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St. Louis Lambert International Airport
St. Louis Lambert International Airport
MidAmerica St. Louis Airport

WATERWAYS Mississippi River
Mississippi River

WEBSITE stlouis-mo.gov

ST. LOUIS (/seɪnt ˈluːɪs/ ) is an independent city and major U.S. port in the state of Missouri
Missouri
, built along the western bank of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
, on the border with Illinois
Illinois
. The city had an estimated 2016 population of 311,404, and is the cultural and economic center of the Greater St. Louis area (home to 2,916,447 people), making it the largest metropolitan area in Missouri
Missouri
and the 19th-largest in the United States
United States
.

Prior to European settlement , the area was a major regional center of Native American Mississippian culture . The city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau , and named after Louis IX of France . In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years\' War , the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France
France
in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase . During the 19th century, St. Louis developed as a major port on the Mississippi River. In the 1870 Census , St. Louis was ranked as the 4th-largest city in the United States. It separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the Summer Olympics .

The economy of metropolitan St. Louis relies on service, manufacturing, trade, transportation of goods, and tourism. Its metro area is home to major corporations, including Anheuser-Busch , Express Scripts , Centene , Boeing
Boeing
Defense , Emerson , Energizer
Energizer
, Panera , Enterprise , Peabody Energy , Ameren , Post Holdings , Monsanto
Monsanto
, Scottrade , Edward Jones , Go Jet , Purina and Sigma-Aldrich . Nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri
Missouri
are located within the St. Louis metropolitan area . This city has also become known for its growing medical, pharmaceutical and research presence. St. Louis has 2 professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League . The city is commonly identified with the 630-foot (192 m) tall Gateway Arch
Arch
in Downtown St. Louis
Downtown St. Louis
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Mississippian culture and early exploration * 1.2 City founding (French and Spanish Louisiana
Spanish Louisiana
period) * 1.3 19th century * 1.4 20th century * 1.5 21st century

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Cityscape * 2.2 Landmarks * 2.3 Architecture
Architecture
* 2.4 Neighborhoods * 2.5 Topography * 2.6 Climate * 2.7 Flora and fauna

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Bosnian population

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Major companies and institutions

* 5 Education

* 5.1 Colleges and universities * 5.2 Primary and secondary schools

* 6 Culture

* 7 Sports

* 7.1 Professional sports * 7.2 Amateur sports * 7.3 Chess

* 8 Parks

* 9 Government

* 9.1 Local and regional government * 9.2 State and federal government * 9.3 Crime

* 10 Media

* 11 Transportation

* 11.1 Roads and highways * 11.2 Light rail
Light rail
and St. Louis City/County Metro Subway (SLCS) * 11.3 Airports * 11.4 Port
Port
authority * 11.5 Railroad service * 11.6 Bus service * 11.7 Taxi

* 12 Notable residents * 13 Sister cities
Sister cities
* 14 See also * 15 Notes * 16 References * 17 Further reading * 18 External links

HISTORY

Main articles: History of St. Louis
History of St. Louis
and Timeline of St. Louis

MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURE AND EARLY EXPLORATION

Historical affiliations Kingdom of France 1690s-1763 Kingdom of Spain
Spain
1763–1800 French First Republic 1800–1803 United States
United States
1803–present Artists conception of the Mississippian culture Cahokia Mounds Site in Illinois, directly across the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
from modern St. Louis.

The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture , which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River. Their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds , active from 900 AD to 1500 AD. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City." These mounds were mostly demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan -speaking Osage people , whose territory extended west, and the Illiniwek .

European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet
Louis Jolliet
and Jacques Marquette
Jacques Marquette
traveled through the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
valley. Five years later, La Salle claimed the region for France
France
as part of La Louisiane . The home of Auguste Chouteau in St. Louis. Chouteau and Pierre Laclède founded St. Louis in 1764.

The earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country (also known as Upper Louisiana) on the east side of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia , Kaskaskia , and Fort de Chartres
Fort de Chartres
. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
(e.g. Kaskaskia) founded Ste. Genevieve in the 1730s.

In early 1764, after France
France
lost the 7 Years\' War , Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis. (French lands east of the Mississippi had been ceded to Great Britain and the lands west of the Mississippi to Spain; France and Spain
Spain
were 18th-century allies and both were Catholic nations.) The early French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River . The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain
Spain
on the fur trade with Santa Fe . French colonists used African slaves as domestic servants and workers in the city.

From 1762 to 1803 European control of the area west of the Mississippi to the northernmost part of the Missouri
Missouri
River basin, called Louisiana , was assumed by the Spanish as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain . In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War , St. Louis was attacked by British forces, mostly Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis
Battle of St. Louis
.

CITY FOUNDING (FRENCH AND SPANISH LOUISIANA PERIOD)

A map of St. Louis, Illinois
Illinois
in 1780. From the archives in Seville, Spain

The founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River. Before then, Laclede had been a very successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area.

Though they were originally only granted rights to set-up a trading post , Laclede and other members of his expedition quickly set up a settlement. Some historians believe that Laclede's determination to create this settlement was the result of his affair with a married woman Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau in New Orleans.

Laclede on his initial expedition was accompanied by his young stepson, Auguste Chouteau . Some historians still debate which of the two men was the true founder of St. Louis. The reason for this lingering question is that all the documentation of the founding was loaned and subsequently destroyed in a fire. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces, mostly Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis
Battle of St. Louis
.

For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Though originally thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over the settlement, and thus St. Louis had no local government. This led Laclede to assume a position of civil control, and all problems were disposed in public settings, such as communal meetings. In addition, Laclede granted new settlers lots in town and the surrounding countryside. In hindsight, many of these original settlers thought of these first few years as "the golden age of St. Louis." A map depicting the town of St. Louis in the 1790s, then part of Spanish Louisiana
Spanish Louisiana

By 1765, the city began receiving notifications and visits from representatives and military actives from members of the English, French, and Spanish governments. The Indians in the local area expressed dissatisfaction to being under the command and control of British forces. One of the great Ottawa chieftains, Pontiac, was angered by the change of power and potential for the British to come into their lands. He desired to fight against them, but many of the St. Louis inhabitants refused.

St. Louis was transferred to the French First Republic in 1800 (although all of the colonial lands continued to be administered by Spanish officials), then sold by the French to the U.S. in 1803 as part of the Louisiana Purchase . St. Louis became the capital of, and gateway to, the new territory. Shortly after the official transfer of authority was made, the Lewis and Clark Expedition was commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson. The expedition departed from St. Louis in May 1804 along the Missouri
Missouri
River to explore the vast territory. There were hopes of finding a water route to the Pacific Ocean, but the party had to go overland in the Upper West. They reached the Pacific Ocean via the Columbia River in summer 1805. They returned, reaching St. Louis on September 23, 1806. Both Lewis and Clark lived in St. Louis after the expedition. Many other explorers, settlers, and trappers (such as Ashley\'s Hundred ) would later take a similar route to the West.

19TH CENTURY

An illustrated map by F. Graf entitled Saint Louis in 1896 South Broadway after a May 27, 1896, tornado

The city elected its first municipal legislators (called trustees) in 1808. Steamboats first arrived in St. Louis in 1818, improving connections with New Orleans
New Orleans
and eastern markets. Missouri
Missouri
was admitted as a state in 1821. St. Louis was incorporated as a city in 1822, and continued to develop largely due to its busy port and trade connections. Slaves worked in many jobs on the waterfront as well as on the riverboats. Given the city's location close to the free state of Illinois
Illinois
and others, some slaves escaped to freedom. Others, especially women with children, sued in court in freedom suits , and several prominent local attorneys aided slaves in these suits. About half the slaves achieved freedom in hundreds of suits before the American Civil War.

Immigrants from Ireland and Germany
Germany
arrived in St. Louis in significant numbers starting in the 1840s, and the population of St. Louis grew from less than 20,000 in 1840, to 77,860 in 1850, to more than 160,000 by 1860. By the mid-1800s, St. Louis had a greater population than New Orleans.

Settled by many Southerners in a slave state , the city was split in political sympathies and became polarized during the American Civil War . In 1861, 28 civilians were killed in a clash with Union troops . The war hurt St. Louis economically, due to the Union blockade of river traffic to the south on the Mississippi River. The St. Louis Arsenal constructed ironclads for the Union Navy
Union Navy
.

After the war, St. Louis profited via trade with the West, aided by the 1874 completion of the Eads Bridge
Eads Bridge
, named for its architect. Industrial developments on both banks of the river were linked by the bridge, the first in the mid-west over the Mississippi River. The bridge connects St. Louis, Missouri
Missouri
to East St. Louis, Illinois
Illinois
. The Eads Bridge
Eads Bridge
became an iconic image of the city of St. Louis, from the time of its erection until 1965 when the Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
Bridge was constructed. The bridge crosses the St. Louis riverfront between Laclede's Landing, to the north, and the grounds of the Gateway Arch, to the south. Today the road deck has been restored, allowing vehicular and pedestrian traffic to cross the river. The St. Louis MetroLink light rail system has used the rail deck since 1993. An estimated 8,500 vehicles pass through it daily.

On August 22, 1876, the city of St. Louis voted to secede from St. Louis County and become an independent city. Industrial production continued to increase during the late 19th century. Major corporations such as the Anheuser-Busch brewery and Ralston-Purina
Ralston-Purina
company were established. St. Louis also was home to Desloge Consolidated Lead Company and several brass era automobile companies, including the Success Automobile Manufacturing Company
Success Automobile Manufacturing Company
; St. Louis is the site of the Wainwright Building
Wainwright Building
, an early skyscraper built in 1892 by noted architect Louis Sullivan
Louis Sullivan
.

20TH CENTURY

The Government Building at the 1904 World\'s Fair

In 1904, the city hosted the 1904 World\'s Fair and the 1904 Summer Olympics , becoming the first non-European city to host the Olympics. Permanent facilities and structures remaining from the fair are Forest Park and associated structures within its boundaries: the St. Louis Art Museum , the St. Louis Zoo and the Missouri
Missouri
History Museum , as well as Tower Grove Park
Tower Grove Park
and the Botanical Gardens.

In the aftermath of emancipation of slaves following the Civil War, social and racial discrimination in housing and employment were common in St. Louis. Starting in the 1910s, many property deeds included racial or religious restrictive covenants against new immigrants and migrants. In the first half of the 20th century, St. Louis was a destination for many African Americans in the Great Migration from the rural South seeking better opportunities. During World War II, the NAACP campaigned to integrate war factories, and restrictive covenants were prohibited in 1948 by the Shelley v. Kraemer U.S. Supreme Court decision, which case originated as a lawsuit in St. Louis. In 1964 civil rights activists protested at the construction of the Gateway Arch
Arch
to publicize their effort to gain entry for African Americans into the skilled trade unions, where they were underrepresented. The Department of Justice filed the first suit against the unions under the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
.

In the first part of the century, St. Louis had some of the worst air pollution in the United States. In April, 1940 the city banned the use of soft coal mined in nearby states. The city hired inspectors to ensure only hard anthracite was burned. by 1946 the city had reduced air pollution by about three-quarters. View of the Arch (completed 1965) from Laclede\'s Landing , the only remaining section of St. Louis's commercial riverfront.

De jure educational segregation continued into the 1950s, and de facto segregation continued into the 1970s, leading to a court challenge and interdistrict desegregation agreement. Students have been bussed mostly from the city to county school districts to have opportunities for integrated classes, although the city has created magnet schools to attract students.

St. Louis, like many Midwestern
Midwestern
cities, expanded in the early 20th century due to industrialization, which provided jobs to new generations of immigrants and migrants from the South. It reached its peak population of 856,796 at the 1950 census. Suburbanization from the 1950s through the 1990s dramatically reduced the city's population, as did restructuring of industry and loss of jobs. The effects of suburbanization were exacerbated by the relatively small geographical size of St. Louis due to its earlier decision to become an independent city, and it lost much of its tax base. During the 19th and 20th century, most major cities aggressively annexed surrounding areas as residential development occurred away from the central city; however, St. Louis was unable to do so.

In the 21st century, the city of St. Louis contains only 11% of its total metropolitan population, while among the top 20 metro areas in the United States, the central cities contain an average of 24% of total metropolitan area population. Although small increases in population have taken place in St. Louis during the early 2000s, overall the city lost population from 2000 to 2010. Immigration has continued, with the city attracting Vietnamese , Latinos
Latinos
from Mexico and Central America, and Bosnians , the latter forming the largest Bosnian community outside of Bosnia
Bosnia
.

Several urban renewal projects were built in the 1950s, as the city worked to replace old and substandard housing. Some of these were poorly designed and resulted in problems, of which Pruitt-Igoe
Pruitt-Igoe
became a symbol of failure. It was torn down.

Since the 1980s, several revitalization efforts have focused on downtown St. Louis .

21ST CENTURY

Urban revitalization continued in the new century. Gentrification has taken place in the Washington Avenue Historic District . In 2006, St. Louis received the World Leadership Award for urban renewal. In 2013 the US Census Bureau estimated that St. Louis had a population of 318,416.

On December 20, 2011 a 24-year-old African American man from St. Louis, Missouri
Missouri
was shot and killed by a white police officer . When the police officer was found not guilty in September 2017, several riots erupted .

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of St. Louis
Geography of St. Louis

CITYSCAPE

Westward view of St. Louis skyline, September 2008.

LANDMARKS

Further information: Landmarks of St. Louis

NAME DESCRIPTION PHOTO

Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
At 630-foot (192 m), it is the world's tallest arch and tallest man-made monument in the Western Hemisphere ,. Built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States
United States
, it is the centerpiece of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial .

St. Louis Art Museum Built for the 1904 World\'s Fair , with a building designed by Cass Gilbert , the museum houses paintings, sculptures, and cultural objects. The museum is located in Forest Park , and admission is free.

Missouri
Missouri
Botanical Garden Founded in 1859, the Missouri
Missouri
Botanical Garden is one of the oldest botanical institutions in the United States
United States
and a National Historic Landmark . It spans 79-acres in the Shaw neighborhood, including a 14-acre (5.7 ha) Japanese garden and the Climatron geodesic dome conservatory.

Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis
Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis
Completed in 1914, it is the mother church of the Archdiocese of St. Louis and the seat of its archbishop . The church is known for its large mosaic installation (which is one of the largest in the Western Hemisphere), burial crypts, and its outdoor sculpture.

City Hall Located in Downtown West , City Hall was designed by Harvey Ellis in 1892 in the Renaissance Revival style. It is reminiscent of the Hôtel de Ville, Paris .

Central Library Completed in 1912, the Central Library building was designed by Cass Gilbert . It serves as the main location for the St. Louis Public Library .

City Museum City Museum is a play house museum, consisting largely of repurposed architectural and industrial objects, housed in the former International Shoe building in the Washington Avenue Loft District
Washington Avenue Loft District
.

Old Courthouse Built in the 19th century, it served as a federal and state courthouse. The Dred Scott case was tried at the courthouse in 1846.

St. Louis Science Center Founded in 1963, it includes a science museum and a planetarium , and is situated in Forest Park . Admission is free. It is one of only two science centers in the United States
United States
which offers free general admission.

St. Louis Symphony Founded in 1880, the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra is the second-oldest symphony orchestra in the United States, preceded only by the New York Philharmonic . Its principal concert venue is Powell Symphony Hall .

Union Station Built in 1894, it was the city's main passenger intercity train terminal. Once the world's largest and busiest train station, it was converted in the early 1980s into a hotel, shopping center , and entertainment complex. Today, it also continues to serve local rail (MetroLink ) transit passengers, with Amtrak
Amtrak
service nearby.

St. Louis Zoo Built for the 1904 Worlds Fair , it is recognized as a leading zoo in animal management, research, conservation, and education. It is located in Forest Park , and admission is free.

ARCHITECTURE

Further information: Architecture of St. Louis and List of tallest buildings in St. Louis Wainwright Building
Wainwright Building
(1891), an important early skyscraper designed by Louis Sullivan
Louis Sullivan
. A cluster of skyscrapers is located just west of the Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
and the Mississippi River. Many houses in Lafayette Square are built with a blending of Greek Revival, Federal and Italianate styles

The architecture of St. Louis exhibits a variety of commercial, residential, and monumental architecture . St. Louis is known for the Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
, the tallest monument constructed in the United States at 630 feet (190 m). The Arch
Arch
pays homage to Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and St. Louis's position as the gateway to the West. Architectural influences reflected in the area include French Colonial , German , early American , and modern architectural styles.

Some notable post-modern commercial skyscrapers were built downtown in the 1970s and 1980s, including the One US Bank Plaza
One US Bank Plaza
(1976), the AT"> French style houses in Lafayette Square The Delmar Loop is a neighborhood which is on the border of the city and St. Louis County

The city is divided into 79 government-designated neighborhoods. The neighborhood divisions have no legal standing, although some neighborhood associations administer grants or hold veto power over historic-district development.

Several neighborhoods are lumped together in categories such as "North City," "South City," and "The Central West End."

The following is a list of neighborhoods of the city of St. Louis, Missouri
Missouri
.

1 Carondelet 21 Soulard 41 Cheltenham 61 Carr Square

2 Patch 22 Benton Park 42 Clayton/Tamm 62 Columbus Square

3 Holly Hills 23 McKinley Heights 43 Franz Park 63 Old North St. Louis
Old North St. Louis

4 Boulevard Heights 24 Fox Park 44 Hi-Pointe 64 Near North Riverfront

5 Bevo Mill 25 Tower Grove East 45 Wydown/Skinker 65 Hyde Park

6 Princeton Heights 26 Compton Heights 46 Skinker/DeBaliviere 66 College Hill
Hill

7 Southampton 27 Shaw 47 DeBaliviere Place 67 Fairground

8 St. Louis Hills
St. Louis Hills
28 Botanical Heights 48 West End 68 O\'Fallon

9 Lindenwood Park 29 Tiffany 49 Visitation Park 69 Penrose

10 Ellendale 30 Benton Park West 50 Wells/Goodfellow 70 Mark Twain/I-70 Industrial

11 Clifton Heights 31 Gate District 51 Academy 71 Mark Twain

12 The Hill
Hill
32 Lafayette Square 52 Kingsway West 72 Walnut Park East

13 Southwest Garden 33 Peabody/Darst/Webbe 53 Fountain Park 73 North Point

14 North Hampton 34 LaSalle Park 54 Lewis Place 74 Baden

15 Tower Grove South 35 Downtown 55 Kingsway East 75 Riverview

16 Dutchtown 36 Downtown West 56 Greater Ville 76 Walnut Park West

17 Mount Pleasant 37 Midtown 57 The Ville 77 Grand Center

18 Marine Villa 38 Central West End 58 Vandeventer 78 Hamilton Heights

19 Gravois Park 39 Forest Park Southeast 59 JeffVanderLou 79 North Riverfront

20 Kosciusko 40 Kings Oak
Oak
60 St. Louis Place
St. Louis Place

TOPOGRAPHY

Rivers in the St. Louis area.

According to the United States
United States
Census Bureau , St. Louis has a total area of 66 square miles (170 km2), of which 62 square miles (160 km2) is land and 4.1 square miles (11 km2) (6.2%) is water. (Not shown on simple maps of the city, the land at its airport is owned by the city, served by its fire department and others, and is an exclave of St. Louis.) The city is built primarily on bluffs and terraces that rise 100–200 feet above the western banks of the Mississippi River, in the Midwestern
Midwestern
United States
United States
just south of the Missouri
Missouri
-Mississippi confluence . Much of the area is a fertile and gently rolling prairie that features low hills and broad, shallow valleys. Both the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and the Missouri
Missouri
River have cut large valleys with wide flood plains.

Limestone
Limestone
and dolomite of the Mississippian epoch underlie the area, and parts of the city are karst in nature. This is particularly true of the area south of downtown, which has numerous sinkholes and caves. Most of the caves in the city have been sealed, but many springs are visible along the riverfront. Coal, brick clay , and millerite ore were once mined in the city. The predominant surface rock, known as St. Louis limestone, is used as dimension stone and rubble for construction.

Near the southern boundary of the city of St. Louis (separating it from St. Louis County ) is the River des Peres
River des Peres
, practically the only river or stream within the city limits that is not entirely underground. Most of River des Peres
River des Peres
was confined to a channel or put underground in the 1920s and early 1930s. The lower section of the river was the site of some of the worst flooding of the Great Flood of 1993 .

The city's eastern boundary is the Mississippi River, which separates Missouri
Missouri
from Illinois. The Missouri
Missouri
River forms the northern line of St. Louis County, except for a few areas where the river has changed its course. The Meramec River forms most of its southern line.

CLIMATE

Further information: Geography of St. Louis
Geography of St. Louis
§ Climate The Captains' Return statue inundated by the Mississippi River, 2010.

St. Louis lies in the transitional zone between the humid continental climate type and the humid subtropical climate type (Köppen Dfa and Cfa, respectively), with neither large mountains nor large bodies of water to moderate its temperature. The city experiences hot, humid summers, and chilly to cold winters. It is subject to both cold Arctic air and hot, humid tropical air from the Gulf of Mexico . The average annual temperature recorded at nearby Lambert–St. Louis International Airport , is 57.1 °F (13.9 °C). Both 100 and 0 °F (38 and −18 °C) temperatures can be seen on an average 2 or 3 days per year. Average annual precipitation is about 41.0 inches (1,040 mm), but annual precipitation has ranged from 20.59 in (523 mm) in 1953 to 61.24 in (1,555 mm) in 2015.

St. Louis experiences thunderstorms 48 days a year on average. Especially in the spring, these storms can often be severe, with high winds, large hail and tornadoes. Lying within the hotbed of Tornado Alley , St. Louis reigns as one of the most frequently tornadic metropolitan areas, and has an extensive history of particularly damaging tornadoes . Severe flooding, such as the Great Flood of 1993 , may occur in spring and summer; the (often rapid) melting of thick snow cover upstream either the Missouri
Missouri
or Mississippi Rivers can contribute to springtime flooding.

CLIMATE DATA FOR ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI (LAMBERT–ST. LOUIS INT\\'L ), 1981−2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1874−PRESENT

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 77 (25) 85 (29) 92 (33) 93 (34) 98 (37) 108 (42) 115 (46) 110 (43) 104 (40) 94 (34) 86 (30) 76 (24) 115 (46)

MEAN MAXIMUM °F (°C) 64.1 (17.8) 69.8 (21) 80.2 (26.8) 86.7 (30.4) 89.4 (31.9) 94.8 (34.9) 98.5 (36.9) 99.3 (37.4) 92.7 (33.7) 85.7 (29.8) 75.6 (24.2) 65.0 (18.3) 100.4 (38)

AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 39.9 (4.4) 45.0 (7.2) 55.9 (13.3) 67.4 (19.7) 76.3 (24.6) 85.1 (29.5) 89.1 (31.7) 87.9 (31.1) 80.2 (26.8) 68.5 (20.3) 55.5 (13.1) 42.5 (5.8) 66.2 (19)

AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 23.7 (−4.6) 27.6 (−2.4) 36.6 (2.6) 47.2 (8.4) 57.2 (14) 66.8 (19.3) 71.0 (21.7) 69.4 (20.8) 60.6 (15.9) 49.0 (9.4) 38.1 (3.4) 26.9 (−2.8) 47.9 (8.8)

MEAN MINIMUM °F (°C) 4.2 (−15.4) 8.0 (−13.3) 18.4 (−7.6) 31.5 (−0.3) 43.2 (6.2) 54.3 (12.4) 60.3 (15.7) 59.0 (15) 44.8 (7.1) 33.5 (0.8) 22.4 (−5.3) 7.5 (−13.6) −1.8 (−18.8)

RECORD LOW °F (°C) −22 (−30) −18 (−28) −5 (−21) 20 (−7) 31 (−1) 43 (6) 51 (11) 47 (8) 32 (0) 21 (−6) 1 (−17) −16 (−27) −22 (−30)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) 2.40 (61) 2.24 (56.9) 3.32 (84.3) 3.69 (93.7) 4.72 (119.9) 4.28 (108.7) 4.11 (104.4) 2.99 (75.9) 3.13 (79.5) 3.33 (84.6) 3.91 (99.3) 2.84 (72.1) 40.96 (1,040.4)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL INCHES (CM) 5.6 (14.2) 4.3 (10.9) 2.3 (5.8) 0.4 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.7 (1.8) 4.4 (11.2) 17.7 (45)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 8.9 8.0 10.3 11.3 11.9 10.0 8.9 8.2 7.4 8.7 9.6 9.4 112.6

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 0.1 IN) 4.7 3.4 1.7 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.7 3.7 14.5

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 73.0 72.0 68.3 63.5 66.5 67.1 68.0 70.0 71.6 68.7 72.2 75.8 69.7

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 161.2 158.3 198.3 223.5 266.5 291.9 308.9 269.8 236.1 208.4 140.9 129.9 2,593.7

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 53 53 53 56 60 66 68 64 63 60 47 44 58

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)

FLORA AND FAUNA

Tower Grove Park
Tower Grove Park
in spring The Missouri
Missouri
Botanical Garden

Before the founding of the city, the area was mostly prairie and open forest. Native Americans maintained this environment, good for hunting, by burning underbrush. Trees are mainly oak , maple , and hickory , similar to the forests of the nearby Ozarks ; common understory trees include eastern redbud , serviceberry , and flowering dogwood . Riparian areas are forested with mainly American sycamore
American sycamore
.

Most of the residential areas of the city are planted with large native shade trees. The largest native forest area is found in Forest Park. In autumn, the changing color of the trees is notable. Most species here are typical of the eastern woodland, although numerous decorative non-native species are found. The most notable invasive species is Japanese honeysuckle , which officials are trying to manage because of its damage to native trees. It is removed from some parks.

Large mammals found in the city include urbanized coyotes and white-tailed deer . Eastern gray squirrel , cottontail rabbit , and other rodents are abundant, as well as the nocturnal Virginia opossum . Large bird species are abundant in parks and include Canada goose , mallard duck , as well as shorebirds , including the great egret and great blue heron . Gulls are common along the Mississippi River; these species typically follow barge traffic.

Winter populations of bald eagles are found along the Mississippi River around the Chain of Rocks Bridge
Chain of Rocks Bridge
. The city is on the Mississippi Flyway
Mississippi Flyway
, used by migrating birds, and has a large variety of small bird species, common to the eastern US. The Eurasian tree sparrow , an introduced species, is limited in North America to the counties surrounding St. Louis. The city has special sites for birdwatching of migratory species, including Tower Grove Park
Tower Grove Park
.

Frogs are commonly found in the springtime, especially after extensive wet periods. Common species include the American toad
American toad
and species of chorus frogs commonly called spring peepers , which are found in nearly every pond. Some years have outbreaks of cicadas or ladybugs . Mosquitoes, no-see-ums , and houseflies are common insect nuisances, especially in July and August; because of this, windows are nearly universally fitted with screens. Invasive populations of honeybees have sharply declined in recent years. Numerous native species of pollinator insects have recovered to fill their ecological niche, and armadillos have been regularly seen throughout the St. Louis area, especially since 2005.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1810 1,600

1830 4,977

1840 16,469

230.9%

1850 77,860

372.8%

1860 160,773

106.5%

1870 310,864

93.4%

1880 350,518

12.8%

1890 451,770

28.9%

1900 575,238

27.3%

1910 687,029

19.4%

1920 772,897

12.5%

1930 821,960

6.3%

1940 816,048

−0.7%

1950 856,796

5.0%

1960 750,026

−12.5%

1970 622,236

−17.0%

1980 453,805

−27.1%

1990 396,685

−12.6%

2000 348,189

−12.2%

2010 319,294

−8.3%

EST. 2016 311,404

−2.5%

U.S. Decennial Census 1790–1960 1900–1990 1990–2000 2010–2015

Map of racial distribution in St. Louis, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: WHITE, BLACK, ASIAN, HISPANIC or OTHER (yellow) Pruitt–Igoe
Pruitt–Igoe
was a large housing project constructed in 1954, which became infamous for poverty, crime and segregation. It was demolished in 1972.

St. Louis grew slowly until the American Civil War, when industrialization and immigration sparked a boom. Mid-19th century immigrants included many Irish and Germans; later there were immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. In the early 20th century, African American and white migrants came from the South; the former as part of the Great Migration out of rural areas of the Deep South. Many came from Mississippi and Arkansas.

After years of immigration, migration, and expansion, the city reached its peak population in 1950. That year, the Census Bureau reported St. Louis's population as 82% White and 17.9% African American . After World War II, St. Louis began losing population to the suburbs, first because of increased demand for new housing, unhappiness with city services, ease of commuting by subsidized highways, and later, white flight . St. Louis's population decline has resulted in a significant increase of abandoned residential housing units and vacant lots throughout the city proper; this blight has attracted much wildlife (such as deer and coyotes) to the many abandoned overgrown lots.

St. Louis has lost 62.7% of its population since the 1950 United States Census , the highest percent of any city that had a population of 100,000 or more at the time of the 1950 Census . Detroit
Detroit
, Michigan and Youngstown, Ohio are the only other cities that have had population declines of at least 60% in the same time frame. The population of the city of St. Louis has been in decline since the 1960 census; during this period the population of the St. Louis Metropolitan Area, which includes more than one county, has grown every year and continues to do so. A big factor in the decline has been the rapid increase in suburbanization.

According to the 2010 United States
United States
Census , St. Louis had 319,294 people living in 142,057 households, of which 67,488 households were families. The population density was 5,158.2 people per square mile (1,990.6/km²). About 24% of the population was 19 or younger, 9% were 20 to 24, 31% were 25 to 44, 25% were 45 to 64, and 11% were 65 or older. The median age was about 34 years.

The population was about 49.2% African American, 43.9% White (42.2% Non-Hispanic White) , 2.9% Asian, 0.3% Native American/Alaska Native, and 2.4% reporting two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.5% of the population.

The African-American population is concentrated in the north side of the city (the area north of Delmar Boulevard is 94.0% black, compared with 35.0% in the central corridor and 26.0% in the south side of St. Louis ). Among the Asian-American population in the city, the largest ethnic group is Vietnamese (0.9%), followed by Chinese (0.6%) and Asian Indians (0.5%). The Vietnamese community has concentrated in the Dutchtown neighborhood of south St. Louis; Chinese are concentrated in the Central West End . People of Mexican descent are the largest Latino group, and make up 2.2% of St. Louis's population. They have the highest concentration in the Dutchtown, Benton Park West (Cherokee Street), and Gravois Park neighborhoods.

In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $29,156, and the median income for a family was $32,585. Males had a median income of $31,106; females, $26,987. Per capita income was $18,108.

Some 19% of the city's housing units were vacant, and slightly less than half of these were vacant structures not for sale or rent.

In 2010, St. Louis's per-capita rates of online charitable donations and volunteerism were among the highest among major U.S. cities.

As of 2010, 91.05% (270,934) of St. Louis city residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language , while 2.86% (8,516) spoke Spanish, 0.91% (2,713) Bosnian, 0.74% (2,200) Vietnamese, 0.50% (1,495) African languages, 0.50% (1,481) Chinese, and French was spoken as a main language by 0.45% (1,341) of the population over the age of five. In total, 8.95% (26,628) of St. Louis's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.

RACIAL COMPOSITION 2016 (EST.) 2010 2000 1990 1970 1940

White 46.8% (est.) 43.9% 43.9% 50.9% 58.7% 86.6%

—Non-Hispanic 43.6 (est.) 42.2% 43.0% 50.2% 57.9% 86.4%

Black 47.1% (est.) 49.2% 51.2% 47.5% 40.9% 13.3%

Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 4.0% (est.) 3.5% 2.0% 1.3% 1.0% 0.2%

Asian 3.3% (est.) 2.9% 2.0% 0.9% 0.2% (X)

BOSNIAN POPULATION

See also: History of the Bosnians in St. Louis

About 15 families from Bosnia
Bosnia
settled in St. Louis in 1960 and 1970. After the Bosnian War started in 1992, more Bosnian refugees began arriving and by 2000, tens of thousands of Bosnian refugees settled in St. Louis with the help of Catholic aid societies. Many of them were professionals and skilled workers who had to take any job opportunity to be able to support their families. Most Bosnian refugees are Muslim, ethnically Bosniaks (87%); they have settled primarily in south St. Louis and South County. Bosnian-Americans are well integrated into the city, developing many businesses and ethnic/cultural organizations. Although St. Louis has a high Bosnian population, the city and county also consists of a larger Pakistani American population in contrast to other US cities.

An estimated 70,000 Bosnians live in the metro area, the largest population of Bosnians in the United States
United States
and the largest Bosnian population outside their homeland. The highest concentration of Bosnians is in the neighborhood of Bevo Mill and in Affton , Mehlville , and Oakville of south St. Louis County .

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of St. Louis

According to stltoday.com in 2016 GDP of St. Louis metro was $160 billion and in 2015 GDP was $155 billion. 2014 Gross Metropolitan Product (GMP) of St. Louis was $145.958 billion up from $144.03 in 2013, $138.403 in 2012 and $133.1 in 2011 making it the 21st-highest in the country. The St. Louis Metropolitan Area had a Per capita GDP of $48,738 in 2014 up 1.6% from 2013. This signals the growth of the St. Louis economy. According to the 2007 Economic Census, manufacturing in the city conducted nearly $11 billion in business, followed by the health care and social service industry with $3.5 billion, professional or technical services with $3.1 billion, and the retail trade with $2.5 billion. The health care sector was the biggest employer in the area with 34,000 workers, followed by administrative and support jobs, 24,000; manufacturing, 21,000, and food service, 20,000.

MAJOR COMPANIES AND INSTITUTIONS

The Anheuser-Busch packaging plant in St. Louis

As of 2013, the St. Louis Metropolitan Area is home to nine Fortune 500 companies, the third-highest in the Midwestern
Midwestern
United States. In addition, seven other Fortune 500 companies are headquartered in the metropolitan statistical area: Express Scripts
Express Scripts
, Emerson Electric , Monsanto
Monsanto
, Reinsurance Group of America , Centene , Graybar Electric
Graybar Electric
, and Edward Jones Investments . A Boeing
Boeing
F/A-18E Super Hornet produced by Boeing
Boeing
Defense, Space Missouri
Missouri
Pacific Railroad , which was headquartered in St. Louis, merged with the Omaha, Nebraska -based Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad
in 1982; McDonnell Douglas , whose operations are now part of Boeing
Boeing
Defense, Space Mallinckrodt , purchased by Tyco International ; and Ralston Purina , now a wholly owned subsidiary of Nestlé . The May Department Stores Company (which owned Famous-Barr and Marshall Field\'s stores) was purchased by Federated Department Stores
Federated Department Stores
, which has its regional headquarters in the area. The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in downtown is one of two federal reserve banks in Missouri. Most of the assets of Furniture Brands International were sold to Heritage Home Group in 2013, and while that company remained in the area for a brief time, it has moved to North Carolina . Barnes-Jewish Hospital
Barnes-Jewish Hospital
, which is affiliated with the Washington University School of Medicine
Washington University School of Medicine

St. Louis is a center of medicine and biotechnology . The Washington University School of Medicine is affiliated with Barnes-Jewish Hospital , the fifth-largest hospital in the world. Both institutions operate the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center . The School of Medicine also is affiliated with St. Louis Children\'s Hospital , one of the country's top pediatric hospitals. Both hospitals are owned by BJC HealthCare . The McDonnell Genome Institute at Washington University played a major role in the Human Genome Project
Human Genome Project
. St. Louis University Medical School is affiliated with SSM Health 's Cardinal Glennon Children\'s Hospital and St. Louis University Hospital . It also has a cancer center, vaccine research center, geriatric center, and a bioethics institute. Several different organizations operate hospitals in the area, including BJC HealthCare, Mercy , SSM Health Care, and Tenet.

Boeing
Boeing
employs nearly 15,000 people in its north St. Louis campus, headquarters to its defense unit. In 2013, the company said it would move about 600 jobs from Seattle
Seattle
, where labor costs have risen, to a new IT center in St. Louis. Other companies, such as LaunchCode and LockerDome , see the city's potential to become the next major tech hub. Programs such as Arch
Arch
Grants are attracting new startups to the region.

According to the St. Louis Business Journal
St. Louis Business Journal
, the top employers in the St. Louis metropolitan area as of June 1, 2015, are as follows:

# EMPLOYER # OF EMPLOYEES

1 BJC Health Care 24,182

2 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. 21,721

3 Boeing
Boeing
Defense, Space "> 2 Brookings Hall at Washington University in St. Louis

The city is home to two national research universities, Washington University in St. Louis and Saint Louis University , as classified under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education . Washington University School of Medicine
Washington University School of Medicine
in St. Louis has been ranked among the top 10 medical schools in the country by US News "> St. Louis University High School was founded in 1818. Their current building pictured here was built in 1924.

The St. Louis Public Schools
St. Louis Public Schools
(SLPS) operate more than 75 schools, attended by more than 25,000 students, including several magnet schools . SLPS operates under provisional accreditation from the state of Missouri
Missouri
and is under the governance of a state-appointed school board called the Special
Special
Administrative Board, although a local board continues to exist without legal authority over the district. Since 2000, charter schools have operated in the city of St. Louis using authorization from Missouri
Missouri
state law. These schools are sponsored by local institutions or corporations and take in students from kindergarten through high school. In addition, several private schools exist in the city, and the Archdiocese of St. Louis
Archdiocese of St. Louis
operates dozens of parochial schools in the city, including parochial high schools. The city also has several private high schools, including secular, Catholic and Lutheran schools . St. Louis University High School - a Jesuit preparatory high school founded in 1818 - is the oldest secondary educational institution in the U.S. west of the Mississippi River.

CULTURE

The Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis
Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis
Main article: Culture of St. Louis See also: St. Louis cuisine
St. Louis cuisine

With its French past and waves of Catholic immigrants in the 19th and 20th centuries, from Ireland, Germany
Germany
and Italy, St. Louis is a major center of Roman Catholicism in the United States
United States
. St. Louis also boasts the largest Ethical Culture Society in the United States, and consistently ranks as one of the most generous cities in the United States, ranking ninth in 2013. Several places of worship in the city are noteworthy, such as the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis
Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis
, home of the world's largest mosaic installation. The St. Louis Art Museum in Forest Park

Other locally notable churches include the Basilica of St. Louis, King of France
France
, the oldest Roman Catholic cathedral west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and the oldest church in St. Louis; the St. Louis Abbey , whose distinctive architectural style garnered multiple awards at the time of its completion in 1962; and St. Francis de Sales Oratory , a neo-Gothic church completed in 1908 in South St. Louis and the second-largest church in the city.

The city is defined by music and the performing arts, especially its association with blues , jazz , and ragtime . St. Louis is home to the St. Louis Symphony , the second-oldest symphony orchestra in the United States, which has toured nationally and internationally to strong reviews. Until 2010, it was also home to KFUO-FM , one of the oldest classical music FM radio stations west of the Mississippi River.

The Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
marks downtown St. Louis and a historic center that includes the Federal courthouse where the Dred Scott case was first argued, a newly renovated and expanded public library, major churches and businesses, and retail. An increasing downtown residential population has taken to adapted office buildings and other historic structures. In nearby University City is the Delmar Loop , ranked by the American Planning Association as a "great American street" for its variety of shops and restaurants, and the Tivoli Theater, all within walking distance.

Unique city and regional cuisine reflecting various immigrant groups include toasted ravioli , gooey butter cake , provel cheese , the slinger , the Gerber sandwich , the St. Paul sandwich , and St. Louis-style pizza , featuring thin crust and provel cheese. Some St. Louis chefs have begun emphasizing use of local produce, meats and fish, and neighborhood farmers' markets have become increasingly popular, as well as one downtown. Artisan bakeries, salumeria, and chocolatiers also operate in the city.

Also unique to St. Louis are St. Louis style pizza (extremely thin crust, Provel cheese, and cut in small squares, marketed by one leading purveyor as "The Square Beyond Compare") and the Ted Drewes "Concrete", which is frozen custard blended with any combination of dozens of ingredients, served in a large yellow cup with a spoon and straw. The mixture is so thick that a spoon inserted into the custard does not fall if the cup is inverted. It is also widely noted among natives of St. Louis that a standard first question among adults of any age in the St. Louis metro area is "where did you go to High School?" due to the large number of private and prestigious high schools.

SPORTS

See also: Sports in St. Louis and Soccer in St. Louis
Soccer in St. Louis

St. Louis is home to Major League Baseball and the National Hockey League , notable collegiate-level soccer teams, and has hosted several collegiate sports tournaments. It is one of three American cities to have hosted an Olympic Games .

PROFESSIONAL SPORTS

Busch Stadium
Busch Stadium
in downtown St. Louis

St. Louis is home to two major league sports teams. The St. Louis Cardinals are one of the most successful franchises in Major League Baseball . The Cardinals have won 19 National League
National League
(NL) titles (the most pennants for the league franchise in one city ) and 11 World Series titles, most recently in 2011 . They play at Busch Stadium
Busch Stadium
. Previously, the St. Louis Browns played in the American League (AL) from 1902 to 1953, before moving to Baltimore, Maryland to become the current incarnation of the Orioles . The 1944 World Series
World Series
was an all- St. Louis World Series, matching up the St. Louis Cardinals and St. Louis Browns at Sportsman\'s Park . The St. Louis Blues play at the Scottrade Center in downtown St. Louis.

The St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League (NHL) play at the Scottrade Center (formerly the Savvis Center, originally Kiel Center). They were one of the six teams added to the NHL in the 1967 expansion . The Blues
Blues
have never won the Stanley Cup
Stanley Cup
, and are the oldest team not to do so. Prior to the Blues, the city was home to the St. Louis Eagles . The team only played in the 1934-35 season.

St. Louis has been home to four different National Football League (NFL) teams. The St. Louis All-Stars played in the city in 1923, the St. Louis Gunners
St. Louis Gunners
in 1934, the St. Louis Cardinals from 1960 to 1987, and the St. Louis Rams from 1995 to 2015. The football Cardinals advanced to the NFL playoffs just three times (1974, 1975 and 1982), never hosting or winning in any appearance. The Cardinals moved to Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix, Arizona
, in 1988. The Rams played at the Edward Jones Dome from 1995 to 2015 and went on to win Super Bowl XXXIV . The Rams returned to Los Angeles, California in 2016.

The St. Louis Hawks of the National Basketball Association (NBA) played at Kiel Auditorium
Kiel Auditorium
from 1955 to 1968. They won the NBA championship in 1958 and played in two other NBA Finals
NBA Finals
: 1957 and 1960 . In 1968 the Hawks moved to Atlanta, Georgia .

St. Louis also hosts several minor league sports teams. The Gateway Grizzlies and the River City Rascals of the Frontier League (which are not affiliated with Major League Baseball ) play in the area. The St. Louis Trotters of the Independent Basketball Association play at Matthews Dickey. St. Louis FC of the United Soccer League play at World Wide Technology Soccer Park
World Wide Technology Soccer Park
and both River City Raiders
River City Raiders
and St. Louis Ambush play at the Family Arena
Family Arena
. The region hosts NHRA drag racing and NASCAR
NASCAR
events at the Gateway International Raceway in Madison, Illinois
Illinois
. St. Louis Slam play at the Harlen C. Hunter Stadium

AMATEUR SPORTS

At the collegiate level, St. Louis has hosted the Final Four of both the women's and men's college basketball NCAA Division I championship tournaments, and the Frozen Four collegiate ice hockey tournament. Although the area does not have a National Basketball Association team, it hosts an American Basketball Association team called the St. Louis Phoenix. St. Louis University has won 10 NCAA Men\'s Soccer Championships , and the city has hosted the College Cup several times. In addition to collegiate soccer, many St. Louisans have played for the United States
United States
men\'s national soccer team , and 20 St. Louisans have been elected into the National Soccer Hall of Fame
National Soccer Hall of Fame
. St. Louis also is the origin of the sport of corkball , a type of baseball in which there is no base running.

CHESS

The Sinquefield Cup chess tournament is hosted annually in St. Louis

St. Louis is home to the Chess Club and Scholastic Center of St. Louis (CCSCSL) where the U.S. Chess Championship is held. St. Louisan Rex Sinquefield founded the CCSCSL and moved the World Chess Hall of Fame to St. Louis in 2011. The Sinquefield Cup Tournament started at St. Louis in 2013. In 2014 the Sinquefield Cup was the highest rated chess tournament of all time. Former U.S. Chess Champions Caruana and Hikaru Nakamura
Hikaru Nakamura
have lived in St. Louis. Women's chess champion Susan Polgar also resides in St. Louis.

PARKS

Forest Park features a variety of attractions, including the St. Louis Zoo , the St. Louis Art Museum , the Missouri
Missouri
History Museum , and the St. Louis Science Center . Main article: Parks in St. Louis
Parks in St. Louis
For parks in the region, see Parks in Greater St. Louis .

The city operates more than 100 parks, with amenities that include sports facilities, playgrounds, concert areas, picnic areas, and lakes. Forest Park , located on the western edge of city, is the largest, occupying 1,400 acres of land, making it almost twice as large as Central Park
Central Park
in New York City. The park is home to five major institutions, including the St. Louis Art Museum , the St. Louis Zoo , the St. Louis Science Center , the Missouri
Missouri
History Museum , and the Muny amphitheatre. Another significant park in the city is the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial , a National Memorial
National Memorial
located on the riverfront in downtown St. Louis. The centerpiece of the park is the 630 feet (190 m) tall Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
, designed by noted architect Eero Saarinen and completed on October 28, 1965. Also part of the historic park is the Old Courthouse , where the first two trials of Dred Scott v. Sandford were held in 1847 and 1850. The Jewel Box , a greenhouse and event venue in Forest Park

Other notable parks in the city include the Missouri
Missouri
Botanical Garden , Tower Grove Park
Tower Grove Park
, Carondelet Park and Citygarden . The Missouri Botanical Garden, a private garden and botanical research facility, is a National Historic Landmark and one of the oldest botanical gardens in the United States. The Garden features 79 acres of horticultural displays from around the world. This includes a Japanese strolling garden, Henry Shaw 's original 1850 estate home and a geodesic dome called the Climatron . Immediately south of the Missouri
Missouri
Botanical Garden is Tower Grove Park
Tower Grove Park
, a gift to the city by Henry Shaw . Citygarden is an urban sculpture park located in downtown St. Louis, with art from Fernand Léger
Fernand Léger
, Aristide Maillol , Julian Opie
Julian Opie
, Tom Otterness , Niki de Saint Phalle
Niki de Saint Phalle
, and Mark di Suvero . The park is divided into three sections, each of which represent a different theme: river bluffs; flood plains; and urban gardens. The park also has a restaurant – Death in the Afternoon. Another downtown sculpture park is the Serra Sculpture Park, with the 1982 Richard Serra sculpture Twain.

GOVERNMENT

The city of St. Louis has a mayor-council government with legislative authority vested in the Board of Aldermen of the City of St. Louis and with executive authority in the Mayor of St. Louis and six other separately elected officials. The Board of Aldermen is made up of 28 members (one elected from each of the city's wards) plus a board president who is elected citywide. The 2014 fiscal year budget topped $1 billion for the first time, a 1.9% increase over the $985.2 million budget in 2013. 238,253 registered voters lived in the city in 2012, down from 239,247 in 2010, and 257,442 in 2008.

LOCAL AND REGIONAL GOVERNMENT

CITY ELECTED OFFICIALS FEATURED

Mayor of St. Louis Lyda Krewson
Lyda Krewson

President of the Board of Aldermen Lewis E. Reed

Comptroller Darlene Green

Recorder of Deeds Sharon Quigley Carpenter

Collector of Revenue Gregory F.X. Daly

License Collector Mavis Thompson

Treasurer Tishaura O. Jones

Circuit Attorney Kim Gardner

Sheriff
Sheriff
Vernon Betts

St. Louis Fire Department
St. Louis Fire Department
Dennis Jenkerson

Metropolitan Police Department, City of St. Louis Lawrence O\'Toole Sr (Interim)

St. Louis Lambert International Airport
St. Louis Lambert International Airport
Rhonda Hamm-Niebruegge

St. Louis Mayor
Mayor
Lyda Krewson
Lyda Krewson
in 2017

Municipal elections in St. Louis are held in odd numbered years, with the primary elections in March and the general election in April. The mayor is elected in odd numbered years following the United States Presidential Election, as are the aldermen representing odd-numbered wards. The President of the Board of Aldermen and the aldermen from even-numbered wards are elected in the off-years. The Democratic Party has dominated St. Louis city politics for decades. The city has not had a Republican mayor since 1949 and the last time a Republican was elected to another citywide office was in the 1970s. As of 2015, all 28 of the city's Aldermen are Democrats. Forty-Six individuals have held the office of mayor of St. Louis, four of whom—William Carr Lane , John Fletcher Darby
John Fletcher Darby
, John Wimer
John Wimer
, and John How —served non-consecutive terms. The most terms served by a mayor was by Lane who served 8 full terms plus the unexpired term of Darby. The current mayor is Lyda Krewson
Lyda Krewson
, who took office April 18, 2017 The second-longest serving mayor was Henry Kiel
Henry Kiel
, who took office April 15, 1913 and left office April 21, 1925, a total of 12 years and 9 days over three terms in office. Two others— Raymond Tucker , and Vincent C. Schoemehl —also served three terms as mayor, but served seven fewer days. The shortest serving mayor was Arthur Barret who died 11 days after taking office.

Although St. Louis separated from St. Louis County in 1876, some mechanisms have been put in place for joint funding management and funding of regional assets. The St. Louis Zoo-Museum district collects property taxes from residents of both St. Louis City and County and the funds are used to support cultural institutions including the St. Louis Zoo , St. Louis Art Museum and the Missouri
Missouri
Botanical Gardens . Similarly, the Metropolitan Sewer District provides sanitary and storm sewer service to the city and much of St. Louis County. The Bi-State Development Agency (now known as Metro) runs the region's MetroLink light rail system and bus system.

STATE AND FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS RESULTS (RECENT) YEAR REPUBLICAN DEMOCRATIC THIRD PARTIES

2016 15.7% 20,832 78.7% 104,235 5.6% 7,420

2012 15.9% 22,943 82.5% 118,780 1.6% 2,343

2008 15.5% 24,662 83.6% 132,925 1.0% 1,517

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS RESULTS (FULL) YEAR REPUBLICAN DEMOCRATIC THIRD PARTIES

2016 15.7% 20,832 78.7% 104,235 5.6% 7,420

2012 15.9% 22,943 82.5% 118,780 1.6% 2,343

2008 15.5% 24,662 83.6% 132,925 1.0% 1,517

2004 19.2% 27,793 80.3% 116,133 0.5% 712

2000 19.9% 24,799 77.4% 96,557 2.7% 3,396

1996 18.1% 22,121 74.8% 91,233 7.1% 8,649

1992 17.3% 25,441 69.4% 102,356 13.3% 19,607

1988 27.0% 40,906 72.6% 110,076 0.5% 732

1984 35.2% 61,020 64.8% 112,318

1980 29.5% 50,333 66.6% 113,697 3.9% 6,721

1976 32.5% 58,367 66.0% 118,703 1.5% 2,714

1972 37.7% 72,402 62.3% 119,817

1968 26.4% 58,252 64.7% 143,010 8.9% 19,652

1964 22.3% 59,604 77.7% 207,958

1960 33.4% 101,331 66.6% 202,319

1956 39.1% 130,045 60.9% 202,210

1952 38.0% 144,828 61.9% 235,893 0.1% 427

1948 35.1% 120,656 64.2% 220,654 0.7% 2,460

1944 39.5% 134,411 60.2% 204,687 0.2% 821

1940 41.8% 168,165 58.0% 233,338 0.2% 948

1936 32.2% 127,887 65.5% 260,063 2.2% 8,880

1932 34.6% 123,448 63.4% 226,338 2.1% 7,319

1928 47.7% 161,701 52.0% 176,428 0.3% 1,065

1924 52.7% 139,433 36.2% 95,888 11.1% 29,276

1920 57.8% 163,280 37.5% 106,047 4.7% 13,325

1916 51.7% 83,798 45.7% 74,059 2.6% 4,175

1912 33.1% 46,509 41.9% 58,845 24.9% 34,973

1908 52.8% 74,160 43.3% 60,917 3.9% 5,473

1904 49.7% 57,547 44.8% 51,858 5.5% 6,387

1900 48.6% 60,597 48.1% 59,931 3.3% 4,046

1896 56.2% 65,708 42.8% 50,091 1.0% 1,197

1892 49.9% 35,528 48.7% 34,669 1.3% 942

1888 53.4% 33,656 43.5% 27,401 3.1% 1,969

St. Louis is split between 11 districts in the Missouri
Missouri
House of Representatives : all of the 76th, 77th, 78th, 79th, 80th, 81st, 82nd, and 84th, and parts of the 66th, 83rd, and 93rd, which are shared with St. Louis County. The 5th Missouri
Missouri
Senate district is entirely within the city, while the 4th is shared with St. Louis County.

At the federal level, St. Louis is the heart of Missouri\'s 1st congressional district , which also includes part of northern St. Louis County. A Republican has not represented a significant portion of St. Louis in the U.S. House since 1953.

The United States
United States
Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit and the United States
United States
District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri
Missouri
are based in the Thomas F. Eagleton United States
United States
Courthouse in downtown St. Louis. St. Louis is also home to a Federal Reserve System
Federal Reserve System
branch, the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) also maintains major facilities in the St. Louis area.

The Military Personnel Records Center (NPRC-MPR) located at 9700 Page Avenue in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, is a branch of the National Personnel Records Center and is the repository of over 56 million military personnel records and medical records pertaining to retired, discharged, and deceased veterans of the U.S. armed forces.

CRIME

Main article: Crime in St. Louis

The city of St. Louis has, as of April 2017, the highest murder rate, per capita, in the USA, with 188 homicides in 2015 (59.3 homicides per 100,000). Detroit
Detroit
, Flint , Memphis , Oakland , and some smaller cities with fewer than 100,000 population (ex, Camden, New Jersey ) have higher overall violent crime rates than St. Louis, when comparing other crimes such as rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. St. Louis index crime rates have declined almost every year since the peak in 1993 (16,648), to the 2014 level of 7,931 (which is the sum of violent crimes and property crimes) per 100,000. In 2015, the index crime rate reversed the 2005-2014 decline to a level of 8,204. Between 2005 and 2014, violent crime has declined by 20%, although rates of violent crime remains 6 times higher than the United States
United States
national average and property crime in the city remains 2 1/2 times the national average. St. Louis has a significantly higher homicide rate than the rest of the US for both whites and especially blacks and a higher proportion committed by males. As of October 2016, 7 of the homicide suspects were white, 95 black, 0 Hispanic, 0 Asian and only 1 female out of the 102 suspects. In 2016, St. Louis was the most dangerous city in the United States
United States
with populations of 100,000 or more, ranking 1st in violent crime and 2nd in property crime. It was also ranked 6th of the most dangerous of all establishments in the United States—and East St. Louis—a suburb of the city itself was ranked 1st. The St. Louis Police Department at the end of 2016 reported a total of 188 murders for the year, the same number of homicides that had occurred in the city in 2015.

MEDIA

Main article: Media in St. Louis St. Louis Post-Dispatch building in Downtown St. Louis
Downtown St. Louis

Greater St. Louis commands the 19th-largest media market in the United States, a position roughly unchanged for over a decade. All of the major U.S. television networks have affiliates in St. Louis, including KTVI
KTVI
2 (Fox ), KMOV
KMOV
4 ( CBS
CBS
), KSDK
KSDK
5 ( NBC ), KETC
KETC
9 (PBS ), KPLR-TV 11 (CW ), KDNL 30 (ABC ), WRBU 46 (Ion ), and WPXS 51 Daystar Television Network . Among the area's most popular radio stations are KMOX
KMOX
(AM sports and talk, notable as the longtime flagship station for St. Louis Cardinals broadcasts), KLOU (FM oldies), WIL-FM
WIL-FM
(FM country), WARH (FM adult hits), and KSLZ (FM Top 40 mainstream). St. Louis also supports public radio 's KWMU
KWMU
, an NPR affiliate, and community radio 's KDHX
KDHX
. KZQZ is a popular Oldies station. All-sports stations, such as KFNS 590 AM "The Fan", WXOS
WXOS
"101.1 ESPN", and KSLG are also popular.

The St. Louis Post-Dispatch is the region's major daily newspaper. Others in the region include the Suburban Journals , which serve parts of St. Louis County, while the primary alternative newspaper is the Riverfront Times
Riverfront Times
. Three weeklies serve the African-American community: the St. Louis Argus , the St. Louis American , and the St. Louis Sentinel . St. Louis Magazine
St. Louis Magazine
, a local monthly magazine, covers topics such as local history, cuisine, and lifestyles, while the weekly St. Louis Business Journal
St. Louis Business Journal
provides coverage of regional business news. St. Louis was served by an online newspaper , the St. Louis Beacon , but that publication merged with KWMU
KWMU
in 2013.

Many books and movies have been written about St. Louis. A few of the most influential and prominent films are Meet Me in St. Louis and American flyers , and novels include The Killing Dance
The Killing Dance
, Meet Me in St. Louis , The Runaway Soul
The Runaway Soul
(novel), The Rose of Old St. Louis , and Circus of the Damned .

As St. Louis was a prime location for immigrants to move to, much of the early social work depicting immigrant life was based on St. Louis, such as in the book The Immigrant of St. Louis .

TRANSPORTATION

This article is about transportation in the city of St. Louis, Missouri. For transportation in the region, see Transportation in Greater St. Louis . Interstate 44 in downtown St. Louis

Road , rail , ship , and air transportation modes connect the city with surrounding communities in Greater St. Louis , national transportation networks, and international locations. St. Louis also supports a public transportation network that includes bus and light rail service.

ROADS AND HIGHWAYS

See also: Streets of St. Louis, Missouri
Missouri

Four interstate highways connect the city to a larger regional highway system. Interstate 70 , an east-west highway, runs roughly from the northwest corner of the city to downtown St. Louis . The north-south Interstate 55 enters the city at the south near the Carondelet neighborhood and runs toward the center of the city, and both Interstate 64 and Interstate 44 enter the city on the west, running parallel to the east. Two of the four interstates (Interstates 55 and 64) merge south of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial and leave the city on the Poplar Street Bridge
Poplar Street Bridge
into Illinois, while Interstate 44 terminates at Interstate 70 at its new interchange near N Broadway and Cass Ave.

The 563-mile Avenue of the Saints links St. Louis with St. Paul, Minnesota .

Major roadways include the north-south Memorial Drive , located on the western edge of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial and parallel to Interstate 70, the north-south streets of Grand Boulevard and Jefferson Avenue , both of which run the length of the city, and Gravois Road , which runs from the southeastern portion of the city to downtown and used to be signed as U.S. Route 66 . An east-west roadway that connects the city with surrounding communities is Martin Luther King, Jr. Drive , which carries traffic from the western edge of the city to downtown.

LIGHT RAIL AND ST. LOUIS CITY/COUNTY METRO SUBWAY (SLCS)

Main article: MetroLink St. Louis MetroLink
St. Louis MetroLink
Red Line train leaving St. Louis Union Station
St. Louis Union Station
University City-Big Bend Subway Station along the Blue Line, near Washington University .

The St. Louis metro area is served by Metrolink (known as Metro) and is the 11th-largest light rail system in the country with 46 mi (74 km) of double track light rail . The Red Line and The Blue Line both serve all the stations in the inner city, and branch to different destinations beyond in the suburban areas. Both lines enter the city north of Forest Park on the western edge of the city or on the Eads Bridge in downtown St. Louis to Illinois. All of the system track is in independent right of way, with both surface level and underground subways track in the city. All stations are independent entry, while all platforms are flush-level with trains. Rail service is provided by the Bi-State Development Agency (also known as Metro), which is funded by a sales taxes levied in the city and other counties in the region. The Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center
Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center
acts as the hub station in the city of St. Louis, linking the city's light rail system, local bus system, passenger rail service, and national bus service. It is located just east of the historic grand St. Louis Union Station
St. Louis Union Station
.

AIRPORTS

Control tower and main terminal at Lambert St. Louis

St. Louis is served by two passenger airports. St. Louis Lambert International Airport , owned and operated by the City of St. Louis, is 11 miles northwest of downtown along highway I-70 between I-170 and I-270 in St. Louis County. It is the largest and busiest airport in the state. In 2016, the airport has over 255 daily departures to about 90 domestic and international locations and a total of over 13 million passengers. The airport serves as a focus hub city for Southwest Airlines and was a former hub for Trans World Airlines and former focus-city for American Airlines
American Airlines
and AmericanConnection . MidAmerica St. Louis Airport is the secondary passenger airport serving the metropolitan area. Located 17 miles east of the city downtown core, the airport serves domestic passengers. Air cargo transportation is available at Lambert International and at other nearby regional airports, including MidAmerica St. Louis Airport
MidAmerica St. Louis Airport
, Spirit of St. Louis Airport , and St. Louis Downtown Airport .

The airport has two terminals with a total of five concourses. International flights and passengers use Terminal 2, whose lower level holds the Immigration and Customs gates. Passengers can move between the terminals on complimentary buses that run continuously, or via MetroLink for a fee. It was possible to walk between the terminals until Concourse D was closed in 2008.

PORT AUTHORITY

River transportation
River transportation
is available through the Port
Port
of St. Louis , which is 19.3 miles of riverbank on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
that handles more than 32 million tons of freight annually. The Port
Port
is the 2nd largest inland port by trip-ton miles, and the 3rd largest by tonnage in the United States, with more than one hundred docking facilities for barge shipping and 16 public terminals on the river. The Port Authority added 2 new small fire and rescue craft in 2012 and 2013.

RAILROAD SERVICE

Main article: Transportation in St. Louis § Railroad Service An eastbound Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis freight train passing under the Hampton Avenue viaduct. Scott Nauert photo

Inter-city rail passenger train service in the city is provided by Amtrak
Amtrak
. All Amtrak
Amtrak
trains serving St. Louis use the Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center downtown. Amtrak
Amtrak
trains terminating in the city include the Lincoln Service
Lincoln Service
to Chicago
Chicago
and the Missouri River Runner to Kansas City, Missouri
Missouri
. St. Louis is an intermediate stop on the Texas Eagle route which provides long-distance passenger service between San Antonio, Texas , and Chicago
Chicago
.

St. Louis is the nation's third-largest freight rail hub, moving Missouri
Missouri
exports such as fertilizer, gravel, crushed stone, prepared foodstuffs, fats, oils, nonmetallic mineral products, grain, alcohol, tobacco products, automobiles, and automobile parts. Freight rail service in St. Louis is provided on tracks owned by Union Pacific Railroad , Norfolk Southern Railway , Foster Townsend Rail Logistics – formerly Manufacturers Railway (St. Louis) , Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis , Affton Trucking, and the BNSF Railway .

The Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis (reporting mark: TRRA) is a switching and terminal railroad jointly owned by all the major rail carriers in St. Louis. The company operates 30 diesel-electric locomotives to move railcars around the classification yards , deliver railcars to local industries, and ready trains for departure. The TRRA processes and dispatches a significant portion of railroad traffic moving through the city and owns and operates a network of rail bridges and tunnels including the MacArthur Bridge (St. Louis) and the Merchants Bridge
Merchants Bridge
. This infrastructure is also used by inter-city rail and long-distance passenger trains serving St. Louis.

BUS SERVICE

Main article: MetroBus Bus passing under the St. Louis Science Center walkway

Local bus service in the city of St. Louis is provided by the Bi-State Development Agency via MetroBus , with more than 75 routes connecting to MetroLink commuter rail transit and stops in the city and region. The city is also served by Madison County Transit , which connects downtown St. Louis to Madison County, Illinois
Illinois
. National bus service in the city is offered by Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines
, Burlington Trailways and Amtrak
Amtrak
Thruway Motorcoach , with a station at the Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center
Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center
, and Megabus , with a stop at St. Louis Union Station
St. Louis Union Station
.

TAXI

Taxicab service in the city is provided by private companies regulated by the Metropolitan Taxicab Commission. Rates vary by vehicle type, size, passengers and distance, and by regulation all taxicab fares must be calculated using a taximeter and be payable in cash or credit card. Solicitation by a driver is prohibited, although a taxicab may be hailed on the street or at a stand.

NOTABLE RESIDENTS

Further information: List of people from St. Louis

SISTER CITIES

During the early 21st century, St. Louis has 16 sister cities .

* Bologna
Bologna
, Italy * Bogor , Indonesia * Brčko , Brčko District , Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina * Donegal
Donegal
, County Donegal
Donegal
, Ireland * Galway
Galway
, County Galway
Galway
, Ireland * Lyon
Lyon
, France * Nanjing
Nanjing
, China * Saint-Louis , Senegal * São Luís, Maranhão , Brazil * Samara , Russia * San Luis Potosí , Mexico * Stuttgart
Stuttgart
, Germany
Germany
* Suwa , Japan * Szczecin
Szczecin
, Poland * Wuhan
Wuhan
, China * Yokneam Illit , Israel

With informal relations with Tuguegarao , Philippines.

SEE ALSO

* Caves of St. Louis * Delmar Divide

* Downtown St. Louis
Downtown St. Louis

* Laclede\'s Landing, St. Louis * Downtown West, St. Louis
Downtown West, St. Louis

* Great Flood of 1993 * Heat wave of 2006 derecho series * History of the Jews in St. Louis * LaClede Town * List of mayors of St. Louis
List of mayors of St. Louis
* List of tallest buildings in St. Louis
List of tallest buildings in St. Louis
* National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Louis (city, A–L), Missouri
Missouri
* National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Louis (city, M-Z), Missouri
Missouri
* Neighborhoods of St. Louis
Neighborhoods of St. Louis
* Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St. Louis
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St. Louis
* St. Louis cuisine
St. Louis cuisine
* St. Louis in the Civil War
St. Louis in the Civil War
* St. Louis smog episode (1939)
St. Louis smog episode (1939)

* Geography portal * North America portal * United States
United States
portal * Missouri
Missouri
portal

NOTES

* ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. * ^ Official records for St. Louis were kept at the Weather Bureau Office from January 1874 to December 1892, Eads Bridge
Eads Bridge
from January 1893 to December 1929, and at Lambert– St. Louis Int'l since January 1930.

REFERENCES

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Missouri
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FURTHER READING

* Henry W. Berger, St. Louis and Empire: 250 Years of Imperial Quest and Urban Crisis. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois
Illinois
University Press, 2015. * Carl J. Ekberg and Sharon K. Person, St. Louis Rising: The French Regime of Louis St. Ange de Bellerive. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois
Illinois
Press, 2015.

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