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SUPERMARINE was a British aircraft manufacturer that produced, among the others, a range of seaplanes and the Supermarine Spitfire
Supermarine Spitfire
fighter.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Current company

* 2 Supermarine
Supermarine
aircraft * 3 See also

* 4 References

* 4.1 Citations * 4.2 Bibliography

* 5 External links

HISTORY

Noel Pemberton Billing
Noel Pemberton Billing
set up a company, PEMBERTON-BILLING LTD, in 1913 to produce sea-going aircraft. Its telegraphic address , used for sending telegrams and cables to the company, was; Supermarine, Southampton. It produced a couple of prototypes using quadruplane designs to shoot down zeppelins , the Supermarine
Supermarine
P.B.29 and the Supermarine Nighthawk
Supermarine Nighthawk
. The aircraft were fitted with the recoilless Davis gun and the Nighthawk had a separate powerplant to power a searchlight . Upon election as an MP in 1916 Pemberton-Billing sold the company to his factory manager and longtime associate Hubert Scott-Paine who renamed the company SUPERMARINE AVIATION WORKS LTD. The company became famous for its successes in the Schneider Trophy for seaplanes, especially the three wins in a row of 1927, 1929 and 1931. Supermarine Spitfire
Supermarine Spitfire
Mk.XIX in 2008

In 1928 Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
took over Supermarine
Supermarine
as SUPERMARINE AVIATION WORKS (VICKERS) LTD and in 1938 all Vickers-Armstrongs aviation interests were reorganised to become VICKERS-ARMSTRONGS (AIRCRAFT) LTD, although Supermarine
Supermarine
continued to design, build and trade under its own name. The phrase VICKERS SUPERMARINE was applied to the aircraft.

The first Supermarine
Supermarine
landplane design to go into production was the famous and successful Spitfire . The earlier Hawker Hurricane
Hawker Hurricane
and the Spitfire were the mainstay of RAF Fighter Command fighter aircraft which fought off the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
bombing raids with fighter escorts during the Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
in the summer of 1940. While the Hurricane was available in larger numbers and consequently played a larger role, the new Spitfire caught the popular imagination and became the aircraft associated with the battle. It went on to play a major part in the remainder of the war, in a number of variants and marks, and it was the only allied fighter aircraft to be in production through the entirety of the Second World War .

Other planes from the period include the Seafire (a naval version of the Spitfire). Supermarine
Supermarine
also developed the Spiteful and Seafang , the successors of the Spitfire and Seafire, respectively, and the Walrus flying boat. Swift FR.5 , Farnborough air show, 1955

The Supermarine
Supermarine
main works was in Woolston, Southampton which led to the city being heavily bombed in 1940. This curtailed work on their first heavy bomber design, the Supermarine B.12/36 which was replaced by the Short Stirling .

After the end of the war, the Supermarine
Supermarine
division built the Royal Navy 's first jet fighter, the Attacker , developed from the final Spitfire type. It served front line squadrons aboard aircraft carriers and RNVR squadrons at shore bases. The Attacker was followed by the more advanced Swift which served in the fighter and photo-reconnaissance roles. The last of the Supermarine
Supermarine
aircraft was the Scimitar .

In the shakeup of British aircraft manufacturing, Vickers-Armstrongs (Aircraft) became a part of the British Aircraft Corporation
British Aircraft Corporation
and the individual manufacturing heritage names were lost. Northshore Marine Motor Yachts now builds a range of motorboats under the Supermarine name in Chichester
Chichester
, Portsmouth
Portsmouth
, England. The name is also used for Spitfire replicas made by an Australian company in Cisco, Texas.

CURRENT COMPANY

The name was revived in 1990 by a company in Burslem called Supermarine
Supermarine
Aero Engineering Ltd. that handbuilds parts for Spitfire planes.

SUPERMARINE AIRCRAFT

* Pemberton-Billing P.B.1 (1914) * Pemberton-Billing P.B.9 * Pemberton-Billing P.B.23 * Pemberton-Billing P.B.25 (1915) * Pemberton-Billing P.B.29 * AD Flying Boat (1916) * AD Navyplane (1916) * Supermarine Nighthawk
Supermarine Nighthawk
(1917) – anti- Zeppelin
Zeppelin
fighter aircraft * Supermarine Baby (1917) – single-seat fighter flying boat

* Supermarine Sea Lion I (1919) – Schneider race flying boat

* Supermarine Sea Lion II and III (1922)

* Supermarine
Supermarine
Channel (1919) – civil version of the AD Flying Boat * Supermarine Scylla early (1920s) * Supermarine Sea Urchin early (1920s) * Supermarine Commercial Amphibian (1920) * Supermarine Sea King (1920) – single-seat fighter flying boat * Supermarine Seagull (1921) – amphibian Fleet Spotter * Supermarine Seal (1921) * Supermarine Sea Eagle
Supermarine Sea Eagle
(1923) – civil amphibian flying boat * Supermarine Scarab
Supermarine Scarab
(1924) – military version of Sea Eagle * Supermarine Sheldrake * Supermarine Swan (1924) – experimental amphibian * Supermarine Sparrow
Supermarine Sparrow
(1924) – two-seat ultralight * Supermarine Southampton
Supermarine Southampton
(1925) – flying boat * Supermarine S.4 (1925) – Schneider Trophy
Schneider Trophy
race seaplane * Supermarine S.5 (1927) – Schneider Trophy
Schneider Trophy
race seaplane * Supermarine Nanok (1927) * Supermarine Solent (1927) * Supermarine Seamew (1928) – twin-engined flying boat * Supermarine S.6 (1929) – Schneider Trophy
Schneider Trophy
race seaplane * Supermarine S.6B
Supermarine S.6B
(1931) – Schneider Trophy
Schneider Trophy
race (first aircraft over 400 mph) * Supermarine Air Yacht (1931) – six-passenger flying boat * Supermarine Type 179 (1931) * Supermarine Scapa
Supermarine Scapa
(1932) – flying boat * Supermarine Stranraer (1932) – general-purpose flying boat * Supermarine Walrus
Supermarine Walrus
(1933) – amphibian fleet spotter * Supermarine Type 224
Supermarine Type 224
(1934) unsuccessful design for a fighter aircraft to Air Ministry specification F.7/30

* Supermarine Spitfire
Supermarine Spitfire
(1936) – single-seat fighter

* Supermarine Seafire
Supermarine Seafire
(1941) – single-seat carrier-based fighter version of the Spitfire * Supermarine Spitfire
Supermarine Spitfire
(early Merlin powered variants) – Merlin engine variants * Supermarine Spitfire
Supermarine Spitfire
(late Merlin powered variants) – two-stage Merlin engine variants * Supermarine Spitfire
Supermarine Spitfire
(Griffon powered variants) – two-stage Griffon engine variants * Supermarine Spitfire
Supermarine Spitfire
operational history * Supermarine Spitfire
Supermarine Spitfire
variants: specifications, performance and armament * List of Supermarine Spitfire
Supermarine Spitfire
operators * List of surviving Supermarine Spitfires
List of surviving Supermarine Spitfires

* Supermarine Sea Otter (1938) – flying boat * Supermarine 322 also S.24/37 or "Dumbo" (1939) * Supermarine Spiteful
Supermarine Spiteful
(1944) – replacement for the Spitfire * Supermarine Seafang (1946) – development of Spiteful * Supermarine Attacker
Supermarine Attacker
(1946) – jet fighter * Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 (1948) – air-sea rescue and reconnaissance * Supermarine 510 (1948) – swept wing Attacker prototype * Supermarine 535 (1950) – Swift predecessor with Nene engine * Supermarine Swift (1951) – jet fighter * Supermarine 508 (1951) – V-tailed, twin engined straight winged fighter prototype * Supermarine 521 (1950) – Modified Attacker fuselage as basis for Handley Page HP.88 * Supermarine 525 (1954) – immediate predecessor of Scimitar * Supermarine Scimitar
Supermarine Scimitar
(1956) – naval ground attack aircraft

Designs and submissions only

* Supermarine Type 179 - six engine transport flying-boat * Supermarine
Supermarine
318 – four engined heavy bomber to B.12/36, abandoned after prototypes destroyed by German bombing attack * Supermarine
Supermarine
Type 305 (1938) – design project for a turret armed derivative of the Spitfire * Supermarine Type 324 – design project for a twin Merlin engined, tricycle undercarriage fighter based on Spitfire wing and fuselage. * Supermarine 545 – supersonic version of Swift * Supermarine Type 553 (1953) – mach 2 research aircraft project * Supermarine Type 559 (1955) – submission for Operational Requirement F.155 for a high altitude supersonic fighter * Supermarine Type 571 – submission for GOR.339 TSR.2 requirement

SEE ALSO

* Aerospace industry in the United Kingdom
Aerospace industry in the United Kingdom
* Supermarine Aircraft

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

* ^ The World's Worst Aircraft James Gilbert ISBN 0-340-21824-X * ^ Supermarine
Supermarine
Aero Engineering Ltd. " Supermarine
Supermarine
Aero Engineering Ltd.". companiesintheuk.co.uk. Retrieved 16 April 2016. * ^ Supermarine
Supermarine
Aero Engineering Ltd. "Supermarine". Supermarine.net. Retrieved 16 April 2016. * ^ Supermarine
Supermarine
Aero Engineering Ltd. "Engineer Mark Harris supplies Spitfire spare parts". BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 16 April 2016. * ^ Andrews and Morgan 1987, pp. 294–196. * ^ Andrews and Morgan 1987, pp. 308–309.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Andrews, C.F.; Morgan E.B. (1987). Supermarine Aircraft since 1914, Second edition. London: Putnam. ISBN 0-85177-800-3 . * Chorlton, Martyn (2012). Supermarine: Company Profile 1913–1963. Cudham, Kent: Kelsey Publishing Group (Aeroplane). ISBN 978-1-907426-46-9 . * Pegram, Ralph (2016). Beyond the Spitfire - The Unseen Designs of R.J. Mitchell (Hardback)format= requires url= (help ). Brimscombe Port: The History Press. ISBN 9780750965156 . * Shelton, John (2008). Schneider Trophy
Schneider Trophy
to Spitfire – The Design Career of R.J. Mitchell (Hardback). Sparkford: Hayes Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84425-530-6 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to SUPERMARINE .

* Spitfire Society