The ORANGE is the fruit of the citrus species
Citrus × sinensis in
Rutaceae . It is also called SWEET ORANGE, to distinguish
it from the related
Citrus × aurantium, referred to as bitter orange
. The sweet orange reproduces asexually (apomixis through nucellar
embryony ); varieties of sweet orange arise through mutations.
The orange is a hybrid between pomelo (
Citrus maxima) and mandarin
Citrus reticulata). It has genes that are ~25% pomelo and ~75%
mandarin; however, it is not a simple backcrossed BC1 hybrid, but
hybridized over multiple generations. The chloroplast genes, and
therefore the maternal line, seem to be pomelo. The sweet orange has
had its full genome sequenced. Earlier estimates of the percentage of
pomelo genes varying from ~50% to 6% have been reported.
Sweet oranges were mentioned in Chinese literature in 314 BC. As of
1987 , orange trees were found to be the most cultivated fruit tree in
the world. Orange trees are widely grown in tropical and subtropical
climates for their sweet fruit. The fruit of the orange tree can be
eaten fresh, or processed for its juice or fragrant peel. As of 2012
, sweet oranges accounted for approximately 70% of citrus production.
In 2014, 70.9 million tonnes of oranges were grown worldwide, with
Brazil producing 24% of the world total followed by
China and India.
* 1 Botanical information and terminology
* 2 Etymology
* 3 History
* 4 Varieties
* 4.1 Common oranges
* 4.1.1 Valencia
* 4.1.2 Hart\'s Tardiff Valencia
* 4.1.3 Hamlin
* 4.1.4 Other varieties of common oranges
* 4.2.1 Cara cara navels
* 4.2.2 Other varieties of navels
* 4.3 Blood oranges
* 4.3.1 Other varieties of blood oranges
* 4.4 Acidless oranges
* 5 Attributes
* 5.1 Sensory factors
* 5.2 Nutritional value and phytochemicals
* 5.3 Grading
* 6 Cultivation
* 6.1 Climate
* 6.2 Propagation
* 6.3 Harvest
* 6.4 Degreening
* 6.5 Storage
* 6.6 Pests and diseases
* 6.6.1 Cottony cushion scale
Citrus greening disease
* 6.6.3 Greasy spot
* 7 Production
* 8 Juice and other products
* 8.1 Products made from oranges
* 9 See also
* 10 References
* 11 External links
BOTANICAL INFORMATION AND TERMINOLOGY
All citrus trees belong to the single genus
Citrus and remain almost
entirely interfertile . This includes grapefruits , lemons , limes ,
oranges, and various other types and hybrids . As the interfertility
of oranges and other citrus has produced numerous hybrids and
cultivars , and bud mutations have also been selected, their taxonomy
is fairly controversial, confusing or inconsistent. The fruit of any
citrus tree is considered a hesperidium , a kind of modified berry ;
it is covered by a rind originated by a rugged thickening of the ovary
Different names have been given to the many varieties of the genus.
Orange applies primarily to the sweet orange –
Citrus sinensis (L. )
Osbeck . The orange tree is an evergreen , flowering tree, with an
average height of 9 to 10 m (30 to 33 ft), although some very old
specimens can reach 15 m (49 ft). Its oval leaves , alternately
arranged , are 4 to 10 cm (1.6 to 3.9 in) long and have crenulate
Sweet oranges grow in a range of different sizes, and shapes
varying from spherical to oblong. Inside and attached to the rind is a
porous white tissue, the white, bitter mesocarp or albedo (pith ).
The orange contains a number of distinct carpels (segments) inside,
typically about ten, each delimited by a membrane, and containing many
juice-filled vesicles and usually a few seeds (pips). When unripe,
the fruit is green. The grainy irregular rind of the ripe fruit can
range from bright orange to yellow-orange, but frequently retains
green patches or, under warm climate conditions, remains entirely
green. Like all other citrus fruits, the sweet orange is
non-climacteric . The
Citrus sinensis group is subdivided into four
classes with distinct characteristics: common oranges, blood or
pigmented oranges, navel oranges, and acidless oranges.
Other citrus groups also known as oranges are:
Bitter orange (
Citrus aurantium), also known as Seville orange,
sour orange (especially when used as rootstock for a sweet orange
tree), bigarade orange and marmalade orange. Like the sweet orange, it
is a pomelo x mandarin hybrid.
Bergamot orange (
Citrus bergamia Risso), grown mainly in
its peel, producing a primary essence for perfumes, also used to
flavor Earl Grey tea. It is a hybrid, probably bitter orange x limetta
Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata), sometimes included in the
genus (classified as
Citrus trifoliata). It often serves as a
rootstock for sweet orange trees and other
Citrus cultivars .
Mandarin orange (
Citrus reticulata) is an original species of
citrus, and is a progenitor of the common orange.
An enormous number of cultivars have, like the sweet orange, a mix of
pomelo and mandarin ancestry. Some cultivars are mandarin-pomelo
hybrids, bred from the same parents as the sweet orange (e.g. the
tangor and ponkan tangerine). Other cultivars are sweet orange x
mandarin hybrids (e.g. clementines ). Mandarin traits generally
include being smaller and oblate, easier to peel, and less acidic.
Pomelo traits include a thick white albedo (rind pith, mesocarp) that
is more closely attached to the segments.
Orange trees generally are grafted . The bottom of the tree,
including the roots and trunk, is called rootstock, while the
fruit-bearing top has two different names: budwood (when referring to
the process of grafting) and scion (when mentioning the variety of
The word orange derives from the
Sanskrit word for "orange tree"
(नारङ्ग nāraṅga), which is probably of Dravidian
Sanskrit word reached European languages through Persian
نارنگ (nārang) and its Arabic derivative نارنج (nāranj).
The word entered
Late Middle English
Late Middle English in the fourteenth century via
Old French orenge (in the phrase pomme d'orenge). The French word, in
turn, comes from Old Provençal auranja, based on Arabic nāranj. In
several languages, the initial n present in earlier forms of the word
dropped off because it may have been mistaken as part of an indefinite
article ending in an n sound—in French, for example, une norenge may
have been heard as une orenge. This linguistic change is called
juncture loss . The color was named after the fruit, and the first
recorded use of orange as a color name in English was in 1512.
A closeup of an orange blossom
As Portuguese merchants were presumably the first to introduce the
sweet orange to some regions of Europe, in several modern
Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them. Some
examples are Albanian portokall, Bulgarian портокал
(portokal), Greek πορτοκάλι (portokali), Macedonian portokal,
Persian پرتقال (porteghal), Turkish portakal and Romanian
portocală. Related names can be found in other languages, such as
Arabic البرتقال (bourtouqal), Georgian
ფორთოხალი (pʰortʰoxali), Turkish portakal and
Amharic birtukan. Also, in some of the Italian regional languages
(e.g. Neapolitan ), an orange is portogallo or purtuallo, literally
"(the) Portuguese (one)", in contrast to the Italian arancia.
In other Indo-European languages, the words for orange allude to the
eastern origin of the fruit and can be translated literally as "apple
from China". Some examples are German Apfelsine (alternative name for
Orange and common in northern Germany), Dutch appelsien and
sinaasappel, Swedish apelsin, and Norwegian appelsin. A similar case
Puerto Rican Spanish china.
Slavic languages use the variants pomaranč (Slovak),
pomeranč (Czech), pomaranča (Slovene), and pomarańcza (Polish), all
Old French pomme d'orenge.
Yellow Oranges and Green Tangerines by Zhao Lingrang, Chinese
fan painting from the
Song dynasty (NPM )
The orange is unknown in the wild state; it is assumed to have
originated in southern China, northeastern India, and perhaps
southeastern Asia, and that they were first cultivated in China
around 2500 BC.
In Europe, the
Moors introduced the orange to
Spain which was known
Al-Andalus , modern
Andalusia , with large scale cultivation
starting in the 10th century as evidenced by complex irrigation
techniques specifically adapted to support orange orchards. Citrus
fruits — among them the bitter orange — were introduced to Sicily
in the 9th century during the period of the
Emirate of Sicily , but
the sweet orange was unknown until the late 15th century or the
beginnings of the 16th century, when Italian and Portuguese merchants
brought orange trees into the Mediterranean area. Shortly afterward,
the sweet orange quickly was adopted as an edible fruit. It also was
considered a luxury item and wealthy people grew oranges in private
conservatories, called orangeries. By 1646, the sweet orange was well
known throughout Europe.
Spanish travelers introduced the sweet orange into the American
continent. On his second voyage in 1493, Christopher Columbus may have
planted the fruit in Hispaniola. Subsequent expeditions in the
mid-1500s brought sweet oranges to South America and Mexico, and to
Florida in 1565, when
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founded St Augustine
. Spanish missionaries brought orange trees to Arizona between 1707
and 1710, while the Franciscans did the same in San Diego, California,
in 1769. An orchard was planted at the San Gabriel Mission around
1804 and a commercial orchard was established in 1841 near present-day
Los Angeles. In Louisiana, oranges were probably introduced by French
Archibald Menzies , the botanist and naturalist on the Vancouver
Expedition , collected orange seeds in South Africa, raised the
seedlings onboard and gave them to several Hawaiian chiefs in 1792.
Eventually, the sweet orange was grown in wide areas of the Hawaiian
Islands, but its cultivation stopped after the arrival of the
Mediterranean fruit fly in the early 1900s.
As oranges are rich in vitamin C and do not spoil easily, during the
Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery , Portuguese , Spanish , and Dutch sailors planted
citrus trees along trade routes to prevent scurvy .
Florida farmers obtained seeds from New Orleans around 1872, after
which orange groves were established by grafting the sweet orange on
to sour orange rootstocks.
Common oranges (also called "white", "round", or "blond" oranges)
constitute about two-thirds of all the orange production. The majority
of this crop is used mostly for juice extraction.
Valencia orange An orange grove in
Valencia orange is a late-season fruit, and therefore a popular
variety when navel oranges are out of season. This is why an
anthropomorphic orange was chosen as the mascot for the 1982 FIFA
World Cup , held in Spain. The mascot was named Naranjito ("little
orange") and wore the colors of the Spanish national football team.
Hart\'s Tardiff Valencia
Thomas Rivers , an English nurseryman, imported this variety from the
Azores Islands and catalogued it in 1865 under the name Excelsior.
Around 1870, he provided trees to S. B. Parsons, a Long Island
nurseryman, who in turn sold them to E. H. Hart of Federal Point,
This cultivar was discovered by A. G. Hamlin near Glenwood, Florida,
in 1879. The fruit is small, smooth, not highly colored, and juicy,
with a pale yellow colored juice, especially in fruits that come from
lemon rootstock. The fruit may be seedless, or may contain a number of
small seeds. The tree is high-yielding and cold-tolerant and it
produces good quality fruit, which is harvested from October to
December. It thrives in humid subtropical climates. In cooler, more
arid areas, the trees produce edible fruit, but too small for
Trees from groves in hammocks or areas covered with pine forest are
budded on sour orange trees, a method that gives a high solids
content. On sand, they are grafted on rough lemon rootstock. The
Hamlin orange is one of the most popular juice oranges in
replaces the Parson Brown variety as the principal early-season juice
orange. This cultivar is now the leading early orange in
possibly, in the rest of the world.
Other Varieties Of Common Oranges
* Bali: grown in Bali, Indonesia. Larger than other orange
* Belladonna: grown in Italy
* Berna: grown mainly in Spain
* Biondo Comune ("ordinary blond"): widely grown in the
Mediterranean basin, especially in North Africa, Egypt, Greece (where
it is called "koines"),
Italy (where it is also known as "Liscio"),
and Spain; it also is called "Beledi" and "Nostrale"; in Italy, this
variety ripens in December, earlier than the competing Tarocco variety
* Biondo Riccio: grown in Italy
* Cadanera: a seedless orange of excellent flavor grown in Algeria,
Morocco, and Spain; it begins to ripen in November and is known by a
wide variety of trade names, such as Cadena Fina, Cadena sin Jueso,
Precoce de Valence ("early from Valencia"), Precoce des Canaries, and
Valence san Pepins ("seedless Valencia"); it was first grown in Spain
* Calabrese or Calabrese Ovale: grown in Italy
* Carvalhal: grown in Portugal
* Castellana: grown in Spain
Cherry Orange : grown in southern
China and Japan
* Clanor: grown in South Africa
* Dom João: grown in Portugal
* Fukuhara: grown in Japan
* Gardner: grown in Florida, this mid-season orange ripens around
the beginning of February, approximately the same time as the Midsweet
variety; Gardner is about as hardy as Sunstar and Midsweet
* Homosassa: grown in Florida
Jaffa orange : grown in the Middle East, also known as "Shamouti"
* Jincheng: the most popular orange in China
* Joppa: grown in
South Africa and Texas
* Khettmali: grown in Israel and Lebanon
Play media A cross cutting scan of the interior of an orange
* Kona: a type of
Valencia orange introduced in Hawaii in 1792 by
George Vancouver ; for many decades in the nineteenth century,
these oranges were the leading export from the Kona district on the
Big Island of Hawaii; in Kailua-Kona, some of the original stock still
* Lue Gim Gong: grown in Florida, is an early scion developed by Lue
Gim Gong , a Chinese immigrant known as the "
Citrus Genius"; in 1888,
Lue cross-pollinated two orange varieties – the Hart's late Valencia
and the Mediterranean
Sweet – and obtained a fruit both sweet and
frost-tolerant; this variety was propagated at the Glen St. Mary
Nursery, which in 1911 received the Silver Wilder Medal by the
American Pomological Society; originally considered a hybrid, the
Lue Gim Gong orange was later found to be a nucellar seedling of the
Valencia type, which is properly called Lue Gim Gong; since 2006, the
Lue Gim Gong variety is grown in Florida, although sold under the
general name Valencia
* Macetera: grown in Spain, it is known for its unique flavor
Orange seedling — although a hybrid, orange usually comes true
from seed, through maternal apomixis
* Malta: grown in Pakistan
* Maltaise Blonde: grown in north Africa
* Maltaise Ovale: grown in
South Africa and in
California under the
names of Garey's or
California Mediterranean Sweet
* Marrs: grown in Texas,
California and Iran, it is relatively low
* Medan: grown in Medan, Indonesia
* Midsweet: grown in Florida, it is a newer scion similar to the
Hamlin and Pineapple varieties, it is hardier than Pineapple and
ripens later; the fruit production and quality are similar to those of
the Hamlin, but the juice has a deeper color
* Moro Tarocco: grown in Italy, it is oval, resembles a tangelo ,
and has a distinctive caramel-colored endocarp; this color is the
result of a pigment called anthocarpium, not usually found in
citruses, but common in red fruits and flowers; the original mutation
Sicily in the seventeenth century
* Mosambi: grown in
India and Pakistan, it is so low in acid and
insipid that it might be classified as acidless
* Narinja: grown in Andhra, South India
* Parson Brown: grown in Florida, Mexico, and Turkey, it once was a
Florida juice orange, its popularity has declined since
new varieties with more juice, better yield, and higher acid and sugar
content have been developed; it originated as a chance seedling in
Florida in 1865; its fruits are round, medium large, have a thick,
pebbly peel and contain 10 to 30 seeds; it still is grown because it
is the earliest maturing fruit in the United States, usually maturing
in early September in the Valley district of Texas, and from early
October to January in Florida; its peel and juice color are poor, as
is the quality of its juice
* Pera: grown in Brazil, it is very popular in the Brazilian citrus
industry and yielded 7.5 million metric tons in 2005
* Pera Coroa: grown in Brazil
* Pera Natal: grown in Brazil
* Pera Rio: grown in Brazil
* Pineapple: grown in North and South America and India
* Pontianak: oval-shaped orange grown especially in Pontianak,
* Premier: grown in South Africa
* Rhode Red: is a mutation of the Valencia orange, but the color of
its flesh is more intense; it has more juice, and less acidity and
vitamin C than the Valencia; it was discovered by Paul Rhode in 1955
in a grove near Sebring, Florida
* Roble: it was first shipped from
Spain in 1851 by Joseph Roble to
his homestead in what is now Roble's Park in Tampa, Florida; it is
known for its high sugar content
* Queen: grown in South Africa
* Salustiana: grown in North Africa
* Sathgudi: grown in Tamil Nadu, South India
* Seleta, Selecta: grown in Australia and Brazil, it is high in acid
* Shamouti Masry: grown in Egypt; it is a richer variety of Shamouti
* Sunstar: grown in Florida, this newer cultivar ripens in
mid-season (December to March) and it is more resistant to cold and
fruit-drop than the competing Pineapple variety; the color of its
juice is darker than that of the competing Hamlin
* Tomango: grown in South Africa
* Verna: grown in Algeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Spain
* Vicieda: grown in Algeria, Morocco, and Spain
* Westin: grown in Brazil
Xã Đoài orange : grown in Vietnam
A navel orange, peeled and sectioned; the underdeveloped twin
fruit is located on the bottom right
Navel oranges are characterized by the growth of a second fruit at
the apex , which protrudes slightly and resembles a human navel . They
are primarily grown for human consumption for various reasons: their
thicker skin makes them easy to peel, they are less juicy and their
bitterness – a result of the high concentrations of limonin and
other limonoids – renders them less suitable for juice. Their
widespread distribution and long growing season have made navel
oranges very popular. In the United States, they are available from
November to April, with peak supplies in January, February, and March.
In this navel orange, the second fruit can clearly be seen at
According to a 1917 study by Palemon Dorsett , Archibald Dixon Shamel
Wilson Popenoe of the
United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA), a single mutation in a Selecta orange tree planted on the
grounds of a monastery near Bahia , Brazil, probably yielded the first
navel orange between 1810 and 1820. Nevertheless, a researcher at the
University of California, Riverside, has suggested that the parent
variety was more likely the Portuguese navel orange (Umbigo),
Antoine Risso and
Pierre Antoine Poiteau in their book
Histoire naturelle des orangers ("Natural History of Orange Trees",
1818–1822). The mutation caused the orange to develop a second
fruit at its base, opposite the stem, embedded within the peel of the
Navel oranges were introduced in Australia in 1824
Florida in 1835. In 1870, twelve cuttings of the original tree
were transplanted to Riverside, California, where the fruit became
known as "Washington". This cultivar was very successful, and rapidly
spread to other countries. Because the mutation left the fruit
seedless and, therefore, sterile, the only method to cultivate navel
oranges was to graft cuttings onto other varieties of citrus trees.
Citrus State Historic Park and the Orcutt Ranch
Horticulture Center preserve the history of navel oranges in
Today, navel oranges continue to be propagated through cutting and
grafting . This does not allow for the usual selective breeding
methodologies, and so all navel oranges can be considered fruits from
that single, nearly two-hundred-year-old tree: they have exactly the
same genetic make-up as the original tree and are, therefore, clones .
This case is similar to that of the common yellow seedless banana, the
Cavendish , or that of the
Granny Smith apple. On rare occasions,
however, further mutations can lead to new varieties.
Cara Cara Navels
Cara cara orange
Cara cara orange slices (left)
Cara cara oranges (also called "red navel") are a type of navel
orange grown mainly in
South Africa and in California's
San Joaquin Valley
San Joaquin Valley . They are sweet and comparatively low in acid,
with a bright orange rind similar to that of other navels, but their
flesh is distinctively pinkish red. It is believed that they have
originated as a cross between the Washington navel and the Brazilian
Bahia navel, and they were discovered at the
Hacienda Cara Cara in
Valencia , Venezuela, in 1976.
South African cara caras are ready for market in early August, while
Venezuelan fruits arrive in October and Californian fruits in late
Other Varieties Of Navels
* Bahianinha or Bahia
* Dream Navel
* Late Navel
* Washington or
Comparison between the inside and the outside of regular and
blood oranges (two segments at upper left) Main article: Blood
Blood oranges are a natural mutation of C. sinensis, although today
the majority of them are hybrids. High concentrations of anthocyanin
give the rind, flesh, and juice of the fruit their characteristic dark
red color. Blood oranges were first discovered and cultivated in
Sicily in the fifteenth century. Since then they have spread
worldwide, but are grown especially in
Italy under the names
of sanguina and sanguinella, respectively.
The blood orange, with its distinct color and flavor, is generally
considered favorably as a juice, and has found a niche as an
ingredient variation in traditional Seville marmalade.
Other Varieties Of Blood Oranges
* Maltese: a small and highly colored variety, generally thought to
have originated in
Italy as a mutation and cultivated there for
centuries. It also is grown extensively in southern
Spain and Malta.
It is used in sorbets and other desserts due to its rich burgundy
* Moro: originally from Sicily, it is common throughout Italy. This
medium-sized fruit has a relatively long harvest, which lasts from
December to April.
* Sanguinelli: a mutant of the Doble Fina, discovered in 1929 in
Almenara, in the
Castellón province of Spain. It is cultivated in
* Scarlet navel: a variety with the same mutation as the navel
* Tarocco: a relatively new variety developed in Italy. It begins to
ripen in late January.
Acidless oranges are an early-season fruit with very low levels of
acid. They also are called "sweet" oranges in the United States, with
similar names in other countries: douce in France, sucrena in Spain,
dolce or maltese in Italy, meski in North Africa and the Near East
(where they are especially popular), şeker portakal ("sugar orange")
in Turkey, succari in Egypt, and lima in Brazil.
The lack of acid, which protects orange juice against spoilage in
other groups, renders them generally unfit for processing as juice, so
they are primarily eaten. They remain profitable in areas of local
consumption, but rapid spoilage renders them unsuitable for export to
major population centres of Europe, Asia, or the United States.
Octyl acetate , a volatile compound contributing to the
fragrance of oranges
The taste of oranges is determined mainly by the relative ratios of
sugars and acids, whereas orange aroma derives from volatile organic
compounds , including alcohols , aldehydes , ketones , terpenes , and
esters . Bitter limonoid compounds, such as limonin , decrease
gradually during development, whereas volatile aroma compounds tend to
peak in mid– to late–season development. Taste quality tends to
improve later in harvests when there is a higher sugar/acid ratio with
less bitterness. As a citrus fruit, the orange is acidic, with pH
levels ranging from 2.9 to 4.0.
Sensory qualities vary according to genetic background, environmental
conditions during development, ripeness at harvest, postharvest
conditions, and storage duration.
all commercial varieties
NUTRITIONAL VALUE PER 100 G (3.5 OZ)
197 kJ (47 kcal)
VITAMIN A EQUIV.
(1%) 11 μg
(8%) 0.087 mg
(3%) 0.04 mg
(2%) 0.282 mg
PANTOTHENIC ACID (B5)
(5%) 0.25 mg
(5%) 0.06 mg
(8%) 30 μg
(2%) 8.4 mg
(64%) 53.2 mg
(1%) 0.18 mg
(4%) 40 mg
(1%) 0.1 mg
(3%) 10 mg
(1%) 0.025 mg
(2%) 14 mg
(4%) 181 mg
(1%) 0.07 mg
USDA Database entry
* μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
* IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for
USDA Nutrient Database
NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND PHYTOCHEMICALS
As with other citrus fruits, orange pulp is an excellent source of
vitamin C , providing 64% of the
Daily Value in a 100 g serving (right
table). Numerous other essential nutrients are present in low amounts
Oranges contain diverse phytochemicals , including carotenoids
(beta-carotene , lutein and beta-cryptoxanthin ), flavonoids (e.g.
naringenin ) and numerous volatile organic compounds producing orange
aroma , including aldehydes , esters , terpenes , alcohols , and
ketones . Orange squeezer to make juice
United States Department of Agriculture
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has established
the following grades for
Florida oranges, which primarily apply to
oranges sold as fresh fruit: US Fancy, US No. 1 Bright, US No. 1, US
No. 1 Golden, US No. 1 Bronze, US No. 1 Russet, US No. 2 Bright, US
No. 2, US No. 2 Russet, and US No. 3. The general characteristics
graded are color (both hue and uniformity), firmness, maturity,
varietal characteristics, texture, and shape. Fancy, the highest
grade, requires the highest grade of color and an absence of
blemishes, while the terms Bright, Golden, Bronze, and Russet concern
Grade numbers are determined by the amount of unsightly blemishes on
the skin and firmness of the fruit that do not affect consumer safety.
USDA separates blemishes into three categories:
* General blemishes: ammoniation, buckskin, caked melanose,
creasing, decay, scab, split navels, sprayburn, undeveloped segments,
unhealed segments, and wormy fruit
* Injuries to fruit: bruises, green spots, oil spots, rough, wide,
or protruding navels, scale, scars, skin breakdown , and thorn
* Damage caused by dirt or other foreign material, disease, dryness,
or mushy condition, hail, insects, riciness or woodiness, and sunburn.
USDA uses a separate grading system for oranges used for juice
because appearance and texture are irrelevant in this case. There are
only two grades: US Grade AA Juice and US Grade A Juice, which are
given to the oranges before processing. Juice grades are determined by
* The juiciness of the orange
* The amount of solids in the juice (at least 10% solids are
required for the AA grade)
* The proportion of anhydric citric acid in fruit solids
Still life with oranges on a plate, 1640 Jean-Baptiste
Oudry , The Orange Tree, 1740
An orange tree covered and damaged from snow , in the
Netherlands Orange grove in
Like most citrus plants, oranges do well under moderate
temperatures—between 15.5 and 29 °C (59.9 and 84.2 °F)—and
require considerable amounts of sunshine and water. It has been
suggested the use of water resources by the citrus industry in the
Middle East is a contributing factor to the desiccation of the region.
Another significant element in the full development of the fruit is
the temperature variation between summer and winter and, between day
and night. In cooler climates, oranges can be grown indoors.
As oranges are sensitive to frost , there are different methods to
prevent frost damage to crops and trees when subfreezing temperatures
are expected. A common process is to spray the trees with water so as
to cover them with a thin layer of ice that will stay just at the
freezing point, insulating them even if air temperatures drop far
lower. This is because water continues to lose heat as long as the
environment is colder than it is, and so the water turning to ice in
the environment cannot damage the trees. This practice, however,
offers protection only for a very short time. Another procedure is
burning fuel oil in smudge pots put between the trees. These devices
burn with a great deal of particulate emission, so condensation of
water vapour on the particulate soot prevents condensation on plants
and raises the air temperature very slightly. Smudge pots were
developed for the first time after a disastrous freeze in Southern
California in January 1913 destroyed a whole crop.
Fruit tree propagation and
It is possible to grow orange trees directly from seeds, but they may
be infertile or produce fruit that may be different from its parent.
For the seed of a commercial orange to grow, it must be kept moist at
all times. One approach is placing the seeds between two sheets of
damp paper towel until they germinate and then planting them, although
many cultivators just set the seeds straight into the soil.
Commercially grown orange trees are propagated asexually by grafting
a mature cultivar onto a suitable seedling rootstock to ensure the
same yield , identical fruit characteristics, and resistance to
diseases throughout the years. Propagation involves two stages: first,
a rootstock is grown from seed. Then, when it is approximately one
year old, the leafy top is cut off and a bud taken from a specific
scion variety, is grafted into its bark. The scion is what determines
the variety of orange, while the rootstock makes the tree resistant to
pests and diseases and adaptable to specific soil and climatic
conditions. Thus, rootstocks influence the rate of growth and have an
effect on fruit yield and quality.
Rootstocks must be compatible with the variety inserted into them
because otherwise, the tree may decline, be less productive, or die.
Among the several advantages to grafting are that trees mature
uniformly and begin to bear fruit earlier than those reproduced by
seeds (3 to 4 years in contrast with 6 to 7 years), and that it makes
it possible to combine the best attributes of a scion with those of a
Canopy-shaking mechanical harvesters are being used increasingly in
Florida to harvest oranges. Current canopy shaker machines use a
series of six-to-seven-foot long tines to shake the tree canopy at a
relatively constant stroke and frequency.
Normally, oranges are picked once they are pale orange.
Oranges must be mature when harvested. In the United States, laws
forbid harvesting immature fruit for human consumption in Texas,
California and Florida. Ripe oranges, however, often have
some green or yellow-green color in the skin.
Ethylene gas is used to
turn green skin to orange. This process is known as "degreening", also
called "gassing", "sweating", or "curing". Oranges are
non-climacteric fruits and cannot post-harvest ripen internally in
response to ethylene gas, though they will de-green externally.
A stand with oranges at a market in
Commercially, oranges can be stored by refrigeration in
controlled-atmosphere chambers for up to 12 weeks after harvest.
Storage life ultimately depends on cultivar, maturity, pre-harvest
conditions, and handling. In stores and markets, however, oranges
should be displayed on non-refrigerated shelves.
At home, oranges have a shelf life of about one month. In either
case, optimally, they are stored loosely in an open or perforated
PESTS AND DISEASES
List of citrus diseases
Cottony Cushion Scale
The first major pest that attacked orange trees in the United States
was the cottony cushion scale (
Icerya purchasi ), imported from
California in 1868. Within 20 years, it wiped out the
citrus orchards around Los Angeles, and limited orange growth
throughout California. In 1888, the
USDA sent Alfred Koebele to
Australia to study this scale insect in its native habitat. He brought
back with him specimens of Novius cardinalis, an Australian ladybird
beetle , and within a decade the pest was controlled.
Citrus Greening Disease
The citrus greening disease , caused by the bacterium Liberobacter
asiaticum , has been the most serious threat to orange production
since 2010. It is characterized by streaks of different shades on the
leaves, and deformed, poorly colored, unsavory fruit. In areas where
the disease is endemic, citrus trees live for only five to eight years
and never bear fruit suitable for consumption. In the western
hemisphere, the disease was discovered in
Florida in 1998, where it
has attacked nearly all the trees ever since. It was reported in
Brazil by Fundecitrus Brasil in 2004. As from 2009, 0.87% of the
trees in Brazil's main orange growing areas (São Paulo and Minas
Gerais) showed symptoms of greening, an increase of 49% over 2008.
The disease is spread primarily by two species of psyllid insects.
One of them is the Asian citrus psyllid (
Diaphorina citri Kuwayama),
an efficient vector of the Liberobacter asiaticum. Generalist
predators such as the ladybird beetles Curinus coeruleus , Olla
Harmonia axyridis , and
Cycloneda sanguinea , and the
Ceraeochrysa spp. and
Chrysoperla spp. make significant
contribution to the mortality of the Asian citrus psyllid, which
results in 80–100% reduction in psyllid populations. In contrast,
Tamarixia radiata , a species-specific parasitoid of the
Asian citrus psyllid, is variable and generally low in southwest
Florida: in 2006, it amounted to a reduction of less than 12% from May
to September and 50% in November.
In 2007, foliar applications of insecticides reduced psyllid
populations for a short time, but also suppressed the populations of
predatory ladybird beetles. Soil application of aldicarb provided
limited control of Asian citrus psyllid, while drenches of
imidacloprid to young trees were effective for two months or more.
Management of citrus greening disease is difficult and requires an
integrated approach that includes use of clean stock, elimination of
inoculum via voluntary and regulatory means, use of pesticides to
control psyllid vectors in the citrus crop, and biological control of
psyllid vectors in non-crop reservoirs.
Citrus greening disease is not
under completely successful management.
Greasy spot, a fungal disease caused by the
Mycosphaerella citri ,
produces leaf spots and premature defoliation, thus reducing the
tree's vigour and yield. Ascospores of M. citri are generated in
pseudothecia in decomposing fallen leaves. Once mature, ascospores
are ejected and subsequently dispersed by air currents.
Citrus production Further information: Orange
PRODUCTION OF ORANGES – 2014
PRODUCTION (MILLIONS OF TONNES )
People\'s Republic of
FAOSTAT of the
Brazil is the world's leading orange producer, with an output of 17
million tonnes, followed by China, India, and the
United States as the
four major producers. Orange groves are located mainly in the state
of São Paulo , in the southeastern region of Brazil, and account for
approximately 80% of the national production. As almost 99% of the
fruit is processed for export, 53% of total global frozen concentrated
orange juice production comes from this area and the western part of
the state of
Minas Gerais . In Brazil, the four predominant orange
varieties used for obtaining juice are Hamlin, Pera Rio, Natal, and
In the United States, groves are located mainly in
California , and
Texas . The majority of California's crop is sold as
fresh fruit, whereas Florida's oranges are destined to juice products.
The Indian River area of
Florida is known for the high quality of its
juice, which often is sold fresh in the
United States and frequently
blended with juice produced in other regions because Indian River
trees yield very sweet oranges, but in relatively small quantities.
Production of orange juice between the São Paulo and mid-south
Florida areas makes up roughly 85% of the world market.
99% of its production, while 90% of Florida's production is consumed
in the United States.
Orange juice is traded internationally in the form of frozen,
concentrated orange juice to reduce the volume used so that storage
and transportation costs are lower.
JUICE AND OTHER PRODUCTS
Oranges, whose flavor may vary from sweet to sour , are commonly
peeled and eaten fresh or squeezed for juice. The thick bitter rind is
usually discarded, but can be processed into animal feed by
desiccation , using pressure and heat. It also is used in certain
recipes as a food flavoring or garnish . The outermost layer of the
rind can be thinly grated with a zester to produce orange zest . Zest
is popular in cooking because it contains oils and has a strong flavor
similar to that of the orange pulp. The white part of the rind,
including the pith, is a source of pectin and has nearly the same
amount of vitamin C as the flesh and other nutrients.
Although not as juicy or tasty as the flesh, orange peel is edible
and has significant contents of vitamin C, dietary fiber , total
polyphenols , carotenoids , limonene and dietary minerals , such as
potassium and magnesium .
PRODUCTS MADE FROM ORANGES
Jar of marmalade
Orange juice is obtained by squeezing the fruit on a special tool
(a juicer or squeezer) and collecting the juice in a tray underneath.
This can be made at home or, on a much larger scale, industrially.
Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice in the world, followed
by the United States, where it is one of the commodities traded on the
New York Board of Trade .
* Frozen orange juice concentrate is made from freshly squeezed and
filtered orange juice.
Sweet orange oil is a by-product of the juice industry produced by
pressing the peel. It is used for flavoring food and drinks and also
in the perfume industry and aromatherapy for its fragrance . Sweet
orange oil consists of approximately 90% D-limonene , a solvent used
in various household chemicals, such as wood conditioners for
furniture and—along with other citrus oils—detergents and hand
cleansers. It is an efficient cleaning agent with a pleasant smell,
promoted for being environmentally friendly and therefore, preferable
to petrochemicals. D-limonene is, however, classified from slightly
toxic to humans, to very toxic to marine life in different countries.
Marmalade usually is made with Seville oranges . All parts of the
fruit are used: the pith and pips (separated and placed in a muslin
bag) are boiled in a mixture of juice, slivered peel, sliced-up flesh,
sugar, and water to extract their pectin, which helps the conserve to
* Orange peel is used by gardeners as a slug repellent.
Eliza Tibbets (for the history of orange groves in California,
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