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SURABAYA (Indonesian pronunciation: ) (formerly Dutch : SOERABAJA/SOERABAIA), is the capital of Jawa Timur (East Java) province of Indonesia
Indonesia
. It is one of the earliest port cities in Southeast Asia. During 18th and 19th centuries, Surabaya
Surabaya
was the largest city in Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
and the center of trading in the nation, larger than Batavia (at present Jakarta
Jakarta
). It was then a competitor of Shanghai
Shanghai
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
. Today the city remains as one of the important financial hub of Indonesian archipelago, arguably 2nd only to Jakarta
Jakarta
and Port of Tanjung Perak is the 2nd busiest seaport of Indonesia. Located on northeastern Java
Java
island and along the edge of the Madura Strait , it is the second-largest-city in Indonesia
Indonesia
. At the 2010 census, the city had a population over 2.8 million, approximately 6 million as metropolitan, and an 'extended metropolitan area', known as Gerbangkertosusila with more than 9 million inhabitants.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 Early history * 1.3 Pre-colonial era * 1.4 Colonial era * 1.5 Independence era

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Topography * 2.2 Climate

* 3 Government

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Ethnicity * 4.2 Language * 4.3 Religion

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Business * 5.2 Business districts * 5.3 Retail

* 6 Infrastructure

* 6.1 Architecture * 6.2 Important landmarks * 6.3 Military establishment

* 6.4 Transportation

* 6.4.1 Airport * 6.4.2 Seaport * 6.4.3 Train * 6.4.4 Bus * 6.4.5 Public transports

* 6.5 Suramadu Bridge

* 7 Sports

* 8 Education

* 8.1 Universities and post-secondary institutions * 8.2 Primary and secondary schools

* 9 Cuisine * 10 Twin towns – Sister cities * 11 Gallery * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 External links

HISTORY

ETYMOLOGY

Fighting shark and crocodile, the emblem of Surabaya
Surabaya
city applied since colonial times, derived from local folk etymology

Surabaya
Surabaya
(Suroboyo) is locally believed to derive its name from the words "suro" (shark ) and "boyo" (crocodile ), two creatures which, in a local myth , fought each other in order to gain the title of "the strongest and most powerful animal" in the area. It was said that the two powerful animals agreed for a truce and set boundaries; that the shark's domain would be in the sea while the crocodile's domain would be on the land. However one day the shark swam into the river estuary to hunt, this angered the crocodile, who declared it his territory. The Shark
Shark
argued that the river was a water-realm which meant that it was shark territory, while the crocodile argued that the river flowed deep inland, so it was therefore crocodile territory. A ferocious fight resumed as the two animals bit each other. Finally the shark was badly bitten and fled to the open sea, and the crocodile finally ruled the estuarine area that today is the city.

Another source alludes to a Jayabaya prophecy — a 12th-century psychic king of Kediri Kingdom — as he foresaw a fight between a giant white shark and a giant white crocodile taking place in the area, which is sometimes interpreted as a foretelling of the Mongol invasion of Java
Java
, a major conflict between the forces of the Kublai Khan , Mongol ruler of China
China
, and those of Raden Wijaya
Raden Wijaya
's Majapahit in 1293. The two animals are now used as the city's symbol, with the two facing and circling each other, as depicted in a statue appropriately located near the entrance to the city zoo .

Alternate derivations proliferate: from the Javanese "sura ing baya", meaning "bravely facing danger"; or from the use of "surya" to refer to the sun. Some people consider Jayabaya's prophecy as being about the great war between native Surabayan people and foreign invaders at the start of the war of independence in 1945. Another story tells of two heroes who fought each other in order to be the king of the city. The two heroes were named Sura and Baya. These folk etymologies , though embraced enthusiastically by its people and city leaders, are unverifiable. Dutch residenthuis (Resident House) along the water in Surabaya
Surabaya
Map of Surabaya
Surabaya
from an 1897 English travel-guide Red Bridge area from the air in the 1920s.

EARLY HISTORY

The earliest record of Surabaya
Surabaya
was in the 1225 book Zhu fan zhi written by Zhao Rugua , in which it was called Jung-ya-lu . The name Janggala was probably originated from the name "Hujung Galuh" (Old Javanese lit: "Cape Diamond" or "Cape Gemstone"), or "Jung-ya-lu" according to Chinese source. Hujung Galuh was located on the estuarine of Brantas River and today is the part of modern Surabaya
Surabaya
city and Sidoarjo Regency .

By the 14th to 15th century, Surabaya
Surabaya
seems to be one of Majapahit ports or coastal settlements, together with Tuban, Gresik, and Hujung Galuh (Sidoarjo). Ma Huan documented the early fifteenth-century visit of Zheng He
Zheng He
's treasure ships in his 1433 book Yingyai Shenglan : "after traveling south for more than twenty li, the ship reached Sulumayi, whose foreign name is Surabaya. At the estuary, the outflowing water is fresh".

Ma Huan visited Java
Java
during Zheng He's 4th expedition in the 1413, during the reign of Majapahit king Wikramawardhana . He describes his travel to Majapahit capital, first he arrived to the port of Tu-pan ( Tuban ) where he saw large numbers of Chinese settlers migrated from Guangdong
Guangdong
and Chou Chang. Then he sailed east to thriving new trading town of Ko-erh-hsi ( Gresik ), Su-pa-erh-ya (Surabaya), and then sailing inland into the river by smaller boat to southwest until reached the Brantas river port of Chang-ku (Changgu). Continued travel by land to southwest he arrived in Man-che-po-I (Majapahit), where the Javanese king stay.

PRE-COLONIAL ERA

By late 15th century, Islam
Islam
began to take its root in Surabaya. The settlement of Ampel Denta, located around Ampel Mosque in today Ampel sub-district, Semampir district, north Surabaya, was established by a charismatic Islamic proselytizer Sunan Ampel .

In the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Surabaya
Surabaya
grew to be a duchy , a major political and military power in eastern Java. The Portuguese writer Tomé Pires mentioned that a Muslim lord was in power in Surabaya
Surabaya
in 1513 though likely still a vassal of the Hindu–Buddhist Majapahit. At that time, Surabaya
Surabaya
was already a major trading port, owing to its location on the River Brantas delta and on the trade route between Malacca and the Spice Islands via the Java
Java
Sea . During the decline of Majapahit, the lord of Surabaya resisted the rise of the Demak Sultanate , and only submitted to its rule in 1530. Surabaya
Surabaya
became independent after the death of Sultan Trenggana of Demak in 1546.

The Duchy of Surabaya entered a conflict with, and was later captured by, the more powerful Sultanate of Mataram in 1625 under Sultan Agung . :31 It was one of Mataram's fiercest campaigns, in which they had to conquer Surabaya's allies, Sukadana and Madura , and to lay siege to the city before capturing it. With this conquest, Mataram then controlled almost the whole of Java, with the exception of the Sultanate of Banten and the Dutch settlement of Batavia . :31

COLONIAL ERA

Handelstraat, Surabaya
Surabaya
in the 1930s: subsequently the Jembatan Merah area.

The expanding Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
took the city over from a weakened Mataram in November 1743. In consolidating its rule over Surabaya
Surabaya
and, in time, the rest of East Java, the Dutch collaborated with leading regional magnates, including Ngabehi Soero Pernollo (1720–1776), his brother Han Bwee Kong, Kapitein der Chinezen (1727–1778) and the latter's son, Han Chan Piet, Majoor der Chinezen (1759–1827), all from the powerful Han family of Lasem .

In the 18th and 19th centuries, Surabaya
Surabaya
was the largest city in Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
. Surabaya
Surabaya
became a major trading center under the Dutch colonial government, and hosted the largest naval base in the colony . Surabaya
Surabaya
was also the largest city in the colony serving as the center of Java's plantation economy, industry and were supported by its natural harbor. In 1920, a census recorded that Batavia had become the largest city. In 1917, a revolt occurred among the soldiers and sailors of Surabaya, led by the Indies Social Democratic Association . The revolt was firmly crushed and the insurgents given harsh sentences.

INDEPENDENCE ERA

Japan
Japan
occupied the city in 1942, as part of the occupation of Indonesia
Indonesia
, and it was bombed by the Allies in 1944. After Japanese surrender at the end of World War II Surabaya
Surabaya
was seized by Indonesian nationalists . The young nation soon came into conflict with the British, who had become caretakers of the Dutch colony after the surrender of the Japanese.

The Battle of Surabaya , one of the well-known battles of the Indonesian revolution, started after the Arek-Arek Suroboyo (Teenagers of Surabaya) assassinated the British Brigadier Mallaby on October 30, 1945 near Jembatan Merah (the "Red Bridge"), allegedly with a stray bullet. The Allies gave an ultimatum to the Republicans inside the city to surrender, but they refused. The ensuing battle, which cost thousands of lives, took place on November 10, which Indonesians subsequently celebrate as Hari Pahlawan (Heroes' Day). The incident of the red-white flag (the Dutch flag at the top of Yamato Hotel's tower that was torn into the Indonesian red-white flag) by Bung Tomo is also recorded as a heroic feat during the struggle of this city.

The city is known as Kota Pahlawan "city of heroes" due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya in galvanizing Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution .

In June 2011, Surabaya
Surabaya
received the Adipura Kencana Award as number one among 20 cities in Indonesia. Surabaya
Surabaya
was reported by a Singaporean as being clean and green.

GEOGRAPHY

TOPOGRAPHY

Surabaya
Surabaya
locates on the northern coast of East Java
East Java
province. It is mostly lowlands with a river estuary of Kalimas , one of two branches of Brantas River . Surabaya
Surabaya
city borders Madura Strait in the north and east, Sidoarjo Regency in the south, and Gresik Regency in the west. The regencies surrounding Surabaya
Surabaya
are:

* Lamongan Regency
Lamongan Regency
to the northwest * Gresik Regency to the west * Bangkalan Regency to the northeast (on Madura island) * Sidoarjo Regency to the south, and Mojokerto Regency * Jombang Regency to the southwest

Like many other large Indonesian metropolises, many residents reside outside the city limits in a metropolitan area called Gerbangkertosusila .

CLIMATE

Surabaya
Surabaya
features a tropical wet and dry climate , with distinct wet and dry seasons . The city's wet season runs from November through June, while the dry season covers the remaining five months. Unlike a number of cities and regions with a tropical wet and dry climate, average high and low temperatures are very consistent throughout the course of the year, with an average high temperature of around 31 degrees Celsius and average low temperatures of around 26 degrees Celsius.

CLIMATE DATA FOR SURABAYA

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 33 (91) 31 (88) 33 (91) 33 (91) 33 (91) 33 (91) 32 (90) 33 (91) 33 (91) 34 (93) 36 (97) 34 (93) 33 (91)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 27 (81) 27 (81) 29 (84) 28 (82) 29 (84) 29 (84) 28 (82) 28 (82) 28 (82) 29 (84) 30 (86) 29 (84) 28 (82)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 24 (75) 23 (73) 27 (81) 24 (75) 24 (75) 27 (81) 27 (81) 26 (79) 27 (81) 27 (81) 26 (79) 25 (77) 26 (79)

AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 327 (12.87) 275 (10.83) 283 (11.14) 181 (7.13) 159 (6.26) 101 (3.98) 22 (0.87) 15 (0.59) 17 (0.67) 47 (1.85) 105 (4.13) 219 (8.62) 1,751 (68.94)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 17 18 19 15 13 11 7 3 4 5 12 23 147

Source: .

Wind Speed and Humidity data for Surabaya
Surabaya
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

MAXIMUM WIND SPEED (KM/H) 23 16 16 26 27 29 40 34 34 35 29 21 27.5

AVERAGE WIND SPEED (KM/H) 13.39 12.10 13.30 14.37 20.26 16.87 22.71 22.16 22.8 22.35 18.6 13.55 17.71

MINIMUM WIND SPEED (KM/H) 8 10 10 10 3 5 11 11 14 10 11 10 9.42

MAXIMUM HUMIDITY (%) 86 75 83 92 96 77 67 69 64 73 65 79 77.17

AVERAGE HUMIDITY (%) 66.61 69.1 66.3 67.23 64.87 60.27 60.84 57.87 54.53 56.06 56.13 63.03 61.9

MINIMUM HUMIDITY (%) 44 60 59 58 53 47 52 47 46 42 46 53 50.58

SOURCE:

GOVERNMENT

The city has its own local government and legislative body. The mayor and members of representatives are locally elected by popular vote for a 5-year term.The city government enjoys greater decentralization of affairs than the provincial body, such as the provision of public schools, public health facilities and public transportation. Current Mayor of the city is Tri Rismaharini , who is the first female mayor in Surabaya
Surabaya
and has led Surabaya
Surabaya
to achieve multiple regional, national and international awards since her first term as Surabaya Mayor in 2010. In 2012 Surabaya
Surabaya
was awarded the “ASEAN Environmentally Sustainable City Award”. Besides Mayor and Deputy Mayor, there is Surabaya
Surabaya
Municipal People's Representative Council, which is a legislative body of 50 council members directly elected by the people in legislative elections every five years.

Surabaya
Surabaya
is divided into 31 kecamatan (districts), and 161 urban villages. The dirtricts are grouped into 5 areas of Central, North, South, East and West. The districts are as follows,

* Karang Pilang (72,469) * Jambangan (46,430) * Gayungan (42,717) * Wonocolo (80,276) * Tenggilis Mejoyo (72,467) * Gunung Anyar (62,120) * Rungkut (121,084) * Sukolilo (119,873) * Mulyorejo (94,728) * Gubeng (128,127) * Wonokromo (133,211)

* Dukuh Pakis (64,249) * Wiyung (67,987) * Lakarsantri (51,195) * Sambikerep (61,101) * Tandes (103,084) * Sukomanunggal (100,612) * Sawahan (170,605) * Tegalsari (85,606) * Genteng (46,548) * Tambaksari (204,805)

* Kenjeran (163,438) * Bulak, Surabya (37,214) * Simokerto (79,319) * Semampir (151,429) * Pabean Cantian (69,423) * Bubutan (84,465) * Krembangan (106,664) * Asemrowo (42,704) * Benowo, Surabya (54,133) * Pakal, Surabaya
Surabaya
(47,404)

DEMOGRAPHICS

Surabaya
Surabaya
is the second most populous city in Indonesia
Indonesia
with 2,765,908 recorded in the chartered city limits (kota) in the 2010 census. With the extended metropolitan development area called Gerbangkertosusila (derived from GREsik -BANGkalan -MojoKERTO -SUrabaya-SIdoarjo -LAmongan ) adding more than nine million inhabitants in several cities and approximately 50 districts spread over non-contiguous urban areas including Gresik, Sidoarjo, Mojokerto and Pasuruan regencies. Though central government of Indonesia
Indonesia
recognizes only the metropolitan area (Surabaya, Gresik and Sidarjo) as Greater Surabaya (Zona Surabaya
Surabaya
Raya) with a population of 6,484,206 (2010), making Surabaya
Surabaya
now the third largest metropolitan area in Indonesia. The city is highly urbanized , with industries centralized in the city, and contains slums. As the main education center, the city is also home for students from around Indonesia.

Surabaya
Surabaya
is an old city that has expanded over time, and its population continues to grow at approximately 1.2% per year. In recent years, more people have moved to Surabaya
Surabaya
from nearby suburbs and villages in East Java
East Java

ETHNICITY

Jembatan Merah, near Kya-Kya Kembang Jepun.

Ethnic Javanese people
Javanese people
are the majority in Surabaya, with Chinese Indonesians , Indian Indonesians and ethnic Madurese being significant minorities in the city. Surabaya
Surabaya
also has ethnic populations from other parts of Indonesia: Sundanese , Minang , Batak
Batak
, Banjar , Balinese , and Bugis
Bugis
.

LANGUAGE

Most citizens speak a dialect of Indonesian/Javanese called Suroboyoan, a sub-dialect of the Arekan dialect. A stereotype of this dialect concerns equality and directness in speech. The usage of register is less strict than the Central Java
Java
dialect. The Suroboyoan dialect is a mixture of both Bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
and Javanese, also with some significant influence from foreign languages such as Madurese etc., which has formed a special dialect known as Suroboyoan. The Suroboyoan dialect is actively promoted in local media, such as in local TV shows, radio, newspapers and traditional dramas called Ludruk .

RELIGION

Although around 85% of citizens in Surabaya
Surabaya
adhere to Sunni Islam
Islam
, other major religions include Christianity
Christianity
(Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, and Orthodox), of whom the majority are Roman Catholics. The influence of Hinduism
Hinduism
is strong in basic Surabayan culture, but only a minority of the population adheres to Hinduism mostly among the ethnic Indian minority. There is also significant population of Chinese Indonesians
Chinese Indonesians
who adhere to Buddhism
Buddhism
and Confucianism
Confucianism
, and a small community of Dutch Jews who adhere to Judaism
Judaism
.

The city had an influential role as a major Islamic center in Java during the Wali Sanga era. The prominent and honored Islamic figure in Surabaya
Surabaya
was Sunan Ampel (Raden Rahmat). His tomb is a sacred religious site in the city and is visited by Surabayans and pilgrims from different parts of Indonesia. The largest Muslim organization in Indonesia, Nahdlatul Ulama was established in Surabaya
Surabaya
on 26 January 1926. Al-Akbar Mosque is the largest mosque in Surabaya.

Christianity
Christianity
as a whole in Surabaya
Surabaya
is mainly practised by Chinese Indonesians as well as native Javanese , Bataks and Ambonese who attend either a Roman Catholic
Catholic
or Protestant church. A minority of Javanese practice at the Gereja Kejawen, a branch of native Christianity.There are around 15 churches in Surabaya, which vary in size. Gereja Katolik Kelahiran Santa Perawan Maria (The Church of The Nativity of Blessed Virgin Mary), also known as Gereja Kepanjen, built in 1815 as the first church in Surabaya
Surabaya
and one of the oldest churches in Indonesia
Indonesia
. The main Orthodox Church in Indonesia, St Nikolas Church, is also based in Surabaya. The Orthodox Christian
Orthodox Christian
Center Surabaya
Surabaya
was opened on 15 October 2008.

Once the major religion in Surabaya
Surabaya
and across the archipelago during the Majapahit era, Hinduism
Hinduism
played a major role on traditional Surabayan culture. Small Hindu communities still exist in Surabaya most commonly in the eastern sections of the city. Surabaya
Surabaya
was the location of the only synagogue in Java, but it rarely obtained a minyan (quorum). The synagogue was destroyed in protests and riots related to Palestine-Israeli conflict. There is still a Jewish cemetery in the city.

ECONOMY

Since the early 1900s, Surabaya
Surabaya
has been one of the most important and busiest trading city ports in Asia. Principal exports from the port, include sugar , tobacco and coffee . Its rich history as a trading port has led to a strong financial infrastructure with modern economic institutions such as banks, insurance and sound export-import companies. The economy is influenced by the recent growth in foreign industries and the completion of the Suramadu Bridge . The high potential and economic activities make the city an attractive destination to foreign investors. The city is home to a large shipyard , and numerous specialized naval schools.

BUSINESS

As the provincial capital, Surabaya
Surabaya
has a number of offices and business centers. As a metropolitan city, Surabaya
Surabaya
became the center of economic, financial and business activities in East Java
East Java
and beyond. Also, Surabaya
Surabaya
is the second largest port city in Indonesia after Jakarta. As a trading center, Surabaya
Surabaya
is not only a trade center for East Java
East Java
but also facilitates areas in Central Java
Java
, Kalimantan
Kalimantan
and Eastern Indonesia. Surabaya's strategic location is almost in the center of Indonesia
Indonesia
and just south of Asia makes it one of the important hubs for trading activities in Southeast Asia. Surabaya
Surabaya
is currently in the process of building high rise skyscrapers, including apartments, condominiums, and hotels, by way of attracting foreign capital. Surabaya
Surabaya
and the surrounding area is undergoing the most rapidly growing economic development in East Java and one of the most advanced in Indonesia. The city is also one of the most important cities in supporting Indonesia's economy.

Most of the population is engaged in services, industry and trade. Surabaya
Surabaya
is a fast growing trading center. Major industries include shipbuilding, heavy equipment, food processing and agriculture, electronics, home furnishings, and handicrafts. Many major multinational companies are based in Surabaya, such as PT Sampoerna Tbk, Maspion, Wing's Group, Unilever Indonesia, Pakuwon Group, Jawa Pos Group and PT PAL Indonesia.

BUSINESS DISTRICTS

The area in between Jalan Basuki Rachmat, Jalan Embong Malang, and Jalan Bubutan has grown as a business center and has turned into one of the main heart of business and trade activities in Surabaya. Some of the important buildings in this area include Wisma BRI Surabaya, Hotel Bumi Surabaya, Wisma Dharmala Surabaya, The Peak Residence, Sheraton Hotel etc.

Another cluster around Jalan Mayjend Sungkono, Jalan Adityawarman, Jalan HR Muhammad, and Jalan Bukit Darmo has grown as a new business center of the city. This area has now grown as one of the most rapidly growing commercial and business centers in East Java, with high rise buildings. Some of the tallest buildings in Surabaya
Surabaya
located in this area, such as Adhiwangsa Apartment, Waterplace Residence, Puri Matahari, Beverly Park Apartment, The Via "> Plaza Tunjungan .

Surabaya
Surabaya
has plenty of shopping centers like other major cities of Indonesia, ranging from traditional markets to most modern shopping malls. Outlets of numerous local and international brands have presence in modern shopping malls. There are many dedicated markets for electronic goods, gadgets and computer hardware.

Some important shopping malls of the city are, BG Junction *Ciputra World Surabaya
Surabaya
*City of Tomorrow *Darmo Trade Center *East Coast Center and Food Festival *Galaxy Mall *Grand City *HI-Tech Mall *ITC *Jembatan Merah Plaza *Kapas Krampung Plaza *Lenmarc *Marvell City *Pakuwon Trade Center *Pakuwon Mall *Pasar Atom Mall *Plasa Marina *Plaza Surabaya
Surabaya
(formerly Delta Plaza) * Tunjungan Plaza *Royal Plaza Surabaya
Surabaya
*Supermal Pakuwon Indah * Surabaya
Surabaya
Town Square *World Trade Center Surabaya
Surabaya

INFRASTRUCTURE

ARCHITECTURE

See also: List of tallest buildings in Surabaya Cheng Hoo (Zheng He) Mosque, Surabaya
Surabaya
Majapahit Hotel building is a cultural heritage of Surabaya
Surabaya

Architecture in Surabaya
Surabaya
is a mixture of colonial, Asian, Javanese, modern, and post-modern influences. There are still many colonial era relics still standing today, such as Hotel Majapahit and Surabaya
Surabaya
Post Office. As a relatively old city in Indonesia
Indonesia
and Southeast Asia, most colonial buildings in Surabaya
Surabaya
were built around the 17th century to early 20th century. These buildings have influence of Dutch / European style in the Middle Ages. Before the Second World War, there were many shop houses in the old part of the city, mostly of two storey. These shop houses have influence of European and Chinese traditions. Although some have been dismantled for new construction, there are still many old buildings that are preserved as cultural heritage and city icons, which are around the area of ​​Kembang Jepun Street, Karet Street, Gula Street, Slompretan Street, and Rajawali Street.

After independence of Indonesia, the center of Surabaya's architectural development was concentrated only in the area of ​​Jembatan Merah, and its surroundings. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, modern and post-modern style buildings were increasingly emerging in Surabaya. Along with the economic development, such buildings continue to grow in Surabaya
Surabaya
until now. In the era of 2010s, Surabaya
Surabaya
has become a region for high-rise buildings in East Java, such as The Peak Residence and One Icon Residence (200 meters).

IMPORTANT LANDMARKS

* Kebun Binatang Surabaya
Surabaya
( Surabaya Zoo ) opened in 1916. It was the first in the world to have successfully bred orangutans in captivity. * Zheng He
Zheng He
Mosque , a recently built mosque, one of the unique mosques with Chinese-style architecture in Indonesia. Dedicated to the Hui Chinese diplomat, Zheng He
Zheng He
. * Al-Akbar Mosque , the largest mosque in Jawa Timur. * Gereja Katolik Kelahiran Santa Perawan Maria, one of the first churches to be built in Indonesia, and the first one ever built in Jawa Timur. * Hero monument , a 41 metres (135 ft) high monument, is the main symbol of Surabaya
Surabaya
and commemorates the heroes of the revolutionary struggle. There is a museum on location as well, exhibiting reminders of the struggle for independence. * Museum Nahdlatul Ulama , the resource center of the culture and history of Nahdlatul Ulama, an independent Islamic religious organization. * Museum Bank Indonesia
Indonesia
, a bank museum occupying the former De Javasche Bank built in 1904. * House of Sampoerna, a museum devoted to the history of clove cigarette (kretek) manufacturing in Indonesia, housed in Dutch colonial buildings dating to 1864. * Jalesveva Jayamahe Monument , a large, admiral -like statue which commemorates the Indonesian Navy
Indonesian Navy
. * Monkasel, abbreviated from Monumen Kapal Selam ( Submarine
Submarine
Monument ) A Soviet-built Whiskey class submarine (named KRI Pasopati (410)), first launched in 1952, served in the Indonesian Navy
Indonesian Navy
from 1962 until decommissioned in 1990. After her decommissioning, Pasopati was dismantled and transferred to its present site in 1996. The submarine was reassembled on the current site and opened as a museum and tourist attraction in 1998. * Kenjeran Beach, located in the eastern of Surabaya, which also housed Sanggar Agung , a Chinese temple build over the sea. * Market of the Chinese Tomb, last resting place of Han Bwee Kong, Kapitein der Chinezen , magnate, mandarin and landlord in Surabaya
Surabaya
and East Java
East Java
, and patriarch of the patrician Han family of Lasem * Han Ancestral Hall, a historic house that serves as a memorial temple for the ancestors of the Han family of Lasem * Tomb of Sunan Ampel * Bungkul Park

MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT

The Eastern Fleet is headquartered here. It is one of two fleets in the Indonesian Navy
Indonesian Navy
. Its maritime heritage is also represented in a form of KRI Pasopati Submarine
Submarine
Monument, a retired Russian Whiskey class submarine .

TRANSPORTATION

Ujung passenger Port

Transportation in Surabaya
Surabaya
is supported by land and sea infrastructure serving local, regional, and international journeys. Air transport is located at Juanda Airport , Sedati , Sidoarjo ). Intracity transport is primarily by motor vehicles, motorcycles and taxis with limited public bus transport available. Surabaya
Surabaya
is also a transit city between Jakarta
Jakarta
and Bali
Bali
for ground transportation. Another bus route is between Jakarta
Jakarta
and the neighboring island of Madura .

Airport

Surabaya's Juanda International Airport is a passenger and cargo airport which also serves as Surabaya's Navy Airbase, operated by the TNI-AL (Indonesian Navy) and located just outside Surabaya, on the outskirts of Sidoarjo. This airport has served Surabaya
Surabaya
for many years, and currently has 2 terminals, with domestic flights served from Terminal 1 and all international flights and Garuda Indonesia's domestic flights serviced from Terminal 2. Although considered smaller than Kuala Namu International Airport in Medan
Medan
and Ngurah Rai International Airport in Denpasar , Bali
Bali
, Juanda International Airport is still regarded as Indonesia's second busiest airport right after Jakarta's Soekarno Hatta International Airport

Seaport

See also: Port of Tanjung Perak

Port of Tanjung Perak is the trading port in East Java
East Java
and is one of the busiest ports in the country. It is the second largest port of trade, container and passenger in Indonesia
Indonesia
after the Port of Tanjung Priok in Jakarta. There is also TELUK LAMONG PORT TERMINAL, which is the main buffer terminal terminal of Tanjung Perak Port. The port terminal of Lamong Bay is the first green port in Indonesia
Indonesia
and is one of the most sophisticated port terminals in the world where the entire operating system is automated.

Train

Further information: Commuter Rail in Surabaya

The city has three major train stations, being Surabaya
Surabaya
Kota (also known as Semut), Pasar Turi, and Gubeng. Surabaya's main train station is Pasar Turi Station . The Argo Bromo Anggrek operated by PT Kereta Api (Indonesia\'s main rail operator ) connects Surabaya
Surabaya
from this station to Gambir Station (Jakarta). Both economy and executive class trains are served to and from Surabaya. pedicabs (becak) in the street in Surabaya
Surabaya

Bus

The main bus terminal is Terminal Purabaya (located in Bungurasih, Waru , Sidoarjo ), the other major terminal is Osowilangon in Tambak, Surabaya
Surabaya
.

Public Transports

There are various kinds of local transport including: taxi-cabs, shuttle bus , city bus , Angguna , pedicab and commuter trains .

GO-JEK , Uber , and Grab services are available in Surabaya.

SURAMADU BRIDGE

Suramadu Bridge , The longest bridge in Indonesia
Indonesia

The Suramadu Bridge (derived from SURAbaya-MADUra) connects Surabaya and Madura Island over the Madura Strait. A 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) highway has been proposed to be built from the Suramadu Bridge to Madura International Seaport-City in Pernajuh village, Kocah district, Bangkalan , Madura at a cost of approximately Rp. 60 billion (US$7 billion). This container port was built to ease the burden on Surabaya's overloaded Tanjung Perak Port.

SPORTS

The city has one football club which competes in the Liga Dua Indonesia
Indonesia
, called Persebaya . The club has won the Indonesian Premier Division twice. Fans refer to themselves as Bonek, an abbreviation for Bondo Nekat (which translates as "equipped by bravery").

Surabaya
Surabaya
has a multi-purpose stadium , Gelora Bung Tomo Stadium . The stadium is used mostly for football matches. It is the new home stadium of Persebaya , after replacing Gelora 10 November Stadium . On 23 July 2012, it was the venue of a match between Persebaya 1927 against Queens Park Rangers .

EDUCATION

UNIVERSITIES AND POST-SECONDARY INSTITUTIONS

Surabaya
Surabaya
has several major universities and institutions, including those with religious or technical specialties:

* Airlangga University (UNAIR) , a major public research university in Indonesia
Indonesia
based in Surabaya
Surabaya
and Banyuwangi . * Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS) , a public technological institute teaches robotics and mechanics, and is the center of Ship and Ocean Structure Design to support offshore exploration. * State University of Surabaya (UNESA) , a university educating teachers; also with programs in Economics, Technology, and Law. * State Islamic University of Sunan Ampel (UINSA), a public university for Islamic studies. * Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institute of Surabaya (PENS-PPNS) , a technical institution located in Surabaya. * Adhi Tama Institute of Technology Surabaya
Surabaya
, an institute specializing in Technical Studies. * Hang Tuah University Surabaya
Surabaya
, a private university specializing in Maritime Studies. * Universitas Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Jawa Timur * Institut Sains Terapan dan Teknologi Surabaya
Surabaya
, an institute specializing in Computer Programming. * Universitas Kristen Petra , a Christian university in Indonesia. * Pelita Harapan University * Widya Mandala Catholic
Catholic
University (3 campuses), a Catholic
Catholic
private university in Surabaya
Surabaya
with facilities for Healthcare Studies at a newly opened third campus in the eastern part of the city * University of Surabaya , a private university teaching Pharmacy and Psychology. * Universitas Bhayangkara , a university affiliated with Indonesian Police Department of East Java. * Wijaya Kusuma University Surabaya
Surabaya
, a university which is the oldest private faculty of medicine in eastern Indonesia. Established in 1981, The Faculty of Medicine was founded in 1986. * Wijaya Putra University a Public University established in 1984 * Ciputra University , a private entrepreneurial-oriented university founded in 2006 by the Ciputra Group.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS

International schools include:

* Surabaya Intercultural School * Surabaya
Surabaya
Japanese School (スラバヤ日本人学校) * Surabaya
Surabaya
Taipei International School ; 印尼泗水臺灣學校) * Surabaya European School

Private schools include:

* St. Louis Catholic
Catholic
School * Angelus Custos Catholic
Catholic
School * GLORIA Christian School * Petra Christian School

CUISINE

See also: Javanese cuisine Rujak cingur, specialty of Surabaya.

As a metropolitan city all types of Indonesian cuisine and other international restaurants have presence in the city. However, as the capital of East Java
East Java
, cuisines from the province dominates the culinary culture of the city. East Javanese cuisines include, variety of processed fruits, crisps temph, Bakpao
Bakpao
telo, Bakso
Bakso
Malang, Rawan, Tahu campur lamongan, Cwie noodles, tahu takwa, tahu pong, and getuk pisang, pecel madiun, wingko , tape , nasi krawu, otak-otak bandeng, bonggolan, shrimp crackers, shrimp paste, and petis, Tempeh Chips, tahu tepo, and Nasi lethok, sego tempong, salad soup, and pecel rawon, Suwar-suwir, tape proll, gaplek, lodho, goat satay and pecel tulungagung.

Surabaya
Surabaya
is famous for Rawon, Rojak cingur, Semanggi, Lontong Balap, clams satay, mussels and rice cake.

* Rujak cingur : a marinated cow snout or lips and noses (cingur), served with boiled vegetables and shrimp crackers. It is then dressed in a sauce made of caramelized fermented shrimp paste (petis ), peanuts, chili , and spices. It is usually served with lontong , a boiled rice cake. Rujak cingur is considered traditional food of Surabaya. * Rawon : a dark beef soup, served with mung bean sprouts and the ubiquitous sambal . The dark (almost black) color comes from the kluwak (Pangium edule) nuts. * Lontong kupang: lontong with small cockles in petis sauce. * Semanggi: a salad made of boiled semanggi (M. crenata) leaves that grow in paddy fields. It is dressed in a spicy peanut sauce.

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Indonesia
Indonesia

Surabaya
Surabaya
is twinned with:

* Kitakyushu , Japan
Japan
(since 1992) * Seattle
Seattle
, United States
United States
(since 1992) * New Orleans
New Orleans
, United States * Portland , United States * Johor Bahru
Johor Bahru
, Malaysia * Kuala Belait , Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam * Den Haag
Den Haag
, Netherlands * Busan
Busan
, South Korea
South Korea
(since 1994) * İzmir
İzmir
, Turkey
Turkey
(since 1996) * Western Australia
Australia
, Australia * Varna
Varna
, Bulgaria * Iskandariyah , Egypt * Mashhad , Iran * Kōchi , Japan
Japan
(since 1997) * Monterrey
Monterrey
, Mexico
Mexico
(since 2001) * Guangzhou
Guangzhou
, China
China
(since 2005) * Xiamen
Xiamen
, China
China
(since 2008)

GALLERY

*

Mosque in Surabaya
Surabaya

SEE ALSO

* Indonesia
Indonesia
portal

* Colonial architecture of Surabaya
Colonial architecture of Surabaya
* List of tallest buildings in Surabaya

REFERENCES

* ^ A B http://www.citypopulation.de/php/indonesia-jawa-admin.php * ^ Data Sensus Penduduk 2010 - Badan Pusat Statistik Republik Indonesia
Indonesia
* ^ " Surabaya
Surabaya
City in Figures 2016" * ^ " Surabaya
Surabaya
City Of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900–2000 (Ohio RIS Southeast Asia Series): Howard Dick: 9780896802216: Amazon.com: Books". amazon.com. * ^ Irwan Rouf & Shenia Ananda. Rangkuman 100 Cerita Rakyat Indonesia
Indonesia
dari Sabang sampai Merauke: Asal Usul Nama Kota Surabaya
Surabaya
(in Indonesian). MediaKita. p. 60. ISBN 9786029003826 . Retrieved 17 November 2014. * ^ A B "Welcome to Surabaya
Surabaya
City, East Java". Surabaya
Surabaya
Tourism, EastJava.com. Retrieved 17 November 2014. * ^ F. Hirth and W.W. Rockhill, Chau Ju-kua, St Petersburg, 1911 * ^ Ma Huan Ying-yai Sheng-lan, The Overall Survey of Ocean Shore, translated by J.V.G. Mills, p. 90, 1970, Hakklut Society , reprint by White Lotus, 1997. ISBN 974-8496-78-3 . * ^ Ma Huan; JVG Mills (1970). "Ying-yai Sheng-lan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean\'s Shores" (PDF). Washington.edu. pp. 86–97 (Country of Chao–Wa). * ^ A B Pigeaud 1976 , p. 16. * ^ Ricklefs 2008 , p. 43. * ^ Akhmad Saiful Ali 1994 , p. 31. * ^ Ricklefs 2008 , p. 39. * ^ Pigeaud 1976 , p. 28. * ^ Akhmad Saiful Ali 1994 , p. 32. * ^ A B Drakeley S. The History of Indonesia. Greenwood, 2005. ISBN 9780313331145 * ^ Margana, Sri (2007). Java\'s last frontier : the struggle for hegemony of Blambangan, c. 1763–1813. Leiden: TANAP. pp. 210–236. Retrieved 17 February 2016. * ^ Salmon, Claudine (1997). "La communauté chinoise de Surabaya. Essai d\'histoire, des origines à la crise de 1930". Archipel. 53 (Volume 53): 121–206. Retrieved 17 February 2016. * ^ "The City in Southeast Asia". google.com.my. * ^ "Surabaya, a miniature of Singapore". September 5, 2011. * ^ "World Weather Information Service – Surabaya". wmo.int. * ^ Surabaya
Surabaya
City Regulation No. 5 2006 * ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011. * ^ "Gatra.Com". Gatra.Com. 2010-08-25. Retrieved 2013-03-04. * ^ http://www.orthodox.or.id * ^ "The Synagogue
Synagogue
of Surabaya, Indonesia
Indonesia
– Beit Hatfutsot". Beit Hatfutsot. * ^ The Jews of Surabaya, by Jessica Champagne and Teuku Cut Mahmud Aziz. * ^ "Masjid Al-Akbar". Humas Jakarta
Jakarta
Islamic Centre and 27th ISLAND (in Indonesian). DuniaMasjid.com. Retrieved January 6, 2013. * ^ "House of Sampoerna website". * ^ * ^ "KRI Pasopati 410: Kenangan Whiskey Class". mywapblog.com. * ^ Pasar Bong * ^ Harsaputra, Indra (September 19, 2009). "The Jakarta
Jakarta
Post". Former Chinese cemetery serves as bustling market. Retrieved 17 February 2016. * ^ Rumah Abu Han * ^ Azali, Kathleen (2012). "Rumah Abu Han, a historic ancestral house in Surabaya" (PDF). The Newsletter (International Institute for Asian Studies). 59 (Spring). Retrieved 17 February 2016. * ^ Fitrianto, Heri Agung (July 7, 2013). "Kompasiana". Jejak Sang Kapiten Di Rumah Abu Keluarga Han. Retrieved 17 February 2016. * ^ The Submarine
Submarine
Monument. "Welcome to Submarine
Submarine
Monument Surabaya, Indonesia
Indonesia
: A real Russian submarine in the Indonesia\'s Navy Armada". eastjava.com. * ^ "Monkasel ( Submarine
Submarine
Monument)". tripadvisor.com. * ^ "Surabaya’s hotel business boom "likely to continue"". The Jakarta
Jakarta
Post. Retrieved 2013-03-04. * ^ (in Indonesian) Detik Surabaya: Gelora Bung Tomo Diresmikan, Lalu Lintas Macet * ^ "Overseas Schools" (Archive). Taiwanese Ministry of Education . Retrieved on January 10, 2016. * ^ Tania, Vania. Djakabaia: Djalan-djalan dan Makan-makan. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. ISBN 978-979-223923-2 . * ^ "Kegiatan Kerjasama Kota Surabaya
Surabaya
Dengan Mitra Di Luar Negeri" (PDF). Surabaya
Surabaya
City Government. Retrieved 2015-02-15. * ^ "Interactive City Directory: Surabaya, Indonesia". Sister Cities International. Retrieved 2015-02-15. * ^ "International Exchange". The International Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR), Singapore. Retrieved 2015-02-15. * ^ "Sister Cities of Guangzhou". Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Foreign Affairs Office. Retrieved 2015-02-15.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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.