Surabaya (Indonesian pronunciation: [suraˈbaja]) (formerly
Dutch: Soerabaja) is a port city and the capital of
East Java (Jawa
Timur) province of Indonesia. It is one of the earliest port cities in
Southeast Asia. Located on northeastern
Java on the
Madura Strait, it
is the second-largest-city in Indonesia. As of the 2015 census, the
city had a population over 3.4 million, approximately 8 million in the
metropolitan area, and the extended metropolitan area, which is known
Gerbangkertosusila is home for more than 12 million inhabitants.
During 18th and 19th centuries,
Surabaya was the largest city in Dutch
East Indies, larger than Batavia (at present Jakarta) and the center
of trading in the nation, which was then a competitor of
Hong Kong. Today the city remains one of the important financial
hubs of the Indonesian archipelago, arguably second only to Jakarta,
Port of Tanjung Perak
Port of Tanjung Perak is Indonesia's second busiest seaport.
1.2 Early history
1.3 Pre-colonial era
1.4 Colonial era
1.5 Independence era
5.2 Business districts
6.2 Important landmarks
6.3 Military establishment
6.4.5 Public transport
6.5 Suramadu Bridge
8.1 Universities and post-secondary institutions
8.2 Primary and secondary schools
10 Twin towns – sister cities
12 See also
14 Works cited
15 External links
Fighting shark and crocodile, the emblem of
Surabaya city applied
since colonial times, derived from local folk etymology
Surabaya alludes to a prophecy of Jayabaya, a 12th-century psychic
king of Kediri Kingdom, foreseeing a fight between a giant white shark
and a giant white crocodile taking place in the area, which is
sometimes interpreted as foretelling the Mongol invasion of Java, a
major conflict between the forces of Kublai Khan, Mongol ruler of
China, and those of Raden Wijaya's
Majapahit in 1293. The two
animals are now used as the city's symbol, with the two facing and
circling each other, as depicted in a statue appropriately located
near the entrance to the city zoo.
Alternate derivations proliferate: from the Javanese "sura ing baya",
meaning "bravely facing danger"; or from the use of "surya" to
refer to the sun. Some people consider Jayabaya's prophecy as being
about the great war between native Surabayan people and foreign
invaders at the start of the war of independence in 1945. Another
story tells of two heroes who fought each other in order to be the
king of the city. The two heroes were named Sura and Baya. These folk
etymologies, though embraced enthusiastically by its people and city
leaders, are unverifiable.
Dutch residenthuis (Resident House) along the water in Surabaya
Red Bridge area from the air in the 1920s.
Surabaya from an 1897 English travel-guide
The Kingdom of
Janggala was one of the two Javanese kingdoms that was
formed in 1045 when
Airlangga abdicated his throne in favour of his
two sons. The earliest historical srecord of
Surabaya was in the 1225
Zhu fan zhi
Zhu fan zhi written by Zhao Rugua, in which it was called
Jung-ya-lu. The name
Janggala was probably originated from the name
"Hujung Galuh" (Old Javanese lit: "Cape Diamond" or "Cape Gemstone"),
or "Jung-ya-lu" according to Chinese source. Hujung Galuh was located
on the estuarine of
Brantas River and today is the part of modern
Surabaya city and
By the 14th to 15th century,
Surabaya seems to be one of Majapahit
ports or coastal settlements, together with Tuban, Gresik, and Hujung
Ma Huan documented the early fifteenth-century visit
of Zheng He's treasure ships in his 1433 book Yingya Shenglan: "after
traveling south for more than twenty li, the ship reached Sulumayi,
whose foreign name is Surabaya. At the estuary, the outflowing water
Ma Huan visited
Java during Zheng He's 4th expedition in the 1413,
during the reign of
Majapahit king Wikramawardhana. He describes his
Majapahit capital, first he arrived to the port of Tu-pan
(Tuban) where he saw large numbers of Chinese settlers migrated from
Guangdong and Chou Chang. Then he sailed east to thriving new trading
town of Ko-erh-hsi (Gresik), Su-pa-erh-ya (Surabaya), and then sailing
inland into the river by smaller boat to southwest until reached the
Brantas river port of Chang-ku (Changgu). Continued travel by land to
southwest he arrived in Man-che-po-I (Majapahit), where the Javanese
By late 15th century,
Islam began to take its root in Surabaya. The
settlement of Ampel Denta, located around
Ampel Mosque in today Ampel
sub-district, Semampir district, north Surabaya, was established by a
charismatic Islamic proselytizer Sunan Ampel.
In the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries,
Surabaya grew to be a
duchy, a major political and military power in eastern Java. The
Tomé Pires mentioned that a Muslim lord was in
Surabaya in 1513 though likely still a vassal of the
Hindu–Buddhist Majapahit. At that time,
Surabaya was already a
major trading port, owing to its location on the River Brantas
delta and on the trade route between
Malacca and the
Spice Islands via
Java Sea. During the decline of Majapahit, the lord of
Surabaya resisted the rise of the Demak Sultanate, and only submitted
to its rule in 1530.
Surabaya became independent after the
death of Sultan Trenggana of Demak in 1546.
Duchy of Surabaya entered a conflict with, and was later captured
by, the more powerful
Sultanate of Mataram
Sultanate of Mataram in 1625 under Sultan
Agung.:31 It was one of Mataram's fiercest campaigns, in which
they had to conquer Surabaya's allies, Sukadana and Madura, and to lay
siege to the city before capturing it. With this conquest, Mataram
then controlled almost the whole of Java, with the exception of the
Sultanate of Banten
Sultanate of Banten and the Dutch settlement of Batavia.:31
Surabaya in the 1930s: subsequently the Jembatan Merah
Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company took the city over from a
weakened Mataram in November 1743. In consolidating its rule over
Surabaya and, in time, the rest of East Java, the Dutch collaborated
with leading regional magnates, including Ngabehi Soero Pernollo
(1720–1776), his brother Han Bwee Kong, Kapitein der Chinezen
(1727–1778) and the latter's son, Han Chan Piet, Majoor der Chinezen
(1759–1827), all from the powerful Han family of Lasem.
In the 18th and 19th centuries,
Surabaya was the largest city in Dutch
Surabaya became a major trading center under the Dutch
colonial government, and hosted the largest naval base in the colony.
Surabaya was also the largest city in the colony serving as the center
of Java's plantation economy, industry and were supported by its
natural harbor. In 1920, a census recorded that Batavia had become
the largest city. In 1917, a revolt occurred among the soldiers and
sailors of Surabaya, led by the Indies Social Democratic Association.
The revolt was firmly crushed and the insurgents given harsh
The burnt-out car of Brigadier Mallaby on the spot where he was killed
by pro-independence Indonesian soldiers during the Battle of Surabaya
on 31 October 1945
Japan occupied the city in 1942, as part of the occupation of
Indonesia, and it was bombed by the Allies in 1944. After Japanese
surrender at the end of World War II
Surabaya was seized by Indonesian
nationalists. The young nation soon came into conflict with the
British, who had become caretakers of the Dutch colony after the
surrender of the Japanese.
The Battle of Surabaya, one of the well-known battles of the
Indonesian revolution, started after the Arek-Arek Suroboyo (Teenagers
of Surabaya) assassinated the British Brigadier Mallaby on October 30,
1945 near Jembatan Merah (the "Red Bridge"), allegedly with a stray
bullet. The Allies gave an ultimatum to the Republicans inside the
city to surrender, but they refused. The ensuing battle, which cost
thousands of lives, took place on November 10, which Indonesians
subsequently celebrate as Hari Pahlawan (Heroes' Day). The incident of
the red-white flag (the
Dutch flag at the top of Yamato Hotel's tower
that was torn into the Indonesian red-white flag) by
Bung Tomo is also
recorded as a heroic feat during the struggle of this city.
The city is known as Kota Pahlawan "city of heroes" due to the
importance of the
Battle of Surabaya
Battle of Surabaya in galvanizing Indonesian and
international support for
Indonesian independence during the
Indonesian National Revolution.
In June 2011,
Surabaya received the Adipura Kencana Award as number
one among 20 cities in Indonesia.
Surabaya was reported by a
Singaporean as being clean and green.
Outskirt areas of Surabaya
Surabaya locates on the northern coast of
East Java province. It is
mostly lowlands with a river estuary of Kalimas, one of two branches
of Brantas River.
Surabaya city borders
Madura Strait in the north and
Sidoarjo Regency in the south, and
Gresik Regency in the west.
The regencies surrounding
Lamongan Regency to the northwest
Gresik Regency to the west
Bangkalan Regency to the northeast (on
Sidoarjo Regency to the south, and
Jombang Regency to the southwest
Like many other large Indonesian metropolises, many residents reside
outside the city limits in a metropolitan area called
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification system,
Surabaya features a
tropical wet and dry climate (Aw), with distinct wet and dry seasons.
The city's wet season runs from November through June, while the dry
season covers the remaining five months. Unlike a number of cities and
regions with a tropical wet and dry climate, average high and low
temperatures are very consistent throughout the course of the year,
with an average high temperature of around 31 degrees Celsius and
average low temperatures of around 26 degrees Celsius.
Climate data for Surabaya
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Source: World Meteorological Organization
Wind Speed and Humidity data for Surabaya
Maximum Wind Speed (km/h)
Average Wind Speed (km/h)
Minimum Wind Speed (km/h)
Maximum Humidity (%)
Average Humidity (%)
Minimum Humidity (%)
The city has its own local government and legislative body. The mayor
and members of representatives are locally elected by popular vote for
a 5-year term.The city government enjoys greater decentralization of
affairs than the provincial body, such as the provision of public
schools, public health facilities and public transportation. Current
Mayor of the city is Tri Rismaharini, who is the first female mayor in
Surabaya and has led
Surabaya to achieve multiple regional, national
and international awards since her first term as
Surabaya Mayor in
2010. In 2012
Surabaya was awarded the “ASEAN Environmentally
Sustainable City Award”. Besides Mayor and Deputy Mayor, there is
Surabaya Municipal People's Representative Council, which is a
legislative body of 50 council members directly elected by the people
in legislative elections every five years.
Surabaya is divided into 31 kecamatan (districts), and 161
urban villages. The dirtricts are grouped into 5 areas of Central,
North, South, East and West. The districts are as follows,
Karang Pilang (72,469)
Tenggilis Mejoyo (72,467)
Gunung Anyar (62,120)
Dukuh Pakis (64,249)
Bulak, Surabya (37,214)
Pabean Cantian (69,423)
Benowo, Surabya (54,133)
Surabaya is the second most populous city in
Indonesia with 3,457,409
recorded in the chartered city limits (kota) in the 2015 census.
With the extended metropolitan development area called
Gerbangkertosusila (derived from
Gresik-Bangkalan-Mojokerto-Surabaya-Sidoarjo-Lamongan) adding more
than twelve million inhabitants in several cities and approximately 50
districts spread over non-contiguous urban areas including Gresik,
Pasuruan regencies. Though central government
Indonesia recognizes only the metropolitan area (Surabaya, Gresik
and Sidarjo) as Greater
Surabaya Raya) with a
population of 8,319,229 (2015), making
Surabaya now the second largest
metropolitan area in Indonesia. The city is highly urbanized, with
industries centralized in the city, and contains slums. As the main
education center, the city is also home for students from around
Surabaya is an old city that has expanded over time, and its
population continues to grow at approximately 2.2% per year. In recent
years, more people have moved to
Surabaya from nearby suburbs and
villages in East Java
Kya-Kya or Kembang Jepun, The city's Chinatown
Javanese people are the majority in Surabaya, with Chinese
Indian Indonesians and ethnic Madurese being significant
minorities in the city.
Surabaya also has ethnic populations from
other parts of Indonesia: Sundanese, Minang, Batak, Banjar, Balinese,
Most citizens speak a dialect of Indonesian/Javanese called
Suroboyoan, a sub-dialect of the Arekan dialect. A stereotype of this
dialect concerns equality and directness in speech. The usage of
register is less strict than the Central
Java dialect. The Suroboyoan
dialect is a mixture of both Bahasa
Indonesia and Javanese, also with
some significant influence from foreign languages such as Madurese
etc., which has formed a special dialect known as Suroboyoan. The
Suroboyoan dialect is actively promoted in local media, such as in
local TV shows, radio, newspapers and traditional dramas called
Al-Akbar National Mosque
Although around 85% of citizens in
Surabaya adhere to Sunni Islam,
other major religions include
Christianity (Roman Catholicism,
Protestantism, and Orthodox), of whom the majority are Roman
Catholics. The influence of
Hinduism is strong in basic Surabayan
culture, but only a minority of the population adheres to Hinduism
mostly among the ethnic Indian minority. There is also significant
Chinese Indonesians who adhere to
Confucianism, and a small community of Dutch Jews who adhere to
The city had an influential role as a major Islamic center in Java
Wali Sanga era. The prominent and honored Islamic figure in
Sunan Ampel (Raden Rahmat). His tomb is a sacred
religious site in the city and is visited by Surabayans and pilgrims
from different parts of Indonesia. The largest Muslim organization in
Nahdlatul Ulama was established in
Surabaya on 26 January
Al-Akbar Mosque is the largest mosque in Surabaya.
Tian Ti Pagoda
Christianity as a whole in
Surabaya is mainly practised by Chinese
Indonesians as well as native Javanese, Bataks and
Ambonese who attend
either a Roman Catholic or Protestant church. A minority of Javanese
practice at the Gereja Kejawen, a branch of native Christianity.There
are around 15 churches in Surabaya, which vary in size. Gereja Katolik
Kelahiran Santa Perawan Maria (The Church of The Nativity of Blessed
Virgin Mary), also known as Gereja Kepanjen, built in 1815 as the
first church in
Surabaya and one of the oldest churches in Indonesia.
The main Orthodox Church in Indonesia, St Nikolas Church, is also
based in Surabaya. The
Orthodox Christian Center
Surabaya was opened
on 15 October 2008.
Once the major religion in
Surabaya and across the archipelago during
Hinduism played a major role on traditional
Surabayan culture. Small Hindu communities still exist in Surabaya
most commonly in the eastern sections of the city.
Surabaya was the
location of the only synagogue in Java, but it rarely obtained a
minyan (quorum). The synagogue was destroyed in protests and riots
related to Palestine-Israeli conflict. There is still
a Jewish cemetery in the city.
Since the early 1900s,
Surabaya has been one of the most important and
busiest trading city ports in Asia. Principal exports from the port,
include sugar, tobacco and coffee. Its rich history as a trading port
has led to a strong financial infrastructure with modern economic
institutions such as banks, insurance and sound export-import
companies. The economy is influenced by the recent growth in foreign
industries and the completion of the Suramadu Bridge. The high
potential and economic activities make the city an attractive
destination to foreign investors. The city is home to a large
shipyard, and numerous specialized naval schools.
As the provincial capital,
Surabaya has a number of offices and
business centers. As a metropolitan city,
Surabaya became the center
of economic, financial and business activities in
East Java and
Surabaya is the second largest port city in Indonesia
after Jakarta. As a trading center,
Surabaya is not only a trade
East Java but also facilitates areas in Central Java,
Kalimantan and Eastern Indonesia. Surabaya's strategic location is
almost in the center of
Indonesia and just south of Asia makes it one
of the important hubs for trading activities in Southeast Asia.
Surabaya is currently in the process of building high rise
skyscrapers, including apartments, condominiums, and hotels, by way of
attracting foreign capital.
Surabaya and the surrounding area is
undergoing the most rapidly growing economic development in East Java
and one of the most advanced in Indonesia. The city is also one of the
most important cities in supporting Indonesia's economy.
Most of the population is engaged in services, industry and trade.
Surabaya is a fast growing trading center. Major industries include
shipbuilding, heavy equipment, food processing and agriculture,
electronics, home furnishings, and handicrafts. Many major
multinational companies are based in Surabaya, such as PT Sampoerna
Tbk, Maspion, Wing's Group, Unilever Indonesia, Pakuwon Group, Jawa
Pos Group and PT PAL Indonesia.
The area in between Jalan Basuki Rachmat, Jalan Embong Malang, and
Jalan Bubutan has grown as a business center and has turned into one
of the main heart of business and trade activities in Surabaya. Some
of the important buildings in this area include Wisma BRI Surabaya,
Hotel Bumi Surabaya, Wisma Dharmala Surabaya, The Peak Residence,
Sheraton Hotel etc.
Another cluster around Jalan Mayjend Sungkono, Jalan Adityawarman,
Jalan HR Muhammad, and Jalan Bukit Darmo has grown as a new business
center of the city. This area has now grown as one of the most rapidly
growing commercial and business centers in East Java, with high rise
buildings. Some of the tallest buildings in
Surabaya located in this
area, such as Adhiwangsa Apartment, Waterplace Residence, Puri
Matahari, Beverly Park Apartment, The Via & The Vue Apartment,
Ciputra World Hotel, Puncak Permai Apartment, Rich Palace Hotel, and
Surabaya has plenty of shopping centers like other major cities of
Indonesia, ranging from traditional markets to most modern shopping
malls. Outlets of local and international brands have presence in
modern shopping malls. There are many dedicated markets for electronic
goods, gadgets and computer hardware.
Some important shopping malls of the city are:
Ciputra World Surabaya
City of Tomorrow
East Coast Center and Food Festival
Jembatan Merah Plaza
Pakuwon Trade Center
Pasar Atom Mall
Surabaya Town Square
World Trade Center Surabaya.
See also: List of tallest buildings in Surabaya
Cheng Hoo (Zheng He) Mosque, Surabaya
Majapahit Hotel building is a cultural heritage of Surabaya
Surabaya is a mixture of colonial, Asian, Javanese,
modern, and post-modern influences. There are still many colonial era
relics still standing today, such as Hotel
Office. As a relatively old city in
Indonesia and Southeast Asia, most
colonial buildings in
Surabaya were built around the 17th century to
early 20th century. These buildings have influence of Dutch / European
style in the Middle Ages. Before the Second World War, there were many
shop houses in the old part of the city, mostly of two storey. These
shop houses have influence of European and Chinese traditions.
Although some have been dismantled for new construction, there are
still many old buildings that are preserved as cultural heritage and
city icons, which are around the area of Kembang Jepun Street, Karet
Street, Gula Street, Slompretan Street, and Rajawali Street.
After independence of Indonesia, the center of Surabaya's
architectural development was concentrated only in the area of
Jembatan Merah, and its surroundings. In the late 1990s and early
2000s, modern and post-modern style buildings were increasingly
emerging in Surabaya. Along with the economic development, such
buildings continue to grow in
Surabaya until now. In the era of 2010s,
Surabaya has become a region for high-rise buildings in East Java,
such as The Peak Residence and One Icon Residence (200 meters).
Surabaya Zoo) opened in 1916. It was the
first in the world to have successfully bred orangutans in captivity.
Zheng He Mosque, a recently built mosque, one of the unique mosques
with Chinese-style architecture in Indonesia. Dedicated to the Hui
Chinese diplomat, Zheng He.
Al-Akbar Mosque, the largest mosque in Jawa Timur.
Gereja Katolik Kelahiran Santa Perawan Maria, one of the first
churches to be built in Indonesia, and the first one ever built in
Hero monument, a 41 metres (135 ft) high monument, is the main
Surabaya and commemorates the heroes of the revolutionary
struggle. There is a museum on location as well, exhibiting reminders
of the struggle for independence.
Museum Nahdlatul Ulama, the resource center of the culture and history
of Nahdlatul Ulama, an independent Islamic religious organization.
Museum Bank Indonesia, a bank museum occupying the former De Javasche
Bank built in 1904.
House of Sampoerna, a museum devoted to the history of clove cigarette
(kretek) manufacturing in Indonesia, housed in Dutch colonial
buildings dating to 1864.
Jalesveva Jayamahe Monument, a large, admiral-like statue which
commemorates the Indonesian Navy.
Monkasel, abbreviated from Monumen Kapal Selam (
 A Soviet-built
Whiskey class submarine
Whiskey class submarine (named KRI Pasopati
(410)), first launched in 1952, served in the
Indonesian Navy from
1962 until decommissioned in 1990. After her decommissioning,
Pasopati was dismantled and transferred to its present site in 1996.
The submarine was reassembled on the current site and opened as a
museum and tourist attraction in 1998.
Kenjeran Beach, located in the eastern of Surabaya, which also housed
Sanggar Agung, a Chinese temple build over the sea.
Market of the Chinese Tomb, last resting place of Han Bwee Kong,
Kapitein der Chinezen, magnate, mandarin and landlord in
East Java, and patriarch of the patrician Han family of Lasem 
Han Ancestral Hall, a historic house that serves as a memorial
temple for the ancestors of the Han family of Lasem
Tomb of Sunan Ampel
The Eastern Fleet is headquartered here. It is one of two fleets in
the Indonesian Navy. Its maritime heritage is also represented in a
form of KRI Pasopati
Submarine Monument, a retired Russian Whiskey
Ujung passenger Port
Surabaya is supported by land and sea infrastructure
serving local, regional, and international journeys. Air transport is
located at Juanda Airport, Sedati, Sidoarjo). Intracity transport is
primarily by motor vehicles, motorcycles and taxis with limited public
bus transport available.
Surabaya is also a transit city between
Bali for ground transportation. Another bus route is
Jakarta and the neighboring island of Madura.
Juanda International Airport
Juanda International Airport is a passenger and cargo
airport which also serves as Surabaya's Navy Airbase, operated by the
TNI-AL (Indonesian Navy) and located just outside Surabaya, on the
outskirts of Sidoarjo. This airport has served
Surabaya for many
years, and currently has 2 terminals, with domestic flights served
from Terminal 1 and all international flights and Garuda Indonesia's
domestic flights serviced from Terminal 2. Although considered smaller
than Kuala Namu International Airport in
Medan and Ngurah Rai
International Airport in Denpasar, Bali, Juanda International Airport
is still regarded as Indonesia's second busiest airport right after
Jakarta's Soekarno Hatta International Airport
See also: Port of Tanjung Perak
Port of Tanjung Perak
Port of Tanjung Perak is the trading port in
East Java and is one of
the busiest ports in the country. It is the second largest port of
trade, container and passenger in
Indonesia after the Port of Tanjung
Priok in Jakarta. There is also Teluk Lamong Port Terminal, which is
the main buffer terminal terminal of Tanjung Perak Port. The port
terminal of Lamong Bay is the first green port in
Indonesia and is one
of the most sophisticated port terminals in the world where the entire
operating system is automated.
Further information: Commuter Rail in Surabaya
The city has three major train stations, being
Surabaya Kota (also
known as Semut), Pasar Turi, and Gubeng. Surabaya's main train station
is Pasar Turi Station. The
Argo Bromo Anggrek
Argo Bromo Anggrek operated by PT Kereta
Api (Indonesia's main rail operator) connects
Surabaya from this
Gambir Station (Jakarta). Both economy and executive class
trains are served to and from Surabaya.
pedicabs (becak) in the street in Surabaya
The main bus terminal is Terminal Purabaya (located in Bungurasih,
Waru, Sidoarjo), the other major terminal is Osowilangon in Tambak,
There are various kinds of local transport including: taxi-cabs,
shuttle bus, city bus, Angguna, pedicab and commuter trains. Online
transportation services like GO-JEK, Uber, and Grab are also available
Suramadu Bridge, The longest bridge in Indonesia
Suramadu Bridge (derived from Surabaya-Madura) connects Surabaya
Madura Island over the
Madura Strait. A 16 kilometres
(9.9 mi) highway has been proposed to be built from the Suramadu
Madura International Seaport-City in Pernajuh village, Kocah
Madura at a cost of approximately Rp. 60 billion
(US$7 billion). This container port was built to ease the burden on
Surabaya's overloaded Tanjung Perak Port.
The city has one professional football club, Persebaya. The club has
won the Indonesian Premier Division three times–twice when the
division was the first tier and once as the second tier. Fans refer to
themselves as Bonek, an abbreviation for Bondo Nekat (which translates
as "equipped by bravery"). The city is the home of CLS Knights
Indonesia, a basketball club which participated in Asean Basketball
Surabaya has a multi-purpose stadium, Gelora
Bung Tomo Stadium. The
stadium is used mostly for football matches. It is the new home
stadium of Persebaya, replacing Gelora 10 November Stadium. It was
the venue of a match between Persebaya 1927 against then–English
Premier League club Queens Park Rangers, held on 23 July 2012.
Universities and post-secondary institutions
Surabaya has several major universities and institutions, including
those with religious or technical specialties:
Airlangga University (UNAIR), a major public research university in
Indonesia based in
Surabaya and Banyuwangi.
Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology
Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS), a public technological
institute teaches robotics and mechanics, and is the center of Ship
and Ocean Structure Design to support offshore exploration.
State University of Surabaya
State University of Surabaya (UNESA), a university educating teachers;
also with programs in Economics, Technology, and Law.
State Islamic University of
Sunan Ampel (UINSA), a public university
for Islamic studies.
Narotama University (UNNAR), Surabaya
Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institute of Surabaya (PENS-PPNS),
a technical institution located in Surabaya.
Adhi Tama Institute of Technology Surabaya, an institute specializing
in Technical Studies.
Hang Tuah University Surabaya, a private university specializing in
Universitas Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Jawa Timur
Institut Sains Terapan dan Teknologi Surabaya, an institute
specializing in Computer Programming.
Universitas Kristen Petra, a Christian university in Indonesia.
Pelita Harapan University
Widya Mandala Catholic University
Widya Mandala Catholic University (3 campuses), a Catholic private
Surabaya with facilities for Healthcare Studies at a
newly opened third campus in the eastern part of the city
University of Surabaya, a private university teaching Pharmacy and
Universitas Bhayangkara, a university affiliated with Indonesian
Police Department of East Java.
Wijaya Kusuma University Surabaya, a university which is the oldest
private faculty of medicine in eastern Indonesia. Established in 1981,
The Faculty of Medicine was founded in 1986.
Wijaya Putra University a Public University established in 1984
Ciputra University, a private entrepreneurial-oriented university
founded in 2006 by the Ciputra Group.
Primary and secondary schools
International schools include:
Surabaya Intercultural School
Surabaya Japanese School (スラバヤ日本人学校)
Surabaya Taipei International School; 印尼泗水臺灣學校) 
Surabaya European School
Private schools include:
St. Louis Catholic School
Angelus Custos Catholic School
GLORIA Christian School
Petra Christian School
IPH Christian School
See also: Javanese cuisine
Rujak cingur, specialty of Surabaya.
As a metropolitan city, all types of
Indonesian cuisine and other
international restaurants have a presence. However, as the capital of
East Java, cuisines from the province dominates the culinary culture
of the city. East Javanese cuisines include a variety of processed
fruits, crisps temph,
Bakso Malang, Rawan, Tahu campur
lamongan, Cwie noodles, tahu takwa, tahu pong, getuk pisang, pecel
madiun, wingko, tape, nasi krawu, otak-otak bandeng, bonggolan, shrimp
crackers, shrimp paste, petis, Tempeh Chips, tahu tepo, Nasi lethok,
sego tempong, salad soup, pecel rawon, Suwar-suwir, tape proll,
gaplek, lodho, goat satay, and pecel tulungagung.
Surabaya is famous for Rawon, Rojak cingur, Semanggi,
clams satay, mussels, and rice cake.
Rujak cingur: a marinated cow snout or lips and noses (cingur),
served with boiled vegetables and shrimp crackers. It is then dressed
in a sauce made of caramelized fermented shrimp paste (petis),
peanuts, chili, and spices. It is usually served with lontong, a
boiled rice cake. Rujak cingur is considered traditional food of
Rawon: a dark beef soup, served with mung bean sprouts and the
ubiquitous sambal. The dark (almost black) color comes from the kluwak
(Pangium edule) nuts.
Lontong kupang: lontong with small cockles in petis sauce.
Semanggi: a salad made of boiled semanggi (M. crenata) leaves that
grow in paddy fields. It is dressed in a spicy peanut sauce.
Twin towns – sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Indonesia
Surabaya is twinned with:
Japan (since 1992)
United States (since 1992)
New Orleans, United States
Portland, United States
Johor Bahru, Malaysia
Den Haag, Netherlands
South Korea (since 1994)
Turkey (since 1996)
Western Australia, Australia
Japan (since 1997) 
Mexico (since 2001)
China (since 2005)
China (since 2008)
Mosque in Surabaya
Colonial architecture of Surabaya
List of tallest buildings in Surabaya
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Surabaya City in Figures 2017" p. 173[permanent dead link]
Surabaya City Of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900–2000 (Ohio
RIS Southeast Asia Series): Howard Dick: 9780896802216: Amazon.com:
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17 November 2014.
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Surabaya City, East Java".
EastJava.com. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
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^ Akhmad Saiful Ali 1994, p. 31.
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^ Akhmad Saiful Ali 1994, p. 32.
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^ http://www.orthodox.or.id Archived 2010-04-18 at the Wayback
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^ Pasar Bong
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Submarine Monument. "Welcome to
Submarine Monument Surabaya,
Indonesia : A real Russian submarine in the Indonesia's Navy
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ke-17 (Thesis) (in Indonesian). Surabaya: Islamic Institute of Sunan
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Surabaya.
Surabaya travel guide from Wikivoyage
"Surabaya". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
Regencies and cities of East Java
See also: List of regencies and cities of Indonesia
Indonesian cities with a 200,000+ population
2,000,000 and more
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