The Info List - Stop Motion

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STOP MOTION (hyphenated STOP-MOTION when used as an adjective) is an animation technique that physically manipulates an object so that it appears to move on its own. The object is moved in small increments between individually photographed frames, creating the illusion of movement when the series of frames is played as a fast sequence. Dolls with movable joints or clay figures are often used in stop motion for their ease of repositioning. Stop motion
Stop motion
animation using plasticine is called clay animation or "clay-mation". Not all stop motion requires figures or models; many stop motion films can involve using humans, household appliances and other things for comedic effect. Stop motion can also use sequential drawing in a similar manner to traditional animation, such as a flip book . Stop motion
Stop motion
using objects is sometimes referred to as pixilation or object animation .


* 1 Terminology

* 2 History

* 2.1 1960s and 1970s * 2.2 1980s to present

* 3 Variations of stop motion

* 3.1 Stereoscopic stop motion * 3.2 Go motion

* 4 Comparison to computer-generated imagery * 5 Stop motion
Stop motion
in television and movies * 6 Stop motion
Stop motion
in other media * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links


The term "stop motion", related to the animation technique, is often spelled with a hyphen , "stop-motion". Both orthographical variants, with and without the hyphen, are correct, but the hyphenated one has, in addition, a second meaning, not related to animation or cinema: "a device for automatically stopping a machine or engine when something has gone wrong" (The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 1993 edition).

Stop motion
Stop motion
is often confused with the time lapse technique, where still photographs of a live surrounding are taken at regular intervals and combined into a continuous film. Time lapse is a technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured is much lower than that used to view the sequence. When played at normal speed, time appears to be moving faster.


Play media Segment from the 1925 film The Lost World animated by Willis O'Brien

Stop motion
Stop motion
animation has a long history in film. It was often used to show objects moving as if by magic. The first instance of the stop motion technique can be credited to Albert E. Smith and J. Stuart Blackton for Vitagraph
's The Humpty Dumpty Circus (1897), in which a toy circus of acrobats and animals comes to life. In 1902, the film Fun in a Bakery Shop used the stop trick technique in the "lightning sculpting" sequence. French trick film maestro Georges Méliès
Georges Méliès
used stop motion animation once to produce moving title-card letters in one of his short films, and a number of his special effects are based on stop motion photography. In 1907, The Haunted Hotel is a new stop motion film by J. Stuart Blackton
J. Stuart Blackton
, and was a resounding success when released. Segundo de Chomón (1871–1929), from Spain, released El Hotel Eléctrico later that same year, and used similar techniques as the Blackton film. In 1908, A Sculptor's Welsh Rarebit Nightmare was released, as was The Sculptor's Nightmare, a film by Billy Bitzer. Italian animator Roméo Bossetti impressed audiences with his object animation tour-de-force, The Automatic Moving Company in 1912. The great European stop motion pioneer was Wladyslaw Starewicz (1892–1965), who animated The Beautiful Lukanida (1910), The Battle of the Stag Beetles (1910), The Ant and the Grasshopper (1911).

One of the earliest clay animation films was Modelling Extraordinary, which impressed audiences in 1912. December 1916 brought the first of Willie Hopkins' 54 episodes of "Miracles in Mud" to the big screen. Also in December 1916, the first woman animator, Helena Smith Dayton , began experimenting with clay stop motion. She would release her first film in 1917, an adaptation of William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
's Romeo and Juliet .

In the turn of the century, there was another well known animator known as Willis O\' Brien (known by others as O'bie). His work on The Lost World (1925) is well known, but he is most admired for his work on King Kong (1933), a milestone of his films made possible by stop motion animation.

O'Brien's protege and eventual successor in Hollywood was Ray Harryhausen . After learning under O'Brien on the film Mighty Joe Young (1949), Harryhausen would go on to create the effects for a string of successful and memorable films over the next three decades. These included The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms (1953), It Came from Beneath the Sea (1955), Jason and the Argonauts (1963), The Golden Voyage of Sinbad (1973) and Clash of the Titans (1981).

In a 1940 promotional film, Autolite , an automotive parts supplier, featured stop motion animation of its products marching past Autolite factories to the tune of Franz Schubert
Franz Schubert
's Military March . An abbreviated version of this sequence was later used in television ads for Autolite, especially those on the 1950s CBS program Suspense , which Autolite sponsored.

1960S AND 1970S

In the 1960s and 1970s, independent clay animator Eliot Noyes Jr. refined the technique of "free-form" clay animation with his Oscar-nominated 1965 film Clay (or the Origin of Species). Noyes also used stop motion to animate sand lying on glass for his musical animated film Sandman (1975).

Stop motion
Stop motion
was used by Rankin/Bass on some of their Christmas specials, most notably Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer (1964)

In 1975, filmmaker and clay animation experimenter Will Vinton
Will Vinton
joined with sculptor Bob Gardiner to create an experimental film called Closed Mondays which became the world's first stop motion film to win an Oscar. Will Vinton
Will Vinton
followed with several other successful short film experiments including The Great Cognito, Creation, and Rip Van Winkle which were each nominated for Academy Awards. In 1977, Vinton made a documentary about this process and his style of animation which he dubbed "claymation"; he titled the documentary Claymation. Soon after this documentary, the term was trademarked by Vinton to differentiate his team's work from others who had been, or were beginning to do, "clay animation". While the word has stuck and is often used to describe clay animation and stop motion, it remains a trademark owned currently by Laika Entertainment, Inc. Twenty clay-animation episodes featuring the clown Mr. Bill were a feature of Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live
, starting from a first appearance in February 1976.

At very much the same time in the UK, Peter Lord and David Sproxton formed Aardman Animations
Aardman Animations
. In 1976 they created the character Morph who appeared as an animated side-kick to the TV presenter Tony Hart on his BBC TV
programme Take Hart . The five-inch-high presenter was made from a traditional British modelling clay called Plasticine . In 1977 they started on a series of animated films, again using modelling clay, but this time made for a more adult audience. The soundtrack for Down and Out was recorded in a Salvation Army Hostel and Plasticine puppets were animated to dramatise the dialogue. A second film, also for the BBC
followed in 1978. A TV series The Amazing Adventures of Morph was aired in 1980.

Sand-coated puppet animation was used in the Oscar-winning 1977 film The Sand Castle , produced by Dutch-Canadian animator Co Hoedeman . Hoedeman was one of dozens of animators sheltered by the National Film Board of Canada , a Canadian government film arts agency that had supported animators for decades. A pioneer of refined multiple stop motion films under the NFB banner was Norman McLaren
Norman McLaren
, who brought in many other animators to create their own creatively controlled films. Notable among these are the pinscreen animation films of Jacques Drouin, made with the original pinscreen donated by Alexandre Alexeieff and Claire Parker .

Italian stop motion films include Quaq Quao (1978), by Francesco Misseri , which was stop motion with origami , The Red and the Blue and the clay animation kittens Mio and Mao . Other European productions included a stop motion-animated series of Tove Jansson
Tove Jansson
's The Moomins
The Moomins
(from 1979, often referred to as "The Fuzzy Felt Moomins"), produced by Film Polski and Jupiter Films.

One of the main British Animation
teams, John Hardwick and Bob Bura, were the main animators in many early British TV shows, and are famous for their work on the Trumptonshire trilogy.

Disney experimented with several stop motion techniques by hiring independent animator-director Mike Jittlov
Mike Jittlov
to do the first stop motion animation of Mickey Mouse
Mickey Mouse
toys ever produced for a short sequence called Mouse Mania, part of a TV special commemorating Mickey Mouse's 50th Anniversary called Mickey's 50 in 1978. Jittlov again produced some impressive multi-technique stop motion animation a year later for a 1979 Disney special promoting their release of the feature film The Black Hole . Titled Major Effects, Jittlov's work stood out as the best part of the special. Jittlov released his footage the following year to 16mm film collectors as a short film titled The Wizard of Speed and Time , along with four of his other short multi-technique animated films, most of which eventually evolved into his own feature-length film of the same title. Effectively demonstrating almost all animation techniques, as well as how he produced them, the film was released to theaters in 1987 and to video in 1989.


Stefano Bessoni , Italian filmmaker, illustrator and stop-motion animator working on Gallows Songs (2014)

In the 1970s and 1980s, Industrial Light a film based on the famous Pogo comic strip. Titled I go Pogo, it was aired a few times on American cable channels, but has yet to be commercially released. Primarily clay, some characters required armatures, and walk cycles used pre-sculpted hard bases legs.

Stop motion
Stop motion
was also used for some shots of the final sequence of Terminator movie, also for the scenes of the small alien ships in Spielberg 's Batteries Not Included in 1987, animated by David W. Allen . Allen's stop motion work can also be seen in such feature films as The Crater Lake Monster (1977), Q - The Winged Serpent (1982), The Gate (1986) and Freaked (1993). Allen's King Kong Volkswagen
commercial from the 1970s is now legendary among model animation enthusiasts.

In 1985, Will Vinton
Will Vinton
and his team released an ambitious feature film in stop motion called "The Adventures Of Mark Twain" based on the life and works of the famous American author. While the film may have been a little sophisticated for young audiences at the time, it got rave reviews from critics and adults in general. Vinton's team also created the Nomes and the Nome King for Disney's "Return to Oz" feature, for which they received an Academy Award Nomination for Special
Visual Effects. In the 80's and early 90's, Will Vinton
Will Vinton
became very well known for his commercial work as well with stop motion campaigns including The California Raisins .

Of note are the films of Czech filmmaker Jan Švankmajer , which mix stop motion and live actors. These include Alice , an adaptation of Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
's Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland , and Faust
, a rendition of the legend of the German scholar . The Czech school is also illustrated by the series Pat & Mat (1979–present). Created by Lubomír Beneš and Vladimír Jiránek, and it was wildly popular in a number of countries.

Since the general animation renaissance headlined by the likes of Who Framed Roger Rabbit and The Little Mermaid
The Little Mermaid
at the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s, there have been an increasing number of traditional stop motion feature films, despite advancements with computer animation . The Nightmare Before Christmas
The Nightmare Before Christmas
, directed by Henry Selick and produced by Tim Burton
Tim Burton
, was one of the more widely released stop motion features and become the highest grossing stop motion animated movie of its time, grossing over $50 million domestic. Henry Selick also went on to direct James and the Giant Peach and Coraline
, and Tim Burton
Tim Burton
went on to direct Corpse Bride and Frankenweenie .

In 1999, Will Vinton
Will Vinton
launched the first prime-time stop-motion television series called The PJs , co-created by actor-comedian Eddie Murphy . The Emmy-winning sitcom aired on Fox for two seasons, then moved to the WB for an additional season. Vinton launched another series, Gary & Mike , for UPN in 2001.

Another individual who found fame in clay animation is Nick Park , who created the characters Wallace and Gromit
Wallace and Gromit
. In addition to a series of award-winning shorts and featurettes, he won the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature for the feature-length outing Wallace ">

In the 1960s, the French animator Serge Danot created the well-known The Magic Roundabout
The Magic Roundabout
(1965) which played for many years on the BBC
. Another French/Polish stop motion animated series was Colargol (Barnaby the Bear in the UK, Jeremy in Canada), by Olga Pouchine and Tadeusz Wilkosz .

A British TV series, Clangers (1969), became popular on television. The British artists Brian Cosgrove and Mark Hall (Cosgrove Hall Films ) produced a full-length film The Wind in the Willows
The Wind in the Willows
(1983) and later a multi-season TV series The Wind in the Willows
The Wind in the Willows
based on Kenneth Grahame 's classic children\'s book of the same title. They also produced a documentary of their production techniques, Making Frog and Toad . Since the 1970s and continuing into the 21st century, Aardman Animations , a British studio, has produced short films, television series, commercials and feature films, starring plasticine characters such as Wallace and Gromit
Wallace and Gromit
; they also produced a notable music video for "Sledgehammer ", a song by Peter Gabriel
Peter Gabriel

During 1986 to 1991, Churchill Films produced The Mouse and the Motorcycle , Runaway Ralph
Runaway Ralph
, and Ralph S. Mouse
Ralph S. Mouse
for ABC television. The shows featured stop-motion characters combined with live action, based on the books of Beverly Cleary. John Clark Matthews was animation director, with Justin Kohn, Joel Fletcher, and Gail Van Der Merwe providing character animation.

From 1986 to 2000, over 150 five-minute episodes of Pingu , a Swiss children\'s comedy were produced by Trickfilmstudio
. In the 1990s Trey Parker and Matt Stone
Matt Stone
made two shorts and the pilot of South Park almost entirely out of construction paper .

In 1999, Tsuneo Gōda directed an official 30-second sketches of the character Domo . With the shorts animated by stop-motion studio dwarf is still currently produced in Japan
and has then received universal critical acclaim from fans and critics. Gōda also directed the stop-motion movie series Komaneko in 2004.

In 2003, the pilot film for the series Curucuru and Friends , produced by Korean studio Ffango Entertoyment is greenlighted into a children\'s animated series in 2004 after an approval with the Gyeonggi Digital Contents Agency. It was aired in KBS1
on November 24, 2006 and won the 13th Korean Animation
Awards in 2007 for Best Animation. Ffango Entertoyment also worked with Frontier Works in Japan
to produce the 2010 film remake of Cheburashka .

Since 2005, Robot Chicken
Robot Chicken
has mostly utilized stop motion animation, using custom made action figures and other toys as principal characters.

Since 2009 Laika , the stop-motion successor to Will Vinton
Will Vinton
Studios , has released four feature films , which have collectively grossed over $400 million.


Many younger people begin their experiments in movie making with stop motion, thanks to the ease of modern stop motion software and online video publishing. Many new stop motion shorts use clay animation into a new form.

Singer-songwriter Oren Lavie 's music video for the song Her Morning Elegance was posted on YouTube on January 19, 2009. The video, directed by Lavie and Yuval and Merav Nathan, uses stop motion and has achieved great success with over 25.4 million views, also earning a 2010 Grammy Award nomination for "Best Short Form Music Video".

Stop motion
Stop motion
has occasionally been used to create the characters for computer games, as an alternative to CGI. The Virgin Interactive Entertainment Mythos game Magic and Mayhem
Magic and Mayhem
(1998) featured creatures built by stop motion specialist Alan Friswell, who made the miniature figures from modelling clay and latex rubber, over armatures of wire and ball-and-socket joints. The models were then animated one frame at a time, and incorporated into the CGI elements of the game through digital photography. " ClayFighter " for the Super NES and The Neverhood for the PC are other examples.


* Animation

* List of stop motion artists
List of stop motion artists
* List of stop motion films * Go motion * Still motion * Brickfilm * Wallace and Gromit
Wallace and Gromit
* Pingu * Mio Mao * Gumby
* Time-lapse photography



* ^ STOP, combinations section (Comb.), STOP-MOTION a device for automatically stopping a machine or engine when something has gone wrong (The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, Clarendon Press, Oxford, Vol. 2 N-Z, 1993 edition, see page 3,074) * ^ "First animated film". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 5 January 2013. * ^ "Elmer Kaan". Elmer Kaan. Retrieved 2010-04-24. * ^ "Alexander Lentjes". Moonridge5.com. Retrieved 2010-04-24. * ^ 3-D Revolution Productions. "Animation". The3drevolution.com. Retrieved 2010-04-24. * ^ "Dein Sandmännchen-Programm im rbb Fernsehen" (in German). sandmaennchen.de. Retrieved 2013-03-20. * ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0196767/, http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0094541/, http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0196895/ * ^ http://www.hancinema.net/the-future-looks-bright-for-companies-that-moved-into-the-gyeonggi-digital-content-agency-9527.html * ^ "About ClayNation stop motion animation". ClayNation.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-01-06. * ^ "Blu-Tack - Make Our Next Advert". Blu-tack.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-04-24.


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