was written in the
İske imlâ variant of the
Arabic script, but actual spelling varied
regionally. The older literary language included a large number of
Arabic and Persian loanwords. The modern literary language, however,
often uses Russian and other European-derived words instead.
Hillary Clinton with
Tatar woman in Kazan, capital of the
Russian autonomous Republic of Tatarstan
Outside of Tatarstan, urban
Tatars usually speak Russian as their
first language (in cities such as Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, Nizhniy
Novgorod, Tashkent, Almaty, and cities of the Ural and western
Siberia) and other languages in a worldwide diaspora.
In the 1910s the
Volga Tatars numbered about half a million in the
Kazan Governorate in Tatarstan, their historical homeland, about
400,000 in each of the governments of Ufa, 100,000 in Samara and
Simbirsk, and about 30,000 in Vyatka, Saratov, Tambov, Penza, Nizhny
Perm and Orenburg. An additional 15,000 had migrated to
Ryazan or were settled as prisoners in the 16th and 17th centuries in
Lithuania (Vilnius, Grodno and Podolia). An additional 2000 resided in
St. Petersburg.
Tatars practice Sunni Islam. The
Tatars speak the
Tatar language, a Turkic language with a substantial amount of Russian
Before 1917, polygamy was practiced only by the
wealthier classes and was a waning institution.
There is an ethnic nationalist movement among
stresses descent from the
Bulgars and is known as
Bulgarism – there
have been graffiti on the walls in the streets of
Kazan with phrases
such as "
Bulgaria is alive" (Булгария жива)
A significant number of
Volga Tatars emigrated during the Russian
Civil War, mostly to
Turkey and Harbin, China. According to the
Chinese government, there are still 5,100
Tatars living in Xinjiang
Main article: Crimean Tatars
Tatars of Crimea.
The number of
Crimean Tatars is estimated at 650,000. The Crimean
Tatars emerged as a nation at the time of the Crimean Khanate. The
Crimean Khanate was a Turkic-speaking Muslim state that was among the
strongest powers in Eastern
Europe until the beginning of the 18th
The nobles and rulers of the
Crimean Tatars were the descendants of
Hacı I Giray, a
Jochid descendant of Genghis Khan, and of Batu Khan
Mongol Golden Horde. The
Crimean Tatars mostly
Islam in the 14th century and thereafter
Crimea became one of
the centers of Islamic civilization. The
Khanate was officially a
vassal state of the
Ottoman Empire with great autonomy after 1448. The
Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) resulted in the defeat of the Ottomans
by the Russians, and according to the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca
(1774) signed after the war,
Crimea became independent and Ottomans
renounced their political right to protect the Crimean Khanate. After
a period of political unrest in Crimea,
Russia violated the treaty and
Crimean Khanate in 1783.
Crimean Tatars are subdivided into three sub-ethnic groups: the
Tats (not to be confused with Tat people, living in the Caucasus
region) who used to inhabit the mountainous
Crimea before 1944 (about
55%), the Yalıboyu who lived on the southern coast of the peninsula
(about 30%), and the Noğay (about 15%).
Crimean Tatars in
Romania and Bulgaria
Tatars of Romania,
Crimean Tatars in Romania, and
Crimean Tatars in Bulgaria
Crimean Tatars have been present on the territory of today's Romania
Bulgaria since the 13th century. In Romania, according to the 2002
census, 24,000 people declared their ethnicity as Tatar, most of them
Crimean Tatars living in
Constanța County in the region of
Crimean Tatars were colonized there by the Ottoman
Empire beginning in the 17th century.
Main article: Lipka Tatars
Swedish King Charles X Gustav in skirmish with
Tatars near Warsaw
during the Second Northern War.
Lipka Tatars are a group of Turkic-speaking
Tatars who originally
settled in the Grand Duchy of
Lithuania at the beginning of the 14th
century. The first settlers tried to preserve their shamanistic
religion and sought asylum amongst the non-Christian Lithuanians.
Towards the end of the 14th century, another wave of Tatars—Muslims,
this time—were invited into the Grand Duchy by Vytautas the Great.
Tatars first settled in
Lithuania proper around Vilnius, Trakai,
Hrodna and Kaunas and later spread to other parts of the Grand
Duchy that later became part of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
These areas comprise present-day Lithuania,
Belarus and Poland. From
the very beginning of their settlement in
Lithuania they were known as
the Lipka Tatars.
From the 13th to 17th centuries various groups of
and/or found refuge within the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth. This
was promoted especially by the Grand Dukes of
Lithuania because of
their reputation as skilled warriors. The
Tatar settlers were all
granted szlachta (nobility) status, a tradition that was preserved
until the end of the Commonwealth in the 18th century. They included
Lipka Tatars (13th–14th centuries) as well as Crimean and Nogay
Tatars (15th–16th centuries), all of which were notable in Polish
military history, as well as
Volga Tatars (16th–17th centuries).
They all mostly settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
At the Battle of
Warsaw in 1656
Tatars fought with the Poles against
Various estimates of the number of
Tatars in the Commonwealth in the
17th century are about 15,000 persons and 60 villages with mosques.
Numerous royal privileges, as well as internal autonomy granted by the
monarchs, allowed the
Tatars to preserve their religion, traditions,
and culture over the centuries. The
Tatars were allowed to intermarry
with Christians, which was uncommon in
Europe at the time. The May
Constitution of 1791 gave the
Tatars representation in the Polish
Although by the 18th century the
Tatars adopted the local language,
the Islamic religion and many
Tatar traditions (e.g. the sacrifice of
bulls in their mosques during the main religious festivals) were
preserved. This led to formation of a distinctive Muslim culture, in
which the elements of Muslim orthodoxy mixed with religious tolerance
formed a relatively liberal society. For instance, the women in Lipka
Tatar society traditionally had the same rights and status as men, and
could attend non-segregated schools.
Lithuanian Tartars of the Imperial Guard
Lithuanian Tartars of the Imperial Guard at the charge, by Richard
Tatars lived within the inter-war boundaries of Poland
(1920–1939), and a
Tatar cavalry unit had fought for the country's
Tatars had preserved their cultural identity and
sustained a number of
Tatar organisations, including a
and a museum in (Vilnius).
Tatars suffered serious losses during
World War II
World War II and
furthermore, after the border change in 1945, a large part of them
found themselves in the Soviet Union. It is estimated that about 3000
Tatars live in present-day Poland, of which about 500 declared Tatar
(rather than Polish) nationality in the 2002 census. There are two
Tatar villages (
Bohoniki and Kruszyniany) in the north-east of
present-day Poland, as well as urban
Tatar communities in Warsaw,
Gdańsk, Białystok, and Gorzów Wielkopolski.
Tatars in Poland
sometimes have a Muslim surname with a Polish ending: Ryzwanowicz;
another surname sometimes adopted by more assimilated
Tatars is Tatara
or Tataranowicz or Taterczyński, which literally mean "son of a
Tatars were relatively noticeable in the Commonwealth military as
well as in Polish and Lithuanian political and intellectual life for
such a small community. In modern-day Poland, their
presence is also widely known, due in part to their noticeable role in
the historical novels of Henryk Sienkiewicz, which are universally
recognized in Poland. A number of Polish intellectual figures have
also been Tatars, e.g. the prominent historian Jerzy Łojek.
A small community of Polish-speaking
Tatars settled in Brooklyn, New
York City, in the early 20th century. They established a mosque that
is still in use today.
Main article: Astrakhan Tatars
Tatar cavalry training in their Sarai.
Astrakhan Tatars (around 80,000) are a group of Tatars,
descendants of the Astrakhan Khanate's nomadic population, who live
mostly in Astrakhan Oblast. For the Russian census in 2010, most
Astrakhan Tatars declared themselves simply as
Tatars and few declared
themselves as Astrakhan Tatars. A large number of
Volga Tatars live in
Astrakhan Oblast and differences between them have been disappearing.
Main article: Siberian Tatars
Siberian Tatars occupy three distinct regions—a strip running
west to east from
Tobolsk to Tomsk—the Altay and its spurs—and
South Yeniseisk. They originated in the agglomerations of various
indigenous North Asian stems that, in the region north of the Altay,
reached some degree of culture between the 4th and 5th centuries, but
were subdued and enslaved by the Mongols. The 2010 census recorded
Siberian Tatars in Russia. According to the 2002 census there
Tatars in Siberia, but 400,000 of them are
who settled in
Siberia during periods of colonization.
According to over 100 samples from the
Tatarstan DNA project, the most
common Y-DNA haplogroup of the ethnic
Volga Tatars is
(over 20%), predominantly from the Asian R1a-Z93 subclade.
Haplogroup N is the other significant haplogroup. According to
different data J2a or J2b may be the more common subclade of
Haplogroup J2 in
Volga Tatars. The haplogroups C and Q are among the
Haplogroups of 450 Tatars, summarized from the studies Rootsi 2007,
Tambets 2004, Balanovsky in prep., Wells 2001
Volga Tatars(122 samples):
E: 4% (V13: 3%)
R1a: 33% (Z282: 19%, Z93: 14%)
Haplogroups in Crimean Tatars(22 samples):
According to Mylyarchuk et al.:
It was found that mtDNA of the
Volga Tatars consists of two parts, but
western Eurasian component prevails considerably (84% on average) over
eastern Asian one (16%).
Tatars and Mishars.
The study of Suslova et al found indications of two non-Kipchak
sources of admixture, Finno-Ugric and Bulgar:
Together with Tatars,
Russians have high frequencies of allele
families and haplotypes characteristic of Finno-Ugric populations.
This presupposes a Finno-Ugric impact on Russian and Tatar
ethnogenesis.... Some aspects of HLA in
Tatars appeared close to
Chuvashes and Bulgarians, thus supporting the view that
Tatars may be
descendents of ancient Bulgars.
Among Tobol-Irtysh group of Siberian Tatars, the most common Y-DNA
Haplogroup N1c1a and Haplogroup
Lipka Tatars have, autosomally, about 1/3 Eastern Eurasian and 2/3
Western Eurasian genetic fond.
Flag of Nogai Khanate
Flag of the Crimean Tatars
Flag of Tatarstan
Flag of the
Golden Horde flag
Tatars in Kazan, 1871
Mintimer Shaimiyev (left), the president of the republic of Tatarstan,
in the Qolşärif Mosque, Kazan, with Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow
Crimean Tatars, 1891
Tatar women, early 1900s
Tatar elder and his horse.
Tatar in Ottoman service.
Tatars of Napoleonic army
Tatars' raid on Moscow
Tatar elder inviting guests.
Tatars in the vanguard of the Ottoman army
Quran of the Tatars.
The word Qazan – قازان is written in Yaña imlâ in the
semblance of a Zilant.
Cover page of
Yana imla book, printed with Separated Tatar
Arabic script in 1924.
Tatar alphabet book printed in 1778.
Arabic script is used, Cyrillic
text is in Russian. Хальфин, Сагит. Азбука
татарского языка. — М., 1778. — 52 с.
Tatar sign on a madrasah in Nizhny Novgorod, written in both Arabic
List of Tatars
Tatars facts, information, pictures - Encyclopedia.com articles
about Tatars". www.encyclopedia.com.
^ "Tatars". World Culture Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
^ a b "
Tatar - people".
^ Matthias Kappler, Intercultural Aspects in and Around Turkic
Literatures: Proceedings of the International Conference Held on
October 11th-12th, 2003 in Nicosia, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag (2006),
^ Thomas Riha, Readings in Russian Civilization, Volume 1: Russia
Before Peter the Great, 900-1700, University of Chicago Press (2009),
^ Orekhov, V; Poltoraus, A; Zhivotovsky, LA; Spitsyn, V; Ivanov, P;
Yankovsky, N (1999). "Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in
Russians". FEBS Lett. 445: 197–201.
doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(99)00115-5. PMID 10069400.
^ Balanovsky, Oleg (2008). "Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal
Heritage in Their Eurasian Context". The American Journal of Human
Genetics. 82: 236–250. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.09.019.
^ "Взаимоотношения супругов в моно- и
полиэтнических браках русских и
^ a b c Tatar. (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October
28, 2006, from
Encyclopædia Britannica Online:
^ "Kül Tiğin (Gültekin) Yazıtı Tam Metni (Full text of Kul Tigin
monument with Turkish transcription)". Retrieved 5 April 2014.
^ "Bilge Kağan Yazıtı Tam Metni (Full text of
Bilge Khagan monument
with Turkish transcription)". Retrieved 5 April 2014.
^ "The Kultegin's Memorial Complex". Retrieved 5 April 2014.
^ Ross, E. Denison; Vilhelm Thomsen. "The Orkhon Inscriptions: Being a
Translation of Professor Vilhelm Thomsen's Final Danish Rendering".
Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London. 5
(4, 1930): 861–876. JSTOR 607024.
^ Thomsen, Vilhelm Ludvig Peter (1896). Inscriptions de l'Orkhon
déchiffrées. Helsingfors, Impr. de la Société de littérature
finnoise. p. 140.
^ citing a letter to St Louis of Frances dated 1270 which makes the
connection explicit, "In the present danger of the Tartars either we
shall push them back into the
Tartarus whence they are come, or they
will bring us all into heaven"
^ Chen Dezhi 陳得芝, Jia Jingyan 賈敬顔 (1992). "Dada 達靼",
in: Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi
中國歷史, vol. 1, pp. 132-133. Cited after "Dada 韃靼 Tatars" by
Ulrich Theobald, chinaknowledge.de.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Tatar, also spelled Tartar, any member of
several Turkic-speaking peoples ... 
^ The Columbia Encyclopedia:
Tatars (tä´tərz) or Tartars
(tär´tərz), Turkic-speaking peoples living primarily in Russia,
Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. 
Tatar – a member of any of a group of Turkic
peoples found mainly in the
Tatar Republic of
Russia and parts of
Siberia and central Asia 
^ Oxford Dictionaries:
Tatar – a member of a Turkic people living in
Tatarstan and various other parts of
Russia and Ukraine.
^ Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa: Turks are
an ethnolinguistic group living in a broad geographic expanse
extending from southeastern
Europe through Anatolia and the Caucasus
Mountains and throughout Central Asia. Thus Turks include the Turks of
Turkey, the Azeris of Azerbaijan, and the Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tatars,
Uzbeks of Central Asia, as well as many smaller groups in
Asia speaking Turkic languages. 
^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Tatar, also spelled Tartar, any member of
several Turkic-speaking peoples ...  The Columbia Encyclopedia:
Tatars (tä´tərz) or Tartars (tär´tərz), Turkic-speaking peoples
living primarily in Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. 
Tatar – a member of any of a group of Turkic
peoples found mainly in the
Tatar Republic of
Russia and parts of
Siberia and central Asia  Oxford Dictionaries:
Tatar – a member
of a Turkic people living in
Tatarstan and various other parts of
Russia and Ukraine. They are the descendants of the Tartars who ruled
central Asia in the 14th century.  Encyclopedia of the Modern
Middle East and North Africa: Turks are an ethnolinguistic group
living in a broad geographic expanse extending from southeastern
Europe through Anatolia and the Caucasus Mountains and throughout
Central Asia. Thus Turks include the Turks of Turkey, the Azeris of
Azerbaijan, and the Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tatars, Turkmen, and
Central Asia, as well as many smaller groups in Asia speaking Turkic
^ "Tartar, Tatar, n.2 (a.)". (1989). In Oxford English Dictionary.
Retrieved 11 September 2008, from
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary Online.
^ Татары (in Russian). Энциклопедия «Вокруг
света». Retrieved 29 May 2014.
^ The name originating from the name of Spruce-fir
Taiga forests in
Russian language: черневая тайга
^ Mikhail, Kizilov,. "Slave Trade in the Early Modern
Crimea From the
Perspective of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources". Journal of
Early Modern History. 11 (1).
^ Akhatov G. "
Tatar dialectology". Kazan, 1984. (
^ also called Crimean language, Crimean Turkish
^ Halil İnalcik, 1942[page needed]
^ a b (in Lithuanian) Lietuvos totoriai ir jų šventoji knyga –
Koranas Archived 2007-10-29 at the Wayback Machine.
Siberian Tatars Archived 2002-02-27 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Family Tree DNA - Tatarstan". www.familytreedna.com.
^ "Балановский О.П., Пшеничнов А.С.,
Сычев Р.С., Евсеева И.В., Балановская
Е.В. Y-base: частоты гаплогрупп Y
хромосомы у народов мира, 2010
^ "Data". pereformat.ru.
^ [dead link]
^ Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina; Kravtsova,
Olga (1 October 2010). "Mitogenomic Diversity in
Tatars from the
Volga-Ural Region of Russia". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 27
(10): 2220–2226. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq065. ISSN 0737-4038.
^ Suslova, T. A.; Burmistrova, A. L.; Chernova, M. S.; Khromova, E.
B.; Lupar, E. I.; Timofeeva, S. V.; Devald, I. V.; Vavilov, M. N.;
Darke, C. (1 October 2012). "HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in
Bashkirs and Tatars, living in the Chelyabinsk Region
(Russian South Urals)". International Journal of Immunogenetics. 39
(5): 394–408. doi:10.1111/j.1744-313X.2012.01117.x.
ISSN 1744-313X. PMID 22520580.
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Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
Italics indicate extinct group
Kurds in Germany
Kurds in France
Kurds in the Netherlands
Turks in Germany
Arabs in Europe
Moroccans in Spain
Berbers in France
Berbers in Belgium
Berbers in the Netherlands
Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians
Ethnic groups in Russia
BNF: cb11942552s (d