HOME
The Info List - Tatars


--- Advertisement ---



The Tatars
Tatars
(Tatar: татарлар; Russian: татары) are a Turkic people[4] living mainly in Russia
Russia
and other Post-Soviet countries. The name "Tatar" first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as 𐱃𐱃𐰺 (Ta-tar). Historically, the term "Tatars" was applied to a variety of Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
semi-nomadic empires who controlled the vast region known as Tartary. More recently, however, the term refers more narrowly to people who speak one of the Turkic[4] languages. The Mongol
Mongol
Empire, established under Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in 1206, allied with the Tatars. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan's grandson Batu Khan (c. 1207–1255), the Mongols
Mongols
moved westwards, driving with them many of the Mongol
Mongol
tribes toward the plains of Kievan Rus'. The "Tatar" clan still exists among the Mongols, Hazaras
Hazaras
and Uzbeks. The largest group by far that the Russians
Russians
have called "Tatars" are the Volga
Volga
Tatars, native to the Volga region
Volga region
( Tatarstan
Tatarstan
and Bashkortostan), who for this reason are often also simply known as "Tatars", with their language known as the Tatar
Tatar
language. As of 2002[update] they had an estimated population close to 6 million. There is a common belief that Russians
Russians
and Tatars
Tatars
are closely intermingled, illustrated by the famous saying "scratch any Russian just a little and you will discover a Tatar
Tatar
underneath"[5] and the fact that a number of noble families in Tsardom of Russia
Russia
and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
had Tatar
Tatar
origins;[6] however, genetics show that majority of Russians
Russians
form a cluster with Northern and Eastern Europeans (especially Belarusians, Ukrainians and Poles), and are relatively far from Tatar
Tatar
peoples.[7][8] Due to multicultural marriage many inhabitants in Russia
Russia
have Tatar
Tatar
as well as Slavic roots. Especially in Tatarstan
Tatarstan
Russian- Tatar
Tatar
marriages are very common. [9] Current day Tatars
Tatars
comprise a spectrum of physical appearance, ranging from Mongoloid
Mongoloid
to Caucasoid.

Contents

1 Name 2 History 3 Languages 4 Contemporary groups

4.1 Volga
Volga
Tatars 4.2 Crimean Tatars

4.2.1 Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
in Romania
Romania
and Bulgaria

4.3 Lipka Tatars 4.4 Astrakhan Tatars 4.5 Siberian Tatars

5 Genetics 6 Gallery

6.1 Flags 6.2 Pictures 6.3 Paintings 6.4 Language

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Name[edit] Further information: Tatarstan
Tatarstan
and Tartary

Ottoman miniature of the Szigetvár campaign showing Ottoman troops and Tatars
Tatars
as vanguard

The name "Tatar" likely originated amongst the nomadic Mongolic Tatar confederation in the north-eastern Gobi
Gobi
desert in the 5th century.[10] The name "Tatar" was first recorded on the Orkhon inscriptions: Kul Tigin (CE 732) and Bilge Khagan
Bilge Khagan
(CE 735) monuments as :: Otuz Tatar Bodun ('Thirty Tatar' clan)[11] and : Tokuz Tatar
Tatar
('Nine Tatar')[12][13][14][15] referring to the Tatar
Tatar
confederation. "Tatar" became a name for populations of the former Golden Horde
Golden Horde
in Europe, such as those of the former Kazan, Crimean, Astrakhan, Qasim, and Siberian Khanates. The form "Tartar" has its origins in either Latin
Latin
or French, coming to Western European languages from Turkish and Persian (tātār, "mounted messenger"). From the beginning, the extra r was present in the Western forms, and according to the Oxford English Dictionary this was most likely due to an association with Tartarus.[16] The Persian word is first recorded in the 13th century in reference to the hordes of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and is of unknown origin, according to OED "said to be" ultimately from tata, a name of the Mongols
Mongols
for themselves. The Arabic
Arabic
word for Tatars
Tatars
is تتار. Tatars
Tatars
themselves wrote their name as تاتار or طاطار. The Chinese term for Tatars
Tatars
was Dada 韃靼, especially after the end of the Yuan period (14th century), but also recorded as a term for Mongolian-speaking peoples of the northern steppes during the Tang period
Tang period
(8th century).[17] The name "Tatars" was used as an alternative term for the Shiwei, a nomadic confederation to which these Tatar
Tatar
people belonged. Russians
Russians
and Europeans used the name Tatar
Tatar
to denote Mongols
Mongols
as well as Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
under Mongol
Mongol
rule (especially in the Golden Horde). Later, it applied to any Turkic- or Mongolic-speaking people encountered by Russians. Eventually, however, the name became associated with the Turkic Muslims of Ukraine
Ukraine
and Russia, namely the descendants of Muslim Volga
Volga
Bulgars, Kipchaks, Cumans, and Turkicized Mongols
Mongols
or Turko- Mongols
Mongols
(Nogais), as well as other Turkic-speaking peoples (Siberian Tatars, Qasim Tatars, and Mishar Tatars)[18][19][20][21][22] in the territory of the former Russian Empire (and as such generally includes all Northwestern Turkic-speaking peoples).[23] Nowadays Tatar
Tatar
is usually used to refer to the people, but Tartar is still almost always used for derived terms such as tartar sauce or steak tartare.[24] All Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
living within the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
were named Tatar (as a Russian exonym). Some of these populations still use Tatar
Tatar
as a self-designation, others do not.[25]

Kipchak groups

Kipchak–Bulgar branch, or "Tatar" in the narrow sense

Volga
Volga
Tatars Astrakhan Tatars Lipka Tatars

Kipchak–Cuman branch

Crimean Tatars Karachays
Karachays
and Balkars: Mountain Tatars Kumyks: Daghestan Tatars

Kipchak–Nogai branch:

Nogais: Nogai Tatars, includes the Karagash subgroup of Nogais—Kundrov Tatars

Siberian branch:

Siberian Tatars Altay people: Altay Tatars, including the Tubalar or Chernevo Tatars[26] Chulyms
Chulyms
or Chulym Tatars Khakas people: Yenisei Tatars
Tatars
(also Abakan Tatars
Tatars
or Achin Tatars), still use the Tatar
Tatar
designation Shors: Kuznetsk Tatars

Oghuz branch

Azerbaijani people: Caucasus Tatars
Tatars
(also Transcaucasia Tatars
Tatars
or Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Tatars)

The name Tatar
Tatar
is also an endonym to a number of peoples of Siberia and Russian Far East, namely the Khakas people. History[edit] Main articles: History of Tatarstan
Tatarstan
and Volga
Volga
Bulgaria

Drawing of Mongols
Mongols
of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
outside Vladimir, presumably demanding submission, before sacking the city

Map of Tartaria (1705)

As various nomadic groups became part of Genghis Khan's army in the early 13th century, a fusion of Mongol
Mongol
and Turkic elements took place, and the invaders of Rus' and the Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin
became known to Europeans as Tatars
Tatars
or Tartars (see Tatar
Tatar
yoke).[10] After the breakup of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, the Tatars
Tatars
became especially identified with the western part of the empire, known as the Golden Horde.[10] The various Tatar
Tatar
khanates of the early modern period represent the remnants of the breakup of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
and of its successor, the Great Horde. These include:

the Khanate of Kazan
Kazan
(1438), conquered by the Tsardom of Russia
Russia
in 1552; continued as a Russian vassal state within the Qasim Khanate (established 1452), until 1681 the Nogai Horde
Nogai Horde
(1440s), conquered by Russia
Russia
in 1634 the Khanate of Crimea
Crimea
(1441), conquered by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in 1783 the Kazakh Khanate (1456), gradual Russian conquest in the 18th century, finally absorbed into the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in 1847 the Khanate of Astrakhan (1466), conquered by Russia
Russia
in 1556 the Tyumen Khanate (1468, later Khanate of Sibir), conquered by the Tsardom of Russia
Russia
in 1598

The Mongol
Mongol
dominance in Central Asia was absolute during the 14th and 15th centuries. The Crimean-Nogai raids into Russia
Russia
and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
aimed especially at the capture of slaves, most of whom were exported to the Ottoman Empire. The raids were an important drain of the human and economic resources of both countries. They largely prevented the settlement of the "Wild Fields" – the steppe and forest-steppe land that extends from a hundred or so miles south of Moscow
Moscow
to the Black Sea. The raids were also important in the development of the Cossacks.[27] The end of absolute Tatar
Tatar
dominance came in the late 15th century, heralded by the Great stand on the Ugra river
Great stand on the Ugra river
in 1480. During the 16th through 18th centuries, the gradual expansion of Russia
Russia
led to the absorption of the Tatar
Tatar
khanates into Russian territory. The Crimean Tatars
Tatars
attacked Russia
Russia
in 1507, followed by two centuries of Russo-Crimean Wars
Russo-Crimean Wars
for the Volga
Volga
basin. Similarly, the Russo-Kazan Wars lasted for the best part of a century and ended with the Russian conquest of the Kazan
Kazan
khanate. The last of the Tatar
Tatar
khanates, the Kazakhs, remained independent until 1822. Their last ruler, Kenesary Khan, was proclaimed khan of the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
when the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
was already fully in control of Kazakhstan; Russian law prohibited the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
from selecting their leader after 1822. The popular rise of Kenesary Khan
Kenesary Khan
was in defiance of Russian control of Kazakhstan, and his time as khan was spent on continuous fighting with the Russian imperial forces until his death in 1847. Languages[edit] Further information: Kipchak languages Further information: Tatar language
Tatar language
and Crimean Tatar
Tatar
language

Contemporary distribution of Kipchak languages:  Kipchak–Bolgar   Kipchak–Cuman   Kipchak–Nogay and Kyrgyz–Kipchak 

The Tatar language
Tatar language
together with the Bashkir language
Bashkir language
forms the Kypchak-Bolgar (also "Uralo-Caspian") group within the Kipchak languages, also known as Northwestern Turkic. There are three Tatar
Tatar
dialects: Eastern, Central, Western.[28] The Western dialect (Misher) is spoken mostly by Mishärs, the Central dialect is spoken by Kazan
Kazan
and Astrakhan Tatars, and the Eastern (Sibir) dialect is spoken by Siberian Tatars
Siberian Tatars
in western Siberia. All three dialects have subdialects. Central Tatar
Tatar
is the base of literary Tatar. These Siberian Tatar
Tatar
dialects are independent of Volga–Ural Tatar. The dialects are quite remote from Standard Tatar
Tatar
and from each other, often preventing mutual comprehension. The claim that this language is part of the modern Tatar language
Tatar language
is typically supported by linguists in Kazan
Kazan
and denounced by Siberian Tatars. Crimean Tatar[29] is the indigenous language of the Crimean Tatar peoples. Because of its common name, Crimean Tatar
Tatar
is sometimes mistaken to be a dialect of Kazan
Kazan
Tatar. Although these languages are related (as both are Turkic), the Kypchak languages closest to Crimean Tatar
Tatar
are (as mentioned above) Kumyk and Karachay-Balkar, not Kazan Tatar. Contemporary groups[edit] The majority of the Tatar
Tatar
population are Volga
Volga
Tatars, native to the Volga
Volga
region, and the Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
of Crimea. There are smaller groups of Lipka Tatars
Lipka Tatars
and Astrakhan Tatars in Europe
Europe
and the Siberian Tatars
Tatars
in Asia. Volga
Volga
Tatars[edit] Main article: Volga
Volga
Tatars

The area of the settlement of Tatars
Tatars
in Russia. According to the National Population Census 2010

The present territory of Tatarstan
Tatarstan
was inhabited by the Volga
Volga
Bulgars, who settled on the Volga
Volga
river in the 7th century AD and converted to Islam
Islam
in 922 during the missionary work of Ahmad ibn Fadlan.[citation needed] After the Mongol
Mongol
invasion, Volga
Volga
Bulgaria
Bulgaria
was annexed by the Golden Horde. Most of the population survived, and there may have been a certain degree of mixing between it and the Kipchaks
Kipchaks
of the Horde during the ensuing period. The group as a whole accepted the exonym "Tatars" (finally in the end of the 19th century; although the name Bulgars
Bulgars
persisted in some places; the majority identified themselves simply as the Muslims) and the language of the Kipchaks; on the other hand, the invaders eventually converted to Islam. As the Horde disintegrated in the 15th century, the area became the territory of the Kazan
Kazan
khanate, which was ultimately conquered by Russia
Russia
in the 16th century. Some Volga Tatars
Volga Tatars
speak different dialects of Tatar
Tatar
language. Therefore, they form distinct groups such as the Mişär group and the Qasim group. Mişär-Tatars
Mişär-Tatars
(or Mishars) are a group of Tatars speaking a dialect of the Tatar
Tatar
language. They live in Chelyabinsk, Tambov, Penza, Ryazan, Nizhegorodskaya oblasts of Russia
Russia
and in Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
and Mordovia. They lived near and along the Volga
Volga
River, in Tatarstan. The Western Tatars
Tatars
have their capital in the town of Qasím ( Kasimov
Kasimov
in Russian transcription) in Ryazan
Ryazan
Oblast, with a Tatar
Tatar
population of 1100.[citation needed] A minority of Christianized Volga Tatars
Volga Tatars
are known as Keräşens. The Volga Tatars
Volga Tatars
used the Turkic Old Tatar language
Tatar language
for their literature between the 15th and 19th centuries. It was written in the İske imlâ variant of the Arabic
Arabic
script, but actual spelling varied regionally. The older literary language included a large number of Arabic
Arabic
and Persian loanwords. The modern literary language, however, often uses Russian and other European-derived words instead.

Hillary Clinton with Volga
Volga
Tatar
Tatar
woman in Kazan, capital of the Russian autonomous Republic of Tatarstan

Outside of Tatarstan, urban Tatars
Tatars
usually speak Russian as their first language (in cities such as Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, Nizhniy Novgorod, Tashkent, Almaty, and cities of the Ural and western Siberia) and other languages in a worldwide diaspora. In the 1910s the Volga Tatars
Volga Tatars
numbered about half a million in the Kazan
Kazan
Governorate in Tatarstan, their historical homeland, about 400,000 in each of the governments of Ufa, 100,000 in Samara and Simbirsk, and about 30,000 in Vyatka, Saratov, Tambov, Penza, Nizhny Novgorod, Perm
Perm
and Orenburg. An additional 15,000 had migrated to Ryazan
Ryazan
or were settled as prisoners in the 16th and 17th centuries in Lithuania
Lithuania
(Vilnius, Grodno and Podolia). An additional 2000 resided in St. Petersburg.[citation needed] Most Kazan
Kazan
Tatars
Tatars
practice Sunni Islam. The Kazan
Kazan
Tatars
Tatars
speak the Tatar
Tatar
language, a Turkic language with a substantial amount of Russian and Arabic
Arabic
loanwords. Before 1917, polygamy was practiced[citation needed] only by the wealthier classes and was a waning institution. There is an ethnic nationalist movement among Kazan
Kazan
Tatars
Tatars
that stresses descent from the Bulgars
Bulgars
and is known as Bulgarism
Bulgarism
– there have been graffiti on the walls in the streets of Kazan
Kazan
with phrases such as " Bulgaria
Bulgaria
is alive" (Булгария жива) A significant number of Volga Tatars
Volga Tatars
emigrated during the Russian Civil War, mostly to Turkey
Turkey
and Harbin, China. According to the Chinese government, there are still 5,100 Tatars
Tatars
living in Xinjiang province. Crimean Tatars[edit] Main article: Crimean Tatars

Cossacks
Cossacks
fighting Tatars
Tatars
of Crimea.

The number of Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
is estimated at 650,000. The Crimean Tatars
Tatars
emerged as a nation at the time of the Crimean Khanate. The Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
was a Turkic-speaking Muslim state that was among the strongest powers in Eastern Europe
Europe
until the beginning of the 18th century.[30] The nobles and rulers of the Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
were the descendants of Hacı I Giray, a Jochid
Jochid
descendant of Genghis Khan, and of Batu Khan of the Mongol
Mongol
Golden Horde.[citation needed] The Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
mostly adopted Islam
Islam
in the 14th century and thereafter Crimea
Crimea
became one of the centers of Islamic civilization. The Khanate was officially a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
with great autonomy after 1448. The Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) resulted in the defeat of the Ottomans by the Russians, and according to the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (1774) signed after the war, Crimea
Crimea
became independent and Ottomans renounced their political right to protect the Crimean Khanate. After a period of political unrest in Crimea, Russia
Russia
violated the treaty and annexed the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
in 1783. The Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
are subdivided into three sub-ethnic groups: the Tats (not to be confused with Tat people, living in the Caucasus region) who used to inhabit the mountainous Crimea
Crimea
before 1944 (about 55%), the Yalıboyu who lived on the southern coast of the peninsula (about 30%), and the Noğay (about 15%). Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
in Romania
Romania
and Bulgaria[edit] Further information: Tatars
Tatars
of Romania, Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
in Romania, and Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
in Bulgaria Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
have been present on the territory of today's Romania and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
since the 13th century. In Romania, according to the 2002 census, 24,000 people declared their ethnicity as Tatar, most of them being Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
living in Constanța County
Constanța County
in the region of Dobrogea. The Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
were colonized there by the Ottoman Empire beginning in the 17th century. Lipka Tatars[edit] Main article: Lipka Tatars

Swedish King Charles X Gustav in skirmish with Tatars
Tatars
near Warsaw during the Second Northern War.

The Lipka Tatars
Lipka Tatars
are a group of Turkic-speaking Tatars
Tatars
who originally settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
at the beginning of the 14th century. The first settlers tried to preserve their shamanistic religion and sought asylum amongst the non-Christian Lithuanians.[31] Towards the end of the 14th century, another wave of Tatars—Muslims, this time—were invited into the Grand Duchy by Vytautas the Great. These Tatars
Tatars
first settled in Lithuania
Lithuania
proper around Vilnius, Trakai, Hrodna
Hrodna
and Kaunas[31] and later spread to other parts of the Grand Duchy that later became part of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. These areas comprise present-day Lithuania, Belarus
Belarus
and Poland. From the very beginning of their settlement in Lithuania
Lithuania
they were known as the Lipka Tatars. From the 13th to 17th centuries various groups of Tatars
Tatars
settled and/or found refuge within the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth. This was promoted especially by the Grand Dukes of Lithuania
Lithuania
because of their reputation as skilled warriors. The Tatar
Tatar
settlers were all granted szlachta (nobility) status, a tradition that was preserved until the end of the Commonwealth in the 18th century. They included the Lipka Tatars
Lipka Tatars
(13th–14th centuries) as well as Crimean and Nogay Tatars
Tatars
(15th–16th centuries), all of which were notable in Polish military history, as well as Volga Tatars
Volga Tatars
(16th–17th centuries). They all mostly settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

At the Battle of Warsaw
Warsaw
in 1656 Tatars
Tatars
fought with the Poles against the Swedes

Various estimates of the number of Tatars
Tatars
in the Commonwealth in the 17th century are about 15,000 persons and 60 villages with mosques. Numerous royal privileges, as well as internal autonomy granted by the monarchs, allowed the Tatars
Tatars
to preserve their religion, traditions, and culture over the centuries. The Tatars
Tatars
were allowed to intermarry with Christians, which was uncommon in Europe
Europe
at the time. The May Constitution of 1791 gave the Tatars
Tatars
representation in the Polish Sejm. Although by the 18th century the Tatars
Tatars
adopted the local language, the Islamic religion and many Tatar
Tatar
traditions (e.g. the sacrifice of bulls in their mosques during the main religious festivals) were preserved. This led to formation of a distinctive Muslim culture, in which the elements of Muslim orthodoxy mixed with religious tolerance formed a relatively liberal society. For instance, the women in Lipka Tatar
Tatar
society traditionally had the same rights and status as men, and could attend non-segregated schools.

Lithuanian Tartars of the Imperial Guard
Lithuanian Tartars of the Imperial Guard
at the charge, by Richard Knötel

About 5,500 Tatars
Tatars
lived within the inter-war boundaries of Poland (1920–1939), and a Tatar
Tatar
cavalry unit had fought for the country's independence. The Tatars
Tatars
had preserved their cultural identity and sustained a number of Tatar
Tatar
organisations, including a Tatar
Tatar
archives and a museum in (Vilnius). The Tatars
Tatars
suffered serious losses during World War II
World War II
and furthermore, after the border change in 1945, a large part of them found themselves in the Soviet Union. It is estimated that about 3000 Tatars
Tatars
live in present-day Poland, of which about 500 declared Tatar (rather than Polish) nationality in the 2002 census. There are two Tatar
Tatar
villages ( Bohoniki
Bohoniki
and Kruszyniany) in the north-east of present-day Poland, as well as urban Tatar
Tatar
communities in Warsaw, Gdańsk, Białystok, and Gorzów Wielkopolski. Tatars
Tatars
in Poland sometimes have a Muslim surname with a Polish ending: Ryzwanowicz; another surname sometimes adopted by more assimilated Tatars
Tatars
is Tatara or Tataranowicz or Taterczyński, which literally mean "son of a Tatar". The Tatars
Tatars
were relatively noticeable in the Commonwealth military as well as in Polish and Lithuanian political and intellectual life for such a small community.[citation needed] In modern-day Poland, their presence is also widely known, due in part to their noticeable role in the historical novels of Henryk Sienkiewicz, which are universally recognized in Poland. A number of Polish intellectual figures have also been Tatars, e.g. the prominent historian Jerzy Łojek. A small community of Polish-speaking Tatars
Tatars
settled in Brooklyn, New York City, in the early 20th century. They established a mosque that is still in use today.[citation needed] Astrakhan Tatars[edit] Main article: Astrakhan Tatars

Tatar
Tatar
cavalry training in their Sarai.

The Astrakhan Tatars (around 80,000) are a group of Tatars, descendants of the Astrakhan Khanate's nomadic population, who live mostly in Astrakhan Oblast. For the Russian census in 2010, most Astrakhan Tatars declared themselves simply as Tatars
Tatars
and few declared themselves as Astrakhan Tatars. A large number of Volga Tatars
Volga Tatars
live in Astrakhan Oblast
Astrakhan Oblast
and differences between them have been disappearing. Siberian Tatars[edit] Main article: Siberian Tatars The Siberian Tatars
Siberian Tatars
occupy three distinct regions—a strip running west to east from Tobolsk
Tobolsk
to Tomsk—the Altay and its spurs—and South Yeniseisk. They originated in the agglomerations of various indigenous North Asian stems that, in the region north of the Altay, reached some degree of culture between the 4th and 5th centuries, but were subdued and enslaved by the Mongols. The 2010 census recorded 6,779 Siberian Tatars
Siberian Tatars
in Russia. According to the 2002 census there are 500,000 Tatars
Tatars
in Siberia, but 400,000 of them are Volga
Volga
Tatars who settled in Siberia
Siberia
during periods of colonization.[32] Genetics[edit] According to over 100 samples from the Tatarstan
Tatarstan
DNA project, the most common Y-DNA haplogroup of the ethnic Volga Tatars
Volga Tatars
is Haplogroup
Haplogroup
R1a (over 20%), predominantly from the Asian R1a-Z93 subclade.[33] Haplogroup
Haplogroup
N is the other significant haplogroup. According to different data J2a or J2b may be the more common subclade of Haplogroup
Haplogroup
J2 in Volga
Volga
Tatars. The haplogroups C and Q are among the rare haplogroups. Haplogroups of 450 Tatars, summarized from the studies Rootsi 2007, Tambets 2004, Balanovsky in prep., Wells 2001[34]

N1c2: 21,0% R1a: 19,0% I1: 13,2% N1c1: 13,0% J2: 8,1% R1b1b2: 6,0% E1b1a: 4,0% O: 3,0% I2a1: 2,8% C: 2,7% I2a2: 1,8% G: 1,0% J1: 1,0% L: 1,0% Q: 1,0% T: 1,0%

Haplogroups in Volga
Volga
Tatars(122 samples):[35]

C2: 2% E: 4% (V13: 3%) G2a: 2% I1: 6% I2a1: 5% I2a2: 2% J2a: 7% J2b: 2% L1: 2% N1c2: 9% N1c1: 16% O3: 2% Q1: 2% R1a: 33% (Z282: 19%, Z93: 14%)

Haplogroups in Crimean Tatars(22 samples):[36]

R-M17: 32% R-M173: 9% O-M175: 5% O-M122: 5% J-M172: 14% I-M170: 5% F-M89: 18% C-M130: 9% E-M96: 5%

According to Mylyarchuk et al.:

It was found that mtDNA of the Volga Tatars
Volga Tatars
consists of two parts, but western Eurasian component prevails considerably (84% on average) over eastern Asian one (16%).

among 197 Kazan
Kazan
Tatars
Tatars
and Mishars.[37] The study of Suslova et al found indications of two non-Kipchak sources of admixture, Finno-Ugric and Bulgar:

Together with Tatars, Russians
Russians
have high frequencies of allele families and haplotypes characteristic of Finno-Ugric populations. This presupposes a Finno-Ugric impact on Russian and Tatar ethnogenesis.... Some aspects of HLA in Tatars
Tatars
appeared close to Chuvashes and Bulgarians, thus supporting the view that Tatars
Tatars
may be descendents of ancient Bulgars.[38]

Among Tobol-Irtysh group of Siberian Tatars, the most common Y-DNA haplogroups are Haplogroup
Haplogroup
N1c2b, Haplogroup
Haplogroup
N1c1a and Haplogroup Q-M242. Lipka Tatars
Lipka Tatars
have, autosomally, about 1/3 Eastern Eurasian and 2/3 Western Eurasian genetic fond. Gallery[edit] Flags[edit]

Flag of Nogai Khanate

Flag of the Crimean Tatars

Flag of Tatarstan

Flag of the Kazan
Kazan
Khanate

Golden Horde
Golden Horde
flag

Pictures[edit]

Tatars
Tatars
in Kazan, 1871

Mintimer Shaimiyev
Mintimer Shaimiyev
(left), the president of the republic of Tatarstan, in the Qolşärif Mosque, Kazan, with Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow (right)

Siberian Tatars

Crimean Tatars, 1891

Crimean Tatar
Tatar
women, early 1900s

Paintings[edit]

Tatar
Tatar
elder and his horse.

Tatar
Tatar
in Ottoman service.

Tatar
Tatar
woman

Tatar
Tatar
woman

Tatar
Tatar
woman

Tatar
Tatar
woman

Tatar
Tatar
shepherd-boy

Tatars

Lithuanian Tatars
Tatars
of Napoleonic army

Tatar
Tatar
elder

Tatar
Tatar
family

Siberian Tatars

Tatar
Tatar
girl

Tatars' raid on Moscow

Tatar
Tatar
riders

Recovery of Tatar
Tatar
captives.

Tatar
Tatar
costumes.

Tatar
Tatar
rider

Tatar
Tatar
elder inviting guests.

Tatar
Tatar
horsemen

Tatars
Tatars
in the vanguard of the Ottoman army

Kazan
Kazan
Tatars
Tatars
1862

Language[edit]

Quran of the Tatars.

The word Qazan – قازان is written in Yaña imlâ in the semblance of a Zilant.

Cover page of Tatar
Tatar
Yana imla
Yana imla
book, printed with Separated Tatar language in Arabic
Arabic
script in 1924.

A Tatar
Tatar
alphabet book printed in 1778. Arabic
Arabic
script is used, Cyrillic text is in Russian. Хальфин, Сагит. Азбука татарского языка. — М., 1778. — 52 с.

Tatar
Tatar
sign on a madrasah in Nizhny Novgorod, written in both Arabic and Cyrilic Tatar
Tatar
scripts.

See also[edit]

List of Tatars Turkic peoples

References[edit]

^ " Tatars
Tatars
facts, information, pictures - Encyclopedia.com articles about Tatars". www.encyclopedia.com.  ^ http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=PR&Code1=01&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&Data=Count&SearchText=Canada&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Ethnic%20origin&TABID=1 ^ "Tatars". World Culture Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 March 2018.  ^ a b " Tatar
Tatar
- people".  ^ Matthias Kappler, Intercultural Aspects in and Around Turkic Literatures: Proceedings of the International Conference Held on October 11th-12th, 2003 in Nicosia, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag (2006), p. 165 ^ Thomas Riha, Readings in Russian Civilization, Volume 1: Russia Before Peter the Great, 900-1700, University of Chicago Press (2009), p. 186 ^ Orekhov, V; Poltoraus, A; Zhivotovsky, LA; Spitsyn, V; Ivanov, P; Yankovsky, N (1999). "Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in Russians". FEBS Lett. 445: 197–201. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(99)00115-5. PMID 10069400.  ^ Balanovsky, Oleg (2008). "Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 82: 236–250. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.09.019.  ^ "Взаимоотношения супругов в моно- и полиэтнических браках русских и татар".  ^ a b c Tatar. (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October 28, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online: http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9071375 ^ "Kül Tiğin (Gültekin) Yazıtı Tam Metni (Full text of Kul Tigin monument with Turkish transcription)". Retrieved 5 April 2014.  ^ "Bilge Kağan Yazıtı Tam Metni (Full text of Bilge Khagan
Bilge Khagan
monument with Turkish transcription)". Retrieved 5 April 2014.  ^ "The Kultegin's Memorial Complex". Retrieved 5 April 2014.  ^ Ross, E. Denison; Vilhelm Thomsen. "The Orkhon Inscriptions: Being a Translation of Professor Vilhelm Thomsen's Final Danish Rendering". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London. 5 (4, 1930): 861–876. JSTOR 607024.  ^ Thomsen, Vilhelm Ludvig Peter (1896). Inscriptions de l'Orkhon déchiffrées. Helsingfors, Impr. de la Société de littérature finnoise. p. 140.  ^ citing a letter to St Louis of Frances dated 1270 which makes the connection explicit, "In the present danger of the Tartars either we shall push them back into the Tartarus
Tartarus
whence they are come, or they will bring us all into heaven" ^ Chen Dezhi 陳得芝, Jia Jingyan 賈敬顔 (1992). "Dada 達靼", in: Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史, vol. 1, pp. 132-133. Cited after "Dada 韃靼 Tatars" by Ulrich Theobald, chinaknowledge.de. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Tatar, also spelled Tartar, any member of several Turkic-speaking peoples ... [1] ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia: Tatars
Tatars
(tä´tərz) or Tartars (tär´tərz), Turkic-speaking peoples living primarily in Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. [2] ^ Merriam-Webster: Tatar
Tatar
– a member of any of a group of Turkic peoples found mainly in the Tatar
Tatar
Republic of Russia
Russia
and parts of Siberia
Siberia
and central Asia [3] ^ Oxford Dictionaries: Tatar
Tatar
– a member of a Turkic people living in Tatarstan
Tatarstan
and various other parts of Russia
Russia
and Ukraine.[4] ^ Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa: Turks are an ethnolinguistic group living in a broad geographic expanse extending from southeastern Europe
Europe
through Anatolia and the Caucasus Mountains and throughout Central Asia. Thus Turks include the Turks of Turkey, the Azeris of Azerbaijan, and the Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tatars, Turkmen, and Uzbeks
Uzbeks
of Central Asia, as well as many smaller groups in Asia speaking Turkic languages. [5] ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Tatar, also spelled Tartar, any member of several Turkic-speaking peoples ... [6] The Columbia Encyclopedia: Tatars
Tatars
(tä´tərz) or Tartars (tär´tərz), Turkic-speaking peoples living primarily in Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. [7] Merriam-Webster: Tatar
Tatar
– a member of any of a group of Turkic peoples found mainly in the Tatar
Tatar
Republic of Russia
Russia
and parts of Siberia
Siberia
and central Asia [8] Oxford Dictionaries: Tatar
Tatar
– a member of a Turkic people living in Tatarstan
Tatarstan
and various other parts of Russia
Russia
and Ukraine. They are the descendants of the Tartars who ruled central Asia in the 14th century. [9] Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa: Turks are an ethnolinguistic group living in a broad geographic expanse extending from southeastern Europe
Europe
through Anatolia and the Caucasus Mountains and throughout Central Asia. Thus Turks include the Turks of Turkey, the Azeris of Azerbaijan, and the Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tatars, Turkmen, and Uzbeks
Uzbeks
of Central Asia, as well as many smaller groups in Asia speaking Turkic languages. [10] ^ "Tartar, Tatar, n.2 (a.)". (1989). In Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 11 September 2008, from Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
Online. ^ Татары (in Russian). Энциклопедия «Вокруг света». Retrieved 29 May 2014.  ^ The name originating from the name of Spruce-fir Taiga
Taiga
forests in Russian language: черневая тайга ^ Mikhail, Kizilov,. "Slave Trade in the Early Modern Crimea
Crimea
From the Perspective of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources". Journal of Early Modern History. 11 (1).  ^ Akhatov G. " Tatar
Tatar
dialectology". Kazan, 1984. ( Tatar
Tatar
language) ^ also called Crimean language, Crimean Turkish ^ Halil İnalcik, 1942[page needed] ^ a b (in Lithuanian) Lietuvos totoriai ir jų šventoji knyga – Koranas Archived 2007-10-29 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Siberian Tatars
Siberian Tatars
Archived 2002-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Family Tree DNA - Tatarstan". www.familytreedna.com.  ^ "Балановский О.П., Пшеничнов А.С., Сычев Р.С., Евсеева И.В., Балановская Е.В. Y-base: частоты гаплогрупп Y хромосомы у народов мира, 2010 ^ "Data". pereformat.ru.  ^ [11][dead link] ^ Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina; Kravtsova, Olga (1 October 2010). "Mitogenomic Diversity in Tatars
Tatars
from the Volga-Ural Region of Russia". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 27 (10): 2220–2226. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq065. ISSN 0737-4038. PMID 20457583.  ^ Suslova, T. A.; Burmistrova, A. L.; Chernova, M. S.; Khromova, E. B.; Lupar, E. I.; Timofeeva, S. V.; Devald, I. V.; Vavilov, M. N.; Darke, C. (1 October 2012). "HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in Russians, Bashkirs
Bashkirs
and Tatars, living in the Chelyabinsk Region (Russian South Urals)". International Journal of Immunogenetics. 39 (5): 394–408. doi:10.1111/j.1744-313X.2012.01117.x. ISSN 1744-313X. PMID 22520580. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tatar
Tatar
people.

 "Tatars". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). 1911. 

v t e

Tatars

Astrakhan Crimean Lipka Siberian

Tobol-Irtysh Baraba Tomsk

Volga

Kazan Mishars Qasim Nağaybäk Noqrat Ostyak Kryashens

v t e

Turkic peoples

Altays Afshar Azerbaijanis Balkars Bashkirs Bulaqs Bulgars Chelkans Chulyms Chuvash Crimean Karaites Crimean Tatars Cumans Dolgans Dughlats Gagauz Iraqi Turkmen Karachays Karakalpaks Karluks Kazakhs Khakas Khalajs Khazars Khorasani Turks Kimek Kipchaks Kryashens Krymchaks Kumandins Kumyks Kyrgyz Lipka Tatars Meskhetian Turks Mishar Tatars

Finnish Tatars

Nağaybäk Naimans Nogais Oghuz Turks Qarapapaqs Qashqai Qizilbash Salar Siberian Tatars Shatuo Shors Syrian Turkmen Telengits Teleuts Tofalar Tubalar Turgesh Turks (proper)

diaspora

Turkmens Tuvans Uyghurs Uzbeks Volga
Volga
Tatars Yakuts Yugur

Italics indicate extinct group

v t e

European Muslims

Majority

Indo-European

Albanians Bosniaks Gorani Kurds

Kurds in Germany Kurds in France Kurds in the Netherlands

Muslimani Pomaks Talysh Tats

Turkic

Azerbaijanis Balkars Bashkirs Crimean Tatars Karachays Kazakhs Kumyks Lipka Tatars Nogais Volga
Volga
Tatars Turks

Meskhetian Turks Turks in Germany Other

Caucasian

Abazins Aghuls Andis Akhvakhs Archis Avars Bagvalals Bezhta Botlikh Budukh Chamalals Chechens

Kists

Circassians Dargins Hinukh Hunzib Ingush Jeks Karata Khinalugs Khwarshis Kryts Laks Lezgins Rutuls Tabasarans Tsakhurs Tindis Tsez

Other

Arabs

Arabs
Arabs
in Europe Moors Moroccans in Spain

Berbers

Berbers
Berbers
in France Berbers
Berbers
in Belgium Berbers
Berbers
in the Netherlands

Dönmeh Laz

Minority

Abkhazians Bulgarian Croats Georgians

* Adjarians

Greek

Vallahades Cretan Muslims

Macedonian Megleno-Romanians Ossetians Romani

Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians

Serbs

v t e

Ethnic groups in Russia

Titular Nationalities

Adyghe

Cherkess Kabardians

Altay Balkars Bashkirs Belarusians Buryats Chechens Chuvash Ingush Kalmyks Karachays Karelians Khakas Komi Mari Mordvins

Mokshas

Ossetians Russians Tatars Tuvans Udmurts Ukrainians Yakuts

Other indigenous peoples

Far North

Ainus Aleuts Alyutors Chukchis Chuvans Dolgans Enets Itelmens Kereks Koryaks Nenets Nganasans Sami Siberian Yupik

Naukan Sirenik

Veps Yukaghir

Far East

Nanai Negidals Nivkh Oroch Orok Taz Udege Ulchs

Siberia

Central

Chulyms Evenks Evens Kets Khanty Mansi Selkups Teleuts

Southern

Chelkans Kumandins Shors Soyots Telengits Tofalars Tubalar Tozhu Tuvans

Dagestan

Aghuls Avars Azerbaijanis Dargins Kumyks Laks Lezgins Nogais Rutuls Tabasarans Tats Tsakhurs others

Other

Abaza–Abkhaz Besermyan Izhorians Jews Nagaybaks Setos Votes

Authority control

LCCN: sh85132749 GND: 4078164-1 BNF: cb11942552s (d

.