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Tamil cinema
Tamil cinema
is Indian motion pictures produced in the Tamil language. Based in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu,[3] the hub of the Tamil film industry is in the Kodambakkam
Kodambakkam
neighbourhood of Chennai. Kollywood is a colloquial term used to describe this industry, the word being a portmanteau of Kodambakkam
Kodambakkam
and Hollywood.[4][5][6] The first Tamil silent film, Keechaka Vadham, was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar in 1918. [7] The first talking motion picture, Kalidas, was a multilingual and was released on 31 October 1931, less than seven months after India's first talking motion picture Alam Ara.[8] By the end of the 1930s, the legislature of the State of Madras passed the Entertainment Tax Act of 1939. Tamil cinema
Tamil cinema
later had a profound effect on other filmmaking industries of India, establishing Madras (now Chennai) as a secondary hub for Hindi cinema, other South Indian film industries, as well as Sri Lankan cinema.[9][10] Over the last quarter of the 20th century, Tamil films from India
India
established a global presence through distribution to an increasing number of overseas theatres in Singapore, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Japan, the Middle East, parts of Africa, Oceania, Europe, and North America.[11][12] The industry also inspired independent filmmaking in Tamil diaspora
Tamil diaspora
populations in Malaysia, Singapore, and the Western Hemisphere.[13]

Indian cinema

Assamese Bengali (Tollywood) Bhojpuri Badaga Beary Bihari Chhattisgarhi Dogri Gujarati (Gollywood/Dhollywood) Haryanvi Hindi (Bollywood) Jharkhandi Kashmiri Kannada (Sandalwood) Konkani Kosli Kutchi Malayalam (Mollywood) Marathi Meitei Odia Punjabi Rajasthani Sanskrit Santali Tamil (Kollywood) Telugu (Tollywood) Tulu (Coastalwood)

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early exhibitors 1.2 Influences 1.3 Studios 1.4 Exhibitor strike 2017

2 Distribution

2.1 Tamil Film Distribution Territories 2.2 Rest of India 2.3 Rest of the World

3 Economics 4 Legislation 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

History[edit] Early exhibitors[edit] In 1897, M. Edwards first screened a selection of silent short films at the Victoria Public Hall
Victoria Public Hall
in Madras. The films all featured non-fictional subjects; they were mostly photographed records of day-to-day events. The film scholar Stephen Hughes points out that within a few years there were regular ticketed shows in a hall in Pophams Broadway, started by one Mrs. Klug, but this lasted only for a few months. Once it was demonstrated as a commercial proposition, a Western entrepreneur, Warwick Major, built the first cinema theatre, the Electric Theatre, which still stands. It was a favourite haunt of the British community in Madras. The theatre was shut down after a few years. This building is now part of a post office complex on Anna Salai (Mount Road). The Lyric Theatre was also built in the Mount Road area. This venue boasted a variety of events, including plays in English, Western classical music concerts, and ballroom dances. Silent films were also screened as an additional attraction.[14] Swamikannu Vincent, a railway draftsman from Tiruchirapalli, became a travelling exhibitor in 1905. He showed short movies in a tent in Esplanade, near the present Parry's Corner, using carbide jet-burners for projection. He bought the film projector and silent films from the Frenchman Du Pont and set up a business as film exhibitor.[15] Soon, he tied up with Path, a well-known pioneering film-producing company, and imported projectors. This helped new cinema houses to sprout across the presidency.[16] In later years, he produced talkies and also built a cinema in Coimbatore.[17] To celebrate the event of King George V's visit in 1909, a grand exhibition was organized in Madras. Its major attraction was the screening of short films accompanied by sound. A British company imported a Crone megaphone, made up of a film projector to which a gramophone with a disc containing prerecorded sound was linked, and both were run in unison, producing picture and sound simultaneously. However, there was no synched dialogue. Raghupathy Venkiah Naidu, a successful photographer, took over the equipment after the exhibition and set up a tent cinema near the Madras High Court.[14] With this equipment, he screened the short films Pearl Fish and Raja's Casket in the Victoria Public Hall. When this proved successful, he screened the films in a tent set up in Esplanade. These tent events were the true precursors of the cinema shows. Venkiah traveled with this unit to Burma (now Myanmar) and Sri Lanka, and when he had gathered enough money, he put up a permanent cinema house in Madras—Gaiety, in 1914, the first cinema house in Madras to be built by an Indian. He soon added two more, Crown Theatre in Mint and Globe (later called Roxy) in Purasawalkam. Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of South India
India
in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land close to a town or village to screen the films. The first of its kind was established in Madras, called "Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone". This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors.[18] Most of the films screened then were shorts made in the United States and Britain. In 1909, an Englishman, T. H. Huffton, founded Peninsular Film Services in Madras and produced some short films for local audiences. But soon, hour-long films, which narrated dramatic stories, then known as "drama films", were imported. From 1912 onwards, feature films made in Bombay (now Mumbai) were also screened in Madras. The era of short films had ended. The arrival of drama films firmly established cinema as a popular entertainment form. More cinema houses came up in the city. Fascinated by this new entertainment form, an automobile dealer in the Thousand Lights area of Madras, R. Nataraja Mudaliyar, decided to venture into film production. After a few days’ training in Pune with the cinematographer Stewart Smith, the official cinematographer of Lord Curzon’s 1903 Durbar, he started a film production concern in 1916. The man who truly laid the foundations of south Indian cinema was A. Narayanan. After a few years in film distribution, he set up a production company in Madras, the General Pictures Corporation, popularly known as GPC. Beginning with The Faithful Wife/Dharmapathini (1929), GPC made about 24 feature films. GPC functioned as a film school and its alumni included names such as Sundara Rao Nadkarni and Jiten Banerji. The studio of GPC was housed in the Chellapalli bungalow on Thiruvottiyur High Road in Madras. This company, which produced the most number of Tamil silent films, had branches in Colombo, Rangoon and Singapore. The Ways of Vishnu/Vishnu Leela, which R. Prakasa made in 1932, was the last silent film produced in Madras. Unfortunately, the silent era of south Indian cinema has not been documented well. When the talkies appeared, film producers had to travel to Bombay or Calcutta to make films. Most films of this early period were celluloid versions of well-known stage plays. Company dramas were popular among the Madras audience. The legendary Otraivadai drama theatre had been built in 1872 itself in Mint. Many drama halls had come up in the city where short silent films were screened in the afternoon and plays were enacted in the night. The scene changed in 1934 when Madras got its first sound studio. By this time, all the cinema houses in Madras had been wired for sound. Narayanan, who had been active during the silent era, founded Srinivasa Cinetone in which his wife worked as the sound recordist. Srinivasa Kalyanam (1934), directed by Narayanan, was the first sound film (talkie) produced in Madras. The second sound studio to come up in Madras was Vel Pictures, started by M. D. Rajan on Eldams Road in the Dunmore bungalow, which belonged to the Raja of Pithapuram. Before long, more sound studios came up. Thirty-six talkies were made in Madras in 1935. Influences[edit] The main impacts of the early cinema were the cultural influences of the country. The Tamil language
Tamil language
was the medium in which many plays and stories were written since the ages as early as the Cholas. They were highly stylised and nature of the spectacle was one which could attract the people. Along with this, music and dance were one of the main entertainment sources.[19] There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology, history, fairy tales and so on through song and dance. Whereas Hollywood filmmakers strove to conceal the constructed nature of their work so that the realistic narrative was wholly dominant, Indian filmmakers made no attempt to conceal the fact that what was shown on the screen was a creation, an illusion, a fiction. However, they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day-to-day lives in complex ways.[20] By the end of the 1930s, the State of Madras legislature passed the Entertainment Tax Act 1939. Studios[edit] In the year 1916 a studio, the first in south India, was set up in Madras at 10 Millers Road, Kilpauk. He called it the India
India
Film Company. Rangavadivelu, an actor from Suguna Vilasa Sabha, a theatre company then, was hired to train the actors. Thirty-five days later, the first feature film made in south India, The Extermination of Keechakan/Keechakavatham, based on an episode from the Mahabharata, was released produced and directed by R. Nataraja, who established the India
India
Film Company Limited (The Destruction of Keechaka).[21] Despite a century of increasing box office takings, Tamil cinema remains informal and dominated by shell companies, or one-film wonders, born and dead in a matter of months. Nevertheless, there are few exceptions like Modern Theatres, Gemini Studios, AVM and Sri Thenandal Films that survived beyond 100 productions. Exhibitor strike 2017[edit] In 2017, opposing the dual taxation of GST (28%) and entertainment tax (30%), Tamilnadu Theatre Owners Association announced indefinite closure of all cinemas in the state from 3rd July 2017.[22][23] The strike has been called off and the cinemas will be playing the movies starting Friday 7th July 2017.[24][25][26][27] Government has formed a committee to decide on the existence of state's 30% entertainment tax. Its reported that, per day business loss during the strike was around ₹ 20 crores. Distribution[edit] See also: List of Tamil-language films Annual admissions in Chennai
Chennai
multiplexes and single screens averaged 11 million tickets with a standard deviation of ±1 million tickets during 2011-16. The Chennai
Chennai
film industry produced the first nationally distributed film across India
India
in 1948 with Chandralekha.[28] They have one of the widest overseas distribution, with large audience turnout from the Tamil diaspora
Tamil diaspora
alongside Hindi films. They are distributed to various parts of Asia, Africa, Western Europe, North America and Oceania.[29] Many successful Tamil films have been remade by other film industries. It is estimated by the Manorama Yearbook 2000 (a popular almanac) that over 5,000 Tamil films were produced in the 20th century. Tamil films have also been dubbed into other languages, thus reaching a much wider audience. There has been a growing presence of English in dialogue and songs in Chennai
Chennai
films. It is not uncommon to see movies that feature dialogue studded with English words and phrases, or even whole sentences. Some movies are also simultaneously made in two or three languages (either using subtitles or several soundtracks). Chennai's film composers have popularised their highly unique, syncretic style of film music across the world. Quite often, Tamil movies feature Madras Tamil, a colloquial version of Tamil spoken in Chennai. Tamil Film Distribution Territories[edit]

Territory Maximum Business (%) Division

NSC 100 6 Northern districts - Cuddalore, Kanchipuram, Tiruvallur, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore & Viluppuram

Coimbatore 50 4 Western districts - Coimbatore, Erode, Nilgiris & Tiruppur

Chennai 37 1 Northern district - Chennai

MR 35 6 Southern districts - Dindigul, Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Sivaganga, Theni & Virudhunagar

TT 32 8 Central districts - Ariyalur, Karur, Nagapattinam, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur, Tiruchirappalli & Tiruvarur

Salem 28 4 Western districts - Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri, Namakkal & Salem

TK 13 3 Southern districts - Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli & Kanyakumari

Karnataka 83

Andhra Pradesh 79

Telangana 63

Kerala 63

Rest of India 15

USA & Canada 119

GCC 106

Malaysia 82

Rest of the World 89

Rest of India[edit] Keechaka Vadham
Keechaka Vadham
(1918) was the first silent film made in South India.[30] Kalidas (1931) was the first Tamil talkie film made in 1931.[31] Kalava was the first Full-length Talkie made entirely in Tamil.[32] Nandanar
Nandanar
(1935) was the first film for American film director Ellis R. Dungan[33] Balayogini
Balayogini
released in 1937 was considered to be first children's film of South India.[34] It is estimated by the Manorama Yearbook 2000 (a popular almanac) that over 5,000 Tamil films were produced in the 20th century. Tamil films have also been dubbed into other languages, thus reaching a much wider audience. There has been a growing presence of English in dialogue and songs in Chennai
Chennai
films. In 1991, Marupakkam directed by K.S. Sethu Madhavan, became the first Tamil film to win the National Film Award for Best Feature Film, the feat was repeated by Kanchivaram
Kanchivaram
in 2007.[35] Tamil films enjoy significant patronage in neighboring Indian states like Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and New Delhi. In Kerala
Kerala
and Karnataka
Karnataka
the films are directly released in Tamil but in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
they are generally dubbed into Telugu where they have a decent market.[36][37] Rest of the World[edit] Tamil films have enjoyed consistent popularity among populations in South East Asia. Since Chandralekha, Muthu was the second Tamil film to be dubbed into Japanese (as Mutu: Odoru Maharaja[38]) and grossed a record $1.6 million in 1998.[39] In 2010, Enthiran
Enthiran
grossed a record $4 million in North America. Tamil cinema
Tamil cinema
has been brought to North America and exhibited by Somasundaram Gunasegaram beginning with "Roja" in 1992. Since then his eldest son, Siva Gunasegaram, has been at the forefront of bringing all South Asian cinema
South Asian cinema
to New York and is responsible for the largest blockbusters of the decade. Many Tamil-language films have premiered or have been selected as special presentations at various film festivals across the globe, such as Mani Ratnam's Kannathil Muthamittal, Vasanthabalan's Veyyil and Ameer Sultan's Paruthiveeran. Kanchivaram
Kanchivaram
(2009) was selected to be premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival. Tamil films have been a part of films submitted by India
India
for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language on eight occasions, next only to Hindi.[40] Mani Ratnam's Nayagan (1987) was included in Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies list.[41] Economics[edit] Average annual film output in Tamil film industry peaked in 1985. The Tamil film market accounts for approximately 0.1% of the gross domestic product (GDP) of the state of Tamil Nadu.[42] For the purpose of entertainment taxes, returns have to be filed by the exhibitors weekly (usually each Tuesday).[43] The Government of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
made provisions for an entertainment tax exemption for Tamil films having titles in words from the Tamil language only.[44] This is in accordance with Government Order 72 passed on 22 July 2006. The first film to be released after the new Order was Unakkum Enakkum. The original title had been Something Something Unakkum Ennakkum, a half-English and a half-Tamil title.[44] In July 2011, strict norms on entertainment tax were passed which stated that films which were given a 'U' certificate by the Central Board of Film Certification alone were eligible for tax exemption and those with an 'A' certificate could not fit into this category.[45] There are 3 major roles in the Tamil film value chain viz producer, distributor and exhibitor.[46] The distributor purchases theatrical distribution rights from the producer for exhibiting the film in a defined territory. The distributor performs enhanced functions such as:

part-financing of film (in case of minimum guarantee / advance based purchase of film rights) localised marketing of film selection of exhibition halls managing the logistics of physical print distribution

There are three popular approaches to transfer of distribution rights via distribution contracts:

Minimum Guarantee + Royalty – Here, the producer sells the distribution rights for a defined territory for a minimum lump sum irrespective of the box office performance of the film. Any surplus is shared between the producer and distributor, in a pre-set ratio (typically 1:2) after deducting tax, show rentals, commission, print costs and publicity costs. Effectively, the distributor becomes a financier in the eyes of the market. This is the most common channel available to high budget producers. Commission – Here, the distributor pays the producer the entire box office collection after deducting commission. So, the entire risk of box office performance of the film remains with the producer. This is the most common channel available to low budget producers. By the first decade of 21st century, about 90 per cent of the films were released on commission basis.[47] Outright Sale – Here, the producer sells all distribution and theatrical exhibition rights for a defined territory exclusively to a distributor. Effectively, the distributor becomes a producer in the eyes of the market. So, the entire risk of box office performance of the film remains with the distributor.

There are four popular approaches to transfer of exhibition rights via exhibition contracts:

Theatre Hire – Here, the exhibitor pays the distributor the entire box office collection after deducting tax and show rentals. So, the entire risk of box office performance of the film remains with the distributor. This is the most common channel for low-budget films, casting rank newcomers, with unproven track record. In Chennai, a moderate theater with AC and DTS can fetch around ₹1 lakh as weekly rent[48] Fixed Hire – Here, the exhibitor pays the distributor a maximum lump sum irrespective of the box office performance of the film. Rental is not chargeable per show. Any surplus after deducting tax is retained by the exhibitor. Effectively, the exhibitor becomes a distributor in the eyes of the market. So, the entire risk of box office performance of the film remains with the exhibitor. Minimum Guarantee + Royalty – Here, the exhibitor pays the distributor a minimum lump sum irrespective of the box office performance of the film. Rental is not chargeable per show. Any surplus after deducting tax and show rental is shared in a pre-set ratio (1:2) between the distributor and exhibitor typically. Revenue Share – Here, the distributor shares with the exhibitor, in a pre-set ratio (typically 1:1), the entire box office collection of the film after deducting tax. Rental is not chargeable per show. So, the entire risk of box office performance of the film is shared between the exhibitor and distributor. This is the most common channel preferred by multiplex screens.

Legislation[edit] Film studios in Chennai
Chennai
are bound by legislation, such as the Cinematography Film Rules of 1948,[49] the Cinematography Act of 1952,[50] and the Copyright Act of 1957.[51] In Tamil Nadu, cinema ticket prices are regulated by the government. Single screen theatres may charge a maximum of ₹50, while theatres with more than three screens may charge a maximum of ₹120 per ticket.[52] See also[edit]

Cinema of the world Cinema of India Colour era in Indian cinema Earliest color films in South India List of highest-grossing Indian films List of Tamil actors List of Tamil film actors List of Tamil film actresses List of Tamil music directors Tamil television soap opera

References[edit]

^ "STATEWISE NUMBER OF SINGLE SCREENS". Film Federation of India. Retrieved 21 April 2014.  ^ "The Digital March Media & Entertainment in South India" (PDF). Deloitte. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2014.  ^ Hiro, Dilip (2010). After Empire: The Birth of a Multipolar World. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-56858-427-0.  ^ "Tamil, Telugu film industries outshine Bollywood". Business Standard. 25 January 2006. Retrieved 2012-02-19.  ^ https://www.forbes.com/sites/bensimpfendorfer/2015/03/15/china-bollywood-india-future/#6d6c83032583 ^ https://www.thestar.com/entertainment/movies/2013/01/03/tamil_films_give_bollywood_a_run_for_its_money.html ^ "Metro Plus Chennai
Chennai
/ Madras Miscellany : The pioneer'Tamil' film-maker". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2011.  ^ Velayutham, Selvaraj. Tamil cinema: the cultural politics of India's other film industry. p. 2.  ^ "THE TAMIL NADU ENTERTAINMENTS TAX ACT, 1939" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.  ^ Indian Cinema: The World’s Biggest And Most Diverse Film Industry (page 5)[permanent dead link] Written by Roy Stafford ^ Pillai, Sreedhar. "A gold mine around the globe". The Hindu. Retrieved 2017-03-09.  ^ "Eros buys Tamil film distributor". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2011. 

"With high demand for Indian movies, Big Cinemas goes global". The Times of India. 12 June 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011. 

^ "SYMPOSIUM: SRI LANKA'S CULTURAL EXPERIENCE". Chennai, India: Frontline. Retrieved 26 September 2011. 

"Celebration of shared heritage at Canadian film festival". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011. 

^ a b Folklore, public sphere, and civil society. p. 116.  ^ "Pioneers in Indian Cinema - Swamikannu Vincent". Indiaheritage.org. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.  ^ Rajmohan, Joshi. Encyclopaedia of Journalism and Mass Communication: Media and mass communication. p. 68.  ^ "Tamil Cinema". India
India
Times. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2016.  ^ "He brought cinema to South". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 30 April 2010. Retrieved 26 September 2011.  ^ "Abhinay Deo – "All stories can be found in Mahabharata and Ramayana" – Bollywood
Bollywood
Movie News". IndiaGlitz. Retrieved 12 May 2011.  ^ "Indian Films vs Hollywood". Theviewspaper.net. 4 July 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2011.  ^ Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). "'India' in Tamil silent era cinema". Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry. Routledge. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-415-39680-6.  ^ IANS (2017-06-30). "GST effect: Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
theatres to shut down from July 3". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2017-07-07.  ^ " Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
theatre owners go on strike after GST, lose Rs 50 crore a day". www.deccanchronicle.com/. 2017-07-04. Retrieved 2017-07-07.  ^ "No local tax for now: Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
theatres' owners call off strike". www.deccanchronicle.com/. 2017-07-06. Retrieved 2017-07-07.  ^ " Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Theatre Owners Call Off Strike Over 30% Local Body Tax". NDTV.com. Retrieved 2017-07-07.  ^ " Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
theatre owners call off strike over double taxation". The Indian Express. 2017-07-06. Retrieved 2017-07-07.  ^ Vaitheesvaran, Bharani (2017-07-06). " Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
screens to open tomorrow with no new movies". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2017-07-07.  ^ Singh, Sarina (2003). "Film Studios". India. Lonely Planet. p. 964. ISBN 978-1-74059-421-9. Chennai's film industry now rivals that of Bollywood
Bollywood
(Mumbai) for output  ^ "Film industry isn't high risk one: Kamal Haasan". Business Line. Retrieved 27 September 2011.  ^ "Remembering a pioneer". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 May 2002. Retrieved 29 June 2011.  ^ Gokulsing, K.; Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian popular cinema: a narrative of cultural change. Trentham Books. p. 24. ISBN 1-85856-329-1.  ^ "He drew inspiration from Shakespeare". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 18 April 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2011.  ^ He transcended barriers with aplomb, The Hindu
The Hindu
1 February 2002 ^ Blast From the Past – Balayogini
Balayogini
1937, The Hindu
The Hindu
10 April 2009 ^ Baskaran, Sundararaj Theodore (2013). The Eye Of The Serpent: An Introduction To Tamil Cinema. Westland. pp. 164–. ISBN 978-93-83260-74-4.  ^ Movie Buzz (14 July 2011). "Tamil films dominate Andhra market". Sify. Retrieved 27 April 2013.  ^ "A few hits and many flops". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 29 December 2006.  ^ "Mutu: Odoru Maharaja" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011.  ^ Gautaman Bhaskaran (6 January 2002). "Rajnikanth casts spell on Japanese viewers". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 May 2007.  ^ "India's Oscar failures (25 Images)". Movies.ndtv.com. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2011.  ^ Nayakan, All-Time 100 Best Films, Time, 2005 ^ "Superstars dominate". Hinduonnet.com. 28 December 2007. Archived from the original on 9 August 2010. Retrieved 12 May 2011.  ^ "tnsalestax". www.tnsalestax.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011.  ^ a b "Va: Cutting of the Quarter! Why? - Tamil Movie Articles - Va-Quarter Cutting Kallarai Manithan". Behindwoods.com. Retrieved 22 February 2013.  ^ "Strict norms on entertainment tax - Tamil Movie News". Indiaglitz.com. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2013.  ^ "Microsoft Word - Draft RHP PSTL 31.07.06.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 12 May 2011.  ^ Commission basis is the dominant business model by 2016 ^ Weekly rent is at least 1 lakh in Chennai
Chennai
cinemas ^ "Cinematograph film rules, 1948". Government of India. Retrieved 26 September 2011.  ^ "Posters". Central Board of Film certification (CBFC). Retrieved 26 September 2011.  ^ "INDIAN COPYRIGHT ACT, 1957" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 26 September 2011.  ^ Ashok Kumar, S.R. (2 January 2007). "Cinema ticket rate revision reflects a balancing act". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 18 January 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Arnold, Alison (2000). "Pop Music and Audio-Cassette Technology: Southern Area – Film music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-8240-4946-1.  Bhaskaran, Theodore, Sundararaj (1996). Eye of The Serpent: An Introduction to Tamil Cinema. Chennai
Chennai
/ University of Michigan: East West Books.  Gokulsing, K.; Moti Gokulsing, Wimal (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 132. ISBN 1-85856-329-1.  Shohini Chaudhuri (2005). Contemporary World Cinema: Europe, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia. Edinburgh University Press. p. 149. ISBN 0-7486-1799-X.  Chinniah, Sathiavathi (2001). Tamil Movies Abroad: Singapore
Singapore
South Indian Youths and their Response to Tamil Cinema. 8. Kolam.  Guy, Randor (1997). Starlight, Starbright : The Early Tamil Cinema. Chennai. OCLC 52794531.  Hughes, Stephen P. (24–25 February 2005). "Tamil Cinema as Sonic Regime: Cinema Sound, Film Songs and the Making of a Mass Culture of Music". New Perspectives on the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century. Keynote address: South Asia Conference at the University of Chicago. Chicago, Illinois.  Kasbekar, Asha (2006). Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-636-7.  Ravindran, Gopalan (17–18 March 2006). Negotiating identities in the Diasporic Space: Transnational Tamil Cinema and Malaysian Indians. Cultural Space and Public Sphere in Asia, 2006. Seoul, Korea: Korea Broadcasting Institute, Seoul.  Nakassis, Constantine V.; Dean, Melanie A. (2007). "Desire, Youth, and Realism in Tamil Cinema". Journal of Linguistic Anthropology. 17: 77–104. doi:10.1525/jlin.2007.17.1.77.  Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-39680-6. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Tamil cinema
Tamil cinema
at Wikimedia Commons Tamil Cinema Website - Gallery, Trailer & Videos - Kollywood.Co

v t e

Tamil cinema

Directors Producers Screenwriters Actors Composers Cinematographers Editors Production companies Playback singers Songs Awards Tamil film from Malaysia Sri Lankan Tamil cinema

Tamil films (A–Z) Silent films of South India
India
1916-32 1930s 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

v t e

National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil

1954–1960

Malaikkallan
Malaikkallan
(1954) No Award (1955) No Award (1956) No Award (1957) No Award (1958) Bhaaga Pirivinai
Bhaaga Pirivinai
(1959) Parthiban Kanavu (1960)

Certificate of Merit

Andha Naal
Andha Naal
and Edhir Paradhathu
Edhir Paradhathu
(1954) Mangaiyar Thilakam
Mangaiyar Thilakam
(1955) Kuladeivam
Kuladeivam
(1956) Mudhalali
Mudhalali
(1957) Thanga Padhumai
Thanga Padhumai
and Annaiyin Aanai
Annaiyin Aanai
(1958) Veerapandiya Kattabomman and Kalyana Parisu
Kalyana Parisu
(1959) Paadhai Theriyudhu Paar
Paadhai Theriyudhu Paar
and Kalathur Kannamma
Kalathur Kannamma
(1960)

1961–1980

Kappalottiya Thamizhan
Kappalottiya Thamizhan
(1961) Nenjil Or Aalayam
Nenjil Or Aalayam
(1962) Naanum Oru Penn
Naanum Oru Penn
(1963) Kai Koduttha Dheivam
Kai Koduttha Dheivam
(1964) Kuzhandaiyum Deivamum
Kuzhandaiyum Deivamum
(1965) Ramu (1966) Aalayam (1967) Thillana Mohanambal
Thillana Mohanambal
(1968) Iru Kodugal
Iru Kodugal
(1969) Raman Ethanai Ramanadi
Raman Ethanai Ramanadi
(1970) Veguli Penn
Veguli Penn
(1971) Pattikada Pattanama
Pattikada Pattanama
(1972) Dikkatra Parvathi
Dikkatra Parvathi
(1973) No Award (1974) Apoorva Raagangal
Apoorva Raagangal
(1975) No Award (1976) Agraharathil Kazhutai
Agraharathil Kazhutai
(1977) No Award (1978) Pasi (1979) Nenjathai Killathe (1980)

Certificate of Merit

Pasamalar
Pasamalar
and Kumudham
Kumudham
(1961) Annai and Sarada (1962) Karpagam
Karpagam
and Karnan (1963) Server Sundaram
Server Sundaram
(1964) Thiruvilaiyadal
Thiruvilaiyadal
(1965) Discontinued after 1965

1981–2000

Thanneer Thanneer
Thanneer Thanneer
(1981) Ezhavathu Manithan
Ezhavathu Manithan
(1982) Oru Indhiya Kanavu (1983) Achamillai Achamillai
Achamillai Achamillai
(1984) Muthal Mariyathai
Muthal Mariyathai
(1985) Mouna Ragam
Mouna Ragam
(1986) Veedu (1987) No Award (1988) Pudhea Paadhai
Pudhea Paadhai
(1989) Anjali (1990) Vanna Vanna Pookkal
Vanna Vanna Pookkal
(1991) Thevar Magan
Thevar Magan
(1992) Mahanadi (1993) Nammavar
Nammavar
(1994) Anthimanthaarai
Anthimanthaarai
(1995) Kadhal Kottai
Kadhal Kottai
(1996) The Terrorist (1997) Housefull (1998) Sethu (1999) Bharati (2000)

2001–present

Ooruku Nooruper (2001) Kannathil Muthamittal
Kannathil Muthamittal
(2002) Iyarkai (2003) Navarasa (2004) Aadum Koothu (2005) Veyil
Veyil
(2006) Periyar (2007) Vaaranam Aayiram
Vaaranam Aayiram
(2008) Pasanga
Pasanga
(2009) Thenmerku Paruvakaatru
Thenmerku Paruvakaatru
(2010) Vaagai Sooda Vaa
Vaagai Sooda Vaa
(2011) Vazhakku Enn 18/9
Vazhakku Enn 18/9
(2012) Thanga Meenkal
Thanga Meenkal
(2013) Kuttram Kadithal
Kuttram Kadithal
(2014) Visaranai (2015) Joker (2016)

v t e

Cinema of India

Industries

Assamese Bengal Chhattisgarhi Bhojpuri Dogri Gujarati Haryanvi Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Malayalam Meitei Marathi Oriya Punjabi Rajasthani Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Tulu

Indian films

Assamese Bengali Bhojpuri English Gujarati Hindi Kannada Konkani Malayalam Meitei Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Sindhi Tamil Telugu Tulu Urdu

Other topics

Actors Art Directors Awards Directors Choreographers Cinematographers Composers Costume designers Editors Festivals Lyricists Playback singers Producers Screenwriters Studios

List of Indian film series Science fiction films in India Highest-grossing films Most expensive films

v t e

World cinema

National cinema

Africa

Northern

Algeria Egypt Morocco Tunisia

Eastern

Djibouti Kenya Somalia Uganda

Western

Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ghana Liberia Niger Nigeria Senegal

Central

D.R. Congo Cameroon

Southern

Angola Madagascar South Africa

Asia

Eastern

China

Hong Kong

Japan Mongolia Korea

North Korea South Korea

Taiwan

Southern

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India

Bollywood South India West Bengal

Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka

Jaffna

Southeastern

Burma Cambodia Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam

Western

Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Georgia Iran Iraq Israel

Jewish

Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Oman Palestine Saudi Arabia Syria Turkey U.A.E. Yemen

Central

Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan

Europe

Eastern

Belarus Czech Republic Hungary Moldova Poland Romania Russia

Russian Empire Soviet Union

Slovakia Slovenia Ukraine

Northern

Denmark Estonia Faroe Islands Finland Iceland Latvia Lithuania Norway Sweden

Southern

Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Greece Italy Kosovo Macedonia Malta Montenegro Portugal Serbia

Yugoslavia

Spain

Galicia

Western

Austria Belgium France Germany Ireland Luxembourg Netherlands Switzerland United Kingdom

Northern Ireland Scotland Wales

North America

Canada

Quebec

Cuba Haiti Jamaica Mexico United States

Puerto Rico

Oceania

Australia Fiji New Zealand Samoa

South America

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Paraguay Peru (Iquitos) Uruguay Venezuela

Intercontinental: Arab World Middle East Latin America

v t e

Chennai

History

Early history (pre-1500)

Sangam period Thomas the Apostle Pallava Dynasty Chola Dynasty Vijayanagar Empire

Colonial period (1500–1900)

São Tomé de Meliapore Raja of Chandragiri Agency of Fort St George 1721 Madras cyclone Carnatic Wars
Carnatic Wars
(Madras Adyar Chingleput) Anglo-Mysore Wars Governors

Modern period (1900–present)

Arbuthnot Bank Crash Besant v. Narayaniah Bombardment of Madras by SMS Emden de La Haye scandal 1921 Buckingham and Carnatic Mills Strike Neil Statue Satyagraha 1928 South Indian Railway Strike 1932 Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway Strike 1943 Chennai
Chennai
floods Madras Manade Anti-Hindi agitations Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi R. S. S. Chennai
Chennai
bombing 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake 2013 Anti-Sri Lanka protests 2015 South Indian floods

Writers and historians

S. Muthiah Randor Guy S. Theodore Baskaran V. Sriram A. R. Venkatachalapathy

Geography and wildlife

Regions

Chennai
Chennai
Metropolitan Area Central Chennai North Chennai South Chennai

Rivers and waterways

Adyar River Buckingham Canal Coovum River Kosasthalaiyar River Otteri
Otteri
Nullah

Lakes

Chembarambakkam
Chembarambakkam
Lake Chetput Lake Long Tank Manali Lake Porur
Porur
Lake Red Hills Lake Retteri Veeranam

Islands

Kattupalli Island Quibble Island The Island

Zoological parks

Arignar Anna Zoological Park Chennai
Chennai
Snake Park Guindy
Guindy
National Park Madras Crocodile Bank

Reserve Forests

Nanmangalam Reserve Forest Vandalur
Vandalur
Reserve Forest

Marshlands

Ennore
Ennore
creek Pallikaranai
Pallikaranai
Wetland

Heritage monuments

Amir Mahal Bharat Insurance Building Brodie Castle Chennai
Chennai
Central Prison Chepauk
Chepauk
Palace LIC Building Lighthouse Police headquarters Port Trust Building Puzhal
Puzhal
Central Prison Ripon Building Royapuram
Royapuram
railway station University of Madras
University of Madras
Senate House Southern Railway headquarters Valluvar Kottam Victoria Public Hall

Statues

Marina Beach
Marina Beach
Statues Thomas Munro Triumph of Labour

Memorials

Gandhi Mandapam Kamarajar Mandapam Rajaji Mandapam Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Madras War Cemetery Victory War Memorial Vivekanandar Illam

Administration and politics

Districts

Chennai
Chennai
District Tiruvallur
Tiruvallur
District Kanchipuram District Vellore District

Taluks

Chennai
Chennai
District

Aminjikarai Ayanavaram Egmore Guindy Mambalam Mylapore Perambur Purasaiwalkam Tondiarpet Velachery

Tiruvallur
Tiruvallur
district

Tiruvottiyur Madhavaram Ambattur Avadi Maduravoyal Ponneri Poonamallee Tiruvallur Gummidipoondi Uthukottai Tiruttani Pallipattu

Kanchipuram district

Alandur Sholinganallur Pallavaram Tambaram Chengalpattu Thiruporur Tirukalukundram Sriperumbudur Walajabad Kanchipuram Uthiramerur Madurantakam Cheyyur

Vellore District

Arakkonam

Parliamentary constituencies

Chennai
Chennai
Central Chennai
Chennai
North Chennai
Chennai
South Sriperumbudur Thiruvallur

Assembly constituencies

Alandur Ambattur Anna Nagar Avadi Chengalpattu Chepauk Egmore Harbour Kolathur Madhavaram Maduravoyal Mylapore Pallavaram Perambur Ponneri Poonamallee RK Nagar Royapuram Saidapet Sholinganallur Sriperumbudur T.Nagar Tambaram Thiru. Vi. Ka. Nagar Thiruvottiyur Thousand Lights Tiruvallur Villivakkam Virugambakkam Velachery

Nodal agencies

Greater Chennai
Chennai
Corporation Chennai
Chennai
Metropolitan Development Authority Chennai
Chennai
MetroWater and Sewage Board Chennai
Chennai
Police Commissionerate General Post Office Greater Chennai
Chennai
Police Madras High Court

Sheriff

Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Electricity Board Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Fire and Rescue Services

Economy

Business districts

Burma Bazaar Kothawal Chavadi Koyambedu
Koyambedu
Wholesale Market Complex Panagal Park Parry's Corner Pondy Bazaar Purasawalkam Ranganathan Street Ritchie Street Velachery Washermanpet

SEZ

SEZ Corridor MEPZ Tidel Park World Trade Center

Companies and institutions

Aavin Ashok Leyland Basin Bridge
Basin Bridge
Gas Blue Dart Aviation Chettinad Group EID Parry Ennore
Ennore
Thermal GMR Vasavi Heavy Vehicles Factory Higginbotham's Indian Bank Indian Overseas Bank Integral Coach Factory Madras Atomic Power Station Madras Cements Madras Rubber Factory Madras Stock Exchange Murugappa Group North Chennai
Chennai
Thermal Reserve Bank of India Royal Enfield SPIC Sun Group The Hindu The New Indian Express TI Cycles of India TVS Motors Vallur Thermal World Bank office

Industry

Automotive Electronics Retail Software

Culture and recreation

General

Architecture of Chennai Kollywood Madrassi Madras Bashai Madras School Tourism in Chennai

Beaches

Covelong Elliot's Beach Golden Beach Marina Beach

Parks

Anna Nagar
Anna Nagar
Tower Park Semmozhi Poonga Tholkappia Poonga

Cinemas

SPI Cinemas Mayajaal
Mayajaal
Multiplex

Periodic events

Chennai
Chennai
Book Fair Chennai
Chennai
International Film Festival Chennai
Chennai
Sangamam Lit for Life Madras Day Madras Music Season Saarang Techofes

Theme parks

EVP World MGM Dizzee World Queens Land VGP Universal Kingdom Dash N Splash Kishkinta Mayajaal
Mayajaal
Beach Resort

Shopping malls

Abhirami Mega Mall Alsa Mall Ampa Skywalk Chandra Mall Chennai
Chennai
Citi Centre Chennai
Chennai
Trade Centre Coromandel Plaza Express Avenue Gold Souk Grande Mall Phoenix Market City Ramee Mall Spectrum Mall Spencer Plaza Forum Vijaya Mall

Clubs

Gymkhana Club Madras Boat Club Royal Madras Yacht Club

Religion

Temples

Ayyappan Temple Ashtalakshmi Kovil ISKCON Temple Chennai Kapaleeswarar Temple Kalikambal Temple Madhya Kailash Marundeeswarar Temple Parthasarathy Temple Ravishwarar Varasiddhi Vinayaka temple

Churches

Armenian Church Church of Our Lady of Light St. Andrew's Kirk St. George's Cathedral St. Patrick's Cathedral Santhome
Santhome
Basilica St. Mary's Church

Others

Mahabodhi Centre Thousand Lights Mosque

Transport

Air

Chennai
Chennai
International Airport

Sea

Chennai
Chennai
Port Ennore
Ennore
Port Kattupalli Shipyard Royapuram
Royapuram
fishing harbour

Rail

Chennai
Chennai
Central Chennai
Chennai
Metro Chennai
Chennai
MRTS Chennai
Chennai
Suburban Railway Southern Railway Railway stations in Chennai

Road

Roads and expressways

Anna Salai Cenotaph Road Chennai
Chennai
Bypass Chennai
Chennai
Port - Maduravoyal
Maduravoyal
Expressway China Bazaar Road East Coast Road Inner Ring Road Nungambakkam
Nungambakkam
High Road Outer Ring Road Peters Road Poonamallee
Poonamallee
High Road Rajiv Gandhi Salai Sardar Patel Road

Grade separators and flyovers

Anna Flyover Chennai
Chennai
Airport Flyover Chrompet Flyover Irumbuliyur Junction Kathipara Junction Koyambedu
Koyambedu
Junction Madhavaram
Madhavaram
Junction Maduravoyal
Maduravoyal
Junction Moolakadai
Moolakadai
Junction Padi Junction

Others

Chennai
Chennai
Mofussil Bus Terminus Chennai
Chennai
Contract Carriage Bus Terminus Metropolitan Transport Corporation State Express Transport Corporation

Sport

Venues

Guindy
Guindy
Race Course Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium M. A. Chidambaram Stadium Madras Motor Race Track Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium MRF Pace Foundation Mudaliarkuppam boat house Muttukadu boat house Rajarathinam Stadium SDAT Tennis Stadium

Teams

Chennai
Chennai
Cheetahs Chennai
Chennai
City F.C. Chennai
Chennai
Smashers Chennai
Chennai
Spikers Chennai
Chennai
Super Kings Chennai
Chennai
Superstars Chennai
Chennai
Veerans Chennaiyin FC V Chennai
Chennai
Warriors

Others

Chennai
Chennai
Open M. J. Gopalan Trophy Madras Presidency Matches

Institutions

Education

Alliance Française de Madras Anna Centenary Library Birla Planetarium Cholamandal Artists' Village Connemara Public Library DakshinaChitra Government Museum Kalakshetra KM Music Conservatory Madras Music Academy Schools in Chennai

Universities

Anna University University of Madras Dr MGR Medical University Dr Ambedkar Law University Indian Maritime University Veterinary and Animal Sciences University VIT University Chennai SRM University B S Abdur Rahman University Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Open University Vels University Hindustan University

Engineering colleges

Indian Institute of Technology Madras College of Engineering, Guindy Madras Institute of Technology Alagappa College of Technology

Medical colleges

Madras Medical College Stanley Medical College Kilpauk
Kilpauk
Medical College Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute National Institute of Siddha

Arts and science colleges

Loyola Madras Christian College Presidency College Queen Mary's (Women) Vivekananda Pachaiyappa's College Stella Mary's (Women) DG Vaishnav MOP Vaishnav (Women)

Research

Central Leather Research Institute National Institute of Ocean Technology Institute of Mathematical Sciences Chennai
Chennai
Mathematical Institute Regional Meteorological Centre Structural Engineering Research Centre Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (India)

Diplomatic missions

American Consulate British Deputy High Commission Singapore
Singapore
Consulate Malaysian Consulate Russian Consulate German Consulate Sri Lanka Deputy High Commission Royal Thai Consulate Japanese Consulate Australian Consulate Belgian Consulate South Korean Consulate Chinese Consulate

Hospitals

Government General Hospital Government multi super speciality hospital Royapettah
Royapettah
Hospital Stanley Hospital Kilpauk Medical College
Kilpauk Medical College
Hospital Perambur
Perambur
railway hospital Apollo Hospitals Egmore
Egmore
Eye Hospital Sir Ivan Stedeford Hospital Sankara Nethralaya Madras Medical Mission MIOT Hospital Chettinad Health City Tambaram
Tambaram
TB Sanatorium Government Dental Hospital Hindu Mission Hospital Fortis Malar Hospital Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital Sundaram Medical Foundation

Hotels

Taj Coromandel The Park Le Royal Meridien Hyatt Regency Chola Sheraton Taj Mount Road The Leela Kempinski ITC Grand Chola Hilton Chennai Taj Connemara Fisherman's Cove Trident Hilton Park Sheraton & Towers Radisson GRT Accord Metropolitan JW Marriott Park Hyatt Radisson Blu City Centre Raintree Hotel St Mary's Road The Raintree Hotel Anna Salai Savera Hotel Residency Towers Westin Chennai Kohinoor Asiana

Localities

North

Aamullaivoyal Aathur Agaram Alamathi Andarkuppam Angadu Anuppampattu Arambakkam Arani Ariyalur Arumandhai Assisi Nagar, Chennai Athipattu Athipattu
Athipattu
New Town Athivakkam Attanthangal Avurikollaimedu Ayanavaram Azhinjivakkam Bandikavanoor Basin Bridge Chinnasekkadu Chettimedu Edapalayam Edayanchavadi Ennore Elandanur Elanthancherry Elavur Ernavoor Erukkancherry Gnayiru Gounderpalayam Grant Lyon Gummidipoondi Janapanchatram Jawahar Nagar Kadapakkam Kaladipet Kalakkral Kalpalayam Kanniammanpettai Kannigaipair Karanodai Kathirvedu Kathivakkam Katupalli Kavangarai Kavaraipettai Kasimedu Kattur KK Thazhai Kaviarasu Kannadhasan Nagar Kodipallam Kodungaiyur Kolathur Kondithope Korukkupet Kosappur Kottai Karai Kumaran Nagar Lakshmipuram Madhavaram Madhavaram
Madhavaram
Milk Colony Madharpakkam Madiyur Mahakavi Bharathi Nagar Manali Manali New Town Manjambakkam Mathur Mettu Surapedu Mettu Thandalam Minjur Moolachatiram Moolakadai Muthialpet Nallur Nandiambakkam Napalayam Naravarikuppam New Erumai Vetti Palayam Old Erumai Vetti Palayam Orakadu Padianallur Pallipattu Panchetti Payasambakkam Pazhaverkadu Perambur Peravallur Periapalayam Periyamullavoyal Periyar Nagar Periyasekkadu Perungavur Ponneri Ponniammanmedu Pothur Puthubakkam Puduvoyal Pulli Lyon Puthagaram Puzhal Red Hills Retteri Royapuram Sadayankuppam Sathangadu Sathyamoorthy Nagar (Tiruvottiyur) Sathyamoorthy Nagar (Vyasarpadi) Seemavaram Selavayal Sembilivaram Sembium Sembiyamanali Sholavaram Siruvapuri Sirunium Sowcarpet Sothuperumbedu Surapet Thadaperumbakkam Thatchoor Thathaimanji Theerthakariampattu Theeyampakkam Thervoy Kandigai Thirunilai Thiruvellavoyal Thiru Vi Ka Nagar Tiruvottiyur Tollgate Tondiarpet Uthukottai Vadagarai Vadamadurai Vadaperumbakkam Vaikkadu Vallalar Nagar Vallur Vannipakkam Vazhuthigaimedu Vellivoyalchavadi Vengal Vichoor Vijayanallur Vilakupattu Vilangadupakkam Villivakkam Vinayagapuram VOC Nagar Voyalur Vyasarpadi Washermanpet Wimco Nagar

West

Adayalampattu Alwarthirunagar Ambattur Aminjikarai Athipet Andankuppam Anna Nagar Anna Nagar
Anna Nagar
West Annanur Arakkambakkam Aranvoyal Ashok Nagar Arakkonam Arumbakkam Avadi Ayanambakkam Ayapakkam Ayathur Beemanthangal Chembarambakkam Choolaimedu Egattur Gerugambakkam Govardhanagiri ICF Colony Irungattukottai Iyyapanthangal K. K. Nagar Kadambathur Kadavur Kakkalur Kakkalur Industrial Estate Kallikuppam Karalapakkam Karambakkam Karayanchavadi Kattupakkam Kilkondaiyur Koduvalli Koladi Kolapakkam Konnur Korattur Kovur Koyambedu Kumananchavadi Kundrathur Kuthambakkam Maduravoyal Malayambakkam Manapakkam Manavala Nagar Melkondaiyur Mettu Kandigai MGR Nagar Mogappair Morai Moulivakkam Mugalivakkam Muthapudupet Nandambakkam Nandambakkam Narasingapuram Nazarathpettai Nemam Nemilichery Nesapakkam Nerkundram Nolambur Noombal Oragadam Padi Pakkam Pandeswaram Pandur Paraniputhur Parivakkam Paruthipattu Pattabiram Pattaravakkam Perambakkam Periyapanicheri Perumalpattu Poochi Athipedu Poonamallee Poondi Poonthandalam Porur Pudhur Putlur Ramapuram Ramavaram Sekkadu Seneerkuppam Sevvapet Shenoy Nagar Sorancheri Sriperumbudur Sunguvarchatram Surapet Tamaraipakkam Thandalam Thandurai Thathankuppam Thirumangalam Thirumazhisai Thirumullaivoyal Thiruninravur Tiruvallur Tiruverkadu Valasaravakkam Vanagaram Veerapuram Vellanur Vellavedu Velappanchavadi Vengathur Venkatapuram Veppampattu Vilinjiyambakkam Virugambakkam

Central

Alwarpet Broadway Burma Bazaar Chennai
Chennai
Central Chepauk Chetput Chintadripet Choolai Egmore Foreshore Estate George Town Gopalapuram Greenways Road Kilpauk Kodambakkam Kosapet Kothawal Chavadi Kotturpuram Mandavelli Mannady Mambalam MRC Nagar Mylapore Nandanam Nochikuppam Nungambakkam Otteri Panagal Park Park Town Parry's Corner Pattalam Periamet Pondy Bazaar Pudupet Pulianthope Purasawalkam Quibble Island Raja Annamalai Puram Royapettah Saidapet Saligramam Santhome T Nagar Teynampet The Island Triplicane Trustpuram Vadapalani Vepery West Mambalam

South

Alandur Adambakkam Adyar Agaramthen Alandur Anakaputhur Besant Nagar Chitlapakkam Chromepet Chengalpattu Egattur Ekkaduthangal Erumaiyur Gowrivakkam Guduvancheri Guindy Guindy
Guindy
TVK Estate Devaneri Hasthinapuram Illalur Injambakkam Irumbuliyur Jafferkhanpet Jaladampet Kanathur Kandanchavadi Kannivakkam Karanai Karapakkam Karumbakkam Kattankulathur Kazhipattur Kizhkalvoy Keelkattalai Kelambakkam Kottivakkam Kovalam Kovilambakkam Kovilanchery Madambakkam Madhuvankarai Madipakkam Mamallapuram Manimangalam Mannivakkam Maraimalai Nagar Medavakkam Meenambakkam Melkalvoy MEPZ Mettukuppam Mudichur Muttukadu Nandivaram Nanganallur Nanmangalam Navalur Neelankarai Nellikuppam Noothancheri Okkiyam Okkiyampet Oragadam Ottiambakkam Padappai Palavakkam Palavanthangal Pallavaram Pallikaranai Pammal Panaiyur Paranur Pattipulam Payanur Pazhanthandalam Peerkankaranai Perumbakkam Perumathunallur Perungalathur Perungudi Perunthandalam Ponmar Polichalur Potheri Pudupakkam Puzhuthivakkam Rajakilpakkam Rathinamangalam Selaiyur Sembakkam Semmencherry Sholinganallur Singaperumalkoil Siruseri Sithalapakkam Somangalam St. Thomas Mount Tambaram Tambaram
Tambaram
Sanatorium Thaiyur Tharamani Tharapakkam Thirumudivakkam Thiruneermalai Thiruporur Thiruvanmiyur Thiruvidandhai Thuraipakkam Tirusulam Ullagaram Urapakkam Uthandi Vadanemili Vandalur Vanuvampet Velachery Vengaivasal Vettuvankeni

Category P

.