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Ta'if
Ta'if
(Arabic: الطائف‎; (aṭ-Ṭā'if)) is a city in Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
at an elevation of 1,879 m (6,165 ft) on the slopes of Sarawat Mountains
Sarawat Mountains
(Al-Sarawat Mountains). It has a population of 1,200,000 people[1] and is the unofficial summer capital. The city is the center of an agricultural area known for its grapes, pomegranate, figs, roses and honey.

Contents

1 Ethnography 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 620: Prophet Muhammad era

2.2.1 630: The Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Hunayn
and Islamization

2.3 1517: Surrender to the Ottoman Empire 2.4 1802–1813: Retaking by the Saudi and reconquest by the Ottomans 2.5 1813: Johann Ludwig Burckhardt 2.6 1843: Building works in the 19th century 2.7 1916–1924: The Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
and Hashemite
Hashemite
control 2.8 1924–present: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2.8.1 1924: Conquest by the Ikhwan
Ikhwan
under Abdulaziz al-Saud 2.8.2 1940s: Modernization under the Saudis

3 Places to see 4 Transportation 5 Climate 6 Economics 7 List of inhabitants

7.1 Chieftains 7.2 People born here 7.3 People who lived in Ta'if

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Ethnography[edit] The inhabitants of Ta'if
Ta'if
are largely made up of Saudi Arabians who are Hanbali
Hanbali
and Maliki
Maliki
Sunnis. There are also significant foreign populations, primarily from Asia, Turkey, and other Arab
Arab
countries that are also present in Ta'if. History[edit] Early history[edit] In the 6th century the city of Tā'if was dominated by the Banu Thaqif tribe, which still lives in and around the city of Taif
Taif
today. It has been suggested that Jewish tribes who were displaced by Ethiopian Christians in the Himyarite Kingdom
Himyarite Kingdom
wars settled near Taif.[2] The town is about 100 km (62 mi) southeast of Mecca.[3] The walled city was a religious centre as it housed the idol of the goddess Allāt, who was then known as "the lady of Tā'if." Its climate marked the city out from its dry and barren neighbours closer to the Red Sea. Wheat, vines, and fruit were grown around Tā'if and this is how the city earned its title "the Garden
Garden
of the Hejaz". During the Year of the Elephant, this city was involved in the events.[4] Both Ta'if
Ta'if
and Mecca
Mecca
were resorts of pilgrimage. Ta'if
Ta'if
was more pleasantly situated than Mecca
Mecca
itself and the people of Ta'if
Ta'if
had close trade relations with the people of Mecca. The people of Ta'if carried on agriculture and fruit‑growing in addition to their trade activities.[3] 620: Prophet Muhammad era[edit] 630: The Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Hunayn
and Islamization[edit] In AD 630, the Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Hunayn
took place at Hunayn, close to this city. Shortly after that, the unsuccessful Siege of Ta'if took place. The city was assaulted by catapults from Banu Daws, but it repelled the attacks. The Battle of Tabouk
Battle of Tabouk
in 631 left Tā'if completely isolated, so members of Thaqīf arrived in Mecca
Mecca
to negotiate the conversion of the city to Islam. The idol of Al-lāt
Al-lāt
was destroyed along with all of the other signs of the city's previously pagan existence.[5][6] 1517: Surrender to the Ottoman Empire[edit] On 17 July 1517 the Sharif of Mecca
Mecca
capitulated to the Ottoman Sultan Selim I. As a sign of this, he surrendered to him the keys of the Islamic cities of Mecca
Mecca
and Medina. As part of the Hejaz, Ta'if
Ta'if
was also given over to Ottoman control. 1802–1813: Retaking by the Saudi and reconquest by the Ottomans[edit] The city remained Ottoman for a further three centuries, until in 1802, when it was retaken by rebels in alliance with the House of Saud. These forces then proceeded to take Mecca
Mecca
and Medina. The loss was keenly felt by the Ottoman Empire, which viewed itself as the protector of the Holy Cities. The Ottoman sultan, Mahmud II, called upon his nominal viceroy in Egypt, Muhammad Ali, who launched an attack on the Hejaz
Hejaz
and reconquered Ta'if
Ta'if
in 1813. 1813: Johann Ludwig Burckhardt[edit]

Landscape from south of Ta'if
Ta'if
(Saudi Arabia).

In 1813, the Swiss traveller and orientalist Johann Ludwig Burckhardt visited Ta'if.[7] He left an eyewitness account on the city just after its recapture by the Muhammad Ali, with whom he obtained several interviews while he was there. Burckhardt reported that the wall and ditch around the city had been built by Othman el Medhayfe. There were three gates and several towers on the city walls, which, however, were weak, being in some places only 45 cm (18 in) thick. Burckhardt stated that the castle had been built by Sharif Ghalib. He noted the destruction of the city caused by the conquest of 1802. Most of the buildings were still in ruin while he was there, and the tomb of Abdullah ibn Abbas
Abdullah ibn Abbas
– cousin of Muhammad and ancestor of the Abbasids – had been severely damaged. He also recorded that the population of the city was still mostly Thaqīf. In terms of trade, the city was an entrepôt for coffee. 1843: Building works in the 19th century[edit] The castle and military barracks in Ta'if
Ta'if
were repaired by the Ottomans in 1843, a hükûmet konağı – mansion for government business – was built in 1869, and a post office was established sometime later. 1916–1924: The Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
and Hashemite
Hashemite
control[edit]

Road to Ta'if
Ta'if
in the foreground, mountains of Ta'if
Ta'if
in the background (Saudi Arabia).

Prior to the Arab
Arab
Revolt, Ahmed Bey
Ahmed Bey
had been made the commander of Ottoman forces in Tā'if. He had under him a force of 3,000 soldiers and 10 guns of the mountain artillery. Ghalib Pasha, the governor of the Hejaz
Hejaz
was also present in the city. In 1916, the Hashemites launched their revolt against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in Mecca
Mecca
in June. That city had fallen and then in July, Abdullah, the eldest son of the Hashemite
Hashemite
leader and Sharif of Mecca
Mecca
Husayn ibn Ali, was sent with seventy men to Tā'if. Whilst his activities in the area aroused the suspicion of Ahmed Bey, Ghalib Pasha was unconcerned by so small a force. Abdullah secretly built up his army to 5,000 men. He then cut the telegraph wires to the city and then went on the attack. All Hashemite
Hashemite
assaults on the city were repelled by the mountain guns, and both sides settled down to an uneasy siege. However, Hashemite
Hashemite
guns were slowly brought up to Tā'if, and then the city held out a little longer; it finally surrendered on 22 September. The city thus later became a part of the self-proclaimed Hashemite
Hashemite
Kingdom of Hejaz. 1924–present: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia[edit] 1924: Conquest by the Ikhwan
Ikhwan
under Abdulaziz al-Saud[edit] Ta'if
Ta'if
did not remain in Hashemite
Hashemite
hands for very long however. Tensions between the king of the Hejaz, Husayn ibn Ali, and Abdulaziz al-Saud, the sultan of Nejd, soon broke out into violence. Although hostilities were temporarily patched up in 1919, by September 1924 the then Saudi-sponsored Ikhwan
Ikhwan
(militia) under the leadership of Sultan bin Bajad and Khaled bin Luwai was ready to attack Ta'if. The city was supposed to have been defended by the king's son, Ali, but he fled in panic with his troops. 300 of them were slain by the Ikhwan
Ikhwan
in what became known as the Ta'if
Ta'if
massacre.[8] In 1926 Abdulaziz al-Saud was officially recognized as the new king of Hejaz. Ta'if
Ta'if
remained a part of the Kingdom of Hejaz
Hejaz
until Abdulaziz al-Saud unified his two kingdoms into one under the title of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
in 1932. In 1934 the treaty was signed here that established the boundary lines between Yemen and the kingdom.[9] The king himself was later to die in the city on 9 November 1953 and also King Khalid in 1982. 1940s: Modernization under the Saudis[edit] Ta'if
Ta'if
was still little more than a medieval city when the Saudis took control of it. However, they later embarked on a project of modernizing the city. Saudi Arabia's first public power generator was set up in Ta'if
Ta'if
in the late 1940s.[10] In terms of building roads to the isolated city, in 1965 the then King Faisal inaugurated the 54 mi (87 km) mountain highway between Mecca
Mecca
and Ta'if,[11] and in 1974 the 400 mile Ta'if-Abha– Jizan
Jizan
highway was started.[12] By the 1991 Gulf War, Ta'if
Ta'if
was such a modern city in terms of communications that it was chosen as the site of the Rendon Group's television and radio network, which used to feed the news to Kuwait during the occupation of Kuwait
Kuwait
by Iraq. Places to see[edit]

Al Rudaf Park: A large natural park in the south of Taif, where trees stand amidst magnificent weathered granite rocks. The site also has a small zoo. Wadi
Wadi
Mitna: Muhammed's sanctuary in 619 AD. Muhammed came here to gain the support of the Hawazeen and the Tawfiq but was stoned by the tribes. He was later given sanctuary by his fellows in a small house now used as a mosque. Ta'if
Ta'if
rose plantation. In the month of April, the rose fields are filled with these small fragrant pink roses that are picked at dawn and later distilled into expensive Ta'if
Ta'if
rose oil.[13] The famous rose of Ta'if
Ta'if
is the 30-petal damask rose which has a scent so robust, spicy, and dizzyingly complex,[14] that it has been used in several luxury perfumes including Ormonde Jayne Perfumery,[13] Chanel and Guerlain. Shubra Palace, the regional museum of Ta'if, located in a building of around 1900, which served King Abdul Aziz as a lodging in the 1930s[15] at several places on this page about Taif.[16][17] Rock-carving site: Located 40 km (25 mi) north of Taif, this was the site of the Okaz Souk,[18] the largest and best known of the pre-Islamic souqs or gathering places. The souq was a scene for annual social, political and commercial gatherings. It was also the location of competitive recitation of poetry and prose. The buildings remain, including prominent outlines of walls of basaltic stone. Turkish Fort: The remains of the fort are located near the Rock Carvings, legend has it that Lawrence of Arabia fought here in 1917. Many battles have been fought there and many graves can be found Nature reserve: Between Al Hada
Al Hada
hospital and the Sheraton Hotel at the top of Al Hada
Al Hada
mountain is a large nature preserve at an elevation of 2100 meters above sea level. Al Hada
Al Hada
means "tranquillity", and this preserve of trees and plants offers a true respite. It is also good location to catch the sunset over the mountain.[19][20][21][22] Al Shafa: A small village situated high upon the Sarawat mountains at an elevation of 2200 to 2500 meters above sea level, rich in agricultural products. The fruit gardens of Taif
Taif
are located here. Great view for the camera buff and for those with an adventurous heart, try a camel ride.[23]

Transportation[edit] When driving to Jeddah
Jeddah
from Ta'if, non- Muslim
Muslim
travellers will have to use the non- Muslim
Muslim
bypass to get around Mecca, this adds about 110 km (70 mi) to the trip. Ta'if
Ta'if
has an airport, Ta’if Regional Airport, offering both domestic and international destinations. The airport is located 30 km to the east of Taif, and 70 km (43 mi) from Mecca. Climate[edit] Taif
Taif
has a hot desert climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
BWh), with hot summers and mild winters. Temperatures are not as extreme in summer as for lower-lying regions of Saudi Arabia. It is much cooler in Taif
Taif
during the summertime than it is other parts of Saudi Arabia, particularly Riyadh. Precipitation
Precipitation
is low, but all months see some rain, with more rain in spring and late autumn than in other months.

Climate data for Ta'if, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(1985-2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 32.0 (89.6) 32.6 (90.7) 34.0 (93.2) 35.2 (95.4) 38.2 (100.8) 40.2 (104.4) 40.5 (104.9) 39.8 (103.6) 39.2 (102.6) 36.0 (96.8) 32.5 (90.5) 29.5 (85.1) 40.5 (104.9)

Average high °C (°F) 22.6 (72.7) 24.6 (76.3) 27.3 (81.1) 30.1 (86.2) 33.5 (92.3) 35.8 (96.4) 35.2 (95.4) 35.7 (96.3) 34.8 (94.6) 30.7 (87.3) 26.7 (80.1) 23.8 (74.8) 30.07 (86.13)

Daily mean °C (°F) 15.5 (59.9) 17.2 (63) 19.9 (67.8) 22.7 (72.9) 26.2 (79.2) 29.1 (84.4) 29.1 (84.4) 29.3 (84.7) 27.9 (82.2) 23.5 (74.3) 19.5 (67.1) 16.6 (61.9) 23.04 (73.48)

Average low °C (°F) 8.4 (47.1) 9.9 (49.8) 12.5 (54.5) 15.5 (59.9) 19.1 (66.4) 22.3 (72.1) 23.2 (73.8) 23.6 (74.5) 20.8 (69.4) 15.8 (60.4) 12.3 (54.1) 9.5 (49.1) 16.08 (60.93)

Record low °C (°F) −1.5 (29.3) 0.0 (32) 0.5 (32.9) 4.0 (39.2) 5.6 (42.1) 13.9 (57) 13.3 (55.9) 13.3 (55.9) 11.4 (52.5) 8.0 (46.4) 5.0 (41) −1.0 (30.2) −1.5 (29.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 9.9 (0.39) 1.6 (0.063) 15.1 (0.594) 35.7 (1.406) 35.3 (1.39) 3.9 (0.154) 2.1 (0.083) 17.9 (0.705) 10.6 (0.417) 14.6 (0.575) 25.0 (0.984) 7.6 (0.299) 179.3 (7.06)

Average relative humidity (%) 61 54 47 47 38 25 27 31 33 42 56 61 43.5

Source: " Jeddah
Jeddah
Regional Climate Center".  [24]

Economics[edit] Historically Ta'if
Ta'if
grew roses, which were distributed throughout Central Asia.[25] List of inhabitants[edit] The historically well known tribe of Thaqif still lives in and around the city of Taif. ‘Utaibah عتيبة Otaibah' (Arabic: عتيبة, also spelled Otaiba, Utaybah, "Otaibi" and Uteibah) is another Adnani tribe who still lives in Taif. Bani Hareth is one of the Adnani
Adnani
Arabs tribes living around Taif
Taif
in Saudi Arabia. The tribe is one of the biggest tribes in the area and occupies the full area between Taif
Taif
and Al Qunfuthah in Saudi. Bani Adwan is one of the Adnani
Adnani
Arabs
Arabs
tribes living originally in the northern part of Ta'if, and in the southern part of Jordan. Thu Al issba'a Al Adwani (in Arabic) is a poet and a man of wisdom of the tribe In the pre-Islamic era. Furthermore, Banu Thabet are people descended from Thabit. The tribe is originally part of Otaibah clan. Chieftains[edit] During the pre-Islamic era, the city was populated by the tribe of Thaqif. The city had then the following chieftains:

Urwah ibn Mas'ud Abd-Ya-Layl ibn Amr Uthman ibn Abu-al-Aas

and at least four others.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2008)

People born here[edit]

Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, administrator Muhammad bin Qasim, the general who conquered the Sindh and Punjab regions along the Indus River King Faisal I of Iraq Naif bin Abdul Aziz Uthman bin Affan Mutlaq Hamid Al-Otaibi Sultan
Sultan
Sharif Ali, the 3rd sultan of Brunei Darussalam Hani Hanjour, 9/11 hijacker pilot who crashed american airlines flight 77 into the Pentagon.

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. People who lived in Ta'if[edit] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Muhammad bin Qasim Uthman Ibn Affan
Uthman Ibn Affan
the 3rd Rashidun
Rashidun
(Rightly Guided Caliph) caliph born in Taif. Midhat Pasha
Midhat Pasha
(1822–1884), architect of the first Ottoman constitution who was strangulated in Taif. Muhammad Muhsin Khan Hadi Soua'an Al-Somaily (b. 1970) First Saudi Olympic medal winner.[26] Addas
Addas
– a young Christian
Christian
slave boy who was the first person from the western province of Taif
Taif
to convert to the religion of Islam. Abd Allah ibn Abbas
Abd Allah ibn Abbas
died here Talal Maddah, an Arabic song icon who lived a great deal of time in this city. Also had performed concerts in it, worked in the post office in his early life. One of his remarkable song is a tribute to the city titled by "Jeena Min At Taif", in which he describes the beauty of both the city and its charming weather.[27] Furthermore, Taif
Taif
is flirted in other occasions and songs, for examples: "Ya Misafer Ala At Taif" by Abu Bakir Salim[28] and others.[29] Hugh Kennedy – The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates Martin Lings
Martin Lings
– Muhammad: his life based on the earliest sources John Lewis Burckhardt (Johann Ludwig Burckhardt) – Travels in Arabia; comprehending an account of those territories in Hedjaz which the Muslims regard as sacred, online version available free from the Gutenberg Project[30] Michael Asher – Lawrence: The Uncrowned King of Arabia David Holden and Richard Jones – The House of Saud

See also[edit]

Al-Kateb House Banu Jadhimah Taif
Taif
Agreement 'Utaybah

The contents of this article incorporate material from an entry in the Enciclopedia Libre Universal, published in Spanish under GFDL. References[edit]

^ "Brief about Ta'if
Ta'if
City". Ta'if
Ta'if
City. Retrieved April 26, 2016.  ^ Hirschberg, Haim Ze'ev (1972). "Arabia" In Encyclopaedia Judaica. 3. Jerusalem: Macmillan. p. 234. ^ a b "The Excellent Exemplar - Muhammad". Alislam.org. Retrieved 2012-01-17.  ^ "The Prophets of Islam - Muhammad". Islamawareness.net. Retrieved 2012-01-17.  ^ Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi - The Book of Idols.  ^ Ibn Ishaq - Sīratu Rasūlu l-LāhHawting.  ^ Burkhardt, John Lewis (1829). Travels in Arabia. London: John Colburn. Retrieved 27 November 2017.  ^ David Holden in The House of Saud ^ Merriam-Webster's geographical dictionary. (1997). (Third edition). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Inc. p. 1152. ISBN 0-87779-546-0. ^ "Foundations: The Pillars". Saudi Aramco World. Retrieved 2012-01-17.  ^ "Masterpieces By The Million". Saudi Aramco World. Retrieved 2012-01-17.  ^ "Made In: Saudi Arabia". Saudi Aramco World. Retrieved 2012-01-17.  ^ a b http://www.ormondejayne.com%20 ^ "Guide to Exploring Taif
Taif
a.k.a City of Roses". Gurfati. 2017-03-13. Retrieved 2017-05-02.  ^ " Taif
Taif
City Profile, Saudi Arabia". The-saudi.net. 1953-11-09. Retrieved 2012-01-17.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ "Shubra Palace" (image). Al-Taif.net ^ "Stone arch". Ysldj.com ^ "zao28050.jpg" Archived July 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ [2] Archived July 15, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "المنتديات - الطائف نت". Taifcity.net. Archived from the original on 2014-11-02. Retrieved 2013-04-06.  ^ [3][dead link] ^ "Al Shafa". Al-taif.net ^ "Surface annual climatological report". PME.  ^ Prothero, G. W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 86.  ^ "Great Leaps: Saudi Arabia's First Olympic Medals". Saudi Aramco World. Retrieved 2012-01-17.  ^ "طلال مداح جينا من الطائف". YouTube. 2009-06-05. Retrieved 2012-01-17.  ^ "بوبكر سالم بلفقيه أغنية يامسافر على الطايف". YouTube. 2007-12-21. Retrieved 2012-01-17.  ^ "USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim
Muslim
Texts". Usc.edu. Retrieved 2012-01-17.  ^ "Travels in Arabia; comprehending an account of those territories in Hedjaz which – Project Gutenberg". Gutenberg.org. 2005-12-01. Retrieved 2012-01-17. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Ta’if at Wikimedia Commons Ta'if
Ta'if
travel guide from Wikivoyage

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb ( Arabs
Arabs
or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan
Jordan
River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

v t e

Main Saudi Arabian cities by population

1,000,000 and more

Dammam Hofuf Jeddah Khamis Mushait Mecca Medina Riyadh Ta'if

300,000-999,999

Abha Al-Kharj Buraydah Ha'il Hafar Al-Batin Jubail Khobar Najran Qatif Tabuk

<299,999

Al Bahah Al Lith Al Majma'ah Al Qunfudhah Arar Abqaiq Bareq Bisha Dhahran Diriyah Duba Al Jawf Jizan Khafji Ras Tanura Unaizah Yanbu' al Bahr

Source:

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