The FRANC (sign : FR. or SFR.; German : _Franken_, French and Romansh : _franc_, Italian : _franco_; code : CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein ; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d\'Italia . The Swiss National Bank (SNB) issues banknotes and the federal mint Swissmint issues coins .
The smaller denomination, a hundredth of a franc, is a _ Rappen _ (Rp.) in German, _centime _ (c.) in French, _centesimo_ (ct.) in Italian, and _rap_ (rp.) in Romansh . The ISO code of the currency used by banks and financial institutions is CHF, although FR. is also widely used by businesses and advertisers; some use SFR. for _Swiss Franc_; the Latinate "CH" stands for Confoederatio Helvetica .
* 1 History
* 1.3 Franc of the Swiss Confederation, 1850–present
* 1.3.1 2011–2014: big movements and capping * 1.3.2 End of capping
* 2 Coins
* 2.1 Coins of the Helvetic Republic * 2.2 Coins of the Swiss Confederation
* 3 Banknotes * 4 Circulation * 5 Reserve currency * 6 Current exchange rates * 7 See also * 8 Notes and references * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links
BEFORE THE HELVETIC REPUBLIC
Before 1798, about 75 entities were making coins in Switzerland, including the 25 cantons and half-cantons, 16 cities, and abbeys, resulting in about 860 different coins in circulation, with different values, denominations and monetary systems.
The local Swiss currencies included the Basel thaler , Berne thaler , Fribourg gulden , Geneva thaler , Geneva genevoise , Luzern gulden , Neuchâtel gulden , St. Gallen thaler , Schwyz gulden , Solothurn thaler , Valais thaler and the Zürich thaler .
Bernese _Rollbatzen_, 15th century]] *
Zürich _Taler_ (1768)
HELVETIC REPUBLIC TO REGENERATION 1798–1847
In 1798, the Helvetic Republic introduced the _franc_, a currency based on the Berne thaler , subdivided into 10 _batzen _ or 100 _centimes_. The Swiss franc was equal to 6 3⁄4 grams of pure silver or 1 1⁄2 French francs .
32 _Franken_ gold coin of the Helvetic Republic (1800)
_ 40 Batzen_ coin of Vaud (1812)
This franc was issued until the end of the Helvetic Republic in 1803, but served as the model for the currencies of several cantons in the Mediation period (18031814). These nineteen cantonal currencies were the Appenzell frank , Argovia frank , Basel frank , Berne frank , Fribourg frank , Geneva franc , Glarus frank , Graubünden frank , Luzern frank , St. Gallen frank , Schaffhausen frank , Schwyz frank , Solothurn frank , Thurgau frank , Ticino franco , Unterwalden frank , Uri frank , Vaud franc and Zürich frank .
_ Bernese Konkordatsbatzen_ of 1826 _ 1 franc_ coin of Vaud (1845)
After 1815, the restored Swiss Confederacy attempted to simplify the system of currencies once again. As of 1820, a total number of 8,000 distinct coins were current in Switzerland, issued by cantons, cities, abbeys and principalities or lordships, mixed with surviving coins of the Helvetic Republic and the pre-1798 Helvetic Republic. In 1825, the cantons of Berne, Basel, Fribourg, Solothurn, Aargau and Vaud formed a monetary _concordate_, issuing standardised coins, the so-called _Konkordanzbatzen_, still carrying the coat of arms of the issuing canton but interchangeable and identical in value. The reverse side of the coin displayed a Swiss cross with the letter C in the center.
FRANC OF THE SWISS CONFEDERATION, 1850–PRESENT
Although 22 cantons and half-cantons issued coins between 1803 and 1850, less than 15% of the money in circulation in Switzerland in 1850 was locally produced, with the rest being foreign, mainly brought back by mercenaries. In addition, some private banks also started issuing the first banknotes, so that in total, at least 8000 different coins and notes were in circulation at that time, making the monetary system extremely complicated.
In order to solve this problem, the new Swiss Federal Constitution of 1848 specified that the federal government would be the only entity allowed to make money in Switzerland. This was followed two years later by the first Federal Coinage Act, passed by the Federal Assembly on 7 May 1850, which introduced the franc as the monetary unit of Switzerland. The franc was introduced at par with the French franc . It replaced the different currencies of the Swiss cantons , some of which had been using a franc (divided into 10 _batzen_ and 100 centimes) which was worth 1 1⁄2 French francs . Exchange rates with the euro and US dollar, 2003-2006
In 1865, France , Belgium , Italy , and Switzerland formed the Latin Monetary Union , wherein they agreed to value their national currencies to a standard of 4.5 grams of silver or 0.290322 grams of gold. Even after the monetary union faded away in the 1920s and officially ended in 1927, the Swiss franc remained on that standard until 1936, when it suffered its sole devaluation , on 27 September during the Great Depression . The currency was devalued by 30% following the devaluations of the British pound , U.S. dollar and French franc . In 1945, Switzerland joined the Bretton Woods system and pegged the franc to the U.S. dollar at a rate of $1 = 4.30521 francs (equivalent to 1 franc = 0.206418 grams of gold). This was changed to $1 = 4.375 francs (1 franc = 0.203125 grams of gold) in 1949.
The Swiss franc has historically been considered a safe-haven currency with virtually zero inflation and a legal requirement that a minimum of 40% be backed by gold reserves . However, this link to gold, which dates from the 1920s, was terminated on 1 May 2000 following a referendum . By March 2005, following a gold selling program, the Swiss National Bank held 1,290 tonnes of gold in reserves which equated to 20% of its assets.
2011–2014: Big Movements And Capping
In March 2011 the franc climbed past the US$1.10 mark (CHF 0.91 per U.S. dollar ). In June 2011 the franc climbed past US$1.20 (CHF 0.833 per U.S. dollar ) as investors sought safety amidst the continuation of the Greek sovereign-debt crisis. Continuation of the same crisis in Europe and the debt crisis in the U.S. propelled the Swiss franc past US$1.30 (CHF 0.769 per U.S. dollar ) as of August 2011, prompting the Swiss National Bank to boost the franc's liquidity in an attempt to counter its "massive overvaluation ". _ The Economist _ argued that its Big Mac Index in July 2011 indicated an overvaluation of 98% over the dollar and cited Swiss companies releasing profit warnings and threatening to move operations out of the country due to the strength of the franc. Demand for francs and franc-denominated assets was so strong that nominal short-term Swiss interest rates became negative.
On 6 September 2011, when the exchange rate was 1.095 CHF/ € and appeared to be heading for parity with the euro , the SNB set a minimum exchange rate of 1.20 francs to the euro (_capping_ franc's appreciation) saying "the value of the franc is a threat to the economy", and that it was "prepared to buy foreign currency in unlimited quantities". In response to the announcement the franc fell against the euro, to 1.22 francs from 1.12 francs and lost 9% against the U.S. dollar within fifteen minutes. The intervention stunned currency traders since the franc had long been regarded as a safe haven.
The franc fell 8.8% against the euro, 9.5% against the dollar, and at least 8.2% against all 16 of the most active currencies on the day of the announcement. It was the largest plunge of the franc ever against the euro. The SNB had previously set an exchange rate target in 1978 against the Deutsche mark and maintained it, although at the cost of high inflation. Until mid-January 2015, the franc continued to trade below the target level set by the SNB, though the ceiling was broken at least once on 5 April 2012, albeit briefly.
End Of Capping
On 18 December 2014, the Swiss central bank introduced a negative interest rate on bank deposits to support its CHF ceiling. However, with the euro declining in value over the following weeks, in a move dubbed _Francogeddon_ for its effect on markets, the Swiss National Bank abandoned the ceiling on 15 January 2015, and the franc promptly increased in value compared with the euro by 30%, although this only lasted a few minutes before part of the increase was reversed. The move was not announced in advance and resulted in "turmoil" in stock and currency markets. By the close of trading that day, the franc was up 23% against the euro and 21% against the US dollar. The full daily range of franc was equal to $31,000 per single futures contract (to the positive if long, to the negative if short), and is more than the market moved collectively in the previous thousand days. The key interest rate was also lowered from −0.25% to −0.75%, meaning investors would be paying an increased fee to keep their funds in a Swiss bank account. This devaluation of the euro against the franc is expected to hurt Switzerland's large export industry. The Swatch Group , for example, saw its shares drop 15% (in Swiss franc terms) with the announcements so that the share price may have increased on that day in terms of other major currencies.
The large and unexpected jump caused major losses for some currency traders. Alpari , a Russian-owned spread betting firm established in the UK, temporarily declared insolvency before announcing its desire to be acquired (and later denied rumours of an acquisition) by FXCM. FXCM was bailed out by its parent company. Saxo Bank of Denmark reported losses on 19 January 2015. New Zealand foreign exchange broker Global Brokers NZ announced it "could no longer meet New Zealand regulators' minimum capital requirements" and terminated its business.
Media questioned the ongoing credibility of the Swiss central bank, and indeed central banks in general. Using phrases like "extend-and-pretend" to describe central bank exchange rate control measures, Saxobank chief economist Steen Jakobsen stated "as a group, central banks have lost credibility and when the ECB starts QE this week, the beginning of the end for central banks will be well under way". BT Investment Management 's head of income and fixed interest, Vimal Gor stated "central banks are becoming more and more impotent. It also ultimately proves that central banks cannot drive economic growth like they think they can". UBS interest rate strategist Andrew Lilley commented "central banks can have inconsistent goals from one-day to another".
Main article: Coins of the Swiss franc
COINS OF THE HELVETIC REPUBLIC
16 francs, Helvetic Republic, 1800, gold
Between 1798 and 1803, billon coins were issued in denominations of 1 centime, 1⁄2 batzen, and 1 batzen. Silver coins were issued for 10, 20 and 40 batzen, with the 40-batzen coin also issued with the denomination given as 4 francs. Gold 16 and 32-franc coins were issued in 1800.
COINS OF THE SWISS CONFEDERATION
In 1850, coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 centimes and 1⁄2, 1, 2, and 5 francs, with the 1 and 2 centimes struck in bronze, the 5, 10, and 20 centimes in billon (with 5% to 15% silver content), and the franc denominations in .900 fine silver. Between 1860 and 1863, .800 fine silver was used, before the standard used in France of .835 fineness was adopted for all silver coins except the 5 francs (which remained .900 fineness) in 1875. In 1879, billon was replaced by cupro-nickel in the 5 and 10 centimes and by nickel in the 20 centimes. Gold coins in denominations of 10, 20, and 100 francs, known as Vreneli , circulated until 1936.
Both world wars only had a small effect on the Swiss coinage, with brass and zinc coins temporarily being issued. In 1931, the size of the 5-franc coin was reduced from 25 grams to 15, with the silver content reduced to .835 fineness. The next year, nickel replaced cupro-nickel in the 5 and 10 centimes.
In the late 1960s the prices of internationally traded commodities rose significantly. A silver coin's metal value exceeded its monetary value, and many were being sent abroad for melting, which prompted the federal government to make this practice illegal. The statute was of little effect, and the melting of francs only subsided when the collectible value of the remaining francs again exceeded their material value.
The 1-centime coin was still produced until 2006, albeit in ever decreasing quantities, but its importance declined. Those who could justify the use of 1-centime coins for monetary purposes could obtain them at face value; any other user (such as collectors) had to pay an additional four centimes per coin to cover the production costs, which had exceeded the actual face value of the coin for many years. The coin fell into disuse in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but was only officially fully withdrawn from circulation and declared to be no longer legal tender on 1 January 2007. The long-forgotten 2-centime coin, not minted since 1974, was demonetized on 1 January 1978. 5 Swiss francs 1889
The designs of the coins have changed very little since 1879. Among the notable changes were new designs for the 5 franc coins in 1888, 1922, 1924 (minor) and 1931 (mostly just a size reduction). A new design for the bronze coins was used from 1948. Coins depicting a ring of stars (such as the 1 franc coin seen beside this paragraph) were altered from 22 stars to 23 stars in 1983; since the stars represent the Swiss cantons, the design was updated when in 1979 Jura seceded from the Canton of Bern and became the 23rd canton of the Swiss Confederation. 1 Swiss franc 1995
The 10-centime coins from 1879 onwards (except the years 1918–19 and 1932–39) have had the same composition, size and design until 2014 and are still legal tender and found in circulation. Play media 3D animation of the surface of a 1⁄2-franc coin.
All Swiss coins are language-neutral with respect to Switzerland's four national languages, featuring only numerals, the abbreviation "Fr." for franc, and the Latin phrases _Helvetia_ or _Confœderatio Helvetica_ (depending on the denomination) or the inscription _ Libertas _ (Roman goddess of liberty) on the small coins. The name of the artist is present on the coins with the standing Helvetia and the herder.
In addition to these general circulation coins, numerous series of commemorative coins have been issued, as well as silver and gold coins. These coins are no longer legal tender, but can in theory be exchanged at face value at post offices, and at national and cantonal banks, although their metal or collectors' value equals or exceeds their face value.
Overview of current Swiss coins VALUE Diameter (mm) Thickness (mm) Weight (g) COMPOSITION REMARKS
5 centimes 17.15 1.25 1.8 Aluminium bronze Made in cupronickel or pure nickel until 1980
10 centimes 19.15 1.45 3 Cupronickel Made in current minting since 1879
20 centimes 21.05 1.65 4 Cupronickel
1⁄2 franc (50 centimes) 18.20 1.25 2.2 Cupronickel In silver until 1967
1 franc 23.20 1.55 4.4 Cupronickel In silver until 1967
2 francs 27.40 2.15 8.8 Cupronickel In silver until 1967
5 francs 31.45 2.35 13.2 Cupronickel In silver until 1967 and in 1969; 25 g weight until 1930
Main article: Banknotes of the Swiss franc Schweizerische Nationalbank (Swiss National Bank), 5 francs (1914). The portrait depicts William Tell (based on Richard Kissling ’s monument in Altdorf ), with the Rütli Mountain in the distance.
In 1907, the Swiss National Bank took over the issuance of banknotes from the cantons and various banks. It introduced denominations of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 francs. 20-franc notes were introduced in 1911, followed by 5-franc notes in 1913. In 1914, the Federal Treasury issued paper money in denominations of 5, 10 and 20 francs. These notes were issued in three different versions: French, German and Italian. The State Loan Bank also issued 25-franc notes that year. In 1952, the national bank ceased issuing 5-franc notes but introduced 10-franc notes in 1955. In 1996, 200-franc notes were introduced whilst the 500-franc note was discontinued.
Eight series of banknotes have been printed by the national bank, six of which have been released for use by the general public. The sixth series from 1976, designed by Ernst and Ursula Hiestand (de), depicted persons from the world of science . It has been recalled and replaced and will lose any value on 1 May 2020. As of 2010, a large number of notes from this series have not yet been exchanged, even though they have not been legal tender for more than 10 years; for example, the value of those 500-franc banknotes still in circulation represents 129.9 million Swiss francs.
The seventh series was printed in 1984, but kept as a "reserve series", ready to be used if, for example, wide counterfeiting of the current series suddenly happened. When the Swiss National Bank decided to develop new security features and to abandon the concept of a reserve series, the details of the seventh series were released and the printed notes were destroyed. Fine print of a 20 CHF banknote: distances between earth and various celestial bodies, in Light-seconds
The current, eighth series of banknotes was designed by Jörg Zintzmeyer (de) around the theme of the arts and released starting in 1995. In addition to its new vertical design, this series was different from the previous one on several counts. Probably the most important difference from a practical point of view was that the seldom-used 500-franc note was replaced by a new 200-franc note; this new note has indeed proved more successful than the old 500-franc note. The base colours of the new notes were kept similar to the old ones, except that the 20-franc note was changed from blue to red to prevent a frequent confusion with the 100-franc note, and that the 10-franc note was changed from red to yellow. The size of the notes was changed as well, with all notes from the eighth series having the same height (74 mm), while the widths were changed as well, still increasing with the value of the notes. The new series contains many more security features than the previous one; many of them are now visibly displayed and have been widely advertised, in contrast with the previous series for which most of the features were kept secret.
Eighth (current) series of Swiss banknotes IMAGE VALUE DIMENSIONS MAIN COLOUR OBVERSE DATE OF ISSUE REMARKS
10 francs 126 × 74 mm Yellow Le Corbusier 8 April 1997
20 francs 137 × 74 mm Red Arthur Honegger 1 October 1996
50 francs 148 × 74 mm Green Sophie Taeuber-Arp 3 October 1995
100 francs 159 × 74 mm Blue Alberto Giacometti 1 October 1998
200 francs 170 × 74 mm Brown Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz 1 October 1997 Replaces the 500-franc banknote in the previous series
1000 francs 181 × 74 mm Purple Jacob Burckhardt 1 April 1998
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table .
All banknotes are quadrilingual, displaying all information in the four national languages. The banknotes depicting a Germanophone person have German and Romansch on the same side as the picture, whereas banknotes depicting a Francophone or an Italophone person have French and Italian on the same side as the picture. The reverse has the other two languages.
When the fifth series lost its validity at the end of April 2000, the banknotes that had not been exchanged represented a total value of 244.3 million Swiss francs; in accordance with Swiss law, this amount was transferred to the Swiss Fund for Emergency Losses in the Case of Non-insurable Natural Disasters.
* Ninth series of the Swiss franc
CHF 20, front *
CHF 20, back *
CHF 50, front *
CHF 50, back
In February 2005, a competition was announced for the design of the ninth series, planned to be released around 2010 on the theme " Switzerland open to the world". The results were announced in November 2005, but the selected design drew widespread criticisms from the population. As a result, the release date has been repeatedly postponed. In February 2010, it was announced that the release would take place in 2012, and in December 2012 the date was given as "2015 at the earliest". In August 2015 it was announced that the new series would start being issued in April 2016. The first denomination to be released was the 50-franc note, which was first issued on 12 April 2016, the new 20-franc banknote followed on 17 May 2017. Others will follow in half-yearly or yearly intervals. The issuing of the entire new series is scheduled to be completed by 2019.
The Swiss franc is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein and also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d\'Italia . Although not formally legal tender in the German exclave Büsingen (the sole legal currency is the euro ), it is in wide daily use there. The Swiss franc is the only version of the franc still issued in Europe.
As of March 2010, the total value of released Swiss coins and banknotes was 49.6640 billion Swiss francs.
Value of Swiss coins and banknotes in circulation as of March 2010 (in millions of CHF) COINS 10 FRANCS 20 FRANCS 50 FRANCS 100 FRANCS 200 FRANCS 500 FRANCS 1000 FRANCS TOTAL
2,695.4 656.7 1,416.7 1,963.0 8,337.4 6,828.0 129.9 27,637.1 49,664.0
Combinations of up to 100 circulating Swiss coins (not including special or commemorative coins) are legal tender; banknotes are legal tender for any amount.
Main article: Reserve currency
The Swiss franc is used as a reserve currency around the world and is currently ranked rarely 5th or 6th in value held as reserves after the United States dollar , the euro , the Japanese yen , the pound sterling and the Canadian dollar .
Currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves
* v * t * e
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
US DOLLAR 71.0% 70.5% 70.7% 66.5% 65.8% 66.0% 66.4% 65.7% 64.1% 64.1% 62.1% 61.8% 62.3% 61.1% 61.0% 63.1% 64.0% 64.0%
EURO 17.9% 18.8% 19.8% 24.2% 25.3% 24.9% 24.3% 25.2% 26.3% 26.4% 27.6% 26.0% 24.7% 24.3% 24.4% 22.1% 20.3% 19.7%
POUND STERLING 2.9% 2.8% 2.7% 2.9% 2.6% 3.2% 3.6% 4.2% 4.7% 4.0% 4.3% 3.9% 3.8% 4.0% 4.0% 3.8% 4.7% 4.4%
JAPANESE YEN 6.4% 6.3% 5.2% 4.5% 4.1% 3.8% 3.7% 3.2% 2.9% 3.1% 2.9% 3.7% 3.6% 4.1% 3.8% 3.9% 3.8% 4.2%
1.5% 1.8% 1.9% 1.9% 2.0%
1.5% 1.8% 1.8% 1.8% 1.8%
SWISS FRANC 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2%
OTHER 1.6% 1.4% 1.2% 1.4% 1.9% 1.9% 1.9% 1.5% 1.8% 2.2% 3.1% 4.4% 5.4% 3.3% 2.9% 3.2% 3.2% 2.5%
CURRENT EXCHANGE RATES
CURRENT CHF EXCHANGE RATES
From Google Finance: AUD CAD EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR
From Yahoo! Finance: AUD CAD EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR
From XE: AUD CAD EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR
From OANDA: AUD CAD EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR
From fxtop.com: AUD CAD EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR
* Banking in Switzerland * Economy of Switzerland * Hard currency * Iraqi Swiss dinar , a common name for the old Iraqi currency but not related to Swiss currency. * Liechtenstein frank * Gold standard
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ Swiss franc is the official currency and Euro is widely accepted. * ^ Swiss franc is widely accepted, although Euro is officially used * ^ LaLiberté.ch, (in French) La Liberté, 09.01.2009, La fabuleuse histoire du franc suisse. * ^ "Loi du 25 juin 1798". _Bulletin des loix et décrets du Corps législatif de la République helvétique_ (in French). Henri Emanuel Vincent. 1798. * ^ Otto Paul Wenger, pp. 49–50. * ^ 150 Years of Swiss coinage * ^ Gold.org, Table of currency devaluations in the United States and Europe following the devaluation of the pound in 1931, in _Monetary History of Gold: volume 3 — After the Gold Standard_ (from http://www.gold.org/government_affairs/gold_as_a_monetary_asset/historical_records_back_to_the_17th_century/after_the_gold_standard/) Archived 18 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Gold.org, Declaration of the Swiss Government, through the Federal Finance and Customs Department, and the National Bank of Switzerland regarding the purchase and sale of gold, in _Monetary History of Gold: volume 3 — After the Gold Standard_ * ^ "Federal Law on Currency and Legal Tender to enter into force on 1 May 2000" (Press release). Efd.admin.ch. 12 April 2000. Retrieved 20 September 2012. * ^ "Speech by Philipp M. Hildebrand, Member of the Governing Board, Swiss National Bank" (PDF). Iie.com. 5 May 2005. * ^ Bosley, Catherine (30 November 2014). "Swiss gold initiative vote". _Bloomberg_. * ^ Bennett, Allison; Saraiva, Catarina (25 June 2001). "Swiss Franc Climbs to Record High on Greece Crisis". _Bloomberg Businessweek _. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ Meier, Simone (10 August 2011). "SNB Steps Up Franc Fight to Counter \'Massive Overvaluation". _Bloomberg Businessweek_. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ "Francly wrong". _ The Economist _. Economist.com. 10 September 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ Mijuk, Goran (31 August 2011). "Swiss Short-Term Debt Yields in Negative Territory". _ The Wall Street Journal _. Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ Swiss Franc(CHF) To Euro(EUR) on 05 Aug 2011 (05/08/2011) * ^ " Swiss National Bank acts to weaken strong franc". _ BBC News _. BBC.com. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ Wille, Klaus (6 September 2011). "Swiss Pledge Unlimited Currency Purchases". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg News . Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ "Swiss Central Bank In Move To Weaken Franc". _ Sky News _. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ Weisenthal, Joe (6 September 2011). "THEY DID IT: Swiss National Bank Makes Epic Intervention Move, Sending The Swiss Franc Plunging". _ Business Insider _. Businessinsider.com. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ Wearden, Graeme (6 September 2011). " Currency traders stunned by SNB intervention". _ The Guardian _. London: theguardian.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ The Swiss National Bank\'s Decision Was Like A \'Nuclear Explosion\' - Yahoo Finance * ^ Bennett, Allison (6 September 2011). " Franc Plunges Most Ever Versus Euro". Bloomberg.com. * ^ Thomasson, Emma (6 September 2011). "Swiss draw line in the sand to cap runaway franc". Reuters.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ "Markets Reel after Swiss Franc Shock". primepair.com. 16 January 2015. * ^ " Franc Rises vs. Euro, Breaks Ceiling". Topforexnews.com. 5 April 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ "Swiss central bank imposes negative interest rates". _Yahoo Finance_. 18 December 2014. * ^ "\'Francogeddon\': Swiss central bank stuns market with policy U-turn". _ Sydney Morning Herald _. 16 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015. * ^ "\'Francogeddon\' as Swiss franc ends euro cap". _ BBC News _. 16 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015. * ^ "\'Francogeddon\': New Zealand foreign exchange broker shuts after Swiss national bank scraps currency cap". _Australian Broadcasting Corporation _. 17 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015. * ^ "Swiss queue round the block to change currency as \'Francogeddon\' continues". _ London Evening Standard _. 16 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Swiss franc soars as Switzerland abandons euro cap". _BBC News_. Retrieved 16 January 2015. * ^ Inman, Phillip (15 January 2015). "Markets in turmoil as Switzerland removes currency cap". _ The Guardian _. Retrieved 15 January 2015. Currency and stock markets were thrown into turmoil across Europe * ^ Wong, Andrea; Evans, Rachel (16 January 2015). "Swiss Franc Roils Markets as SNB Abandons Cap". _Bloomberg _. Retrieved 20 January 2015. * ^ http://managed-futures-blog.attaincapital.com/2015/01/15/the-swiss-franc-isnt-all-that-neutral/ * ^ https://leaprate.com/2015/01/alpari-uk-denies-acquisition-by-fxcm-talks-continuing-leaprate-exclusive/ * ^ " Alpari UK currency broker folds over Swiss franc turmoil". _BBC News_. 16 January 2015. * ^ http://www.marketwatch.com/story/leucadia-to-provide-fxcm-with-300-million-loan-2015-01-16 * ^ " Swiss franc fallout takes more casualties". FT.com. Retrieved 20 January 2015. * ^ " New Zealand forex broker shuts after Swiss franc move". Agence France-Presse . * ^ Richard Barley (16 January 2015). "Swiss Tarnish Central Banks". Wall Street Journal . Retrieved 21 January 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Bianca Hartge-Hazelman (21 January 2015). "Central banks \'have lost credibility\'". Sydney Morning Herald . Retrieved 21 January 2015. * ^ (de) Jürg Richter et Ruedi Kunzmann, Neuer HMZ-Katalog, tome 2 : Die Münzen der Schweiz und Liechtensteins 15./16 Jahrhundert bis Gegenwart, (ISBN 3-86646-504-1 ) * ^ SwissMint.ch, Mintage figures for Swiss coins as of 1850, status in January 2007. * ^ SwissMint.ch Frequently Asked Questions (D-27). Last accessed 2017-01-05. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ SwissMint.ch, Mintage figures for Swiss coins as of 1850, status in January 2007 * ^ SwissMint.ch, 150 Years of Swiss coinage: From silver to cupronickel. Last accessed 2006-03-02. Archived 1 September 2005 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Visible on the pictures of the Swiss coins * ^ "Ordonnance sur la monnaie (Order on Currency)" (PDF) (in French). Government of Switzerland. 1 December 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ SwissMint.ch, Circulation coins: Technical data. Last accessed 2006-10-30. Archived 5 December 2004 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Cuhaj 2010 , pp. 1135–36. * ^ Cuhaj 2010 , p. 1137. * ^ Cuhaj 2010 , pp. 1138. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ " Swiss National Bank Monthly Statistical Bulletin" (PDF) (Press release). Bern : Swiss National Bank. February 2010. p. A2: Banknotes and coins in circulation. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ "Seventh banknote series, 1984". Swiss National Bank. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ The global value of those 200-franc notes in circulation in 2000 (5.1200 billion francs) was larger than the value of the 500-franc notes in 1996 (3.9123 billion), even when these figures are corrected for the global increase in total value of Swiss banknotes in circulation (+9%). Figures from the Monthly Statistical Bulletin of the Swiss National Bank, January 2006, Op cit * ^ An overview of the security features, Swiss National Bank. Last accessed 2012-09-20. * ^ "Eighth banknote series, 1995". Swiss National Bank. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ "National Bank remits Sfr 244,3 million to the Fund for Emergency Losses" (PDF) (Press release). Swiss National Bank. 4 May 2000. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ "New banknotes project". Swiss National Bank. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ "New banknote series – Swiss National Bank postpones issue date" (Press release). Swiss National Bank. 17 February 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ "Introductory remarks by Jean-Pierre Danthine" (Press release). Swiss National Bank. 13 December 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ "New Swiss banknotes to be issued from April 2016" (PDF) (Press release). Swiss National Bank. 14 August 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2015. * ^ Art. 3 of the Swiss law on Monetary Unit and means of payment. 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