Coordinates: 4°N 56°W / 4°N 56°W / 4; -56
Republic of Suriname
Republiek Suriname (Dutch)
Coat of arms
Pietas – Fides" (Latin)
"Justice – Piety – Trust"
Anthem: God zij met ons Suriname (Dutch)
God be with our Suriname
Location of Suriname (dark green)
in South America (grey)
and largest city
5°50′N 55°10′W / 5.833°N 55.167°W / 5.833; -55.167
Sranan Tongo Creole
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups (2012)
3.8% Indigenous Amerindian
3.2% not stated
Unitary parliamentary republic
• constituent country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands
15 December 1954
• from the Kingdom of the Netherlands
25 November 1975
• Current constitution
30 September 1987
163,821 km2 (63,252 sq mi) (90th)
• Water (%)
• July 2016 estimate
• 2012 census
2.9/km2 (7.5/sq mi) (231st)
• Per capita
• Per capita
high · 97th
Surinamese dollar (SRD)
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
Suriname (/ˈsʊrɪnæm/, /-nɑːm/ or /-nəm/, also spelled Surinam),
officially known as the
Suriname (Dutch: Republiek
Suriname [ˌreːpyˈblik ˌsyːriˈnaːmə]), is a sovereign state on
Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by
Atlantic Ocean to the north,
France (through French Guiana) to the
Guyana to the west and
Brazil to the south. At just under
165,000 square kilometers (64,000 square miles), it is the smallest
country in South America.[note 1]
Suriname has a population of
approximately 558,368, most of whom live on the country's north
coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo.
Suriname was long inhabited by various indigenous people before being
explored and contested by European powers from the 16th century,
eventually coming under Dutch rule in the late 17th century. During
the Dutch colonial period, it was primarily a plantation economy
dependent on African slaves and, following the abolition of slavery,
indentured servants from Asia. In 1954,
Suriname became one of the
constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. On 25
November 1975, the country of
Suriname left the Kingdom of the
Netherlands to become an independent state, nonetheless maintaining
close economic, diplomatic, and cultural ties to its former colonizer.
Suriname is considered to be a culturally
Caribbean country, and is a
member of the
Caribbean Community (CARICOM). While Dutch is the
official language of government, business, media, and education,
Sranan, an English-based creole language, is a widely used lingua
Suriname is the only sovereign nation outside Europe where
Dutch is spoken by a majority of the population. As a legacy of
colonization, the people of
Suriname are among the most diverse in the
world, spanning a multitude of ethnic, religious, and linguistic
2.1 Colonial period
2.2 Abolition of slavery
2.5 1982 December murders
2.6 1987 elections and constitution
2.7 21st century
3.1 Foreign relations
5 Administrative divisions
6.3 Nature reserves
8.3 Largest cities
9.1 National holidays
9.1.1 New Year's Eve
13.1 Environmental preservation
17 See also
20 Further reading
21 External links
This area was occupied by various cultures of indigenous peoples long
before European contact, remnants of which can be found in petroglyph
Werehpai and other places in Suriname. The name
derive from a Taino (Arawak-speaking) indigenous people called
Surinen, who inhabited the area at the time of European contact.
British settlers, who founded the first European colony at Marshall's
Creek along the
Suriname River, spelled the name as "Surinam".
When the territory was taken over by the Dutch, it became part of a
group of colonies known as Dutch Guiana. The official spelling of the
country's English name was changed from "Surinam" to "Suriname" in
January 1978, but "Surinam" can still be found in English. A notable
example is Suriname's national airline, Surinam Airways. The older
English name is reflected in the English pronunciation, /ˈsʊrɪnæm/
or /ˈsʊrɪnɑːm/. In Dutch, the official language of Suriname, the
pronunciation is [ˌsyriˈnaːmə], with the main stress on the third
syllable and a schwa terminal vowel.
Maroon village, along
Suriname River, 1955
Main article: History of Suriname
Indigenous settlement of
Suriname dates back to 3,000 BC. The largest
tribes were the Arawak, a nomadic coastal tribe that lived from
hunting and fishing. They were the first inhabitants in the area. The
Carib also settled in the area and conquered the
Arawak by using their
superior sailing ships. They settled in Galibi (Kupali Yumï, meaning
"tree of the forefathers") at the mouth of the Marowijne River. While
Arawak and Carib tribes lived along the coast and savanna,
smaller groups of indigenous peoples lived in the inland rainforest,
such as the Akurio, Trió, Warrau, and Wayana.
Presidential Palace of Suriname
Main article: Surinam (Dutch colony)
Beginning in the 16th century, French, Spanish and English explorers
visited the area. A century later, Dutch and English settlers
established plantation colonies along the many rivers in the fertile
Guiana plains. The earliest documented colony in Guiana was an English
settlement named Marshall's Creek along the
Disputes arose between the Dutch and the English for control of this
territory. In 1667, during negotiations leading to the Treaty of
Breda, the Dutch decided to keep the nascent plantation colony of
Suriname they had gained from the English. The English were able to
keep New Amsterdam, the main city of the former colony of New
North America on the mid-
Atlantic coast. Already a
cultural and economic hub in those days, they renamed it after the
Duke of York: New York.
In 1683, the
Society of Suriname
Society of Suriname was founded by the city of Amsterdam,
the Van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck family, and the Dutch West India
Company. The society was chartered to manage and defend the colony.
The planters of the colony relied heavily on African slaves to
cultivate, harvest and process the commodity crops of coffee, cocoa,
sugar cane and cotton plantations along the rivers. Planters'
treatment of the slaves was notoriously bad—historian C.R. Boxer
wrote that "man's inhumanity to man just about reached its limits in
Surinam"—and many slaves escaped the plantations.
With the help of the native South Americans living in the adjoining
rain forests, these runaway slaves established a new and unique
culture in the interior that was highly successful in its own right.
They were known collectively in English as Maroons, in French as
Nèg'Marrons (literally meaning "brown negroes", that is "pale-skinned
negroes"), and in Dutch as Marrons. The Maroons gradually developed
several independent tribes through a process of ethnogenesis, as they
were made up of slaves from different African ethnicities. These
tribes include the Saramaka, Paramaka, Ndyuka or Aukan, Kwinti, Aluku
or Boni, and Matawai.
Waterfront houses in Paramaribo, 1955
The Maroons often raided plantations to recruit new members from the
slaves and capture women, as well as to acquire weapons, food and
supplies. They sometimes killed planters and their families in the
raids; colonists built defenses, which were so important they were
shown on 18th-century maps, but these were not sufficient.
The colonists also mounted armed campaigns against the Maroons, who
generally escaped through the rain forest, which they knew much better
than did the colonists. To end hostilities, in the 18th century the
European colonial authorities signed several peace treaties with
different tribes. They granted the Maroons sovereign status and trade
rights in their inland territories, giving them autonomy.
Abolition of slavery
In 1861-63, with the
American Civil War
American Civil War underway and slaves escaping
to Union lines in the South, President
Abraham Lincoln of the United
States and his administration looked abroad for places to relocate
freed slaves who wanted to leave the United States. It opened
negotiations with the Dutch government regarding African-American
emigration to and colonization of the Dutch colony of
South America. Nothing came of the idea, and after 1864 the idea was
Netherlands abolished slavery in
Suriname in 1863, under a gradual
process that required slaves to work on plantations for 10 transition
years for minimal pay, which was considered as partial compensation
for their masters. After 1873, most freedmen largely abandoned the
plantations where they had worked for several generations in favor of
the capital city, Paramaribo.
Javanese immigrants brought as contract workers from the Dutch East
Indies. Picture taken between 1880 and 1900.
As a plantation colony,
Suriname had an economy dependent on
labor-intensive commodity crops. To make up for a shortage of labor,
the Dutch recruited and transported contract or indentured laborers
Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies (modern Indonesia) and
India (the latter
through an arrangement with the British, who then ruled the area). In
addition, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, small numbers
of laborers, mostly men, were recruited from
China and the Middle
Although Suriname's population remains relatively small, because of
this complex colonization and exploitation, it is one of the most
ethnically and culturally diverse countries in the world.
Dutch colonists, 1920. Most Europeans left after independence in 1975.
During World War II, on 23 November 1941, under an agreement with the
Netherlands government-in-exile, the
United States occupied Suriname
to protect the bauxite mines to support the Allies' war effort. In
Dutch government-in-exile began to review the relations
Netherlands and its colonies in terms of the post-war
Suriname became one of the constituent countries of the
Kingdom of the Netherlands, along with the
Netherlands Antilles and
the Netherlands. In this construction, the
control of its defense and foreign affairs. In 1974, the local
government, led by the
National Party of Suriname (NPS) (whose
membership was largely Creole, meaning ethnically African or mixed
African-European) started negotiations with the Dutch government
leading towards full independence, which was granted on 25 November
1975. A large part of Suriname's economy for the first decade
following independence was fueled by foreign aid provided by the Dutch
Henck Arron, Beatrix and
Johan Ferrier on 25 November 1975
The first President of the country was Johan Ferrier, the former
Henck Arron (the then leader of the NPS) as Prime
Minister. In the years leading up to independence, nearly one-third of
the population of
Suriname emigrated to the Netherlands, amidst
concern that the new country would fare worse under independence than
it had as a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Indeed, Surinamese politics soon degenerated into ethnic polarization
and corruption, with the NPS using Dutch aid money for partisan
purposes. Its leaders were accused of fraud in the 1977 elections, in
which Arron won a further term, and the discontent was such that a
large chunk of the population fled to the Netherlands, joining the
already significant Surinamese community there.
1982 December murders
Main article: December murders
On 25 February 1980, a military coup overthrew Arron's government. It
was initiated by a group of sixteen sergeants, led by Dési
Bouterse. Opponents of the military regime attempted counter-coups
in April 1980, August 1980, 15 March 1981, and again on 12 March 1982.
The first counter attempt was led by Fred Ormskerk, the second by
Marxist-Leninists, the third by Wilfred Hawker, and the fourth by
Hawker escaped from prison during the fourth counter-coup attempt, but
he was captured and summarily executed. Between 2 am and
5 am on 7 December 1982, the military, under the leadership of
Dési Bouterse, rounded up 13 prominent citizens who had criticized
the military dictatorship and held them at Fort Zeelandia in
Paramaribo. The dictatorship had all these men executed over the
next three days, along with Rambocus and
Jiwansingh Sheombar (who was
also involved in the fourth counter-coup attempt).
1987 elections and constitution
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2016)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
National elections were held in 1987. The National Assembly adopted a
new constitution that allowed Bouterse to remain in charge of the
army. Dissatisfied with the government, Bouterse summarily dismissed
the ministers in 1990, by telephone. This event became popularly known
as the "Telephone Coup". His power began to wane after the 1991
The brutal civil war between the
Suriname army and Maroons loyal to
rebel leader Ronnie Brunswijk, begun in 1986, continued and its
effects further weakened Bouterse's position during the 1990s. In
Netherlands tried Bouterse in absentia on drug smuggling
charges. He was convicted and sentenced to prison but remained in
On 19 July 2010, the former dictator
Dési Bouterse returned to power
when he was elected as the new President of Suriname. He was
reelected on 14 July 2015. Before his election in 2010, he, along
with 24 others, had been charged with the murders of 15 prominent
dissidents in the December murders. However, in 2012, two months
before the verdict in the trial, the National Assembly extended its
amnesty law and provided Bouterse and the others with amnesty of these
Court of Justice
Main article: Politics of Suriname
Suriname is a parliamentary representative democratic
republic, based on the Constitution of 1987. The legislative branch of
government consists of a 51-member unicameral National Assembly,
simultaneously and popularly elected for a five-year term.
In the most recent elections, held on Tuesday, 25 May 2010, the
Megacombinatie won 23 of the National Assembly seats followed by
Nationale Front with 20 seats. A much smaller number, important for
coalition-building, went to the "A‑combinatie" and to the
Volksalliantie. The parties held negotiations to form coalitions.
President of Suriname
President of Suriname is elected for a five-year term by a
two-thirds majority of the National Assembly. If at least two-thirds
of the National Assembly cannot agree to vote for one presidential
candidate, a People's Assembly is formed from all National Assembly
delegates and regional and municipal representatives who were elected
by popular vote in the most recent national election. The president
may be elected by a majority of the People's Assembly called for the
As head of government, the president appoints a sixteen-minister
cabinet. A vice president, is normally elected for a five-year term at
the same time as the president, by a simple majority in the National
Assembly or People's Assembly. There is no constitutional provision
for removal or replacement of the president, except in the case of
The judiciary is headed by the High Court of Justice of Suriname
(Supreme Court). This court supervises the magistrate courts. Members
are appointed for life by the president in consultation with the
National Assembly, the State Advisory Council, and the National Order
of Private Attorneys. In April 2005, the regional
Caribbean Court of
Justice, based in Trinidad, was inaugurated. As the final court of
appeal, it was intended to replace the London-based Privy Council.
Main article: Foreign relations of Suriname
Dési Bouterse was convicted and sentenced in the
Netherlands to 11 years of imprisonment for drug trafficking. He is
the main suspect in the court case concerning the 'December murders,'
the 1982 assassination of opponents of military rule in Fort
Zeelandia, Paramaribo. These two cases still strain relations between
Netherlands and Suriname.
Due to Suriname's Dutch colonial history,
Suriname had a long-standing
special relationship with the Netherlands. The Dutch government has
stated that it will only maintain limited contact with the
Bouterse was elected as president of
Suriname in 2010. The Netherlands
in July 2014 dropped
Suriname as a member of its development
Since 1991, the
United States has maintained positive relations with
Suriname. The two countries work together through the
Security Initiative (CBSI) and the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for
AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).
Suriname also receives military funding from the
U.S. Department of Defense.
European Union relations and cooperation with
Suriname are carried out
both on a bilateral and a regional basis. There are ongoing
EU-Community of Latin American and
Caribbean States (CELAC) and
Suriname is party to the Cotonou Agreement,
the partnership agreement among the members of the African, Caribbean
and Pacific Group of States and the European Union.
On 17 February 2005, the leaders of
Suriname signed the
"Agreement for the deepening of bilateral cooperation between the
Barbados and the Government of the
Suriname." On 23–24 April 2009, both nations formed a Joint
Commission in Paramaribo, Suriname, to improve relations and to expand
into various areas of cooperation. They held a second meeting
toward this goal on 3–4 March 2011, in Dover, Barbados. Their
representatives reviewed issues of agriculture, trade, investment, as
well as international transport.
In the late 2000s,
Suriname intensified development cooperation with
other developing countries. China's South-South cooperation with
Suriname has included a number of large-scale infrastructure projects,
including port rehabilitation and road construction.
agreements to cooperate with
Suriname in education, health,
agriculture, and energy production.
Main article: Military of Suriname
The Armed Forces of
Suriname have three branches: the Army, the Air
Force, and the Navy. The President of the Republic, Dési Bouterse, is
the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces (Opperbevelhebber
van de Strijdkrachten). The President is assisted by the Minister of
Defence. Beneath the President and Minister of Defence is the
Commander of the Armed Forces (Bevelhebber van de Strijdkrachten). The
Military Branches and regional Military Commands report to the
After the creation of the Statute of the Kingdom of the Netherlands,
Netherlands Army was entrusted with the defence of Suriname,
while the defence of the
Netherlands Antilles was the responsibility
of the Royal
Netherlands Navy. The army set up a separate Troepenmacht
Suriname (Forces in Suriname, TRIS). Upon independence in 1975,
this force was turned into the Surinaamse Krijgsmacht (SKM):,
Surinamese Armed Forces. On 25 February 1980, a group of 15
non-commissioned officers and one junior SKM officer, under the
leadership of sergeant major Dési Bouterse, overthrew the Government.
Subsequently, the SKM was rebranded as Nationaal Leger (NL), National
Districts of Suriname
Districts of Suriname and Resorts of Suriname
The country is divided into ten administrative districts, each headed
by a district commissioner appointed by the president, who also has
the power of dismissal.
Suriname is further subdivided into 62 resorts
Pop. dens. (inh/km²)
Main article: Geography of Suriname
Suriname anno 2016
Suriname map of Köppen climate classification.
Suriname is the smallest independent country in South America.
Situated on the Guiana Shield, it lies mostly between latitudes 1°
and 6°N, and longitudes 54° and 58°W. The country can be divided
into two main geographic regions. The northern, lowland coastal area
(roughly above the line Albina-Paranam-Wageningen) has been
cultivated, and most of the population lives here. The southern part
consists of tropical rainforest and sparsely inhabited savanna along
the border with Brazil, covering about 80% of Suriname's land surface.
The two main mountain ranges are the
Bakhuys Mountains and the Van
Asch Van Wijck Mountains.
Julianatop is the highest mountain in the
country at 1,286 metres (4,219 ft) above sea level. Other
mountains include Tafelberg at 1,026 metres (3,366 ft), Mount
Kasikasima at 718 metres (2,356 ft), Goliathberg at 358 metres
(1,175 ft) and Voltzberg at 240 metres (790 ft).
Main article: Borders of Suriname
This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant
discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this
article by introducing citations to additional sources. (June 2013)
Disputed areas shown on the map of
Suriname (left and right, gray
Suriname is situated between
French Guiana to the east and
the west. The southern border is shared with
Brazil and the northern
border is the
Atlantic coast. The southernmost borders with French
Guyana are disputed by these countries along the Marowijne
and Corantijn rivers, respectively, while a part of the disputed
maritime boundary with
Guyana was arbitrated by a tribunal convened
under the rules set out in Annex VII of the
United Nations Convention
on the Law of the Sea on 20 September 2007.
Lying 2 to 5 degrees north of the equator,
Suriname has a very hot and
wet tropical climate, and temperatures do not vary much throughout the
year. Average relative humidity is between 80% and 90%. Its average
temperature ranges from 29 to 34 degrees Celsius (84 to 93 degrees
Fahrenheit). Due to the high humidity, actual temperatures are
distorted and may therefore feel up to 6 degrees Celsius (11 degrees
Fahrenheit) hotter than the recorded temperature. The year has two wet
seasons, from April to August and from November to February. It also
has two dry seasons, from August to November and February to April.
Located in the upper
Coppename River watershed, the Central Suriname
Nature Reserve has been designated a UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site for
its unspoiled forests and biodiversity. There are many national parks
in the country including Galibi National Reserve along the coast;
Brownsberg Nature Park
Brownsberg Nature Park and
Eilerts de Haan Nature Park
Eilerts de Haan Nature Park in central
Suriname; and the Sipaliwani Nature Reserve on the Brazilian border.
In all, 16% of the country's land area is national parks and lakes,
according to the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
Main article: Economy of Suriname
Suriname Exports 2012 including artificial corundum
Suriname's democracy gained some strength after the turbulent 1990s,
and its economy became more diversified and less dependent on Dutch
Bauxite (aluminium ore) mining continues to be a
strong revenue source, and the discovery and exploitation of oil and
gold has added substantially to Suriname's economic independence.
Agriculture, especially rice and bananas, remains a strong component
of the economy, and ecotourism is providing new economic
opportunities. More than 80% of Suriname's land-mass consists of
unspoiled rain forest; with the establishment of the Central Suriname
Nature Reserve in 1998,
Suriname signalled its commitment to
conservation of this precious resource. The Central
Reserve became a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site in 2000.
Ministry of Finance.
The economy of
Suriname is dominated by the bauxite industry, which
accounts for more than 15% of GDP and 70% of export earnings. Other
main export products include rice, bananas and shrimp.
recently started exploiting some of its sizeable oil and gold
reserves. About a quarter of the people work in the agricultural
sector. The Surinamese economy is very dependent on commerce, its main
trade partners being the Netherlands, the United States, Canada, and
Caribbean countries, mainly
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago and the islands of the
After assuming power in the fall of 1996, the Wijdenbosch government
ended the structural adjustment program of the previous government,
claiming it was unfair to the poorer elements of society.
fell as old taxes lapsed and the government failed to implement new
tax alternatives. By the end of 1997, the allocation of new Dutch
development funds was frozen as Surinamese Government relations with
Netherlands deteriorated. Economic growth slowed in 1998, with
decline in the mining, construction, and utility sectors. Rampant
government expenditures, poor tax collection, a bloated civil service,
and reduced foreign aid in 1999 contributed to the fiscal deficit,
estimated at 11% of GDP. The government sought to cover this deficit
through monetary expansion, which led to a dramatic increase in
inflation. It takes longer on average to register a new business in
Suriname than virtually any other country in the world (694 days or
about 99 weeks).
GDP (2010 est.): U.S. $4.794 billion.
Annual growth rate real GDP (2010 est.): 3.5%.
Per capita GDP (2010 est.): U.S. $9,900.
Inflation (2007): 6.4%.
Natural resources: Bauxite, gold, oil, iron ore, other minerals;
forests; hydroelectric potential; fish and shrimp.
Agriculture: Products—rice, bananas, timber, palm kernels, coconuts,
peanuts, citrus fruits, and forest products.
Industry: Types—alumina, oil, gold, fish, shrimp, lumber.
Exports (2012): $2.563 billion: alumina, gold, crude oil, lumber,
shrimp and fish, rice, bananas. Major consumers: US 26.1%, Belgium
17.6%, UAE 12.1%,
France 5.6%, Barbados
Imports (2012): $1.782 billion: capital equipment, petroleum,
foodstuffs, cotton, consumer goods. Major suppliers: US 25.8%,
China 9.8%, UAE 7.9%,
Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda 7.3%,
Netherlands Antilles 5.4%, Japan 4.2%.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2011) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message)
The population of
Suriname from 1961 to 2003, (in units of 1000). The
slowdown and decline in population growth from ~1969-1985 reflects a
mass migration to the Netherlands.
Demographics of Suriname
Demographics of Suriname and Surinamese people
According to the 2012 census,
Suriname had a population of 541,638
inhabitants. The Surinamese populace is characterized by its high
level of diversity, wherein no particular demographic group
constitutes a majority. This is a legacy of centuries of Dutch rule,
which entailed successive periods of forced, contracted, or voluntary
migration by various nationalities and ethnic groups from around the
The largest ethnic group are the East Indians, who form 27% of the
population. They are descendants of 19th-century contract workers from
India, hailing mostly from the modern Indian states of
Uttar Pradesh along the Nepali border. Surinamese Maroons,
whose ancestors are mostly runaway slaves that fled to the interior,
comprise the next largest group at 21.7%; they are divided into five
main groups: Ndyuka (Aucans), Kwinti, Matawai, Saramaccans and
Paramaccans. Surinamese Creoles, mixed people descending from African
slaves and mostly Dutch Europeans, form 15.7% of the population.
Javanese make up 14% of the population, and like the East Indians,
descend largely from workers contracted from the island of
Java in the
Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies (modern Indonesia). 13.4% of the
population identifies as being of mixed ethnic heritage.
Other sizeable groups include the Chinese, originating from
19th-century contract workers and some recent migration, who number
over 40,000 as of 2011[update]; Lebanese, primarily Maronites; Jews of
Sephardic and Ashkenazi origin, whose center of population was the
community of Jodensavanne; and Brazilians, many of them laborers
mining for gold.
A small but influential number of Europeans remain in the country,
comprising about 1 percent of the population. They are descended
mostly from Dutch 19th-century immigrant farmers, known as "Boeroes"
(derived from boer, the Dutch word for "farmer"), and to a lesser
degree other European groups, such as Portuguese from Madeira. Many
Boeroes left after independence in 1975.
Various indigenous peoples make up 3.7% of the population, with the
main groups being the Akurio, Arawak, Kalina (Caribs), Tiriyó and
Wayana. They live mainly in the districts of Paramaribo, Wanica, Para,
Marowijne and Sipaliwini.
The vast majority of Suriname's inhabitants (about 90%) live in
Paramaribo or on the coast.
The choice of becoming Surinamese or Dutch citizens in the years
leading up to Suriname's independence in 1975 led to a mass migration
to the Netherlands. This migration continued in the period immediately
after independence and during military rule in the 1980s and for
largely economic reasons extended throughout the 1990s. The Surinamese
community in the
Netherlands numbered 350,300 as of 2013[update]; this
is compared to approximately 566,000 Surinamese in Suriname
Main article: Religion in Suriname
Religion in Suriname, 2012
Suriname's religious makeup is heterogenous and reflective of the
country's multicultural character.
According to the 2012 census, 48.4% were Christians, among whom
Protestants (including 11.18% Pentecostal, 11.16% Moravian,
and 4.4% of various other Protestant denominations) and 21.6% were
Roman Catholics. Hindus formed the second-largest religious group in
Suriname, comprising 22.3% of the population, the third largest
proportion of any country in the Western Hemisphere after
Trinidad and Tobago. Almost all practitioners of Hinduism are found
Indo-Surinamese population. Muslims constitute 13.9% of the
population, which is proportionally the largest in the Americas, and
are found mostly among those of Javanese and to a lesser degree those
of Indian descent. Other religious groups include
Afro-American religion practiced mostly by those of Maroon
Javanism (0.8%), a syncretic faith found among some
Javanese Surinamese; and various indigenous folk traditions that are
often incorporated into one of the larger religions (usually
Christianity). In the 2012 census, 7.5% of the population declared
they had "no religion", while a further 3.2% left the question
Immigrants from India
Butcher market in
Paramaribo with signs written in Dutch.
Dutch is the sole official language, and is the language of education,
government, business, and the media. Over 60% of the population
speaks Dutch as a mother tongue, and most of the rest of the
population speaks it as a second language. In 2004
Suriname became an
associate member of the Dutch Language Union. It is the only
Dutch-speaking country in
South America as well as the only
independent nation in the
Americas where Dutch is spoken by a majority
of the population, and one of the two non-Romance-speaking countries
in South America, the other being English-speaking Guyana.
In Paramaribo, Dutch is the main home language in two-thirds of
households. The recognition of "Surinaams-Nederlands" ("Surinamese
Dutch") as a national dialect equal to "Nederlands-Nederlands" ("Dutch
Dutch") and "Vlaams-Nederlands" ("Flemish Dutch") was expressed in
2009 by the publication of the Woordenboek Surinaams Nederlands
(Surinamese–Dutch Dictionary). Only in the interior of Suriname
is Dutch seldom spoken.
Sranan, a local creole language originally spoken by the creole
population group, is the most widely used language in the streets and
is often used interchangeably with Dutch depending on the formality of
Surinamese Hindi or Sarnami, a dialect of Bhojpuri, is the third-most
used language, spoken by the descendants of South Asian contract
workers from then British India. Javanese is used by the descendants
of Javanese contract workers. The Maroon languages, somewhat
intelligible with Sranan, include Saramaka, Paramakan, Ndyuka (also
Kwinti and Matawai.
Amerindian languages, spoken by
Amerindians, include Carib and Arawak. Hakka and Cantonese are spoken
by the descendants of the Chinese contract workers. Mandarin is spoken
by some few recent Chinese immigrants. English and Portuguese are also
The public discourse about Suriname's languages is a part of an
ongoing debate about the country's national identity. The use of
the popular Sranan became associated with nationalist politics after
its public use by former dictator
Dési Bouterse in the 1980s, and
groups descended from escaped slaves might resent it. Some propose
to change the national language to English, so as to improve links to
Caribbean and North America, or to Spanish, as a nod to Suriname's
location in South America, although it has no Spanish-speaking
The national capital, Paramaribo, is by far the dominant urban area,
accounting for nearly half of Suriname's population and most of its
urban residents; indeed, its population is greater than the next nine
largest cities combined. Most municipalities are located within the
capital's metropolitan area, or along the densely populated coastline.
Largest cities or towns in Suriname
Main article: Culture of Suriname
See also: Roman Catholicism in Suriname, Music of Suriname, and
Hinduism in South America
Owing to the country's multicultural heritage,
Suriname celebrates a
variety of distinct ethnic and religious festivals.
1 January – New Year's Day
6 January – Three Kings Day
January – World Religion Day
February – Chinese New Year
25 February – Day of the Revolution
March (varies) – Holi
March/April – Good Friday
March/April – Easter
1 May – Labour Day
May/June – Ascension day
5 June – Indian Arrival Day
1 July –
Keti Koti (Emancipation Day - end of slavery)
8 August – Javanese Arrival Day
9 August – Indigenous People's Day
10 October - Day of the Maroons
20 October – Chinese Arrival day
October/November – Diwali
25 November –
25 December – Christmas
26 December – Boxing Day
There are several
Hindu and Islamic national holidays like Diwali
Eid ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-adha. These holidays do
not have specific dates on the Gregorian calendar, as they are based
Hindu and Islamic calendars, respectively.
There are several holidays which are unique to Suriname. These include
the Indian, Javanese and Chinese arrival days. They celebrate the
arrival of the first ships with their respective immigrants.
New Year's Eve
Pagara (red firecracker ribbons).
New Year's Eve in
Suriname is called Oud jaar, or "old year". It is
during this period that the Surinamese population goes to the city's
commercial district to watch "demonstrational fireworks". The bigger
stores invest in these firecrackers and display them out in the
streets. Every year the length of them is compared, and high praises
are given for the company that has imported the largest ribbon.
These celebrations start at 10 in the morning and finish the next day.
The day is usually filled with laughter, dance, music, and drinking.
When the night starts, the big street parties are already at full
capacity. The most popular fiesta is the one that is held at café 't
Vat in the main tourist district. The parties there stop between 10
and 11 at night, after which people go home to light their pagaras
(red-firecracker-ribbons) at midnight. After 12, the parties continue
and the streets fill again until daybreak.
Suriname Olympic Committee is the national governing body for
sports in Suriname. The SOC was established in 1959 and now has 17
members: Athletics, Badminton, Basketball, Boxing, Chess, Cycling,
Football, Judo, Karate, Shooting, Swimming, Table Tennis, Taekwondo,
Tennis, Triathlon, Volleyball, and Wrestling.
One of the major sports in
Suriname is football. Many Suriname-born
players and Dutch-born players of Surinamese descent, like Gerald
Vanenburg, Ruud Gullit, Frank Rijkaard, Edgar Davids, Clarence
Seedorf, Patrick Kluivert, Ryan Babel, Aron Winter, Georginio
Jimmy Floyd Hasselbaink
Jimmy Floyd Hasselbaink and
Jeremain Lens have turned out
to play for Oranje. In 1999, Humphrey Mijnals, who played for both
Suriname and the Netherlands, was elected Surinamese footballer of the
century. Another famous player is André Kamperveen, who captained
Suriname in the 1940s and was the first Surinamese to play
professionally in the Netherlands.
The most famous international track & field athlete from Suriname
is Letitia Vriesde, who won a silver medal at the 1995 World
Championships behind Ana Quirot in the 800 metres, the first medal won
by a South American female athlete in World Championship competition.
In addition, she also won a bronze medal at the 2001 World
Championships and won several medals in the 800 and 1500 metres at the
Pan-American Games and Central American and
Caribbean Games. Tommy
Asinga also received acclaim for winning a bronze medal in the 800
metres at the 1991 Pan American Games.
Anthony Nesty is the only Olympic medalist for Suriname. He
won gold in the 100-meter butterfly at the
1988 Summer Olympics
1988 Summer Olympics in
Seoul and he won bronze in the same discipline at the 1992 Summer
Olympics in Barcelona. Originally from Trinidad and Tobago, he now
lives in Gainesville, Florida, and is the coach of the University of
Florida, mainly coaching distance swimmers.
Cricket is popular in
Suriname to some extent, influenced by its
popularity in the
Netherlands and in neighbouring Guyana. The
Cricket Bond is an associate member of the International
Cricket Council (ICC).
Argentina are the only ICC
associates in South America, although
Guyana is represented on the
Cricket Board, a full member. The national cricket team
was ranked 47th in the world and sixth in the
ICC Americas region as
of June 2014, and competes in the World
Cricket League (WCL) and ICC
Americas Championship. Iris Jharap, born in Paramaribo, played women's
One Day International matches for the Dutch national side, the only
Surinamer to do so.
In the sport of badminton the local heroes are
Virgil Soeroredjo &
Mitchel Wongsodikromo and also Crystal Leefmans. All winning medals
Suriname at the Carebaco
Caribbean Championships, the Central
Caribbean Games (CACSO Games) and also at the South
American Games, better known as the ODESUR Games. Virgil Soeroredjo
also participated for
Suriname at the 2012
London Summer Olympics,
only the second badminton player, after Oscar Brandon, for
K-1 champion and legend, Ernesto Hoost, is of Surinamese
descent. MMA and kickboxing champions
Melvin Manhoef and Gilbert Yvel
were born in
Suriname or are of Surinamese descent. Rayen Simson,
another legendary multiple world-champion kickboxer; Remy Bonjasky
also a multiple
K-1 champion; as well as retired female kickboxer,
Ilonka Elmont; notable up-and-comer kickboxer and
K-1 fighter, Tyrone
Spong; and former Muay Thai heavyweight champion, Ginty Vrede
(deceased), were born in Suriname.
Involving the sport of tennis, historic national champions include
Gerard van der Schroeff (men's single national champion for 10
consecutive years between the years 1931–41, plus champion of
multiple future titles). Herman Tjin-A-Djie (men's national champion
1941 and 1945, plus men's national double champion for 10 consecutive
years with his brother Leo). Leo Tjin-A-Djie (between 1948–57 he was
eight-time national champion and men's national double champion for 10
consecutive years with his brother Herman). From Leo spawned the Opa
Leo Tjin-A-Djie Tennis tournament. Randolf Tjin-A-Djie was national
champion for 1960.
Transport in Suriname
Transport in Suriname and East-West Link (Suriname)
Suriname and neighboring
Guyana are the only two countries on the
mainland South American continent that drive on the left. In Guyana,
this practice is inherited from
United Kingdom colonial authorities.
Various reasons are given to explain why
Suriname drives on the left.
It is thought that it is because the first cars imported were from
England, but this is yet undocumented. In addition, this view does not
say anything about traffic before the automobile era. Another
explanation is that the Netherlands, at the time of its colonization
of Suriname, used the left-hand side of the road for traffic, and
yet another is that
Suriname was first colonized by the English.
Netherlands converted to driving to the right at the end
of the 18th century,
Suriname did not. Writers Peter Kincaid
and Ian Watson suggest that in territories such as
there are no connecting roads to neighbouring countries, there is no
external pressure to change the status quo.
Airlines with departures from Suriname:
Blue Wing Airlines
Caribbean Commuter Airways (Caricom Airways) (Surinam Airways
Surinam Airways (SLM)
Airlines with arrivals in Suriname:
Caribbean Airlines (Trinidad & Tobago)
Dutch Antilles Express
Dutch Antilles Express (DAE) (Curaçao)
Insel Air (Curaçao)
Gol Transportes Aéreos
Gol Transportes Aéreos (Brazil)
Surinam Airways (SLM) (Aruba,
Brazil (Belem), Curaçao, Guyana
Netherlands (Amsterdam), Trinidad & Tobago (Port of
Spain), & USA (Miami).)
Other national companies with an air operator certification:
Suriname (ACS) – General Aviation Aeroclub
Coronie Aero Farmers (CAF) –
Eagle Air Services (EAS) –
ERK Farms (ERK) –
Hi-Jet Helicopter Services (HI-Jet) Helicopter Charters
Kuyake Aviation (Part of Caricom Airways) – General Aviation
Overeem Air Service (OAS) – General Aviation Charters
Pegasus Air Service (PAS) – Helicopter Charters
Suriname Air Force / Surinaamse Luchtmacht (SAF / LUMA) – Military
Aviation Surinam Air Force
Surinam Sky Farmers (SSF) –
Surinaamse Medische Zendings Vliegdienst (MAF – Mission Aviation
Fellowship) – General Aviation Missionary
Suriname (VAS) – General Aviation Maintenance &
The fertility rate was at 2.6 births per woman in 2009. Public
expenditure was at 3.6% of the GDP in 2004, whereas private
expenditure was at 4.2%. There were 45 physicians per 100,000 in
the early 2000s. Infant mortality was at 30 per 1,000 live
births. Male life expectancy at birth was at 66.4 years, whereas
female life expectancy at birth was at 73 years.
Main article: Education in Suriname
Education in Suriname is compulsory until the age of 12, and the
nation had a net primary enrollment rate of 94% in 2004. Literacy
is very common, particularly among males. The main university in
the country is the Anton de Kom University of Suriname.
From elementary school to high school there are 13 grades. The
elementary school has six grades, middle school four grades and high
school three grades. Students take a test in the end of elementary
school to determine whether they will go to the MULO (secondary modern
school) or a middle school of lower standards like LBGO. Students from
the elementary school wear a green shirt with jeans, while middle
school students wear a blue shirt with jeans.
Students going from the second grade of middle school to the third
grade have to choose between the business or science courses. This
will determine what their major subjects will be. In order to go on to
study math and physics, the student must have a total of 13 points. If
the student has fewer points, he/she will go into the business courses
or fail the grade.
Biodiversity in Suriname
Due to the variety in habitats and temperatures, biodiversity in
Suriname is considered high. In October 2013, 16 international
scientists researching the ecosystems during a three-week expedition
in Suriname's Upper Palumeu River Watershed catalogued 1,378 species
and found 60—including six frogs, one snake, and 11 fish—that may
be previously unknown species. According to the
environmental non-profit Conservation International, which funded the
expedition, Suriname's ample supply of fresh water is vital to the
biodiversity and healthy ecosystems of the region.
Brosimum guianense), a shrub-like tree, is native to this
tropical region of the Americas. Customs in
Suriname report that
snakewood often illegally exported to French Guiana, thought to be for
the crafts industry.
On 21 March 2013, Suriname's REDD+ Readiness Preparation Proposal
(R-PP 2013) was approved by the member countries of the Participants
Committee of the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF).
As in other parts of Central and South America, indigenous communities
have increased their activism to protect their lands and preserve
habitat. In March 2015, the "Trio and
Wayana communities presented a
declaration of cooperation to the
National Assembly of Suriname
National Assembly of Suriname that
announces an indigenous conservation corridor spanning 72,000 square
kilometers (27,799 square miles) of southern Suriname. The
declaration, led by these indigenous communities and with the support
Conservation International (CI) and
World Wildlife Fund
World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
Guianas, comprises almost half of the total area of Suriname."
This area includes large forests and is considered "essential for the
country's climate resilience, freshwater security, and green
De Ware Tijd was the major newspaper of the country,
but since the '90s Times of Suriname,
De West and Dagblad Suriname
have also been well-read newspapers; all publish primarily in
Suriname has twenty-four radio stations, two broadcast through the
Internet (Apintie and Radio10). There are twelve television sources:
TV2(Ch.2), ABC(Ch.4), RBN(Ch.5), STVS(Ch.8), Apintie(Ch.10),
ATV(Ch.12), Radika(Ch.14), SCCN(Ch.17), Trishul(Ch. 20),
Garuda(Ch.23), Sangeetmala(Ch.26), PL(Ch.28), Ch.30, Ch.32, Ch.38,
SCTV(Ch.45), Ch.47, Mustika(Ch.50) And Ch.52. Also listened to is
mArt, a broadcaster from
Amsterdam founded by people from Suriname.
Kondreman is one of the popular cartoons in Suriname.
Suriname was ranked joint 22nd with Japan in the worldwide
Press Freedom Index by the organization Reporters Without Borders.
This was ahead of the US (47th), the UK (28th), and
The hotel industry is important to Suriname's economy. The rental of
apartments, or the rent-a-house phenomenon, is also popular in
Most tourists visit
Suriname for the biodiversity of the Amazonian
rain forests in the south of the country, which are noted for their
flora and fauna. The
Central Suriname Nature Reserve
Central Suriname Nature Reserve is the biggest
and one of the most popular reserves, along with the Brownsberg Nature
Park which overlooks the
Brokopondo Reservoir, the latter being one of
the largest man-made lakes in the world. Tonka Island in the reservoir
is home to a rustic eco-tourism project run by the Saramaccaner
Maroons. Pangi wraps and bowls made of calabashes are the two main
products manufactured for tourists. The Maroons have learned that
colorful and ornate pangis are popular with tourists. Other
popular decorative souvenirs are hand-carved purple-hardwood made into
bowls, plates, canes, wooden boxes, and wall decors.
There are also many waterfalls throughout the country. Raleighvallen,
or Raleigh Falls, is a 56,000-hectare (140,000-acre) nature reserve on
the Coppename River, rich in bird life. Also are the Blanche Marie
Falls on the
Nickerie River and the Wonotobo Falls. Tafelberg Mountain
in the centre of the country is surrounded by its own reserve – the
Tafelberg Nature Reserve – around the source of the Saramacca River,
as is the Voltzberg Nature Reserve further north on the Coppename
River at Raleighvallen. In the interior are many Maroon and Amerindian
villages, many of which have their own reserves that are generally
open to visitors.
Suriname is one of the few countries in the world where at least one
of each biome that the state possesses has been declared a wildlife
reserve. Around 30% of the total land area of
Suriname is protected by
law as reserves.
Other attractions include plantations such as Laarwijk, which is
situated along the
Suriname River. This plantation can be reached only
by boat via Domburg, in the north central
Wanica District of Suriname.
The Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul in Paramaribo
Bridge is a bridge over the river Suriname
Paramaribo and Meerzorg in the Commewijne district. The bridge
was built during the tenure of President Jules Albert Wijdenbosch
(1996–2000) and was completed in 2000. The bridge is 52 metres
(171 ft) high, and 1,504 metres (4,934 ft) long. It connects
Paramaribo with Commewijne, a connection which previously could only
be made by ferry. The purpose of the bridge was to facilitate and
promote the development of the eastern part of Suriname. The bridge
consists of two lanes (one lane each way) and is not accessible to
The construction of the Sts. Peter and Paul Cathedral started on 13
January 1883. Before it became a cathedral it was a theatre. The
theatre was built in 1809 and burned down in 1820.
Suriname is one of the few countries in the world where a synagogue is
located next to a mosque. The two buildings are located next to
each other in the centre of
Paramaribo and have been known to share a
parking facility during their respective religious rites, should they
happen to coincide with one another.
A relatively new landmark is the
Arya Dewaker temple in the
Johan Adolf Pengelstraat in Wanica, Paramaribo, which was inaugurated
in 2001. A special characteristic of the temple is that it does not
have images of the
Hindu divinities, as they are forbidden in the Arya
Hindu movement to which the people who built the temple
belong. Instead, the building is covered by many texts derived from
the Vedas and other
Hindu scriptures. The beautiful architecture makes
the temple a tourist attraction.
Arya Dewaker Temple.
Jules Wijdenbosch Bridge.
Mosque next to a synagogue in Paramaribo.
Palmentuin (Garden of Palms).
Caribbean Community portal
Index of Suriname-related articles
Outline of Suriname
^ Each of
French Guiana and Falkland Islands, while less extensive and
populous, are respectively an overseas department and region of France
and an overseas territory of the United Kingdom.
^ Suriname: An Asian Immigrant and the Organic Creation of the
Caribbean’s Most Unique Fusion Culture, archived from the original
on 2017-02-20, retrieved 2017-07-19
^ "Censusstatistieken 2012" (PDF). Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek
Suriname (General Statistics Bureau of Suriname). p. 76.
^ a b Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek. "Geselecteerde Census
variabelen per district (Census-profiel)" (PDF). ABS. Archived from
the original (PDF) on 10 September 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
^ a b c "Census statistieken 2012". Statistics-suriname.org. Retrieved
13 July 2014.
^ "Definitieve Resultaten (Vol I) Etniciteit". Presentatie Evaluatie
Rapport CENSUS 8. Algemeen Bureau voor Statestieken in Suriname:
^ a b c d e f g h 2012
Suriname Census Definitive Results. Algemeen
Bureau voor de Statistiek – Suriname.
^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org
(custom data acquired via website).
United Nations Department of
Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10
^ a b c d "Suriname". International Monetary Fund.
^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF).
United Nations Development
Programme. 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
^ a b c d e f
Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency (2013). "Suriname". The
World Factbook. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
^ "Suriname", The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia
Britannica, Volume 5. Edition 15, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2002, p.
^ a b Baynes, Thomas Spencer (1888). Encyclopædia Britannica: A
Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature, Volume XI (Ninth
Edition—Popular Reprint ed.). In 1614, the states of Holland granted
to any Dutch citizen a four years' monopoly of any harbour or place of
commerce which he might discover in that region (Guiana). The first
settlement, however, in
Suriname (in 1630) was made by an Englishman,
whose name is still preserved by Marshall's Creek.
^ Streissguth, Tom (2009).
Suriname in Pictures. Twenty-First Century
Books. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-1-57505-964-8.
C.R. Boxer (1990). The Dutch Seaborne Empire. Penguin.
pp. 271–272. ISBN 978-0140136180.
^ Simon M. Mentelle, "Extract of the Dutch Map Representing the Colony
of Surinam", c.1777, Digital World Library via Library of Congress.
Retrieved 26 May 2013
^ Michael J. Douma, "The Lincoln Administration's Negotiations to
Colonize African Americans in Dutch Suriname," Civil War History 61#2
(2015): 111-137. online
Suriname Country Profile". BBC. 14 September 2012.
^ "Multicultural Netherlands". UC Berkeley. 2010. Archived from the
original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
World War II
World War II Timeline. Faculty.virginia.edu. Retrieved 15 August
^ Obituary "The Guardian", 24 January 2001.
^ Roger Janssen (1 January 2011). In Search of a Path: An Analysis of
the Foreign Policy of
Suriname from 1975 to 1991. BRILL.
pp. 60–. ISBN 978-90-04-25367-4.
^ Betty Sedoc-Dahlberg. "Refugees from Suriname". Retrieved 26 August
^ "Bouterse heeft Daal en Rambocus doodgeschoten". Network Star
Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname. 23 March 2012.
Suriname ex-strongman Bouterse back in power, In: BBC News, 19 July
^ Suriname's Bouterse Secures Second Presidential Term, Voice of
America News, 14 July 2015
^ a b "The
Suriname are closely linked". MinBuZa.nl.
18 November 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
^ "Holland to redefine relationship with Suriname".
23 March 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
^ "Suriname". US Department of State. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 13
European Union – EEAS (European External Action Service) EU
Relations with Suriname". Europa (web portal). 19 June 2014. Retrieved
13 July 2014.
^ "STATEMENT BY THE RIGHT HONOURABLE OWEN S. ARTHUR, PRIME MINISTER,
BARBADOS, ON THE OCCASION OF THE SIGNING OF THE AGREEMENT FOR THE
DEEPENING OF BILATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF BARBADOS
AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SURINAME, 17 FEBRUARY 2005,
Caribbean Community (CARICOM). 17 February
2005. Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 6 March
^ Agreement for the Suriname-
Barbados Joint Commission.
foreign.gov.bb. 13 March 2009
^ "BGIS Media – Press Releases – Second Meeting of the
Suriname Joint Commission". Gisbarbados.gov.bb. Retrieved 13
^ Erthal Abdenur, Adriana (2013). "South-South Cooperation in
Suriname: New Prospects for Infrastructure Integration?" (PDF).
Integration and Trade. 36 (17): 95–104. Archived from the original
on 8 January 2014. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown
Suriname at GeoHive". Geohive.com. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration –
Suriname Archived 8
February 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Award of the Tribunal Archived 2 January 2011 at the Wayback
Machine.. pca-cpa.org. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
^ UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre World Databbase on
Protected Areas Archived 4 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Rigzone (3 January 2006). Staatsolie Launches Tender for 3 Offshore
^ Cambior Development of the Gross Rosebel Mine in Suriname.
Suriname – Foreign trade". Encyclopedia of the Nations. 2010.
Retrieved 18 August 2012.
^ The Economist, Pocket World in Figures, 2008 Edition, London:
^ (in Indonesian) Orang Jawa di
Suriname (Javanese in Suriname),
kompasiana (14 March 2011)
^ "Violence erupts in Surinam". Radio
Netherlands Worldwide. 26
^ Joshua Project. "Joshuaproject.net". Joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 28
^ "Het Nederlandse taalgebied" (in Dutch). Nederlandse Taalunie. 2005.
Retrieved 4 November 2008.
^ (in Dutch) Nederlandse Taalunie. taalunieversum.org
^ Prisma Woordenboek Surinaams Nederlands, edited by Renata de Bies,
in cooperation with Willy Martin and Willy Smedts,
^ a b c d e Romero, Simon (23 March 2008). "In Babel of Tongues,
Suriname Seeks Itself". The New York Times.
^ "A Sabbatical in
Suriname – Fun Facts, Questions, Answers,
Information". Funtrivia.com. 25 February 1980. Retrieved 13 July
^ "Het debuut van Humphrey Mijnals". Olympisch Stadion. Archived from
the original on 21 September 2013.
Iris Jharap player profile and statistics – ESPNcricinfo.
Retrieved 1 December 2014. Dick Vierling, also born in Paramaribo,
played for the
Netherlands national cricket team during the late 1980s
and was a noted club cricketer for
Quick 1888 throughout the following
two decades, but (none of his matches were accorded first-class
^ Het blijft bij één keer brons op Cacso Radio Nederland
Wereldomroep. Rnw.nl (27 September 2012). Retrieved 12 July 2013.
^ Results And Medalists Archived 4 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine..
London2012.com. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
^ "Ricky W. Stutgard, De eerste Surinaamse sportencyclopedie
(1893–1988)· dbnl". Dbnl.org. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
^ "Driving on the Left". Users.telenet.be. Retrieved 28 March
^ a b Kincaid, Peter (1986). The Rule of the Road: An International
Guide to History and Practice, Greenwood Press,
^ "Which side of the road do they drive on?". Brianlucas.ca. Retrieved
28 March 2010.
^ a b c d e f g "
United Nations Development Programme".
Hdrstats.undp.org. Archived from the original on 18 August 2009.
Retrieved 28 March 2010.
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "The UN Refugee
Agency". Unhcr.org. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011.
Retrieved 28 March 2010.
^ Cocoa frog and lilliputian beetle among 60 new species found in
The Guardian (3 October 2013). Retrieved 7 October 2013.
^ New species discovered in Surname's mountain rainforests. The
Telegraph (2 October 2013). Retrieved 7 October 2013.
^ Scientists discover scores of species in Suriname's 'Tropical Eden'.
NBC News (7 October 2013). Retrieved 7 October 2013.
^ New-Species Pictures: Cowboy Frog, Armored Catfish, More. National
Geographic (1 January 2012). Retrieved 7 October 2013.
^ Discover 60 New Species In Suriname. The Huffington Post (3 October
2013). Retrieved 7 October 2013.
^ Law Compliance, and prevention, and control of illegal activities in
the forest sector of Suriname, Maureen Playfair
Suriname gets the nod for environment programme – News – Global
Jamaica. Jamaica-gleaner.com (25 March 2013). Retrieved 12 July 2013.
^ a b "Guardians of the Forest: Indigenous Peoples Take Action to
Conserve Nearly Half of Suriname", 5 March 2015, Press Release,
Conservation International; accessed 6 October 2016
^ De Koninck, Marc; de Vries, Ellen (2008). K'ranti! De Surinaamse
pers 1774-2008 (PDF). pp. 235–243.
^ Press Freedom Index 2011–2012 – Reporters Without Borders
Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Reports Without
Borders. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
^ "Tonka-eiland Saramaccaans kennis-centrum en Eco-toeristisch
paradijs". Tonka-Eiland. 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ Brouns, Rachelle (February 2011). "People in the beating heart of
the Amazon" (PDF). Radboud university Nijmegen. Retrieved 17 December
^ "Wyndham Garden Paramaribo". Wyndham Hotels and Resorts, LLC. 2010.
Retrieved 18 August 2012.
Box, Ben, Footprint Focus Guide: Guyana, Guyane & Suriname,
(Footprint Travel Guides, 2011)
Counter, S. Allen and David L. Evans, I Sought My Brother: An
Afro-American Reunion, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1981
Dew, Edward M., The Trouble in Suriname, 1975–93, (Greenwood Press,
Gimlette, John, Wild Coast: Travels on South America's Untamed Edge
(Profile Books, 2011)
McCarthy Sr., Terrence J., A Journey into Another World: Sojourn in
Suriname, (Wheatmark Inc., 2010)
Westoll, Adam, Surinam, (Old Street Publishing, 2009)
Find more aboutSurinameat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
"Suriname". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
Suriname at UCB Libraries GovPubs.
Suriname from the BBC News.
Suriname at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Wikimedia Atlas of Suriname
Geographic data related to
Suriname at OpenStreetMap
Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection
Key Development Forecasts for
Suriname from International Futures.
Suriname in the Digital Library of the
Websites of the government, President and National Assembly
(in Dutch) Website of the President of the
Republic of Suriname
(in Dutch) Website of the Government of the
Republic of Suriname
(in Dutch) Website of the National Assembly of the
Colony of Surinam
Society of Suriname
Within the Kingdom of the Netherlands
1980 coup d'état
Interior War (1986–1992)
World Heritage Sites
Science and technology
Coat of arms
Countries and dependencies of South America
Falkland Islands / South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)
United Arab Emirates
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Central African Republic
Moro National Liberation Front
Economic Cooperation Organization
1 As the "Turkish Cypriot State".
Union of South American Nations
Proposed: Trinidad and Tobago
President Pro Tempore
Bank of the South
South American Parliament
Initiative for Infrastructure Integration of South America
Caribbean Community (CARICOM)
Antigua and Barbuda
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
British Virgin Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Common Fund for Commodities (CFC)
Court of Justice (CCJ)
Disaster Emergency Management (CDEMA)
Examinations Council (CXC)
Meteorological Institute (CMI)
Meteorological Organisation (CMO)
Public Health Agency (CARPHA)
Single Market and Economy (CSME)
Organisation of Eastern
Caribbean States (OECS)
1 Member of the Community but not of the CARICOM Single Market and
2 British overseas territory awaiting entrustment to join the CSME
Organization of American States
Organization of American States (OAS)
Antigua and Barbuda
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
St. Kitts and Nevis
Trinidad and Tobago
Secretariat for Political Affairs
Secretariat for Multidimensional Security
Inter-American Commission of Women
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
Inter-American Court of Human Rights
Pan American Union Building
Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man
American Convention on Human Rights
Summits of the Americas
Pan American Sports Organization
Dutch Language Union
Sint Maarten (
ISNI: 0000 0004 0401 6456
BNF: cb11882739s (data)