HOME
The Info List - Subaru


--- Advertisement ---



Coordinates: 36°17′51″N 139°22′05″E / 36.2975685°N 139.368058°E / 36.2975685; 139.368058

Subaru

Confidence in Motion

Subaru
Subaru
corporate headquarters building

Native name

スバル

Industry Automobile
Automobile
manufacturing

Founded July 15, 1953; 64 years ago (1953-07-15)[1][2]

Founder Kenji Kita Chikuhei Nakajima
Chikuhei Nakajima
(predecessor)

Headquarters Ebisu, Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan

Area served

Worldwide

Key people

Yasuyuki Yoshinaga, (representative director, president and CEO) Jun Kondo, (representative director & vice-president)

Products Automobiles

Production output

1,065,000 units (2017)[3]

Revenue ¥3,325.99 billion (2017)[4]

Operating income

¥410.81 billion (2017)[4]

Net income

¥282.35 billion (2017)[4]

Total assets ¥2,762.321 billion (2017)[4]

Total equity ¥1,480.08 billion (2017)[4]

Parent Subaru
Subaru
Corporation

Divisions Subaru
Subaru
Tecnica International

Website Subaru
Subaru
Global

Subaru
Subaru
(スバル) (/ˈsuːbəruː/ or /sʊˈbɑːruː/;[5][6] Japanese pronunciation: [sɯbaɾɯ])[7] is the automobile manufacturing division of Japanese transportation conglomerate Subaru Corporation (formerly known as Fuji Heavy Industries), the twenty-second largest automaker by production worldwide in 2012.[8] Subaru
Subaru
cars are known for their use of a boxer engine layout in most vehicles above 1500 cc. Most Subaru
Subaru
models have used the Symmetrical All Wheel Drive drive-train layout since 1972. The flat/boxer engine and all-wheel-drive became standard equipment for mid-size and smaller cars in most international markets by 1996, and is now standard in most North American market Subaru
Subaru
vehicles. The lone exception is the BRZ, introduced in 2012, which uses the boxer engine but instead uses a rear-wheel-drive structure. Subaru
Subaru
also offers turbocharged versions of their passenger cars, such as the Impreza WRX
Impreza WRX
and the Legacy 2.5GT. The 2.0XT trim of the Forester also includes a turbocharged engine. In Western markets, the Subaru
Subaru
brand has traditionally been popular among a dedicated core of buyers. Marketing is targeted towards specific niches centered on those who desire the company's signature drive train engine, all-wheel/rough-road capabilities or affordable sports car markets.[9] Subaru
Subaru
is the Japanese name for the Pleiades
Pleiades
star cluster M45, or "The Seven Sisters" (one of whom tradition says is invisible – hence only six stars in the Subaru
Subaru
logo), which in turn inspires the logo and alludes to the companies that merged to create FHI.[10]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Fuji Heavy Industries
Fuji Heavy Industries
(FHI) and Subaru's first cars 1.2 Later partnerships 1.3 Marketing

2 Current operations

2.1 Manufacturing facilities 2.2 Subaru
Subaru
in Canada 2.3 Subaru
Subaru
in Asia 2.4 Subaru
Subaru
in the United Kingdom 2.5 Subaru
Subaru
in the United States

3 Motorsports 4 Technology

4.1 Diesel 4.2 Electric vehicles 4.3 Electronics

5 Environmental record 6 Current and former Subaru
Subaru
vehicles

6.1 1950s-1960s 6.2 1970s 6.3 1980s 6.4 1990s 6.5 2000s 6.6 2010s 6.7 Other manufacturers 6.8 Concept vehicles

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit]

Former logo on a Subaru 360
Subaru 360
showing six stars in an arrangement similar to the Pleiades
Pleiades
open star cluster

Fuji Heavy Industries
Fuji Heavy Industries
(FHI) and Subaru's first cars[edit] Fuji Heavy Industries
Fuji Heavy Industries
started out as The Aircraft Research Laboratory in 1915, headed by Chikuhei Nakajima. In 1932, the company was reorganized as Nakajima Aircraft Company, Ltd and soon became a major manufacturer of aircraft for Japan
Japan
during World War II. At the end of the Second World War Nakajima Aircraft was again reorganized, this time as Fuji Sangyo Co, Ltd. In 1946, the company created the Fuji Rabbit motor scooter with spare aircraft parts from the war.[11] In 1950, Fuji Sangyo was divided into 12 smaller corporations according to the Japanese Government's 1950 Corporate Credit Rearrangement Act, anti-zaibatsu legislation. Between 1953 and 1955, five of these corporations and a newly formed corporation decided to merge to form Fuji Heavy Industries. These companies were: Fuji Kogyo, a scooter manufacturer; coachbuilders Fuji Jidosha; engine manufacturers Omiya Fuji Kogyo; chassis builders Utsunomiya Sharyo and the Tokyo
Tokyo
Fuji Dangyo trading company.[12]

Subaru
Subaru
1500, a.k.a. the P-1

Kenji Kita, CEO of Fuji Heavy Industries
Fuji Heavy Industries
at the time, wanted the new company to be involved in car manufacturing and soon began plans for building a car with the development code-name P-1. Mr. Kita canvassed the company for suggestions about naming the P1, but none of the proposals was appealing enough. In the end he gave the company a Japanese name that he had "been cherishing in his heart": Subaru, which is the name of the Pleiades
Pleiades
star cluster in Japanese. The first Subaru
Subaru
car was named the Subaru
Subaru
1500.[13] Only twenty were manufactured owing to multiple supply issues. Subsequently, the company designed and manufactured dozens of vehicles including the 1500 (1954), the tiny air-cooled 360 (1958), the Sambar (1961), and the 1000 (which saw the introduction of the Subaru
Subaru
boxer engine in 1965).

1958 Subaru
Subaru
360

Later partnerships[edit] Nissan
Nissan
acquired a 20.4% stake in Fuji Heavy Industries, Subaru's parent company, in 1968 during a period of government-ordered merging of the Japanese auto industry in order to improve competitiveness under the administration of Prime Minister Eisaku Sato. Nissan
Nissan
would utilize FHI's bus manufacturing capability and expertise for their Nissan
Nissan
Diesel line of buses. In turn many Subaru
Subaru
vehicles, even today, use parts from the Nissan
Nissan
manufacturing keiretsu. The Subaru
Subaru
automatic transmission, known as the 4EAT, is also used in the first generation Nissan
Nissan
Pathfinder. While under this arrangement with Nissan, Subaru introduced the R-2 (1969), the Rex and the Leone (1971), the BRAT (1978), Alcyone (1985), the Legacy (1989), the Impreza (1993) (and its WRX subtype), and the Forester (1997). Upon Nissan's acquisition by Renault, its stake in FHI was sold to General Motors in 1999. Troy Clarke, of General Motors served as representative to Fuji Heavy Industries
Fuji Heavy Industries
on their corporate board. During that time, Subaru
Subaru
introduced the Baja (2003), and the Tribeca (2005). The Subaru Forester
Subaru Forester
was sold as a Chevrolet Forester in India in exchange for the Opel Zafira
Opel Zafira
being sold as a Subaru Traviq
Subaru Traviq
in Japan. Also, the Chevrolet Borrego concept was presented in 2002, a crossover coupe/pickup truck being derived from the Japanese-market Legacy Turbo platform. During the brief General Motors period, a "badge engineered" Impreza was sold in the United States as the Saab 9-2X. An SUV ( Subaru Tribeca
Subaru Tribeca
/ Saab 9-6X) was also planned[14][15] but the Saab version did not proceed, and styling was recycled in the 2008 Tribeca refresh.[16] GM liquidated their holdings in FHI in 2005. Nearly all Saab-Subaru joint projects were dropped at that time, other than Subaru
Subaru
supplying parts for the Saab 9-2x.[17] Toyota Motors
Toyota Motors
bought a little over 40% of GM's former FHI stock, amounting to 8.7% of FHI. (The rest of GM's shares went to a Fuji stock buy-back program.)[17] Toyota
Toyota
and Subaru have since collaborated on a number of projects, among them building the Toyota
Toyota
Camry in Subaru's Indiana U.S. plant beginning in April 2007.[18] Subaru
Subaru
introduced the Exiga in 2008. Toyota
Toyota
increased their share of FHI to 16.5% in July 2008.[19] Subsequently, Toyota
Toyota
and Subaru
Subaru
jointly developed the Toyota
Toyota
86, first sold in January 2012 as the Subaru BRZ
Subaru BRZ
and by Toyota
Toyota
under various names. Marketing[edit] Some of the advertising slogans Subaru
Subaru
has used in the past include "Inexpensive, and built to stay that way" (USA 1970s - early 1980s), "The World's Favourite Four Wheel Drive" (in the UK), "Plus on y pense, plus on a le gout de la conduire" (Literally: "The more one thinks, the more one has the taste (or desire, impulse, drive) of driving it") in French Quebec,[20] "We built our reputation by building a better car", "What to Drive", "The Beauty of All-Wheel Drive", "Driven by What's Inside", "Think, Feel, Drive", "Love. It's what makes Subaru, a Subaru" (USA early 2010s) and currently "Confidence in Motion" in North America, "All 4 The Driver" in Australia, and "Uncommon Engineering, Uncommon Stability, Uncommon Roadholding, Uncommon Sense" in the UK and "Technology that gives you Confidence in Motion" in Southeast Asia.[21] As a result of this[clarification needed] refocused advertising campaign, Subaru
Subaru
products began to attract a following among the young and educated, who saw the car as a practical alternative to the SUV craze. Subaru
Subaru
has historically been popular in the Northeastern United States as well as the Pacific Northwest. According to Automotive Lease Guide, Subaru
Subaru
ranked second place in vehicles that have the highest overall predicted resale values among all industry and all luxury vehicles for MY 2009.[22] The awards are derived after carefully studying segment competition, historical vehicle performance and industry trends. According to a study done by J.D. Power and Associates for the 2008 Customer Retention Study, Subaru
Subaru
ranked at 50.5%, which was above the national average of 48%.[23] Subaru
Subaru
launched an animation series Wish Upon the Pleiades
Pleiades
Hōkago no Pleiades
Pleiades
(放課後のプレアデス, Hōkago no Pureadesu, lit. 'After School Pleiades') developed jointly with Gainax. The 4-part mini episode series was released on YouTube
YouTube
on February 1, 2011. It featured a magical girl plot with Subaru
Subaru
as a leading protagonist. Current operations[edit] Subaru's corporate headquarters are located in Ebisu, Tokyo. Manufacturing facilities[edit] Subaru
Subaru
is distinct from many of its Japanese competitors in that as of early 2016 it still made almost 75% of its cars sold internationally in Japan.[24] Subaru's facilities designated to automotive manufacturing are located in Ōta, Gunma
Ōta, Gunma
Prefecture, consisting of four locations. Subaru-chō is where the Subaru
Subaru
BRZ/ Toyota 86
Toyota 86
is built, having been re-purposed from kei car production, Yajima Plant is where all current Subaru
Subaru
cars are built, Otakita Plant is where commercial kei trucks are built (originally a factory location of Nakajima Aircraft Company), and Oizumi Plant in Oizumi, Gunma Prefecture, is where engines and transmissions are built.[25] Subaru's only overseas manufacturing facility is located in Lafayette, Indiana; the factory is called Subaru
Subaru
of Indiana Automotive, Inc.. Due to continued sales growth in North American markets, vehicle production capacity at the Lafayette assembly plant is set to expand to 390,000 vehicles annually. Under the current strategic plan, Subaru will have a total production capacity of 1,026,000 vehicles per year at the end of 2016.[26] Subaru
Subaru
in Canada[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

In 1976, Canadians got their first exposure to Subaru
Subaru
vehicles when Subaru
Subaru
Auto Canada Limited (SACL) began offering the Subaru
Subaru
Leone. In 1989, the privately owned SACL was purchased by the Toronto-based Subaru
Subaru
Canada, Inc. who, under the guidance of parent company Fuji Heavy Industries, began an expansion process that would eventually see over 100 Subaru
Subaru
Dealers in operation across the country. Subaru
Subaru
Canada, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Fuji Heavy Industries of Japan. Headquartered in Mississauga, Ontario, the company markets and distributes Subaru
Subaru
vehicles, parts and accessories through a network of 88 authorized dealers throughout Canada. Subaru
Subaru
in Asia[edit] In Asian countries outside of Japan, Subaru
Subaru
vehicles, parts and accessories are supplied by Motor Image Group, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hong Kong-based Tan Chong International
International
Limited under businessman Glenn Tan. Subaru
Subaru
has entered the Philippine operations started in 1996 under the Columbian Motors Philippines
Philippines
ownership but withdrew in 2000. It returned in 2006 under a new ownership by Motor Image Pilipinas, Inc.[27] Subaru
Subaru
has eleven dealerships in the country: Greenhills, Fort Bonifacio, Manila Bay, Alabang, Davao, Cebu, Cagayan de Oro, Iloilo, Santa Rosa, Batangas, and Pampanga.[28] Subaru
Subaru
in the United Kingdom[edit] In 1974 Robert Edmiston was finance director at sports car manufacturer Jensen Motors. When the company went bankrupt, he used a £6,000 redundancy payout to set up International
International
Motors[citation needed], which acquired the UK franchise for Subaru
Subaru
and Isuzu. The Coleshill based company is still the parent for Subaru
Subaru
in the UK.[29] Subaru
Subaru
in the United States[edit] Main article: Subaru
Subaru
of America Subaru of America was established in 1968 in Philadelphia by Malcolm Bricklin and Harvey Lamm. It relocated to Pennsauken, New Jersey shortly thereafter and moved to its current headquarters in Cherry Hill, New Jersey when Fuji Heavy Industries
Fuji Heavy Industries
acquired full ownership. Subaru of America operates regional offices, zone offices and parts distribution centers throughout the United States. Subaru
Subaru
of America also operates port facilities on both the West and East coasts.[30] In 1989 Subaru
Subaru
and then-partner Isuzu
Isuzu
opened a joint factory in Lafayette, Indiana
Lafayette, Indiana
called Subaru- Isuzu
Isuzu
Automotive, or SIA, which initially manufactured the Subaru Legacy
Subaru Legacy
and Isuzu
Isuzu
Rodeo. In 2001 Isuzu
Isuzu
sold their stake in the plant to FHI for $1 due to flagging sales and it was renamed Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. SIA has been designated a backyard wildlife habitat by the National Wildlife Federation and has achieved a zero-landfill production designation (the first automotive assembly plant in the United States to earn that designation).[30] According to the Kelley Blue Book
Kelley Blue Book
in 2015, two Subaru
Subaru
models Forester and the Outback in the United States had very short inventory time (the time between being received by a dealer to being sold).[31] Motorsports[edit]

Subaru Impreza
Subaru Impreza
WRC

Subaru
Subaru
Rally Team Japan
Japan
led by Noriyuki Koseki (founder of Subaru Tecnica International, STI) ran Subaru Leone
Subaru Leone
coupé, sedan DL, RX (SRX) and RX Turbo in the World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship
between 1980 and 1989. Drivers for individual rallies included Ari Vatanen, Per Eklund, Shekhar Mehta, Mike Kirkland, Possum Bourne
Possum Bourne
and Harald Demut. Mike Kirkland finished 6th overall and won the A Group at the 1986 Safari Rally. That year Subaru
Subaru
was one of the only manufacturers combining 4WD and turbo after Audi's successful quattro system had been introduced in 1980, but Audi withdrew from the WRC after safety concerns and Ford's serious accident early in the 1986 season. Subaru changed the rally model to Legacy RS for the 1990–1992 period and took part in the first complete season in the World Rally Championship with the same model in 1993. Modified versions of the Impreza WRX
Impreza WRX
and WRX STi have been competing successfully in rallying. Drivers Colin McRae
Colin McRae
(1995), Richard Burns (2001) and Petter Solberg
Petter Solberg
(2003) have won World Rally Championship drivers' titles with the Subaru World Rally Team
Subaru World Rally Team
and Subaru
Subaru
took the manufacturers' title three years in a row from 1995 to 1997. Subaru's World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship
cars are prepared and run by Prodrive, the highly successful British motorsport team. Several endurance records were set in the early and mid-nineties by the Subaru
Subaru
Legacy. The Subaru Justy
Subaru Justy
also holds the world record for the fastest sub 1.0L car without a turbo: 123.224 mph average, it was set in 1989.[32] Subaru
Subaru
was briefly involved in Formula One
Formula One
circuit racing when it bought a controlling interest in the tiny Italian Coloni team for the 1990 season. The Coloni 3B's 12-cylinder engine was badged as a Subaru and shared the boxer layout with the company's own engines, but was an existing design built by Italian firm Motori Moderni. The cars were overweight and underpowered and the partnership broke down before the season finished.[33] With the rise of rally racing and the Import scene in the US, the introduction of the highly anticipated Subaru Impreza WRX
Impreza WRX
in 2001 was successful in bringing high-performance AWD compact cars into the sports car mainstream. Subaru
Subaru
supplies a factory-backed team, Subaru Rally Team USA
Subaru Rally Team USA
for Rally America
Rally America
and has won the driver's title six times, most recently in 2011 with David Higgins.[34] Grassroots Motorsports awarded Subaru
Subaru
with the Editors' Choice Award in 2002.[full citation needed] On 16 December 2008, it was announced that Subaru
Subaru
would no longer be competing in the World Rally Championships.[35] The decision was made by Subaru’s parent company, Fuji Heavy Industries
Fuji Heavy Industries
(FHI), partly as a result of the economic downturn but also because it was felt Subaru had achieved its sporting and marketing objectives. Mr Ikuo Mori denied that alterations to the WRC technical regulations in 2010 or a rumoured deterioration in the working relationship with Prodrive
Prodrive
had any impact on the decision. He also said that the possibility of a Subaru
Subaru
car back in the top category of WRC in the future is not zero, but for this moment there can be no assumption of a comeback.[36] Since 2005, Cusco Racing have entered an Impreza sedan and a BRZ in the Super GT
Super GT
championship. In 2008, the Impreza was the first 4-door and first 4WD vehicle to win a race. Starting in 2006, Subaru of America (SOA), as the official distributor of Subaru
Subaru
vehicles in the United States participates in the Subaru Road Racing Team (SRRT) with a Subaru Legacy
Subaru Legacy
2.5 GT Spec-B in the Grand-Am
Grand-Am
Street Tuner class. In 2010, SRRT campaigns a Subaru
Subaru
Impreza WRX STI in the Grand Sport class.[37] In 2011, SRRT switched from the hatchback to a 2011 Subaru
Subaru
Impreza WRX
Impreza WRX
STI sedan. On 4 May 2012, Subaru Rally Team USA
Subaru Rally Team USA
announced that a new rallycross team, Subaru
Subaru
Puma Rallycross Team USA will participate in the 2012 Global RallyCross Championship
Global RallyCross Championship
season with Dave Mirra, Bucky Lasek, and Sverre Isachsen.[38] They also competed in the 2014 FIA World Rallycross Championship. In 2011, Mark Higgins used a stock Impreza to set a lap record at the Isle of Man TT
Isle of Man TT
course.[39] In 2016, Higgins again broke the record in a modified WRX STI.[40] The impreza has won hillclimbs such as the Silverstone Race to the Sky and Mount Washington Hillclimb Auto Race.[citation needed] Technology[edit] Diesel[edit] The 2007 Frankfurt International
International
Motor Show saw Subaru
Subaru
introduce a horizontally opposed, water-cooled, common rail turbodiesel using a variable geometry turbocharger called the Subaru
Subaru
EE engine, the first of its type to be fitted to a passenger car. Volkswagen had experimented with this idea during the 1950s and made two air-cooled boxer prototype diesel engines that were not turbocharged. VW installed one engine in a Type 1 and another in a Type 2.[41] The Subaru
Subaru
engine was rated at 110 kW (150 PS; 148 hp) and 350 N⋅m (260 ft⋅lbf) with a displacement of 2.0 litres. In March 2008 Subaru
Subaru
offered the Legacy sedan and wagon and the Outback wagon with 2.0 litre turbodiesel in the EU with a 5-speed manual transmission.[42][43] In September 2008 Subaru
Subaru
announced that the diesel Forester and diesel Impreza will be introduced at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, with Forester sales to begin October 2008 and diesel Impreza sales to start January 2009.[44] The Forester and Impreza will have a 6-speed manual transmission, whereas the Legacy and Outback have 5-speed manual transmissions. United States Environmental Protection Agency
United States Environmental Protection Agency
fuel economy estimated is:

City Ranges 32.7 mpg‑US (7.2 L/100 km; 39.3 mpg‑imp) 33.6 mpg‑US (7.0 L/100 km; 40.4 mpg‑imp)

Highway Ranges 45.2 mpg‑US (5.20 L/100 km; 54.3 mpg‑imp) 49.0 mpg‑US (4.80 L/100 km; 58.8 mpg‑imp)[45]

Electric vehicles[edit] In June 2006, Fuji Heavy Industries, Inc. (FHI) launched its Subaru Stella Plug-in electric vehicle
Plug-in electric vehicle
which is a kei car equipped with a lithium-ion battery pack. The vehicle has a short range of 56 miles (90 km) but it actually costs more than the Mitsubishi iMiEV, at ¥4,380,000 (US$44,860), including Japanese Government consumption taxes with an exemption of $2,240. It will also qualify for a rebate from the Japanese Government of up to $14,200, bringing the price down to $30,660. The vehicle is much like the i-MiEV, with a 47-kilowatt motor and a quick-charge capability, but the two-door mini-car has a boxy shape. FHI plans to start delivery in late July and plans to sell 170 vehicles by March 2010.[46] In Japan, Subaru
Subaru
is currently testing two electric vehicles called the Subaru G4e
Subaru G4e
and the Subaru
Subaru
R1e. The Subaru Hybrid Tourer
Subaru Hybrid Tourer
Concept is a four-seat vehicle with gull-wing doors that combines a 2-liter turbocharged direct-injection gasoline engine with a continuously variable transmission and two axle-mounted motors. A lithium-ion battery pack provides energy storage for the vehicle.[47] Electronics[edit] Since the 2005 model year, Subaru
Subaru
has adopted the CAN bus
CAN bus
technology for the USA and Canada markets. Starting in the 2007 model year, all Subaru
Subaru
vehicles use the CAN technology.[citation needed] Typically, two CAN-buses are used on vehicles: a high-speed CAN running at 500 kbit/s for powertrain communication, and a low-speed CAN running at 125 kbit/s for body control functions and instrument panels. A body-integrated unit (BIU) is used between these two networks. Clarion and Harman Kardon
Harman Kardon
are among the audio, video, and navigation technology suppliers for Subaru
Subaru
products in North America.[48] Clarion announced in 2015 that it was introducing its "Smart Access" platform, formerly only offered on Clarion's aftermarket products, to the units to be installed in certain Subaru
Subaru
2015 models in North America. Smart Access is able to work with the driver's smartphone (either iPhone or Android) and allows access to various car-safe apps running on the phone via the car's built-in infotainment screen. [49][50] Subaru
Subaru
and Clarion have also, with Liberty Mutual Insurance, introduced the "RightTrack" in-vehicle app which will be able to monitor the driver's habits, make suggestions for safer driving, and possibly offer insurance discounts. [51][52] Environmental record[edit]

USA-spec Subaru Legacy
Subaru Legacy
PZEV

Subaru
Subaru
claims to have implemented advanced policies which include recycling, reducing harmful emissions, and educating their employees. Their efforts have helped them in their environmental initiatives. The Subaru
Subaru
plant in Lafayette, Indiana
Lafayette, Indiana
(SIA) was the first auto assembly plant to achieve zero landfill status;[53] nothing from the manufacturing process goes into a landfill. The company has developed a recycling plan for the "end-of-life" of their cars. Most of their modern products use highly recyclable materials throughout the vehicle, in the engine, transmission, suspension and elsewhere in each vehicle leaving Subaru
Subaru
with a 97.3% recycling ratio rate for their end-of-life vehicles.[54] An excerpt from the Subaru
Subaru
website stated "In 2006, SIA was awarded the United States Environmental Protection Agency´s Gold Achievement Award as a top achiever in the agency's WasteWise program to reduce waste and improve recycling." The website also stated that "It also became the first U.S. automotive assembly plant to be designated a wildlife habitat." Subaru
Subaru
currently offers a Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) certified Legacy, Outback, Impreza,[55] XV/Crosstrek[56] and Forester models[57] which are available for sale anywhere in the U.S. Subaru PZEV vehicles meet California's Super-Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle exhaust emission standard.[53] All other models have been certified LEV2. Current and former Subaru
Subaru
vehicles[edit] 1950s-1960s[edit]

360 (1958-1971) 1000 (1966-1969) 1500 (1954) FF-1 G (1971-1972) FF-1 Star (1969-1973) R-2 (1969–1972)

1970s[edit]

Subaru Loyale
Subaru Loyale
(1971-1994) BRAT (1978-1994) Rex (1972-1992)

1980s[edit]

Sumo / Libero / Domingo / Columbuss / E series / Estratto (1983-1998) Justy / Tutto (1984-2010, 2016-present) XT / Alcyone / Vortex (1985-1991) Legacy / Liberty (1989-present)

1990s[edit]

Vivio (1992-1998) Impreza (1992-present)

Impreza WRX
Impreza WRX
(2001-2014) and Impreza WRX
Impreza WRX
STI (2001-2014)

Outback Sport / Gravel Express / RV (1994-present) Alcyone / SVX (1991-1996) Forester (1997-present) Traviq (rebadged Opel Zafira) (1999-2005)

2000s[edit]

Baja (2003-2006) R2 (2003-2010) R1 (2005-2010) Tribeca (2005-2014) Trezia (2005-2017) Exiga (2008-present)

2010s[edit]

BRZ Crosstrek Forester Impreza Legacy Outback Subaru
Subaru
XV Levorg Subaru
Subaru
WRX

Other manufacturers[edit] Subaru
Subaru
has partnered with various manufacturers over time - here are some of the models sold in Asia and Europe. In Japan
Japan
they are in the Kei car
Kei car
class with either front or all wheel drive and a straight engine. An article posted by Autoblog on April 16, 2008 stated that due to a corporate investment by Toyota, all Kei cars built by Subaru will be replaced by Daihatsu
Daihatsu
models beginning in 2010.[58]

Lucra Pleo Sambar Stella Dex

Concept vehicles[edit] The following concepts vehicles did not go forward as production vehicles:

Subaru SRD-1 (Experimental design study introduced in 1990) Subaru
Subaru
Suiren (Concept replacement for the BRAT/Brumby) Subaru Exiga
Subaru Exiga
(1996, wagon)[59] Subaru
Subaru
B9 Scrambler Subaru
Subaru
B11S[60] Subaru B5 TPH
Subaru B5 TPH
(Turbo Parallel Hybrid) (Japanese: Subaru
Subaru
B5-TPH) Subaru
Subaru
Fleet-X Subaru
Subaru
HS500[61] Subaru
Subaru
VIZIV

See also[edit]

Japanese Car portal

Prodrive
Prodrive
Motorsport team selected by Subaru
Subaru
to run their World Rally Team Subaru
Subaru
Tecnica International
International
(also known as STI) List of Subaru
Subaru
engines List of Subaru
Subaru
transmissions Subaru EA engine
Subaru EA engine
series Subaru EF engine
Subaru EF engine
series Subaru EJ engine
Subaru EJ engine
series Symmetrical All Wheel Drive

References[edit]

^ "Corporate Profile Subaru
Subaru
Outline". SUBARU. Retrieved 2018-03-18.  ^ "Corporate Information Overview". Fuji Heavy Industries
Fuji Heavy Industries
Ltd. 2015-03-31. Retrieved 2016-02-16.  ^ (PDF) https://www.subaru.co.jp/en/ir/library/pdf/ar/ar_2017e_13.pdf.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ a b c d e (PDF) https://www.subaru.co.jp/en/ir/library/pdf/ar/ar_2017e_16.pdf.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ " Subaru
Subaru
UK Boxer Diesel TV Ad". 2009-06-15.  ^ " Subaru Impreza
Subaru Impreza
22B STI: The Original Rally Icon! - Ignition Episode Ep. 98". 2014-01-06.  ^ "Japanese pronunciation of Car Brand".  ^ "World Motor Vehicle Production, Year 2012" (PDF). OICA. Retrieved 2013-11-02.  ^ Jie, Ma; Hagiwara, Yuki (2013-08-09). "Subaru's 412% Surge Leads Carmaker to Debate Niche Status". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved 2015-11-25.  ^ "Origins of Subaru
Subaru
name". Subaru-global.com. Archived from the original on 2010-04-11. Retrieved 2010-10-05.  ^ "Fuji Rabbit.com". Fuji Rabbit.com. Archived from the original on 2008-12-11. Retrieved 2010-10-05.  ^ " Subaru
Subaru
Heritage". Subaru
Subaru
Global. Subaru
Subaru
Corporation. Retrieved 2017-04-10.  ^ "Inspiration of naming first Subaru
Subaru
vehicle". Subaru
Subaru
Global. Archived from the original on 2013-07-31. Retrieved 2010-10-05.  ^ "Saab 9-6X Gets the Go-ahead". edmunds.com/insideline. Retrieved 2007-07-28.  ^ " Subaru
Subaru
plans new model revolution". autocar.co.uk/News. Retrieved 2007-07-28.  ^ "Saab Developing Smaller Crossover After Collapse of Subaru Alliance". edmunds.com. Retrieved 2007-07-28.  ^ a b "GM sells Subaru
Subaru
stake to Toyota". AutoBlog. 2005-10-05. Retrieved 2016-02-27.  ^ " Subaru
Subaru
to stop building Camrys for Toyota
Toyota
in Indiana, reports say". Automotive News. 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2016-02-27.  ^ "Update: Toyota
Toyota
nearly doubles stake in Subaru
Subaru
parent FHI". MotorAuthority. 2008-06-27. Retrieved 2016-02-27.  ^ Subaru Legacy
Subaru Legacy
Canada sales brochure printed January 1990 ^ Korzeniewski, Jeremy (2008-04-25). "''What really makes a Subaru
Subaru
a Subaru? Love?''". AutoBlog.com. Retrieved 2010-10-05.  ^ Automotive Lease Guide announcement for MY 2009 ^ "2008 Customer Retention Study J.D. Power and Associates". Jdpower.com. 2008-12-10. Retrieved 2009-06-12.  ^ Wilson, Thomas (2015-07-28). "Subaru's secret: Marginalized foreign workers power a Japanese export boom". Reuters. Retrieved 2016-08-28.  ^ "Facilities Domestic facilities". Japan: Fuji Heavy Industries. Retrieved 2016-12-16.  ^ "2015 Annual Report" (PDF). Fuji Heavy Industries. 2015-06-24. p. 23. Retrieved 2016-08-29.  ^ " Subaru
Subaru
- About Us > News and Events" (Press release). Motor Image, Philippines. 2009-01-26. Retrieved 2014-03-31.  ^ "Motor Image PH to open 4 new Subaru
Subaru
dealerships in 2013". Top Gear Philippines. 2012-12-08. Retrieved 2014-03-31.  ^ "Terms and Conditions Latest Outback offers". UK: Subaru. Retrieved 2016-12-16.  ^ a b "Subaru's company history, policies, attitudes, viewpoints, and basic info". Subaru
Subaru
of America, Inc. Retrieved 2014-02-12.  ^ McIntyre, Douglas (2016-04-30). " Subaru
Subaru
outsells itself". 247wallstreet. US. Retrieved 2016-05-01.  ^ http://dp.subaru.com/ ^ Subaru
Subaru
Performance magazine version 4.3 ^ "David Higgins Wins 2011 Rally America
Rally America
National Championship". US: Vermont Sports Car. 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2012-05-21.  ^ " Subaru
Subaru
pull out of World Rallying". Japan
Japan
Times. 2008-12-16.  ^ " Subaru
Subaru
doesn't rule out WRC return". WRC. 2008-12-16. Archived from the original on 2013-09-30. Retrieved 2013-10-06.  ^ " Subaru
Subaru
Impreza WRX
Impreza WRX
STI SRRT racecars". Carsession.com. US. 2010-02-01. Retrieved 2010-10-05.  ^ "Drivers & Teams". Global Rally Cross. Retrieved 2013-10-06.  ^ Elfalan, Jonathan (2011-07-13). "Isle of Madness – 2011 Isle of Man Subaru
Subaru
Record Breaking Run". Road and Track. US. Retrieved 2016-10-20.  ^ Burt, Matt (2016-06-28). "New onboard video: Subaru's record-breaking Isle of Man TT
Isle of Man TT
lap". Autocar. US. Retrieved 2016-10-20.  ^ "The Diesel Beetle". ltv-vwc.org.uk. Retrieved 2008-04-03.  ^ "Geneva Motor Show: Subaru
Subaru
diesel boxer engine". autobloggreen.com. Retrieved 2007-08-01.  ^ "Subaru's 2.0L Turbodiesel
Turbodiesel
Boxer – 110kW/147hp".  ^ Neff, John (2008-09-05). "Euro-spec Impreza diesel introduction". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-10-05.  ^ " Subaru
Subaru
Boxer Turbodiesel
Turbodiesel
– Specifications – First Drive – Truck Trend". trucktrend.com. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  ^ "EERE News: Mitsubishi and Subaru
Subaru
Launch Electric Cars in Japan". US Department of Energy. 2009-06-10. Retrieved 2012-08-04.  ^ "EERE News: Honda
Honda
CR-Z Concept Hybrid Debuts at the Tokyo
Tokyo
Motor Show". US Department of Energy. 2009-10-29. Retrieved 2012-08-04.  ^ "Clarion Japan
Japan
Business Outline". www.clarion.com. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  ^ "Clarion Brings Aftermarket Technology To Subaru". www.twice.com. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  ^ "Clarion U.S.A Subaru
Subaru
Launches the Next Generation of its STARLINK Infotainment System Utilizing Clarion's Smart Access Connectivity Platform". www.clarion.com. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  ^ Insurance, Liberty Mutual. "Liberty Mutual Insurance and Subaru Introduce New Technology to Promote Safe Driving and Savings on Auto Insurance". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  ^ " Harman Kardon
Harman Kardon
Automotive Subaru". www.harmankardon.com. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  ^ a b "Subaru's environmental record". Subaru.com. Retrieved 2010-10-05.  ^ " Fuji Heavy Industries
Fuji Heavy Industries
Ltd. > CSR / Environment > Environmental Report | Automobile
Automobile
Recycling". Fhi.co.jp. 2005-01-01. Retrieved 2012-01-14.  ^ "2012 Subaru Impreza
Subaru Impreza
Sedan 2.0i PZEV Price With Options". Edmunds.com. Retrieved 2012-01-14.  ^ "2016 Subaru Crosstrek
Subaru Crosstrek
Models & Specs - Crossover". Retrieved 2016-02-03.  ^ "It's What Makes a Subaru, a Subaru: Controlling Emissions - Part Two". Drive2.subaru.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2012-01-14.  ^ Gardiner, Justin (2008-04-16). " Subaru
Subaru
to stop making Kei Cars". Autoblog. Retrieved 2010-10-05.  ^ Manning, Steve (1999). "1996 Subaru Exiga
Subaru Exiga
station wagon (concept car)". The Online Home of the Station Wagon. US. Retrieved 2016-10-18.  ^ " Subaru
Subaru
B11S". Diseno-Art. 2014. Retrieved 2016-10-18.  ^ " Subaru
Subaru
to make bikes?". Faster and Faster. 2007-12-04. Retrieved 2016-10-18. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Subaru
Subaru
vehicles.

Official website Fuji Heavy Industries Subaru
Subaru
Tecnica International Subaru
Subaru
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Subaru
Subaru
at the Internet Movie Cars Database

v t e

Subaru

Current

Cars

BRZ Dex Exiga Impreza

Impreza WRX Impreza WRX
Impreza WRX
STI Outback

Legacy Levorg Pleo

SUVs/Crossovers

Forester Tribeca SUV XV/Crosstrek XV Ascent

Vans

Exiga/Legacy Exiga Sambar

Discontinued

360/460 1000 1500 Alcyone/SVX Baja BRAT FF-1 G FF-1 Star Justy/Tutto Leone Libero Outback Sport/Gravel Express/RV R-2 R1 R2 Rex Stella Sumo/Libero/Domingo/Columbuss/E series/Estratto Traviq Tribeca Vivio XT/Alcyone XT/Vortex

Concept vehicles

SRD-1 (1990) Fleet-X (1999) B11S (2003) B9 Scrambler (2003) R1e (2003) B5 TPH (2005) G4e (2007) Hybrid & Advanced Tourer (2009, 2011) Viziv (2013–15)

Motor sport

Subaru
Subaru
Tecnica International Subaru
Subaru
Rally Team USA Subaru
Subaru
Road Racing Team Subaru
Subaru
World Rally Team

See also

Fuji Heavy Industries Subaru
Subaru
engines Subaru
Subaru
of America Subaru
Subaru
of Indiana Automotive Subaru
Subaru
Industrial Power Products Tan Chong Motor Toyota Nakajima Aircraft Company

Category

v t e

« previous — Subaru, a division of Fuji Heavy Industries, vehicle timeline in North America, 1990s–present

Type 1990s 2000s 2010s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Subcompact Justy KA

Impreza I GC/GF/GM Impreza II GD/GG

Compact Leone/Loyale AC/AG/AN

Impreza III GE/GH/GR Impreza IV GJ/GP Impreza V

Outback Sport I Outback Sport II Outback Sport III

XV Crosstrek Crosstrek

Mid-size Legacy I BC/BF/BJ Legacy II BD/BG/BK Legacy III BE/BH Legacy IV BL/BP Legacy V BM Legacy VI BN

Sports coupé XT AX SVX CX

BRZ

Crossover/SUV

Forester I SF Forester II SG Forester III SH Forester IV SJ

Outback I BG Outback II BH Outback III BP Outback IV BR Outback V BS

Tribeca WX

Ascent

Coupe Utility BRAT

Baja BT

Current

Ascent BRZ Forester Impreza / Crosstrek Legacy Outback

Engines

EA EE EF EG EJ EK EL EN EZ AVCS i-AVLS FB

Past

1500 360 1000 Alcyone XT Alcyone SVX Baja BRAT FF-1 G FF-1 Star Justy Leone R1 R2 Tribeca

Concept

SRD-1 (1990) Fleet-X (1999) B11S (2003) B9 Scrambler (2003) R1e (2003) B5 TPH (2005) G4e (2007) Hybrid & Advanced Tourer (2009, 2011) Viziv (2013–15)

Miscellaneous

Parent: Fuji Heavy Industries Subaru
Subaru
World Rally Team

v t e

« previous — Subaru, a division of Fuji Heavy Industries, vehicle timeline, 1990s–present

Type 1990s 2000s 2010s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Kei car Rex Vivio Pleo I Pleo II (rebadged Daihatsu
Daihatsu
Mira)

R1

R2 Lucra (rebadged Daihatsu
Daihatsu
Tanto Exe) Chiffon (rebadged Daihatsu
Daihatsu
Tanto)

Stella I Stella II (rebadged Daihatsu
Daihatsu
Move)

Kei truck/Microvan Sambar / Domingo Sambar Dias Wagon (rebadged Daihatsu
Daihatsu
Hijet)

Subcompact Justy I Justy II Justy III Justy IV Trezia Justy V (rebadged Toyota
Toyota
Tank)

Dex

Compact Leone III Leone IV Leone V

Impreza I Impreza II Impreza III Impreza IV Impreza V

Legacy I

Levorg

Mid-size

Legacy II Legacy III Legacy IV Legacy V Legacy VI

Sports coupé Alcyone XT Alcyone SVX

BRZ

Minivan

Traviq

Exiga

Crossover SUV

XV

Outback I Outback II Outback III Outback IV Outback V

Bighorn Bighorn

Forester I Forester II Forester III Forester IV

Tribeca

Ascent

Coupé
Coupé
utility BRAT

Baja

Current

Forester Impreza (XV, WRX, STI) Justy Legacy Levorg Outback Pleo Sambar Stella TransCare Ascent

Engines

EA EE EF EG EJ EK EL EN EZ AVCS i-AVLS FA FB

Historic and discontinued

1500 360 1000 Alcyone XT Alcyone SVX Baja Bighorn BRAT Dex Domingo Exiga FF-1 G FF-1 Star Leone Lucra Sumo R-2 R1 R2 (Modern) Rex Traviq Trezia Tribeca Vivio

Concept

SRD-1 (1990) Fleet-X (1999) B11S (2003) B9 Scrambler (2003) R1e (2003) B5 TPH (2005) G4e (2007) Hybrid & Advanced Tourer (2009, 2011) Viziv (2013–18)

Related

Fuji Heavy Industries Subaru
Subaru
World Rally Team Subaru
Subaru
Rally Team USA Subaru
Subaru
of America Subaru
Subaru
of Indiana Automotive Subaru
Subaru
Industrial Power Products Subaru
Subaru
Tecnica International Wish Upon the Pleiades

v t e

Automotive industry in Japan

Automotive industry in Japan Economy of Japan Transport in Japan

Companies

Vehicle producers

ASL Duesen Bayern Subaru
Subaru
Corporation

Blitzen Subaru

Honda

Acura

Isuzu Kawasaki

Kawasaki Motorcycle & Engine

Mazda

Amati Autozam Ẽfini Eunos M2 Xedos

Mitsubishi Group

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mitsubishi Motors (66%) Mitsubishi Fuso (10.71%)

Mitsuoka Nissan

Cony Datsun Infiniti Kurogane Ohta Otomo Prince Shatai Tama

Suzuki

Hope

Toyota

Daihatsu Scion Lexus Hino WiLL

UD Trucks Yamaha

Shin Meiwa

Active Factories

Toyota
Toyota
Factories

Defunct Factories

-

Components

Aisin Seiki Akebono Brake Bridgestone Calsonic Kansei Clarion Denso Fujitsu Ten GS Yuasa Hitachi HKS IHI Corporation Jatco JECS JTEKT Kawasaki Kayaba Industry Mabuchi Motor Mikuni Mitsuba Corporation NGK NHK Spring Nidec Nisshinbo Nissin Kogyo NSK NTN Corporation Sumitomo Riko Sumitomo Rubber Industries Takata Corporation Tokico Topy Industries Toyo Tire & Rubber Company Toyota
Toyota
Boshoku Tsubakimoto Chain Yanmar Yazaki Corporation Yokohama Rubber Company Zexel

Motorsport and tuners

5Zigen A'PEXi Autech Blitz Car Make T&E Dome Enkei GReddy HKS Impul JUN Auto Kojima Mazdaspeed Mine's Mugen Motorsports Nismo Rauh-Welt Begriff Rays Engineering RE Amemiya RS Watanabe SARD Spoon Sports Subaru
Subaru
Tecnica International Tanabe

Speed Star Racing

Tein Toda Racing Tomei Tommykaira Top Secret TOM'S Toyota
Toyota
Racing Development Veilside WALD International WedsSport Yashio Factory

Services

Autobacs Seven Yanase Imported Cars

Related topics

Japan
Japan
Automobile
Automobile
Manufacturers Association Tokyo
Tokyo
Motor Show Tokyo
Tokyo
Auto Salon Used vehicle exporting J-NCAP National Highway Expressways

Category Portal Note: defunct companies and marques above ar

.