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Coordinates : 4°N 56°W / 4°N 56°W / 4; -56

Republic
Republic
of Suriname _Republiek Suriname_ (Dutch )

Flag Coat of arms

MOTTO: " Justitia Pietas
Pietas
– Fides " (Latin ) "Justice – Piety – Trust"

ANTHEM: _ God zij met ons Suriname _ (Dutch) _God be with our Suriname_

Capital and largest city Paramaribo
Paramaribo
5°50′N 55°10′W / 5.833°N 55.167°W / 5.833; -55.167

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Dutch

RECOGNIZED REGIONAL LANGUAGES

* Sarnami Hindustani (Bhojpuri ) * Javanese

VERNACULAR LANGUAGE Sranan Tongo Creole

ETHNIC GROUPS (2012)

* 27.4% East Indian * 21.7% Maroon * 15.7% Creole * 13.7% Javanese * 13.4% Mixed * 3.8% Amerindian
Amerindian
* 1% White * 3.4% others

RELIGION

* 48.4% Christian
Christian
* 22.3% Hindu
Hindu
* 13.9% Muslim
Muslim
* 1.8% Winti * 0.8% Kebatinan * 2.1% Other * 7.5% None * 3.2% Not stated

DEMONYM Surinamese

GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary republic

• PRESIDENT Dési Bouterse

• VICE-PRESIDENT Ashwin Adhin

LEGISLATURE National Assembly

INDEPENDENCE

• CONSTITUENT COUNTRY WITHIN THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS 15 December 1954

• FROM THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS 25 November 1975

• CURRENT CONSTITUTION 30 September 1987

AREA

• TOTAL 163,821 km2 (63,252 sq mi) (92nd )

• WATER (%) 1.1

POPULATION

• JULY 2016 ESTIMATE 585,824 (166th )

• 2012 CENSUS 541,638

• DENSITY 2.9/km2 (7.5/sq mi) (231st )

GDP (PPP ) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $7.961 billion

• PER CAPITA $13,934

GDP (NOMINAL) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $3.641 billion

• PER CAPITA $6,373

GINI (1999) 52.9 high

HDI (2015) 0.725 high · 97th

CURRENCY Surinamese dollar
Surinamese dollar
(SRD )

TIME ZONE SRT (UTC -3)

DRIVES ON THE left

CALLING CODE +597

ISO 3166 CODE SR

INTERNET TLD .sr

SURINAME (/ˈsʊrᵻnæm/ , /-nɑːm/ or /-nəm/ , also spelled SURINAM), officially known as the REPUBLIC OF SURINAME (Dutch : _Republiek Suriname_ ), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic
Atlantic
coast of South America
South America
. It is bordered by French Guiana
French Guiana
to the east, Guyana
Guyana
to the west and Brazil
Brazil
to the south. At just under 165,000 square kilometers (64,000 square miles), it is the smallest country in South America. Suriname
Suriname
has a population of approximately 566,000, most of whom live on the country's north coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo
Paramaribo
.

Long inhabited by numerous cultures of indigenous tribes, Suriname was explored and contested by European powers before coming under Dutch rule in the late 17th century. In 1954, the country became one of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
. On 25 November 1975, the country of Suriname
Suriname
left the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
to become an independent state, nonetheless maintaining close economic, diplomatic, and cultural ties to its former colonizer. Its indigenous peoples have been increasingly active in claiming land rights and working to preserve their traditional lands and habitats.

Suriname
Suriname
is considered to be a culturally Caribbean
Caribbean
country, and is a member of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Community (CARICOM). While Dutch is the official language of government, business, media, and education, Sranan , an English -based creole language , is a widely used _lingua franca _. Suriname
Suriname
is the only territory outside Europe where Dutch is spoken by a majority of the population. The people of Suriname
Suriname
are among the most diverse in the world, spanning a multitude of ethnic, religious, and linguistic groups.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Colonial period * 2.2 Abolition of slavery * 2.3 Decolonization * 2.4 Independence
Independence
* 2.5 1982 December murders * 2.6 1987 elections and constitution * 2.7 21st century

* 3 Politics

* 3.1 Foreign relations

* 4 Military * 5 Administrative divisions

* 6 Geography

* 6.1 Borders * 6.2 Climate * 6.3 Nature reserves

* 7 Economy

* 8 Demographics

* 8.1 Religion * 8.2 Languages * 8.3 Largest cities

* 9 Culture

* 9.1 National holidays

* 9.1.1 New Year\'s Eve

* 9.2 Sports

* 10 Transportation

* 10.1 Air

* 11 Health * 12 Education

* 13 Biodiversity
Biodiversity

* 13.1 Environmental preservation

* 14 Media

* 15 Tourism

* 15.1 Landmarks

* 16 Gallery * 17 See also * 18 Notes * 19 References * 20 Further reading * 21 External links

ETYMOLOGY

This area was occupied by various cultures of indigenous peoples long before European contact, remnants of which can be found in petroglyph sites at Werehpai and other places in Suriname. The name _Suriname_ may derive from a Taino ( Arawak
Arawak
-speaking) indigenous people called _Surinen,_ who inhabited the area at the time of European contact.

British settlers, who founded the first European colony at Marshall's Creek along the Suriname River , spelled the name as "Surinam".

When the territory was taken over by the Dutch, it became part of a group of colonies known as Dutch Guiana . The official spelling of the country's English name was changed from "Surinam" to "Suriname" in January 1978, but "Surinam" can still be found in English. A notable example is Suriname's national airline, Surinam Airways . The older English name is reflected in the English pronunciation, /ˈsʊrᵻnæm/ or /ˈsʊrᵻnɑːm/ . In Dutch , the official language of Suriname, the pronunciation is , with the main stress on the third syllable and a schwa terminal vowel.

HISTORY

Maroon village, along Suriname River , 1955 Main article: History of Suriname

Indigenous settlement of Suriname
Suriname
dates back to 3,000 BC. The largest tribes were the Arawak
Arawak
, a nomadic coastal tribe that lived from hunting and fishing. They were the first inhabitants in the area. The Carib also settled in the area and conquered the Arawak
Arawak
by using their superior sailing ships. They settled in Galibi (_Kupali Yumï,_ meaning "tree of the forefathers") at the mouth of the Marowijne River . While the larger Arawak
Arawak
and Carib tribes lived along the coast and savanna, smaller groups of indigenous peoples lived in the inland rainforest, such as the Akurio , Trió , Warrau , and Wayana
Wayana
.

COLONIAL PERIOD

Presidential Palace of Suriname Main article: Surinam (Dutch colony)

Beginning in the 16th century, French , Spanish , and English explorers visited the area. A century later, Dutch and English settlers established plantation colonies along the many rivers in the fertile Guiana plains. The earliest documented colony in Guiana was an English settlement named Marshall's Creek along the Suriname
Suriname
River.

Disputes arose between the Dutch and the English for control of this territory. In 1667, during negotiations leading to the Treaty of Breda , the Dutch decided to keep the nascent plantation colony of Suriname they had gained from the English. The English got to keep New Amsterdam
Amsterdam
, the main city of the former colony of New Netherland in North America
North America
on the mid- Atlantic
Atlantic
coast. Already a cultural and economic hub in those days, they renamed it after the Duke of York: New York .

In 1683, the Society of Suriname
Society of Suriname
was founded by the city of Amsterdam , the Van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck family, and the Dutch West India Company . The society was chartered to manage and defend the colony. The planters of the colony relied heavily on African slaves to cultivate, harvest and process the commodity crops of coffee, cocoa, sugar cane and cotton plantations along the rivers. Planters' treatment of the slaves was notoriously bad, and many slaves escaped the plantations.

With the help of the native South Americans living in the adjoining rain forests, these runaway slaves established a new and unique culture in the interior that was highly successful in its own right. They were known collectively in English as Maroons , in French as _Nèg'Marrons_ (literally meaning "brown negroes", that is "pale-skinned negroes"), and in Dutch as _Marrons._ The Maroons gradually developed several independent tribes through a process of ethnogenesis , as they were made up of slaves from different African ethnicities. These tribes include the Saramaka , Paramaka, Ndyuka or Aukan, Kwinti , Aluku or Boni, and Matawai. Waterfront houses in Paramaribo
Paramaribo
, 1955

The Maroons often raided plantations to recruit new members from the slaves and capture women, as well as to acquire weapons, food and supplies. They sometimes killed planters and their families in the raids; colonists built defenses, which were so important they were shown on 18th-century maps, but these were not sufficient.

The colonists also mounted armed campaigns against the Maroons, who generally escaped through the rain forest, which they knew much better than did the colonists. To end hostilities, in the 18th century the European colonial authorities signed several peace treaties with different tribes. They granted the Maroons sovereign status and trade rights in their inland territories, giving them autonomy.

ABOLITION OF SLAVERY

In 1861-63, with the American Civil War underway and slaves escaping to Union lines in the South, President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
of the United States and his administration looked abroad for places to relocate freed slaves who wanted to leave the United States. It opened negotiations with the Dutch government regarding African-American emigration to and colonization of the Dutch colony of Suriname
Suriname
in South America. Nothing came of the idea, and after 1864 the idea was dropped.

The Netherlands
Netherlands
abolished slavery in Suriname
Suriname
in 1863, under a gradual process that required slaves to work on plantations for 10 transition years for minimal pay, which was considered as partial compensation for their masters. After 1873, most freedmen largely abandoned the plantations where they had worked for several generations in favor of the capital city, Paramaribo
Paramaribo
. Javanese immigrants brought as contract workers from the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
. Picture taken between 1880 and 1900.

As a plantation colony, Suriname
Suriname
had an economy dependent on labor-intensive commodity crops. To make up for a shortage of labor, the Dutch recruited and transported contract or indentured laborers from the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
(modern Indonesia
Indonesia
) and India
India
(the latter through an arrangement with the British, who then ruled the area). In addition, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, small numbers of laborers, mostly men, were recruited from China
China
and the Middle East .

Although Suriname's population remains relatively small, because of this complex colonization and exploitation, it is one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse countries in the world. Dutch colonists, 1920. Most Europeans left after independence in 1975.

DECOLONIZATION

During World War II
World War II
, on 23 November 1941, under an agreement with the Netherlands
Netherlands
government-in-exile, the United States
United States
occupied Suriname
Suriname
to protect the bauxite mines to support the Allies' war effort. In 1942, the Dutch government-in-exile began to review the relations between the Netherlands
Netherlands
and its colonies in terms of the post-war period.

In 1954, Suriname
Suriname
became one of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
, along with the Netherlands Antilles
Netherlands Antilles
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
. In this construction, the Netherlands
Netherlands
retained control of its defense and foreign affairs. In 1974, the local government, led by the National Party of Suriname (NPS) (whose membership was largely Creole , meaning ethnically African or mixed African-European) started negotiations with the Dutch government leading towards full independence, which was granted on 25 November 1975. A large part of Suriname's economy for the first decade following independence was fueled by foreign aid provided by the Dutch government.

INDEPENDENCE

Henck Arron , Beatrix and Johan Ferrier
Johan Ferrier
on November 25, 1975

The first President of the country was Johan Ferrier
Johan Ferrier
, the former governor, with Henck Arron (the then leader of the NPS) as Prime Minister. In the years leading up to independence, nearly one-third of the population of Suriname
Suriname
emigrated to the Netherlands, amidst concern that the new country would fare worse under independence than it had as a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Indeed, Surinamese politics soon degenerated into ethnic polarization and corruption, with the NPS using Dutch aid money for partisan purposes. Its leaders were accused of fraud in the 1977 elections , in which Arron won a further term, and the discontent was such that a large chunk of the population fled to the Netherlands, joining the already significant Surinamese community there.

1982 DECEMBER MURDERS

On 25 February 1980, a military coup overthrew Arron's government. It was initiated by a group of sixteen sergeants, led by Dési Bouterse . Opponents of the military regime attempted counter-coups in April 1980, August 1980, 15 March 1981, and again on 12 March 1982. The first counter attempt was led by Fred Ormskerk , the second by Marxist-Leninists , the third by Wilfred Hawker , and the fourth by Surendre Rambocus .

Hawker escaped from prison during the fourth counter-coup attempt, but he was captured and summarily executed. Between 2 am and 5 am on 7 December 1982, the military, under the leadership of Dési Bouterse , rounded up 13 prominent citizens who had criticized the military dictatorship and held them at Fort Zeelandia in Paramaribo. The dictatorship had all these men executed over the next three days , along with Rambocus and Jiwansingh Sheombar (who was also involved in the fourth counter-coup attempt).

1987 ELECTIONS AND CONSTITUTION

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National elections were held in 1987. The National Assembly adopted a new constitution that allowed Bouterse to remain in charge of the army. Dissatisfied with the government, Bouterse summarily dismissed the ministers in 1990, by telephone. This event became popularly known as the "Telephone Coup". His power began to wane after the 1991 elections.

The brutal civil war between the Suriname
Suriname
army and Maroons loyal to rebel leader Ronnie Brunswijk , begun in 1986, continued and its effects further weakened Bouterse's position during the 1990s. In 1999, the Netherlands
Netherlands
tried Bouterse _in absentia_ on drug smuggling charges. He was convicted and sentenced to prison but remained in Suriname.

21ST CENTURY

On 19 July 2010, the former dictator Dési Bouterse returned to power when he was elected as the new President of Suriname. He was reelected on 14 July 2015. Before his election in 2010, he, along with 24 others, had been charged with the murders of 15 prominent dissidents in the December murders. However, in 2012, two months before the verdict in the trial, the National Assembly extended its amnesty law and provided Bouterse and the others with amnesty of these charges.

POLITICS

National Assembly Court of Justice Main article: Politics of Suriname

The Republic
Republic
of Suriname
Suriname
is a parliamentary representative democratic republic , based on the Constitution of 1987 . The legislative branch of government consists of a 51-member unicameral National Assembly , simultaneously and popularly elected for a five-year term.

In the most recent elections, held on Tuesday, 25 May 2010, the _Megacombinatie_ won 23 of the National Assembly seats followed by _Nationale Front_ with 20 seats. A much smaller number, important for coalition-building, went to the "A‑combinatie" and to the _Volksalliantie._ The parties held negotiations to form coalitions.

The President of Suriname is elected for a five-year term by a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly. If at least two-thirds of the National Assembly cannot agree to vote for one presidential candidate, a People's Assembly is formed from all National Assembly delegates and regional and municipal representatives who were elected by popular vote in the most recent national election. The president may be elected by a majority of the People's Assembly called for the special election.

As head of government, the president appoints a sixteen-minister cabinet. A vice president, is normally elected for a five-year term at the same time as the president, by a simple majority in the National Assembly or People's Assembly. There is no constitutional provision for removal or replacement of the president, except in the case of resignation.

The judiciary is headed by the Court of Justice (Supreme Court). This court supervises the magistrate courts. Members are appointed for life by the president in consultation with the National Assembly, the State Advisory Council, and the National Order of Private Attorneys. In April 2005, the regional Caribbean
Caribbean
Court of Justice , based in Trinidad , was inaugurated. As the final court of appeal, it was intended to replace the London
London
-based Privy Council .

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Main article: Foreign relations of Suriname

President Dési Bouterse was convicted and sentenced in the Netherlands
Netherlands
to 11 years of imprisonment for drug trafficking. He is the main suspect in the court case concerning the 'December murders,' the 1982 assassination of opponents of military rule in Fort Zeelandia , Paramaribo. These two cases still strain relations between the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Suriname.

Due to Suriname's Dutch colonial history, Suriname
Suriname
had a long-standing special relationship with the Netherlands. The Dutch government has stated that it will only maintain limited contact with the president.

Bouterse was elected as president of Suriname
Suriname
in 2010. The Netherlands
Netherlands
in July 2014 dropped Suriname
Suriname
as a member of its development program.

Since 1991, the United States
United States
has maintained positive relations with Suriname. The two countries work together through the Caribbean
Caribbean
Basin Security Initiative (CBSI) and the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS
AIDS
Relief (PEPFAR). Suriname
Suriname
also receives military funding from the U.S. Department of Defense.

European Union
European Union
relations and cooperation with Suriname
Suriname
are carried out both on a bilateral and a regional basis. There are ongoing EU-Community of Latin American and Caribbean
Caribbean
States (CELAC) and EU- CARIFORUM dialogues. Suriname
Suriname
is party to the Cotonou Agreement , the partnership agreement among the members of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States and the European Union.

On 17 February 2005, the leaders of Barbados
Barbados
and Suriname
Suriname
signed the "Agreement for the deepening of bilateral cooperation between the Government of Barbados
Barbados
and the Government of the Republic
Republic
of Suriname." On 23–24 April 2009, both nations formed a Joint Commission in Paramaribo
Paramaribo
, Suriname, to improve relations and to expand into various areas of cooperation. They held a second meeting toward this goal on 3–4 March 2011, in Dover, Barbados. Their representatives reviewed issues of agriculture, trade, investment, as well as international transport.

In the late 2000s, Suriname
Suriname
intensified development cooperation with other developing countries. China's South-South cooperation with Suriname
Suriname
has included a number of large-scale infrastructure projects, including port rehabilitation and road construction. Brazil
Brazil
signed agreements to cooperate with Suriname
Suriname
in education, health, agriculture, and energy production.

MILITARY

Main article: Military of Suriname

The Armed Forces of Suriname
Suriname
have three branches: the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy. The President of the Republic, Dési Bouterse , is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces (_Opperbevelhebber van de Strijdkrachten_). The President is assisted by the Minister of Defence. Beneath the President and Minister of Defence is the Commander of the Armed Forces (_Bevelhebber van de Strijdkrachten_). The Military Branches and regional Military Commands report to the Commander.

After the creation of the Statute of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
, the Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Army was entrusted with the defence of Suriname, while the defence of the Netherlands Antilles
Netherlands Antilles
was the responsibility of the Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy . The army set up a separate _Troepenmacht in Suriname_ (Forces in Suriname, TRIS). Upon independence in 1975, this force was turned into the _Surinaamse Krijgsmacht_ (SKM):, Surinamese Armed Forces. On 25 February 1980, a group of 15 non-commissioned officers and one junior SKM officer, under the leadership of sergeant major Dési Bouterse , overthrew the Government. Subsequently, the SKM was rebranded as _Nationaal Leger_ (NL), National Army.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Main articles: Districts of Suriname and Resorts of Suriname

The country is divided into ten administrative districts, each headed by a district commissioner appointed by the president, who also has the power of dismissal. Suriname
Suriname
is further subdivided into 62 resorts (ressorten).

DISTRICT CAPITAL AREA (KM²) AREA (%) Population (2012 census) POPULATION (%) POP. DENS. (INH/KM²)

1 Brokopondo Brokopondo 7,364 4.5 15,909 2.9 2.2

2 Commewijne Nieuw- Amsterdam
Amsterdam
2,353 1.4 31,420 5.8 13.4

3 Coronie Totness 3,902 2.4 3,391 0.6 0.9

4 Marowijne Albina 4,627 2.8 18,294 3.4 4.0

5 Nickerie Nieuw-Nickerie
Nieuw-Nickerie
5,353 3.3 34,233 6.3 6.4

6 Para Onverwacht 5,393 3.3 24,700 4.6 4.6

7 Paramaribo
Paramaribo
Paramaribo
Paramaribo
182 0.1 240,924 44.5 1323.8

8 Saramacca Groningen 3,636 2.2 17,480 3.2 4.8

9 Sipaliwini none 130,567 79.7 37,065 6.8 0.3

10 Wanica Lelydorp 443 0.3 118,222 21.8 266.9

SURINAME PARAMARIBO 163,820 100.0 541,638 100.0 3.3

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Suriname Map of Suriname
Suriname
anno 2016 Suriname
Suriname
map of Köppen climate classification.

Suriname
Suriname
is the smallest independent country in South America
South America
. Situated on the Guiana Shield , it lies mostly between latitudes 1° and 6°N , and longitudes 54° and 58°W . The country can be divided into two main geographic regions. The northern, lowland coastal area (roughly above the line Albina-Paranam-Wageningen) has been cultivated, and most of the population lives here. The southern part consists of tropical rainforest and sparsely inhabited savanna along the border with Brazil
Brazil
, covering about 80% of Suriname's land surface.

The two main mountain ranges are the Bakhuys Mountains and the Van Asch Van Wijck Mountains . Julianatop is the highest mountain in the country at 1,286 metres (4,219 ft) above sea level . Other mountains include Tafelberg at 1,026 metres (3,366 ft), Mount Kasikasima at 718 metres (2,356 ft), Goliathberg at 358 metres (1,175 ft) and Voltzberg at 240 metres (790 ft).

BORDERS

Main article: Borders of Suriname

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Claimed Areas Disputed areas shown on the map of Suriname (left and right, gray areas)

Suriname
Suriname
is situated between French Guiana
French Guiana
to the east and Guyana
Guyana
to the west. The southern border is shared with Brazil
Brazil
and the northern border is the Atlantic
Atlantic
coast. The southernmost borders with French Guiana and Guyana
Guyana
are disputed by these countries along the Marowijne and Corantijn rivers, respectively, while a part of the disputed maritime boundary with Guyana
Guyana
was arbitrated by a tribunal convened under the rules set out in Annex VII of the United Nations
United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea on 20 September 2007.

CLIMATE

Lying 2 to 5 degrees north of the equator , Suriname
Suriname
has a very hot and wet tropical climate , and temperatures do not vary much throughout the year. Average relative humidity is between 80% and 90%. Its average temperature ranges from 29 to 34 degrees Celsius (84 to 93 degrees Fahrenheit). Due to the high humidity, actual temperatures are distorted and may therefore feel up to 6 degrees Celsius (11 degrees Fahrenheit) hotter than the recorded temperature. The year has two wet seasons , from April to August and from November to February. It also has two dry seasons , from August to November and February to April.

NATURE RESERVES

Located in the upper Coppename River watershed , the Central Suriname Nature Reserve has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
for its unspoiled forests and biodiversity . There are many national parks in the country: Galibi National Reserve , Coppename Manding National Park , and Wia Wia National Reserve along the coast; Brownsberg Nature Park , Raleighvallen/Voltzeberg Natural Reserve , Tafelberg Nature Reserve , and Eilerts de Haan Nature Park in central Suriname; and the Sipaliwani Nature Reserve on the Brazilian border. In all, 16% of the country's land area is national parks and lakes, according to the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Suriname
Economy of Suriname
Suriname
Suriname
Exports 2012 including artificial corundum

Suriname's democracy gained some strength after the turbulent 1990s, and its economy became more diversified and less dependent on Dutch financial assistance. Bauxite
Bauxite
(aluminium ore) mining continues to be a strong revenue source, and the discovery and exploitation of oil and gold has added substantially to Suriname's economic independence. Agriculture, especially rice and bananas, remains a strong component of the economy, and ecotourism is providing new economic opportunities. More than 80% of Suriname's land-mass consists of unspoiled rain forest; with the establishment of the Central Suriname Nature Reserve in 1998, Suriname
Suriname
signalled its commitment to conservation of this precious resource. The Central Suriname
Suriname
Nature Reserve became a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 2000. Ministry of Finance.

The economy of Suriname
Suriname
is dominated by the bauxite industry, which accounts for more than 15% of GDP and 70% of export earnings. Other main export products include rice , bananas and shrimp . Suriname
Suriname
has recently started exploiting some of its sizeable oil and gold reserves. About a quarter of the people work in the agricultural sector. The Surinamese economy is very dependent on commerce, its main trade partners being the Netherlands, the United States
United States
, Canada
Canada
, and Caribbean
Caribbean
countries, mainly Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
and the islands of the former Netherlands Antilles
Netherlands Antilles
.

After assuming power in the fall of 1996, the Wijdenbosch government ended the structural adjustment program of the previous government, claiming it was unfair to the poorer elements of society. Tax
Tax
revenues fell as old taxes lapsed and the government failed to implement new tax alternatives. By the end of 1997, the allocation of new Dutch development funds was frozen as Surinamese Government relations with the Netherlands
Netherlands
deteriorated. Economic growth slowed in 1998, with decline in the mining , construction , and utility sectors. Rampant government expenditures, poor tax collection, a bloated civil service, and reduced foreign aid in 1999 contributed to the fiscal deficit, estimated at 11% of GDP. The government sought to cover this deficit through monetary expansion, which led to a dramatic increase in inflation . It takes longer on average to register a new business in Suriname
Suriname
than virtually any other country in the world (694 days or about 99 weeks).

* GDP (2010 est.): U.S. $4.794 billion. * Annual growth rate real GDP (2010 est.): 3.5%. * Per capita GDP (2010 est.): U.S. $9,900. * Inflation
Inflation
(2007): 6.4%. * Natural resources: Bauxite, gold, oil, iron ore, other minerals; forests; hydroelectric potential; fish and shrimp. * Agriculture: Products—rice, bananas, timber, palm kernels, coconuts, peanuts, citrus fruits, and forest products. * Industry: Types—alumina, oil, gold, fish, shrimp, lumber.

* Trade:

* Exports (2012): $2.563 billion: alumina, gold, crude oil, lumber, shrimp and fish, rice, bananas. Major consumers: US 26.1%, Belgium 17.6%, UAE 12.1%, Canada
Canada
10.4%, Guyana
Guyana
6.5%, France
France
5.6%, Barbados 4.7%. * Imports (2012): $1.782 billion: capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton, consumer goods. Major suppliers: US 25.8%, Netherlands
Netherlands
15.8%, China
China
9.8%, UAE 7.9%, Antigua and Barbuda 7.3%, Netherlands Antilles
Netherlands Antilles
5.4%, Japan
Japan
4.2%.

DEMOGRAPHICS

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The population of Suriname
Suriname
from 1961 to 2003, (in units of 1000). The slowdown and decline in population growth from ~1969-1985 reflects a mass migration to the Netherlands. Main articles: Demographics of Suriname and Surinamese people

According to the 2012 census, Suriname
Suriname
had a population of 541,638 inhabitants. The Surinamese populace is characterized by its high level of diversity, wherein no particular demographic group constitutes a majority. This is a legacy of centuries of Dutch rule, which entailed successive periods of forced, contracted, or voluntary migration by various nationalities and ethnic groups from around the world.

The largest ethnic group are the East Indians , who form 27 percent of the population. They are descendants of 19th-century contract workers from India
India
, hailing mostly from the modern Indian states of Bihar
Bihar
and Eastern Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
along the Nepali border. Surinamese Maroons , whose ancestors are mostly runaway slaves that fled to the interior, comprise the next largest group at 21.7 percent; they are divided into five main groups: Ndyuka (Aucans), Kwinti , Matawai , Saramaccans and Paramaccans . Surinamese Creoles , mixed people descending from African slaves and mostly Dutch Europeans, form 15.7 percent of the population. Javanese make up 14 percent of the population, and like the East Indians, descend largely from workers contracted from the island of Java
Java
in the former Dutch East Indies (modern Indonesia
Indonesia
). 13.4 percent of the population is of mixed ethnic heritage.

Other sizeable groups include the Chinese , originating from 19th-century contract workers and some recent migration, who number over 40,000 as of 2011 ; Levantines , primarily Maronites from Lebanon , and Jews of Sephardic and Ashkenazi origin, whose center of population was the community of Jodensavanne ; and Brazilians , many of them laborers mining for gold .

A small but influential number of Europeans remain in the country, comprising about 1 percent of the population. They are descended mostly from Dutch 19th-century immigrant farmers, known as "Boeroes " (derived from _boer_, the Dutch word for "farmer"), and to a lesser degree other European groups, such as Portuguese from Madeira
Madeira
. Most Boeroes left after independence in 1975 .

Various indigenous peoples make up 3.7 percent of the population, with the main groups being the Akurio , Arawak
Arawak
, Kalina (Caribs), Tiriyó and Wayana
Wayana
. They live mainly in the districts of Paramaribo
Paramaribo
, Wanica , Para , Marowijne and Sipaliwini .

The vast majority of Suriname's inhabitants (about 90 percent) live in Paramaribo
Paramaribo
or on the coast.

The choice of becoming Surinamese or Dutch citizens in the years leading up to Suriname's independence in 1975 led to a mass migration to the Netherlands. This migration continued in the period immediately after independence and during military rule in the 1980s and for largely economic reasons extended throughout the 1990s. The Surinamese community in the Netherlands
Netherlands
numbered 350,300 as of 2013 ; this is compared to approximately 566,000 Surinamese in Suriname
Suriname
itself.

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in Suriname

RELIGION IN SURINAME, 2012

RELIGION

PERCENT

Christianity
Christianity
  48.4%

Hinduism   22.3%

Islam   13.9%

Other religions   4.7%

Unaffiliated   10.7%

As with ethnicity, Suriname's religious makeup is heterogenous and reflective of the country's multicultural character. According to the 2012 census, around half of the population (48.4 percent) adhered to Christianity
Christianity
, 21.6 percent of the population was Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
, 11.18 percent Pentecostal
Pentecostal
, 11.6 percent Moravian , and the remainder were of various other Protestant
Protestant
denominations.

Hindus formed the second-largest religious group in Suriname, comprising 22.3 percent of the population, the third largest proportion of any country in the Western Hemisphere after Guyana
Guyana
and Trinidad and Tobago. Almost all practitioners of Hinduism are found among the Indo-Surinamese population. Muslims constitute 13.9 percent of the population, which is proportionally the largest in the Americas, and are found mostly among those of Javanese and to a lesser degree those of Indian descent.

Other religious groups include Winti , an Afro-American religion practiced mostly by those of Maroon ancestry; Javanism , a syncretic faith found among some Javanese Surinamese; and various indigenous folk traditions that are often incorporated into one of the larger religions (usually Christianity). A little over 10 percent of the population is irreligious or did not state a religion.

LANGUAGES

Immigrants from India
India
Butcher market in Paramaribo
Paramaribo
with signs written in Dutch .

Dutch is the sole official language, and is the language of education, government, business, and the media. Over 60% of the population speaks Dutch as a mother tongue , and most of the rest of the population speaks it as a second language. In 2004 Suriname
Suriname
became an associate member of the Dutch Language Union . It is the only Dutch-speaking country in South America
South America
as well as the only independent nation in the Americas
Americas
where Dutch is spoken by a majority of the population, and one of the two non-Romance -speaking countries on the continent, the other being English-speaking Guyana
Guyana
.

In Paramaribo, Dutch is the main home language in two-thirds of households. The recognition of _"Surinaams-Nederlands"_ (_"Surinamese Dutch "_) as a national dialect equal to _"Nederlands-Nederlands"_ (_"Dutch Dutch"_) and _"Vlaams-Nederlands"_ (_"Flemish Dutch"_) was expressed in 2009 by the publication of the _Woordenboek Surinaams Nederlands_ (_Surinamese–Dutch Dictionary_). Only in the interior of Suriname
Suriname
is Dutch seldom spoken.

Sranan , a local creole language originally spoken by the creole population group, is the most widely used language in the streets and is often used interchangeably with Dutch depending on the formality of the setting.

Surinamese Hindi or Sarnami, a dialect of Bhojpuri , is the third-most used language, spoken by the descendants of South Asian contract workers from then British India
India
. Javanese is used by the descendants of Javanese contract workers. The Maroon languages, somewhat intelligible with Sranan, include Saramaka , Paramakan , Ndyuka (also called _Aukan_), Kwinti and Matawai . Amerindian languages, spoken by Amerindians, include Carib and Arawak
Arawak
. Hakka and Cantonese are spoken by the descendants of the Chinese contract workers. Mandarin is spoken by some few recent Chinese immigrants. English and Portuguese are also used.

The public discourse about Suriname's languages is a part of an ongoing debate about the country's national identity. The use of the popular Sranan became associated with nationalist politics after its public use by former dictator Dési Bouterse in the 1980s, and groups descended from escaped slaves might resent it. Some propose to change the national language to English, so as to improve links to the Caribbean
Caribbean
and North America
North America
, or to Spanish , as a nod to Suriname's location in South America, although it has no Spanish-speaking neighbours.

LARGEST CITIES

The national capital, Paramaribo, is by far the dominant urban area, accounting for nearly half of Suriname's population and most of its urban residents; indeed, its population is greater than the next nine largest cities combined. Most municipalities are located within the capital's metropolitan area, or along the densely populated coastline.

* v * t * e

Largest cities or towns in Suriname

RANK NAME DISTRICT POP.

Paramaribo
Paramaribo

Lelydorp 1 Paramaribo
Paramaribo
Paramaribo
Paramaribo
223 757

Nieuw Nickerie

Moengo
Moengo

2 Lelydorp Wanica 18 223

3 Nieuw Nickerie Nickerie 13 143

4 Moengo
Moengo
Marowijne 7 074

5 Nieuw Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Commewijne 4 935

6 Mariënburg Commewijne 4 427

7 Wageningen Nickerie 4 145

8 Albina Marowijne 3 985

9 Groningen Saramacca 3 216

10 Brownsweg Brokopondo 2 696

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Suriname See also: Roman Catholicism in Suriname
Suriname
, Music of Suriname , and Hinduism in South America
South America

Owing to the country's multicultural heritage, Suriname
Suriname
celebrates a variety of distinct ethnic and religious festivals.

NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

* 1 January – New Year\'s Day * 6 January – Three Kings Day * January – World Religion Day * February – Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year
* 25 February – Day of the Revolution * March (varies) – Holi
Holi
* March/April – Good Friday * March/April – Easter
Easter
* 1 May – Labour Day * May/June – Ascension day * 5 June – Indian Arrival Day * 1 July – Keti Koti (Emancipation Day - end of slavery) * 8 August – Javanese Arrival Day * 9 August – Indigenous People\'s Day * 20 October – Chinese Arrival day * 25 November – Independence
Independence
Day * 25 December – Christmas
Christmas
* 26 December – Boxing Day

There are several Hindu
Hindu
and Islamic national holidays like Diwali (deepavali ), Phagwa and Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr
and Eid-ul-adha . These holidays do not have specific dates on the Gregorian calendar , as they are based on the Hindu
Hindu
and Islamic calendars , respectively.

There are several holidays which are unique to Suriname. These include the Indian, Javanese and Chinese arrival days. They celebrate the arrival of the first ships with their respective immigrants.

New Year\'s Eve

Pagara (red firecracker ribbons).

New Year's Eve in Suriname
Suriname
is called _Oud jaar_, or "old year". It is during this period that the Surinamese population goes to the city's commercial district to watch "demonstrational fireworks ". The bigger stores invest in these firecrackers and display them out in the streets. Every year the length of them is compared, and high praises are given for the company that has imported the largest ribbon.

These celebrations start at 10 in the morning and finish the next day. The day is usually filled with laughter, dance, music, and drinking. When the night starts, the big street parties are already at full capacity. The most popular fiesta is the one that is held at café \'t Vat in the main tourist district. The parties there stop between 10 and 11 at night, after which people go home to light their pagaras (red-firecracker-ribbons) at midnight. After 12, the parties continue and the streets fill again until daybreak.

SPORTS

The Suriname Olympic Committee is the national governing body for sports in Suriname. The SOC was established in 1959 and now has 17 members: Athletics, Badminton
Badminton
, Basketball, Boxing, Chess, Cycling, Football, Judo, Karate, Shooting, Swimming, Table Tennis , Taekwondo
Taekwondo
, Tennis, Triathlon, Volleyball, and Wrestling.

One of the major sports in Suriname
Suriname
is football . Many Suriname-born players and Dutch-born players of Surinamese descent, like Gerald Vanenburg , Ruud Gullit
Ruud Gullit
, Frank Rijkaard , Edgar Davids , Clarence Seedorf , Patrick Kluivert , Ryan Babel , Aron Winter , Georginio Wijnaldum , Jimmy Floyd Hasselbaink and Jeremain Lens have turned out to play for _Oranje_ . In 1999, Humphrey Mijnals , who played for both Suriname
Suriname
and the Netherlands, was elected Surinamese footballer of the century. Another famous player is André Kamperveen , who captained Suriname
Suriname
in the 1940s and was the first Surinamese to play professionally in the Netherlands.

The most famous international track & field athlete from Suriname
Suriname
is Letitia Vriesde , who won a silver medal at the 1995 World Championships behind Ana Quirot in the 800 metres, the first medal won by a South American female athlete in World Championship competition. In addition, she also won a bronze medal at the 2001 World Championships and won several medals in the 800 and 1500 metres at the Pan-American Games and Central American and Caribbean
Caribbean
Games . Tommy Asinga also received acclaim for winning a bronze medal in the 800 metres at the 1991 Pan American Games .

Swimmer Anthony Nesty is the only Olympic medalist for Suriname. He won gold in the 100-meter butterfly at the 1988 Summer Olympics
1988 Summer Olympics
in Seoul
Seoul
and he won bronze in the same discipline at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona
Barcelona
. Originally from Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
, he now lives in Gainesville, Florida , and is the coach of the University of Florida, mainly coaching distance swimmers.

Cricket
Cricket
is popular in Suriname
Suriname
to some extent, influenced by its popularity in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and in neighbouring Guyana. The Surinaamse Cricket
Cricket
Bond is an associate member of the International Cricket
Cricket
Council (ICC). Suriname
Suriname
and Argentina
Argentina
are the only ICC associates in South America, although Guyana
Guyana
is represented on the West Indies Cricket
Cricket
Board , a full member. The national cricket team was ranked 47th in the world and sixth in the ICC Americas
ICC Americas
region as of June 2014, and competes in the World Cricket
Cricket
League (WCL) and ICC Americas
Americas
Championship . Iris Jharap , born in Paramaribo, played women\'s One Day International matches for the Dutch national side , the only Surinamer to do so.

In the sport of badminton the local heroes are Virgil Soeroredjo Remy Bonjasky also a multiple K-1
K-1
champion; as well as retired female kickboxer, Ilonka Elmont ; notable up-and-comer kickboxer and K-1 fighter, Tyrone Spong ; and former Muay Thai heavyweight champion, Ginty Vrede (deceased), were born in Suriname.

Involving the sport of tennis, historic national champions include Gerard van der Schroeff (men's single national champion for 10 consecutive years between the years 1931–41, plus champion of multiple future titles). Herman Tjin-A-Djie (men's national champion 1941 and 1945, plus men's national double champion for 10 consecutive years with his brother Leo). Leo Tjin-A-Djie (between 1948–57 he was eight-time national champion and men's national double champion for 10 consecutive years with his brother Herman). From Leo spawned the Opa Leo Tjin-A-Djie Tennis tournament. Randolf Tjin-A-Djie was national champion for 1960.

TRANSPORTATION

See also: Transport in Suriname and East-West Link (Suriname)

Suriname
Suriname
and neighboring Guyana
Guyana
are the only two countries on the mainland South American continent that drive on the left. In Guyana, this practice is inherited from United Kingdom
United Kingdom
colonial authorities. Various reasons are given to explain why Suriname
Suriname
drives on the left. It is thought that it is because the first cars imported were from England, but this is yet undocumented. In addition, this view does not say anything about traffic before the automobile era. Another explanation is that the Netherlands, at the time of its colonization of Suriname, used the left-hand side of the road for traffic, and yet another is that Suriname
Suriname
was first colonized by the English. Although the Netherlands
Netherlands
converted to driving to the right at the end of the 18th century, Suriname
Suriname
did not. Writers Peter Kincaid and Ian Watson suggest that in territories such as Suriname
Suriname
where there are no connecting roads to neighbouring countries, there is no external pressure to change the status quo.

AIR

Airlines with departures from Suriname:

* Blue Wing Airlines * Caribbean
Caribbean
Commuter Airways ( Caricom Airways ) _(Surinam Airways Commuter)_ * Gum Air * Surinam Airways _(SLM)_

Airlines with arrivals in Suriname:

* Caribbean
Caribbean
Airlines (Trinidad & Tobago) * Dutch Antilles Express _(DAE)_ (Curaçao) * Insel Air (Curaçao) * Insel Air Aruba (Aruba) * KLM
KLM
(Netherlands) * Surinam Airways _(SLM)_ ( Aruba , Brazil
Brazil
_( Belem
Belem
)_, Curaçao , Guyana
Guyana
_(Georgetown )_, Netherlands
Netherlands
_( Amsterdam
Amsterdam
)_, Trinidad & Tobago _( Port of Spain )_, -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">

* Aero Club Suriname
Suriname
_(ACS)_ – General Aviation Aeroclub * Coronie Aero Farmers _(CAF)_ – Agriculture
Agriculture
Cropdusting * Eagle Air Services _(EAS)_ – Agriculture
Agriculture
Cropdusting * ERK Farms _(ERK)_ – Agriculture
Agriculture
Cropdusting * Hi-Jet Helicopter Services _(HI-Jet)_ Helicopter Charters * Kuyake Aviation _(Part of Caricom Airways)_ – General Aviation Flightschool * Overeem Air Service _(OAS)_ – General Aviation Charters * Pegasus Air Service _(PAS)_ – Helicopter Charters * Suriname
Suriname
Air Force / Surinaamse Luchtmacht _(SAF / LUMA)_ – Military Aviation Surinam Air Force * Surinam Sky Farmers _(SSF)_ – Agriculture
Agriculture
Cropdusting * Surinaamse Medische Zendings Vliegdienst _(MAF – Mission Aviation Fellowship)_ – General Aviation Missionary * Vortex Aviation Suriname
Suriname
_(VAS)_ – General Aviation Maintenance "> The Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul in Paramaribo
Paramaribo

The Jules Wijdenbosch Bridge
Bridge
is a bridge over the river Suriname between Paramaribo
Paramaribo
and Meerzorg in the Commewijne district. The bridge was built during the tenure of President Jules Albert Wijdenbosch (1996–2000) and was completed in 2000. The bridge is 52 metres (171 ft) high, and 1,504 metres (4,934 ft) long. It connects Paramaribo with Commewijne, a connection which previously could only be made by ferry. The purpose of the bridge was to facilitate and promote the development of the eastern part of Suriname. The bridge consists of two lanes (one lane each way) and is not accessible to pedestrians.

The construction of the Sts. Peter and Paul Cathedral started on 13 January 1883. Before it became a cathedral it was a theatre. The theatre was built in 1809 and burned down in 1820.

Suriname
Suriname
is one of the few countries in the world where a synagogue is located next to a mosque . The two buildings are located next to each other in the centre of Paramaribo
Paramaribo
and have been known to share a parking facility during their respective religious rites, should they happen to coincide with one another.

A relatively new landmark is the Hindu
Hindu
Arya Dewaker temple in the Johan Adolf Pengelstraat in Wanica , Paramaribo, which was inaugurated in 2001. A special characteristic of the temple is that it does not have images of the Hindu
Hindu
divinities, as they are forbidden in the Arya Samaj , the Hindu
Hindu
movement to which the people who built the temple belong. Instead, the building is covered by many texts derived from the Vedas and other Hindu
Hindu
scriptures. The beautiful architecture makes the temple a tourist attraction.

GALLERY

*

Arya Dewaker Temple. *

Jules Wijdenbosch Bridge
Bridge
. *

Mosque next to a synagogue in Paramaribo. *

Palmentuin (Garden of Palms).

SEE ALSO

* Suriname
Suriname
portal * South America
South America
portal * Caribbean
Caribbean
Community portal

* Index of Suriname-related articles * Outline of Suriname * * * *

NOTES

* ^ Each of French Guiana
French Guiana
and Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
, while less extensive and populous, are respectively an overseas department and region of France
France
and an overseas territory of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
.

REFERENCES

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Suriname
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Suriname
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Suriname
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Suriname
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Suriname
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* ^ "Het debuut van Humphrey Mijnals". Olympisch Stadion. * ^ Iris Jharap player profile and statistics – ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 1 December 2014. Dick Vierling, also born in Paramaribo, played for the Netherlands
Netherlands
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– Overheid – Reacties op goedkeuring R-PP voorstel Suriname
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(1). Gov .sr (22 March 2013). Retrieved 12 July 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Guardians of the Forest: Indigenous Peoples Take Action to Conserve Nearly Half of Suriname", 5 March 2015, Press Release, Conservation International; accessed 6 October 2016 * ^ "SMEsport". SMEsport. Retrieved 13 July 2014. * ^ Development of Suriname. DevSur. Retrieved 12 July 2013. * ^ "Starnieuws". Starnieuws. * ^ " Suriname
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Nieuws". Suriname
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Nieuws. * ^ Press Freedom Index 2011–2012 – Reporters Without Borders. Reports Without Borders. Retrieved 15 August 2012. * ^ "Tonka-eiland Saramaccaans kennis-centrum en Eco-toeristisch paradijs". Tonka-Eiland. 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2012. * ^ Brouns, Rachelle (February 2011). "People in the beating heart of the Amazon" (PDF). Radboud university Nijmegen. Retrieved 17 December 2011. * ^ "Wyndham Garden Paramaribo". Wyndham Hotels and Resorts, LLC. 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2012.

FURTHER READING

* Box, Ben, _Footprint Focus Guide: Guyana, Guyane padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutSURINAMEat's sister projects

* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Learning resources from Wikiversity

* "Suriname". The World Factbook
The World Factbook
_. Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
. * Suriname
Suriname
at _UCB Libraries GovPubs_. * Suriname
Suriname
from the BBC News
BBC News
. * Dictionaries of Suriname
Suriname
languages * Suriname
Suriname
at DMOZ * Wikimedia Atlas of Suriname * Geographic data related to Suriname
Suriname
at OpenStreetMap
OpenStreetMap
* Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection * Key Development Forecasts for Suriname
Suriname
from International Futures . * Materials on Suriname
Suriname
in the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC)

Websites of the government, President and National Assembly

* (in Dutch) Website of the President of the Republic
Republic
of Suriname * (in Dutch) Website of the Government of the Republic
Republic
of Suriname * (in Dutch) Website of the National Assembly of the Republic
Republic
of Suriname

* v * t * e

Suriname
Suriname
articles

HISTORY

* Colony of Surinam

* Society of Suriname
Society of Suriname

* Within the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
* 1980 coup d\'état * Interior War (1986–1992)

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities * Environmental issues * Fauna * Flora * National parks * World Heritage Sites

POLITICS

* Administrative divisions * Constitution * Elections * Foreign relations * Human rights * Law enforcement * Military * National Assembly * Political parties * President * Supreme Court

ECONOMY

* Agriculture
Agriculture
* Companies * Dollar (currency) * Energy * International rankings * Science and technology

* Telecommunications

* Internet domain

* Transport

SOCIETY

* Crime * Demographics * Education * Healthcare * Languages

* People

* list * indigenous

* Religion

CULTURE

* Anthem * Coat of arms * Cuisine * Flag * Literature * Music * Public holidays * Sport

* Outline * Index

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

GEOGRAPHIC LOCALE

* v * t * e

Countries and dependencies of South America
South America

Sovereign states

ENTIRE

* Argentina
Argentina
* Bolivia
Bolivia
* Brazil
Brazil
* Chile
Chile
* Colombia
Colombia
* Ecuador
Ecuador
* Guyana
Guyana
* Paraguay
Paraguay
* Peru
Peru
* Suriname * Uruguay
Uruguay
* Venezuela
Venezuela

IN PART

* France
France

* French Guiana
French Guiana

DEPENDENCIES

* Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
/ South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

* UK

* v * t * e

The Guianas

CURRENT

* Guayana

* Esquiba

* Guyana
Guyana
* Suriname * French Guiana
French Guiana
* Amapá

FORMER

* British Guiana
British Guiana
* Counani * Free Counani * Trinidad-Guayana

* Dutch Guiana

* Pre-1667 * Surinam * Suriname
Suriname

INTERNATIONAL MEMBERSHIP

* v * t * e

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)

MEMBERS

* Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Albania
Albania
* Algeria
Algeria
* Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Bahrain
Bahrain
* Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* Benin
Benin
* Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
* Brunei
Brunei
* Cameroon
Cameroon
* Chad
Chad
* Comoros * Djibouti
Djibouti
* Egypt
Egypt
* Gabon
Gabon
* Gambia * Guinea
Guinea
* Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
* Guyana
Guyana
* Indonesia
Indonesia
* Iran
Iran
* Iraq
Iraq
* Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
* Jordan
Jordan
* Kuwait
Kuwait
* Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
* Lebanon
Lebanon
* Libya
Libya
* Maldives
Maldives
* Malaysia
Malaysia
* Mali
Mali
* Mauritania
Mauritania
* Morocco
Morocco
* Mozambique
Mozambique
* Niger
Niger
* Nigeria
Nigeria
* Oman
Oman
* Pakistan
Pakistan
* Palestine * Qatar
Qatar
* Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* Senegal
Senegal
* Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
* Somalia
Somalia
* Sudan
Sudan
* Suriname * Tajikistan
Tajikistan
* Turkey
Turkey
* Tunisia
Tunisia
* Togo
Togo
* Turkmenistan * Uganda
Uganda
* Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
* United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
* Yemen
Yemen

SUSPENDED

* Syria
Syria

OBSERVERS

Countries and territories

* Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
* Central African Republic
Republic
* Northern Cyprus 1 * Russia
Russia
* Thailand
Thailand

Muslim communities

* Moro National Liberation Front

International organizations

* Economic Cooperation Organization * African Union
African Union
* Arab League * Non-Aligned Movement * United Nations
United Nations

* 1 As the "Turkish Cypriot State".

* v * t * e

Union of South American Nations

MEMBER STATES

* Argentina
Argentina
* Bolivia
Bolivia
* Brazil
Brazil
* Chile
Chile
* Colombia
Colombia
* Ecuador
Ecuador
* Guyana
Guyana
* Paraguay
Paraguay
* Peru
Peru
* Suriname * Uruguay
Uruguay
* Venezuela
Venezuela
* _Proposed:_ Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago

SUMMITS

* 2004 * 2008 * 2009 Ecuador
Ecuador
* 2009 Argentina
Argentina
* 2010 * 2011 * 2012 * 2013 * 2014

TOPICS

* Cusco Declaration * Constitutive Treaty * President Pro Tempore * Secretary General * Bank of the South * South American Parliament * Initiative for Infrastructure Integration of South America
South America
* Mercosur
Mercosur
* Andean Community

* v * t * e

Caribbean
Caribbean
Community (CARICOM)

Secretariat (Secretary-General )

MEMBERS

* Antigua and Barbuda * Bahamas 1 * Barbados
Barbados
* Belize
Belize
* Dominica
Dominica
* Grenada * Guyana
Guyana
* Haiti
Haiti
1 * Jamaica
Jamaica
* Montserrat
Montserrat
2 * St. Kitts and Nevis * St. Lucia * St. Vincent and the Grenadines * Suriname * Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS

* Anguilla
Anguilla
* Bermuda
Bermuda
* British Virgin Islands * Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
* Turks and Caicos Islands

OBSERVERS

* Aruba * Colombia
Colombia
* Curaçao * Dominican Republic
Republic
* Mexico
Mexico
* Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
* Sint Maarten * Venezuela
Venezuela

INSTITUTIONS

* Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) * Court of Justice (CCJ) * Disaster Emergency Management (CDEMA) * Examinations Council (CXC) * Meteorological Institute (CMI) * Meteorological Organisation (CMO) * Public Health Agency (CARPHA) * Single Market and Economy (CSME)

RELATED ORGANIZATIONS

* CARIFORUM * Organisation of Eastern Caribbean
Caribbean
States (OECS)

* 1 Member of the Community but not of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) * 2 British overseas territory awaiting entrustment to join the CSME

* v * t * e

Organization of American States (OAS)

MEMBERS

* Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina
Argentina
* Barbados
Barbados
* Brazil
Brazil
* Belize
Belize
* Bahamas * Bolivia
Bolivia
* Canada
Canada
* Chile
Chile
* Colombia
Colombia
* Costa Rica
Costa Rica
* Dominica
Dominica
* Dominican Republic
Republic
* Ecuador
Ecuador
* El Salvador
El Salvador
* Grenada * Guatemala
Guatemala
* Guyana
Guyana
* Haiti
Haiti
* Honduras
Honduras
* Jamaica
Jamaica
* Mexico
Mexico
* Nicaragua
Nicaragua
* Panama
Panama
* Paraguay
Paraguay
* Peru
Peru
* St. Lucia * St. Vincent and the Grenadines * St. Kitts and Nevis * Suriname * Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
* United States
United States
* Uruguay
Uruguay

RENOUNCED

* Venezuela
Venezuela

SUSPENDED

* Cuba
Cuba

ORGANIZATION

* Secretariat for Political Affairs * Secretariat for Multidimensional Security * General Assembly * Inter-American Commission of Women * Inter-American Commission on Human Rights * Inter-American Court of Human Rights * Pan American Union Building

POLITICS

* Charter * Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance * American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man * American Convention on Human Rights * Pan-American Conference * Summits of the Americas

* Americas
Americas
* Pan American Sports Organization

* v * t * e

Dutch Language Union

MEMBERS

* Belgium
Belgium
( Flanders
Flanders
) * Netherlands
Netherlands
* Suriname

CANDIDATES

* Aruba ( Netherlands Antilles
Netherlands Antilles
) * Curaçao ( Netherlands Antilles
Netherlands Antilles
) * Sint Maarten ( Netherlands Antilles
Netherlands Antilles
)

PARTNERS

* Indonesia
Indonesia
* South Africa
South Africa

RELATED

* Dutch language * Dutch orthography
Dutch orthography
* Dutch dictionary * Flemish language * Dutch Empire * Afrikaans

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 128955856 * LCCN : n79022986 * ISNI : 0000 0004 0401 6456 * GND : 4058664-9 * SUDOC : 087396521 * BNF : cb11882739s (data) * NDL : 00571742

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Suriname
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