A STANDARDS ORGANIZATION, STANDARDS BODY, STANDARDS DEVELOPING ORGANIZATION (SDO), or STANDARDS SETTING ORGANIZATION (SSO) is an organization whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are intended to address the needs of a group of affected adopters.
Most standards are voluntary in the sense that they are offered for adoption by people or industry without being mandated in law. Some standards become mandatory when they are adopted by regulators as legal requirements in particular domains.
The term formal standard refers specifically to a specification that
has been approved by a standards setting organization. The term de
jure standard refers to a standard mandated by legal requirements or
refers generally to any formal standard. In contrast, the term de
facto standard refers to a specification (or protocol or technology)
that has achieved widespread use and acceptance – often without
being approved by any standards organization (or receiving such
approval only after it already has achieved widespread use). Examples
of de facto standards that were not approved by any standards
organizations (or at least not approved until after they were in
widespread de facto use) include the
Hayes command set developed by
Hayes , Apple 's
TrueType font design and the PCL protocol used by
Normally, the term standards organization is not used to refer to the individual parties participating within the standards developing organization in the capacity of founders, benefactors , stakeholders , members or contributors, who themselves may function as the standards organizations.
* 1 History
* 2 Overview
* 2.1 International standards organizations * 2.2 Regional standards organizations * 2.3 National standards bodies * 2.4 Standards developing organizations (SDOs) * 2.5 Scope of work * 2.6 Standards development process * 2.7 Standards distribution and copyright
* 3 Trends * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links
Graphic representation of formulae for the pitches of threads of screw bolts
The implementation of standards in industry and commerce became
highly important with the onset of the
Maudslay's work, as well as the contributions of other engineers, accomplished a modest amount of industry standardization; some companies' in-house standards spread a bit within their industries. Joseph Whitworth 's screw thread measurements were adopted as the first (unofficial) national standard by companies around the country in 1841. It came to be known as the British Standard Whitworth , and was widely adopted in other countries.
EARLY STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS
By the end of the 19th century differences in standards between companies was making trade increasingly difficult and strained. For instance, an iron and steel dealer recorded his displeasure in The Times : "Architects and engineers generally specify such unnecessarily diverse types of sectional material or given work that anything like economical and continuous manufacture becomes impossible. In this country no two professional men are agreed upon the size and weight of a girder to employ for given work".
The Engineering Standards Committee was established in
First World War
R. E. B. Crompton drew up the first international standards
International Electrotechnical Commission
By the mid to late 19th century, efforts were being made to standardize electrical measurement. An important figure was R. E. B. Crompton, who became concerned by the large range of different standards and systems used by electrical engineering companies and scientists in the early 20th century. Many companies had entered the market in the 1890s and all chose their own settings for voltage , frequency , current and even the symbols used on circuit diagrams. Adjacent buildings would have totally incompatible electrical systems simply because they had been fitted out by different companies. Crompton could see the lack of efficiency in this system and began to consider proposals for an international standard for electric engineering.
In 1904, Crompton represented Britain at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition in St. Louis ,
The International Federation of the National Standardizing
Associations (ISA) was founded in 1926 with a broader remit to enhance
international cooperation for all technical standards and
specifications. The body was suspended in 1942 during
World War II
After the war, ISA was approached by the recently formed United
Nations Standards Coordinating Committee (UNSCC) with a proposal to
form a new global standards body. In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC
delegates from 25 countries met in
Standards organizations can be classified by their role, position, and the extent of their influence on the local, national, regional, and global standardization arena.
By geographic designation, there are international, regional, and national standards bodies (the latter often referred to as NSBs). By technology or industry designation, there are standards developing organizations (SDOs) and also standards setting organizations (SSOs) also known as consortia. Standards organizations may be governmental, quasi-governmental or non-governmental entities. Quasi- and non-governmental standards organizations are often non-profit organizations.
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS
Broadly, an international standards organization develops international standards . (This does not necessarily restrict the use of other published standards internationally.)
There are many international standards organizations. The three
largest and most well-established such organizations are the
International Organization for Standardization
The ITU is a treaty-based organization established as a permanent
agency of the
In addition to these, a large variety of independent international
standards organizations such as the
The Airlines Electronic Engineering Committee (AEEC) was formed in 1949 to prepare avionics system engineering standards with other aviation organizations RTCA, EUROCAE, and ICAO. The standards are widely known as the ARINC Standards.
REGIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS
Regional standards bodies also exist, such as the European Committee
In the European Union, only standards created by CEN, CENELEC, and ETSI are recognized as European standards, and member states are required to notify the European Commission and each other about all the draft technical regulations concerning ICT products and services before they are adopted in national law. These rules were laid down in Directive 98/34/EC with the goal of providing transparency and control with regard to technical regulations.
Sub-regional standards organizations also exist such as the MERCOSUR
NATIONAL STANDARDS BODIES
In general, each country or economy has a single recognized national
standards body (NSB). A national standards body is likely the sole
member from that economy in ISO;
Example national standards bodies ORGANIZATION INITIALS COUNTRY
Bureau of Indian Standards BIS India
Badan Standardisasi Nasional BSN Indonesia
Brazilian National Standards Organization ABNT Brazil
Spanish Association for Standarization and Certification AENOR Spain
French association for
Romanian Standards Association ASRO Romania
British Standards Institution BSI U.K.
Dirección General de Normas DGN Mexico