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St. Louis
St. Louis
Lambert International Airport MidAmerica St. Louis
St. Louis
Airport

Waterways Mississippi River

Website stlouis-mo.gov

St. Louis
St. Louis
(/seɪnt ˈluːɪs/)[10][11][12] is an independent city[13] and major U.S. port in the state of Missouri, built along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois. The city had an estimated March 22, 2018 population of 308,626[8] and is the cultural and economic center of the Greater St. Louis area (home to 2,807,338 people ), making it the largest metropolitan area in Missouri
Missouri
and the 19th-largest in the United States. Prior to European settlement, the area was a major regional center of Native American Mississippian culture. The city of St. Louis
St. Louis
was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, and named after Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France
France
in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase.[14] During the 19th century, St. Louis
St. Louis
developed as a major port on the Mississippi River. In the 1870 Census, St. Louis
St. Louis
was ranked as the 4th-largest city in the United States. It separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the Summer Olympics. The economy of metropolitan St. Louis
St. Louis
relies on service, manufacturing, trade, transportation of goods, and tourism. Its metro area is home to major corporations, including Anheuser-Busch, Express Scripts, Centene, Boeing
Boeing
Defense, Emerson, Energizer, Panera, Enterprise, Peabody Energy, Ameren, Post Holdings, Monsanto, Edward Jones, Go Jet, Purina and Sigma-Aldrich. Nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri
Missouri
are located within the St. Louis metropolitan area. This city has also become known for its growing medical, pharmaceutical and research presence. St. Louis
St. Louis
has 2 professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals
St. Louis Cardinals
of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues
St. Louis Blues
of the National Hockey League. The city is commonly identified with the 630-foot (192 m) tall Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
in the city's downtown.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
and early exploration 1.2 City founding (French and Spanish Louisiana
Spanish Louisiana
period) 1.3 19th century 1.4 20th century 1.5 21st century

2 Geography

2.1 Cityscape 2.2 Landmarks 2.3 Architecture 2.4 Neighborhoods 2.5 Topography 2.6 Climate 2.7 Flora and fauna

3 Demographics

3.1 Bosnian population

4 Economy

4.1 Major companies and institutions

5 Education

5.1 Colleges and universities 5.2 Primary and secondary schools

6 Culture 7 Sports

7.1 Professional sports 7.2 Amateur sports 7.3 Chess

8 Parks 9 Government

9.1 Local and regional government 9.2 State and federal government 9.3 Crime

10 Media 11 Transportation

11.1 Roads and highways 11.2 Metrolink Light rail
Light rail
and Metro Subway 11.3 Airports 11.4 Port
Port
authority 11.5 Railroad service 11.6 Bus service 11.7 Taxi

12 Notable residents 13 Sister cities 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 Further reading 18 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of St. Louis
History of St. Louis
and Timeline of St. Louis Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
and early exploration[edit]

Historical affiliations

  Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
1690s-1763  Kingdom of Spain
Spain
1763–1800   French First Republic
French First Republic
1800–1803   United States
United States
1803–present

Artists conception of the Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
Cahokia Mounds
Cahokia Mounds
Site in Illinois, directly across the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
from modern St. Louis.

The area that would become St. Louis
St. Louis
was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River. Their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 AD to 1500 AD. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City." These mounds were mostly demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, and the Illiniwek. European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet
Louis Jolliet
and Jacques Marquette
Jacques Marquette
traveled through the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
valley. Five years later, La Salle claimed the region for France
France
as part of La Louisiane.

The home of Auguste Chouteau
Auguste Chouteau
in St. Louis. Chouteau and Pierre Laclède founded St. Louis
St. Louis
in 1764.

The earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country (also known as Upper Louisiana) on the east side of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia, Kaskaskia, and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
(e.g. Kaskaskia) founded Ste. Genevieve in the 1730s. In early 1764, after France
France
lost the 7 Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau
Auguste Chouteau
founded what was to become the city of St. Louis.[15] (French lands east of the Mississippi had been ceded to Great Britain and the lands west of the Mississippi to Spain; France and Spain
Spain
were 18th-century allies and both were Catholic nations.) The early French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain
Spain
on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic servants and workers in the city. France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri
Missouri
River basin after the losing New France
France
to them in 1759-60, transferred these Spain
Spain
as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. These areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces, mostly Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis.[16] City founding (French and Spanish Louisiana
Spanish Louisiana
period)[edit]

A map of St. Louis, Illinois
Illinois
in 1780. From the archives in Seville, Spain

The founding of St. Louis
St. Louis
began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River. Before then, Laclede had been a very successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area. Though they were originally only granted rights to set-up a trading post, Laclede and other members of his expedition quickly set up a settlement. Some historians believe that Laclede's determination to create this settlement was the result of his affair with a married woman Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau
Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau
in New Orleans. Laclede on his initial expedition was accompanied by his young stepson, Auguste Chouteau. Some historians still debate which of the two men was the true founder of St. Louis. The reason for this lingering question is that all the documentation of the founding was loaned and subsequently destroyed in a fire.

In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis
St. Louis
was attacked by British forces, mostly Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis.

For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Though originally thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over the settlement, and thus St. Louis
St. Louis
had no local government. This led Laclede to assume a position of civil control, and all problems were disposed in public settings, such as communal meetings. In addition, Laclede granted new settlers lots in town and the surrounding countryside. In hindsight, many of these original settlers thought of these first few years as "the golden age of St. Louis."

A map depicting the town of St. Louis
St. Louis
in the 1790s, then part of Spanish Louisiana

By 1765, the city began receiving visits from representatives of the English, French, and Spanish governments. The Indians in the area expressed dissatisfaction at being under the control of British forces. One of the great Ottawa chieftains, Pontiac, was angered by the change of power and the potential for the British to come into their lands. He desired to fight against them but many of the St. Louis inhabitants refused. St. Louis
St. Louis
was transferred to the French First Republic
French First Republic
in 1800 (although all of the colonial lands continued to be administered by Spanish officials), then sold by the French to the U.S. in 1803 as part of the Louisiana Purchase. St. Louis
St. Louis
became the capital of, and gateway to, the new territory. Shortly after the official transfer of authority was made, the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition
was commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson. The expedition departed from St. Louis
St. Louis
in May 1804 along the Missouri
Missouri
River to explore the vast territory. There were hopes of finding a water route to the Pacific Ocean, but the party had to go overland in the Upper West. They reached the Pacific Ocean via the Columbia River in summer 1805. They returned, reaching St. Louis
St. Louis
on September 23, 1806. Both Lewis and Clark lived in St. Louis after the expedition. Many other explorers, settlers, and trappers (such as Ashley's Hundred) would later take a similar route to the West. 19th century[edit]

An illustrated map by F. Graf entitled Saint Louis in 1896

South Broadway after a May 27, 1896, tornado

The city elected its first municipal legislators (called trustees) in 1808. Steamboats first arrived in St. Louis
St. Louis
in 1818, improving connections with New Orleans
New Orleans
and eastern markets. Missouri
Missouri
was admitted as a state in 1821. St. Louis
St. Louis
was incorporated as a city in 1822, and continued to develop largely due to its busy port and trade connections. Slaves worked in many jobs on the waterfront as well as on the riverboats. Given the city's location close to the free state of Illinois
Illinois
and others, some slaves escaped to freedom. Others, especially women with children, sued in court in freedom suits, and several prominent local attorneys aided slaves in these suits. About half the slaves achieved freedom in hundreds of suits before the American Civil War. Immigrants from Ireland and Germany
Germany
arrived in St. Louis
St. Louis
in significant numbers starting in the 1840s, and the population of St. Louis grew from less than 20,000 in 1840, to 77,860 in 1850, to more than 160,000 by 1860. By the mid-1800s, St. Louis
St. Louis
had a greater population than New Orleans. Settled by many Southerners in a slave state, the city was split in political sympathies and became polarized during the American Civil War. In 1861, 28 civilians were killed in a clash with Union troops. The war hurt St. Louis
St. Louis
economically, due to the Union blockade
Union blockade
of river traffic to the south on the Mississippi River. The St. Louis Arsenal constructed ironclads for the Union Navy. After the war, St. Louis
St. Louis
profited via trade with the West, aided by the 1874 completion of the Eads Bridge, named for its architect. Industrial developments on both banks of the river were linked by the bridge, the first in the mid-west over the Mississippi River. The bridge connects St. Louis, Missouri
Missouri
to East St. Louis, Illinois. The Eads Bridge
Eads Bridge
became an iconic image of the city of St. Louis, from the time of its erection until 1965 when the Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
Bridge was constructed. The bridge crosses the St. Louis
St. Louis
riverfront between Laclede's Landing, to the north, and the grounds of the Gateway Arch, to the south. Today the road deck has been restored, allowing vehicular and pedestrian traffic to cross the river. The St. Louis MetroLink light rail system has used the rail deck since 1993. An estimated 8,500 vehicles pass through it daily. On August 22, 1876, the city of St. Louis
St. Louis
voted to secede from St. Louis County and become an independent city. Industrial production continued to increase during the late 19th century. Major corporations such as the Anheuser-Busch
Anheuser-Busch
brewery and Ralston-Purina
Ralston-Purina
company were established. St. Louis
St. Louis
also was home to Desloge Consolidated Lead Company and several brass era automobile companies, including the Success Automobile Manufacturing Company;[17] St. Louis
St. Louis
is the site of the Wainwright Building, an early skyscraper built in 1892 by noted architect Louis Sullivan. 20th century[edit]

The Government Building at the 1904 World's Fair

In 1904, the city hosted the 1904 World's Fair
1904 World's Fair
and the 1904 Summer Olympics, becoming the first non-European city to host the Olympics.[18] Permanent facilities and structures remaining from the fair are Forest Park and associated structures within its boundaries: the St. Louis
St. Louis
Art Museum, the St. Louis Zoo
St. Louis Zoo
and the Missouri
Missouri
History Museum, as well as Tower Grove Park
Tower Grove Park
and the Botanical Gardens. In the aftermath of emancipation of slaves following the Civil War, social and racial discrimination in housing and employment were common in St. Louis. Starting in the 1910s, many property deeds included racial or religious restrictive covenants against new immigrants and migrants. In the first half of the 20th century, St. Louis
St. Louis
was a destination for many African Americans in the Great Migration from the rural South seeking better opportunities. During World War II, the NAACP
NAACP
campaigned to integrate war factories, and restrictive covenants were prohibited in 1948 by the Shelley v. Kraemer
Shelley v. Kraemer
U.S. Supreme Court decision, which case originated as a lawsuit in St. Louis. In 1964 civil rights activists protested at the construction of the Gateway Arch
Arch
to publicize their effort to gain entry for African Americans into the skilled trade unions, where they were underrepresented. The Department of Justice filed the first suit against the unions under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In the first part of the century, St. Louis
St. Louis
had some of the worst air pollution in the United States. In April 1940 the city banned the use of soft coal mined in nearby states. The city hired inspectors to ensure only hard anthracite was burned. By 1946 the city had reduced air pollution by about three-quarters.[19]

View of the Arch
Arch
(completed 1965) from Laclede's Landing, the only remaining section of St. Louis's commercial riverfront.

De jure educational segregation continued into the 1950s, and de facto segregation continued into the 1970s, leading to a court challenge and interdistrict desegregation agreement. Students have been bussed mostly from the city to county school districts to have opportunities for integrated classes, although the city has created magnet schools to attract students.[20] St. Louis, like many Midwestern
Midwestern
cities, expanded in the early 20th century due to industrialization, which provided jobs to new generations of immigrants and migrants from the South. It reached its peak population of 856,796 at the 1950 census.[21] Suburbanization from the 1950s through the 1990s dramatically reduced the city's population, as did restructuring of industry and loss of jobs. The effects of suburbanization were exacerbated by the relatively small geographical size of St. Louis
St. Louis
due to its earlier decision to become an independent city, and it lost much of its tax base. During the 19th and 20th century, most major cities aggressively annexed surrounding areas as residential development occurred away from the central city; however, St. Louis
St. Louis
was unable to do so. In the 21st century, the city of St. Louis
St. Louis
contains only 11% of its total metropolitan population, while among the top 20 metro areas in the United States, the central cities contain an average of 24% of total metropolitan area population. Although small increases in population have taken place in St. Louis
St. Louis
during the early 2000s, overall the city lost population from 2000 to 2010. Immigration has continued, with the city attracting Vietnamese, Latinos
Latinos
from Mexico and Central America, and Bosnians, the latter forming the largest Bosnian community outside of Bosnia. Several urban renewal projects were built in the 1950s, as the city worked to replace old and substandard housing. Some of these were poorly designed and resulted in problems. One prominent example, Pruitt-Igoe, became a symbol of failure in public housing, and was torn down less than two decades after it was built. Since the 1980s, several revitalization efforts have focused on downtown St. Louis. 21st century[edit] Urban revitalization continued in the new century. Gentrification
Gentrification
has taken place in the Washington Avenue Historic District.[22] In 2006, St. Louis
St. Louis
received the World Leadership Award for urban renewal.[23] In 2013 the US Census Bureau estimated that St. Louis
St. Louis
had a population of 318,416.[7] On December 20, 2011 a 24-year-old African American
African American
man from St. Louis, Missouri
Missouri
was shot and killed by a white police officer. When the police officer was found not guilty in September 2017, several protests erupted. Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of St. Louis Cityscape[edit]

Westward view of St. Louis
St. Louis
skyline, September 2008.

Landmarks[edit] Further information: Landmarks of St. Louis

Name Description Photo

Gateway Arch At 630-foot (192 m), it is the world's tallest arch and tallest man-made monument in the Western Hemisphere,.[24] Built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States, it is the centerpiece of the Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
National Park which was known as the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial until 2018.

St. Louis
St. Louis
Art Museum Built for the 1904 World's Fair, with a building designed by Cass Gilbert, the museum houses paintings, sculptures, and cultural objects. The museum is located in Forest Park, and admission is free.

Missouri
Missouri
Botanical Garden Founded in 1859, the Missouri
Missouri
Botanical Garden is one of the oldest botanical institutions in the United States
United States
and a National Historic Landmark. It spans 79-acres in the Shaw neighborhood, including a 14-acre (5.7 ha) Japanese garden
Japanese garden
and the Climatron
Climatron
geodesic dome conservatory.

Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis Dedicated in 1914, it is the mother church of the Archdiocese of St. Louis and the seat of its archbishop. The church is known for its large mosaic installation (which is one of the largest in the Western Hemisphere with 41.5 million pieces), burial crypts, and its outdoor sculpture.

City Hall Located in Downtown West, City Hall was designed by Harvey Ellis
Harvey Ellis
in 1892 in the Renaissance Revival style. It is reminiscent of the Hôtel de Ville, Paris.

Central Library Completed in 1912, the Central Library building was designed by Cass Gilbert. It serves as the main location for the St. Louis
St. Louis
Public Library.

City Museum City Museum
City Museum
is a play house museum, consisting largely of repurposed architectural and industrial objects, housed in the former International Shoe building in the Washington Avenue Loft District.

Old Courthouse Built in the 19th century, it served as a federal and state courthouse. The Dred Scott
Dred Scott
case was tried at the courthouse in 1846.

St. Louis
St. Louis
Science Center Founded in 1963, it includes a science museum and a planetarium, and is situated in Forest Park. Admission is free. It is one of only two science centers in the United States
United States
which offers free general admission.

St. Louis
St. Louis
Symphony Founded in 1880, the St. Louis Symphony
St. Louis Symphony
Orchestra is the second-oldest symphony orchestra in the United States, preceded only by the New York Philharmonic. Its principal concert venue is Powell Symphony Hall.

Union Station Built in 1888, it was the city's main passenger intercity train terminal. Once the world's largest and busiest train station, it was converted in the early 1980s into a hotel, shopping center, and entertainment complex. Today, it also continues to serve local rail (MetroLink) transit passengers, with Amtrak
Amtrak
service nearby.

St. Louis
St. Louis
Zoo Built for the 1904 Worlds Fair, it is recognized as a leading zoo in animal management, research, conservation, and education. It is located in Forest Park, and admission is free.

Architecture[edit] Further information: Architecture of St. Louis
Architecture of St. Louis
and List of tallest buildings in St. Louis

Wainwright Building
Wainwright Building
(1891), an important early skyscraper designed by Louis Sullivan.

A cluster of skyscrapers is located just west of the Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
and the Mississippi River.

Many houses in Lafayette Square are built with a blending of Greek Revival, Federal and Italianate styles

The architecture of St. Louis
St. Louis
exhibits a variety of commercial, residential, and monumental architecture. St. Louis
St. Louis
is known for the Gateway Arch, the tallest monument constructed in the United States
United States
at 630 feet (190 m).[25] The Arch
Arch
pays homage to Thomas Jefferson and St. Louis's position as the gateway to the West. Architectural influences reflected in the area include French Colonial, German, early American, and modern architectural styles. Some notable post-modern commercial skyscrapers were built downtown in the 1970s and 1980s, including the One US Bank Plaza (1976), the AT&T Center (1986), and One Metropolitan Square
One Metropolitan Square
(1989), which is the tallest building in St. Louis. One US Bank Plaza, the local headquarters for US Bancorp, was constructed for the Mercantile Bancorporation in the Structural expressionist
Structural expressionist
style, emphasizing the steel structure of the building. During the 1990s, St. Louis
St. Louis
saw the construction of the largest United States courthouse by area, the Thomas F. Eagleton United States Courthouse (completed in 2000). The Eagleton Courthouse is home to the United States
United States
District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri
Missouri
and the United States
United States
Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. The most recent high-rise buildings in St. Louis
St. Louis
include two residential towers: the Park East Tower in the Central West End and the Roberts Tower located in downtown. Several examples of religious structures are extant from the pre-Civil War period, and most reflect the common residential styles of the time. Among the earliest is the Basilica of St. Louis, King of France (locally referred to as the Old Cathedral). The Basilica was built between 1831 and 1834 in the Federal style. Other religious buildings from the period include SS. Cyril and Methodius Church (1857) in the Romanesque Revival style and Christ Church Cathedral (completed in 1867, designed in 1859) in the Gothic Revival style. Only a few civic buildings were constructed during the early 19th century. The original St. Louis
St. Louis
courthouse was built in 1826 and featured a Federal style stone facade with a rounded portico. However, this courthouse was replaced during renovation and expansion of the building in the 1850s. The Old St. Louis
St. Louis
County Courthouse (locally known as the Old Courthouse) was completed in 1864 and was notable for having an early cast iron dome and for being the tallest structure in Missouri
Missouri
until 1894. Finally, a customs house was constructed in the Greek Revival style in 1852, but was demolished and replaced in 1873 by the U.S. Customhouse and Post Office. Because much of the city's early commercial and industrial development was centered along the riverfront, many pre-Civil War buildings were demolished during construction of the Gateway Arch. The city's remaining architectural heritage of the era includes a multi-block district of cobblestone streets and brick and cast-iron warehouses called Laclede's Landing. Now popular for its restaurants and nightclubs, the district is located north of Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
along the riverfront. Other industrial buildings from the era include some portions of the Anheuser-Busch
Anheuser-Busch
Brewery, which date to the early 1860s. St. Louis
St. Louis
saw a vast expansion in variety and number of religious buildings during the late 19th century and early 20th century. The largest and most ornate of these is the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis, designed by Thomas P. Barnett
Thomas P. Barnett
and constructed between 1907 and 1914 in the Neo-Byzantine
Neo-Byzantine
style. The St. Louis
St. Louis
Cathedral, as it is known, has one of the largest mosaic collections in the world. Another landmark in religious architecture of St. Louis
St. Louis
is the St. Stanislaus Kostka, which is an example of the Polish Cathedral style. Among the other major designs of the period were St. Alphonsus Liguori (locally known as The Rock Church) (1867) in the Gothic Revival and Second Presbyterian Church of St. Louis
St. Louis
(1900) in Richardsonian Romanesque. By the 1900 census, St. Louis
St. Louis
was the fourth largest city in the country. In 1904, the city hosted a world's fair at Forest Park called the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
Exposition. Its architectural legacy is somewhat scattered. Among the fair-related cultural institutions in the park are the St. Louis Art Museum
St. Louis Art Museum
designed by Cass Gilbert, part of the remaining lagoon at the foot of Art Hill, and the Flight Cage at the St. Louis
St. Louis
Zoo. The Missouri
Missouri
History Museum was built afterward, with the profit from the fair. But 1904 left other assets to the city, like Theodore Link's 1894 St. Louis
St. Louis
Union Station, and an improved Forest Park. Neighborhoods[edit] Further information: Neighborhoods of St. Louis

French style houses in Lafayette Square

The Delmar Loop
Delmar Loop
is a neighborhood which is on the border of the city and St. Louis
St. Louis
County

The city is divided into 79 government-designated neighborhoods.[26] The neighborhood divisions have no legal standing, although some neighborhood associations administer grants or hold veto power over historic-district development. Several neighborhoods are lumped together in categories such as "North City," "South City," and "The Central West End." The following is a list of neighborhoods of the city of St. Louis, Missouri.

1 Carondelet 21 Soulard 41 Cheltenham 61 Carr Square

2 Patch 22 Benton Park 42 Clayton/Tamm 62 Columbus Square

3 Holly Hills 23 McKinley Heights 43 Franz Park 63 Old North St. Louis

4 Boulevard Heights 24 Fox Park 44 Hi-Pointe 64 Near North Riverfront

5 Bevo Mill 25 Tower Grove East 45 Wydown/Skinker 65 Hyde Park

6 Princeton Heights 26 Compton Heights 46 Skinker/DeBaliviere 66 College Hill

7 Southampton 27 Shaw 47 DeBaliviere Place 67 Fairground

8 St. Louis
St. Louis
Hills 28 Botanical Heights 48 West End 68 O'Fallon

9 Lindenwood Park 29 Tiffany 49 Visitation Park 69 Penrose

10 Ellendale 30 Benton Park West 50 Wells/Goodfellow 70 Mark Twain/I-70 Industrial

11 Clifton Heights 31 Gate District 51 Academy 71 Mark Twain

12 The Hill 32 Lafayette Square 52 Kingsway West 72 Walnut Park East

13 Southwest Garden 33 Peabody/Darst/Webbe 53 Fountain Park 73 North Point

14 North Hampton 34 LaSalle Park 54 Lewis Place 74 Baden

15 Tower Grove South 35 Downtown 55 Kingsway East 75 Riverview

16 Dutchtown 36 Downtown West 56 Greater Ville 76 Walnut Park West

17 Mount Pleasant 37 Midtown 57 The Ville 77 Grand Center

18 Marine Villa 38 Central West End 58 Vandeventer 78 Hamilton Heights

19 Gravois Park 39 Forest Park Southeast 59 JeffVanderLou 79 North Riverfront

20 Kosciusko 40 Kings Oak 60 St. Louis
St. Louis
Place

Topography[edit]

Rivers in the St. Louis
St. Louis
area.

According to the United States
United States
Census Bureau, St. Louis
St. Louis
has a total area of 66 square miles (170 km2), of which 62 square miles (160 km2) is land and 4.1 square miles (11 km2) (6.2%) is water.[27] (Not shown on simple maps of the city, the land at its airport is owned by the city, served by its fire department and others, and is an exclave of St. Louis.) The city is built primarily on bluffs and terraces that rise 100–200 feet above the western banks of the Mississippi River, in the Midwestern
Midwestern
United States
United States
just south of the Missouri-Mississippi confluence. Much of the area is a fertile and gently rolling prairie that features low hills and broad, shallow valleys. Both the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and the Missouri
Missouri
River have cut large valleys with wide flood plains. Limestone
Limestone
and dolomite of the Mississippian epoch underlie the area, and parts of the city are karst in nature. This is particularly true of the area south of downtown, which has numerous sinkholes and caves. Most of the caves in the city have been sealed, but many springs are visible along the riverfront. Coal, brick clay, and millerite ore were once mined in the city. The predominant surface rock, known as St. Louis limestone, is used as dimension stone and rubble for construction. Near the southern boundary of the city of St. Louis
St. Louis
(separating it from St. Louis
St. Louis
County) is the River des Peres, practically the only river or stream within the city limits that is not entirely underground.[28] Most of River des Peres
River des Peres
was confined to a channel or put underground in the 1920s and early 1930s. The lower section of the river was the site of some of the worst flooding of the Great Flood of 1993. The city's eastern boundary is the Mississippi River, which separates Missouri
Missouri
from Illinois. The Missouri
Missouri
River forms the northern line of St. Louis
St. Louis
County, except for a few areas where the river has changed its course. The Meramec River forms most of its southern line. Climate[edit] Further information: Geography of St. Louis
Geography of St. Louis
§ Climate

The Captains' Return statue inundated by the Mississippi River, 2010.

St. Louis
St. Louis
lies in the transitional zone between the humid continental climate type and the humid subtropical climate type (Köppen Dfa and Cfa, respectively), with neither large mountains nor large bodies of water to moderate its temperature. The city experiences hot, humid summers, and chilly to cold winters. It is subject to both cold Arctic air and hot, humid tropical air from the Gulf of Mexico. The average annual temperature recorded at nearby Lambert–St. Louis International Airport, is 57.1 °F (13.9 °C). Both 100 and 0 °F (38 and −18 °C) temperatures can be seen on an average 2 or 3 days per year.[29] Average annual precipitation is about 41.0 inches (1,040 mm),[29] but annual precipitation has ranged from 20.59 in (523 mm) in 1953 to 61.24 in (1,555 mm) in 2015.[30] St. Louis
St. Louis
experiences thunderstorms 48 days a year on average.[31] Especially in the spring, these storms can often be severe, with high winds, large hail and tornadoes. Lying within the hotbed of Tornado Alley, St. Louis
St. Louis
reigns as one of the most frequently tornadic metropolitan areas, and has an extensive history of particularly damaging tornadoes. Severe flooding, such as the Great Flood of 1993, may occur in spring and summer; the (often rapid) melting of thick snow cover upstream either the Missouri
Missouri
or Mississippi Rivers can contribute to springtime flooding.

Climate data for St. Louis, Missouri
Missouri
(Lambert– St. Louis
St. Louis
Int'l), 1981−2010 normals,[a] extremes 1874−present[b]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 77 (25) 85 (29) 92 (33) 93 (34) 98 (37) 108 (42) 115 (46) 110 (43) 104 (40) 94 (34) 86 (30) 76 (24) 115 (46)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 64.1 (17.8) 69.8 (21) 80.2 (26.8) 86.7 (30.4) 89.4 (31.9) 94.8 (34.9) 98.5 (36.9) 99.3 (37.4) 92.7 (33.7) 85.7 (29.8) 75.6 (24.2) 65.0 (18.3) 100.4 (38)

Average high °F (°C) 39.9 (4.4) 45.0 (7.2) 55.9 (13.3) 67.4 (19.7) 76.3 (24.6) 85.1 (29.5) 89.1 (31.7) 87.9 (31.1) 80.2 (26.8) 68.5 (20.3) 55.5 (13.1) 42.5 (5.8) 66.2 (19)

Daily mean °F (°C) 31.8 (−0.1) 36.3 (2.4) 46.3 (7.9) 57.3 (14.1) 66.8 (19.3) 75.9 (24.4) 80.0 (26.7) 78.6 (25.9) 70.4 (21.3) 58.7 (14.8) 46.8 (8.2) 34.7 (1.5) 57.0 (13.9)

Average low °F (°C) 23.7 (−4.6) 27.6 (−2.4) 36.6 (2.6) 47.2 (8.4) 57.2 (14) 66.8 (19.3) 71.0 (21.7) 69.4 (20.8) 60.6 (15.9) 49.0 (9.4) 38.1 (3.4) 26.9 (−2.8) 47.9 (8.8)

Mean minimum °F (°C) 4.2 (−15.4) 8.0 (−13.3) 18.4 (−7.6) 31.5 (−0.3) 43.2 (6.2) 54.3 (12.4) 60.3 (15.7) 59.0 (15) 44.8 (7.1) 33.5 (0.8) 22.4 (−5.3) 7.5 (−13.6) −1.8 (−18.8)

Record low °F (°C) −22 (−30) −18 (−28) −5 (−21) 20 (−7) 31 (−1) 43 (6) 51 (11) 47 (8) 32 (0) 21 (−6) 1 (−17) −16 (−27) −22 (−30)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.40 (61) 2.24 (56.9) 3.32 (84.3) 3.69 (93.7) 4.72 (119.9) 4.28 (108.7) 4.11 (104.4) 2.99 (75.9) 3.13 (79.5) 3.33 (84.6) 3.91 (99.3) 2.84 (72.1) 40.96 (1,040.4)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 5.6 (14.2) 4.3 (10.9) 2.3 (5.8) 0.4 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.7 (1.8) 4.4 (11.2) 17.7 (45)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 8.9 8.0 10.3 11.3 11.9 10.0 8.9 8.2 7.4 8.7 9.6 9.4 112.6

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 4.7 3.4 1.7 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.7 3.7 14.5

Average relative humidity (%) 73.0 72.0 68.3 63.5 66.5 67.1 68.0 70.0 71.6 68.7 72.2 75.8 69.7

Mean monthly sunshine hours 161.2 158.3 198.3 223.5 266.5 291.9 308.9 269.8 236.1 208.4 140.9 129.9 2,593.7

Percent possible sunshine 53 53 53 56 60 66 68 64 63 60 47 44 58

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)[33][30][34]

Flora and fauna[edit]

Tower Grove Park
Tower Grove Park
in spring

The Missouri
Missouri
Botanical Garden

Before the founding of the city, the area was mostly prairie and open forest. Native Americans maintained this environment, good for hunting, by burning underbrush. Trees are mainly oak, maple, and hickory, similar to the forests of the nearby Ozarks; common understory trees include eastern redbud, serviceberry, and flowering dogwood. Riparian
Riparian
areas are forested with mainly American sycamore. Most of the residential areas of the city are planted with large native shade trees. The largest native forest area is found in Forest Park. In autumn, the changing color of the trees is notable. Most species here are typical of the eastern woodland, although numerous decorative non-native species are found. The most notable invasive species is Japanese honeysuckle, which officials are trying to manage because of its damage to native trees. It is removed from some parks. Large mammals found in the city include urbanized coyotes and white-tailed deer. Eastern gray squirrel, cottontail rabbit, and other rodents are abundant, as well as the nocturnal Virginia opossum. Large bird species are abundant in parks and include Canada
Canada
goose, mallard duck, as well as shorebirds, including the great egret and great blue heron. Gulls are common along the Mississippi River; these species typically follow barge traffic. Winter populations of bald eagles are found along the Mississippi River around the Chain of Rocks Bridge. The city is on the Mississippi Flyway, used by migrating birds, and has a large variety of small bird species, common to the eastern US. The Eurasian tree sparrow, an introduced species, is limited in North America to the counties surrounding St. Louis. The city has special sites for birdwatching of migratory species, including Tower Grove Park. Frogs are commonly found in the springtime, especially after extensive wet periods. Common species include the American toad
American toad
and species of chorus frogs commonly called spring peepers, which are found in nearly every pond. Some years have outbreaks of cicadas or ladybugs. Mosquitoes, no-see-ums, and houseflies are common insect nuisances, especially in July and August; because of this, windows are nearly universally fitted with screens. Invasive populations of honeybees have sharply declined in recent years. Numerous native species of pollinator insects have recovered to fill their ecological niche, and armadillos have been regularly seen throughout the St. Louis
St. Louis
area, especially since 2005.[35] Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1810 1,600

1830 4,977

1840 16,469

230.9%

1850 77,860

372.8%

1860 160,773

106.5%

1870 310,864

93.4%

1880 350,518

12.8%

1890 451,770

28.9%

1900 575,238

27.3%

1910 687,029

19.4%

1920 772,897

12.5%

1930 821,960

6.3%

1940 816,048

−0.7%

1950 856,796

5.0%

1960 750,026

−12.5%

1970 622,236

−17.0%

1980 453,805

−27.1%

1990 396,685

−12.6%

2000 348,189

−12.2%

2010 319,294

−8.3%

Est. 2018 308,626 [8] −3.3%

U.S. Decennial Census[36] 1790–1960[37] 1900–1990[38] 1990–2000[39] 2010–2015[7] [40]

Map of racial distribution in St. Louis, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

Pruitt–Igoe
Pruitt–Igoe
was a large housing project constructed in 1954, which became infamous for poverty, crime and segregation. It was demolished in 1972.

St. Louis
St. Louis
grew slowly until the American Civil War, when industrialization and immigration sparked a boom. Mid-19th century immigrants included many Irish and Germans; later there were immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. In the early 20th century, African American
African American
and white migrants came from the South; the former as part of the Great Migration out of rural areas of the Deep South. Many came from Mississippi and Arkansas. After years of immigration, migration, and expansion, the city reached its peak population in 1950. That year, the Census Bureau reported St. Louis's population as 82% White and 17.9% African American.[41] After World War II, St. Louis
St. Louis
began losing population to the suburbs, first because of increased demand for new housing, unhappiness with city services, ease of commuting by subsidized highways, and later, white flight.[42] St. Louis's population decline has resulted in a significant increase of abandoned residential housing units and vacant lots throughout the city proper; this blight has attracted much wildlife (such as deer and coyotes) to the many abandoned overgrown lots. St. Louis
St. Louis
has lost 64.0% of its population since the 1950 United States Census, the highest percent of any city that had a population of 100,000 or more at the time of the 1950 Census. Detroit, Michigan and Youngstown, Ohio
Youngstown, Ohio
are the only other cities that have had population declines of at least 60% in the same time frame. The population of the city of St. Louis
St. Louis
has been in decline since the 1950 census; during this period the population of the St. Louis Metropolitan Area, which includes more than one county, has grown every year and continues to do so. A big factor in the decline has been the rapid increase in suburbanization. According to the 2010 United States
United States
Census, St. Louis
St. Louis
had 319,294 people living in 142,057 households, of which 67,488 households were families. The population density was 5,158.2 people per square mile (1,990.6/km²). About 24% of the population was 19 or younger, 9% were 20 to 24, 31% were 25 to 44, 25% were 45 to 64, and 11% were 65 or older. The median age was about 34 years. The population was about 49.2% African American, 43.9% White (42.2% Non-Hispanic White), 2.9% Asian, 0.3% Native American/Alaska Native, and 2.4% reporting two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.5% of the population.[43] The African-American population is concentrated in the north side of the city (the area north of Delmar Boulevard is 94.0% black, compared with 35.0% in the central corridor and 26.0% in the south side of St. Louis[44]). Among the Asian-American population in the city, the largest ethnic group is Vietnamese (0.9%), followed by Chinese (0.6%) and Indians (0.5%). The Vietnamese community has concentrated in the Dutchtown neighborhood of south St. Louis; Chinese are concentrated in the Central West End.[45][not in citation given] People of Mexican descent are the largest Latino group, and make up 2.2% of St. Louis's population. They have the highest concentration in the Dutchtown, Benton Park West (Cherokee Street), and Gravois Park neighborhoods.[43] In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $29,156, and the median income for a family was $32,585. Males had a median income of $31,106; females, $26,987. Per capita income was $18,108. Some 19% of the city's housing units were vacant, and slightly less than half of these were vacant structures not for sale or rent. In 2010, St. Louis's per-capita rates of online charitable donations and volunteerism were among the highest among major U.S. cities.[46] As of 2010, 91.05% (270,934) of St. Louis
St. Louis
city residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 2.86% (8,516) spoke Spanish, 0.91% (2,713) Serbo-Croat, 0.74% (2,200) Vietnamese, 0.50% (1,495) African languages, 0.50% (1,481) Chinese, and French was spoken as a main language by 0.45% (1,341) of the population over the age of five. In total, 8.95% (26,628) of St. Louis's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[47]

Racial composition 2016 (est.)[48] 2010[49] 2000[50] 1990[41] 1970[41] 1940[41]

White 46.8% (est.) 43.9% 43.9% 50.9% 58.7% 86.6%

—Non-Hispanic 43.6 (est.) 42.2% 43.0%[51] 50.2% 57.9%[52] 86.4%

Black 47.1% (est.) 49.2% 51.2% 47.5% 40.9% 13.3%

Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 4.0% (est.) 3.5% 2.0% 1.3% 1.0%[52] 0.2%

Asian 3.3% (est.) 2.9% 2.0% 0.9% 0.2% (X)

Bosnian population[edit] See also: History of the Bosnians
Bosnians
in St. Louis About 15 families from Bosnia
Bosnia
settled in St. Louis
St. Louis
between 1960 and 1970. After the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
started in 1992, more Bosnian refugees began arriving and by 2000, tens of thousands of Bosnian refugees settled in St. Louis
St. Louis
with the help of Catholic aid societies. Many of them were professionals and skilled workers who had to take any job opportunity to be able to support their families. Most Bosnian refugees are Muslim, ethnically Bosniaks
Bosniaks
(87%); they have settled primarily in south St. Louis
St. Louis
and South County. Bosnian-Americans are well integrated into the city, developing many businesses and ethnic/cultural organizations.[53] An estimated 70,000 Bosnians
Bosnians
live in the metro area, the largest population of Bosnians
Bosnians
in the United States
United States
and the largest Bosnian population outside their homeland. The highest concentration of Bosnians
Bosnians
is in the neighborhood of Bevo Mill and in Affton, Mehlville, and Oakville of south St. Louis
St. Louis
County.[54] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of St. Louis According to stltoday.com in 2016 GDP of the St. Louis
St. Louis
metro area was $160 billion and in 2015 GDP was $155 billion. 2014 Gross Metropolitan Product (GMP) of St. Louis
St. Louis
was $145.958 billion up from $144.03 in 2013, $138.403 in 2012 and $133.1 in 2011 making it the 21st-highest in the country. The St. Louis
St. Louis
Metropolitan Area had a Per capita GDP of $48,738 in 2014 up 1.6% from 2013.[55] This signals the growth of the St. Louis
St. Louis
economy. According to the 2007 Economic Census, manufacturing in the city conducted nearly $11 billion in business, followed by the health care and social service industry with $3.5 billion, professional or technical services with $3.1 billion, and the retail trade with $2.5 billion. The health care sector was the biggest employer in the area with 34,000 workers, followed by administrative and support jobs, 24,000; manufacturing, 21,000, and food service, 20,000.[56] Major companies and institutions[edit]

The Anheuser-Busch
Anheuser-Busch
packaging plant in St. Louis

As of 2013, the St. Louis
St. Louis
Metropolitan Area is home to nine Fortune 500 companies, the third-highest in the Midwestern
Midwestern
United States. In addition, seven other Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies are headquartered in the metropolitan statistical area: Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Monsanto, Reinsurance Group of America, Centene, Graybar Electric, and Edward Jones Investments.[57]

A Boeing F/A-18E Super Hornet
Boeing F/A-18E Super Hornet
produced by Boeing
Boeing
Defense, Space & Security, which is headquartered in St. Louis. The F/A-18E Super Hornet is assembled in the St. Louis
St. Louis
area.

Other notable corporations headquartered in the region include Arch Coal, Wells Fargo Advisors
Wells Fargo Advisors
(formerly A.G. Edwards), Energizer Holdings, Patriot Coal, Post Foods, United Van Lines, and Mayflower Transit, Post Holdings, Olin, and Enterprise Holdings
Enterprise Holdings
(a parent company of several car rental companies). Notable corporations with operations in St. Louis
St. Louis
include Cassidy Turley, Kerry Group, MasterCard, TD Ameritrade, and BMO Harris Bank. Health care and biotechnology institutions with operations in St. Louis include Pfizer, the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, the Solae Company, Sigma-Aldrich, and Multidata Systems International. General Motors
General Motors
manufactures automobiles in Wentzville, while an earlier plant, known as the St. Louis
St. Louis
Truck Assembly, built GMC automobiles from 1920 until 1987. Chrysler
Chrysler
closed its St. Louis Assembly production facility in nearby Fenton, Missouri
Missouri
and Ford closed the St. Louis Assembly Plant
St. Louis Assembly Plant
in Hazelwood. Several once-independent pillars of the local economy have been purchased by other corporations. Among them are Anheuser-Busch, purchased by Belgium-based InBev; Missouri
Missouri
Pacific Railroad, which was headquartered in St. Louis, merged with the Omaha, Nebraska-based Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad
in 1982;[58] McDonnell Douglas, whose operations are now part of Boeing
Boeing
Defense, Space & Security;[59] Mallinckrodt, purchased by Tyco International; and Ralston Purina, now a wholly owned subsidiary of Nestlé.[60] The May Department Stores Company (which owned Famous-Barr
Famous-Barr
and Marshall Field's
Marshall Field's
stores) was purchased by Federated Department Stores, which has its regional headquarters in the area. The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in downtown is one of two federal reserve banks in Missouri.[61] Most of the assets of Furniture Brands International were sold to Heritage Home Group in 2013, and while that company remained in the area for a brief time, it has moved to North Carolina.[62][63]

Barnes-Jewish Hospital, which is affiliated with the Washington University School of Medicine

St. Louis
St. Louis
is a center of medicine and biotechnology.[64] The Washington University School of Medicine
Washington University School of Medicine
is affiliated with Barnes-Jewish Hospital, the fifth-largest hospital in the world. Both institutions operate the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center.[65] The School of Medicine also is affiliated with St. Louis
St. Louis
Children's Hospital, one of the country's top pediatric hospitals.[66] Both hospitals are owned by BJC HealthCare. The McDonnell Genome Institute at Washington University
Washington University
played a major role in the Human Genome Project.[67] St. Louis University
St. Louis University
Medical School is affiliated with SSM Health's Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital
Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital
and St. Louis University Hospital. It also has a cancer center, vaccine research center, geriatric center, and a bioethics institute. Several different organizations operate hospitals in the area, including BJC HealthCare, Mercy, SSM Health Care, and Tenet. Boeing
Boeing
employs nearly 15,000 people in its north St. Louis
St. Louis
campus, headquarters to its defense unit. In 2013, the company said it would move about 600 jobs from Seattle, where labor costs have risen, to a new IT center in St. Louis.[68][69] Other companies, such as LaunchCode
LaunchCode
and LockerDome, see the city's potential to become the next major tech hub.[70] Programs such as Arch
Arch
Grants are attracting new startups to the region.[71] According to the St. Louis
St. Louis
Business Journal, the top employers in the St. Louis
St. Louis
metropolitan area as of May 1, 2017, are as follows:[72]

# Employer # of Employees

1 BJC Health Care 28,351

2 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. 22,290

3 Washington University 15,818

4 SSM Health 14,926

5 Mercy 14,195

According to St. Louis's 2017 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (June 30),[73][74] the top employers in the city only, as of June 30, 2016 are:

# Employer # of Employees

1 BJC Health Care 18,354

2 Washington University
Washington University
in St. Louis 16,174

3 St. Louis
St. Louis
University 10,078

4 City of St. Louis  8,765

5 Defense Finance and Accounting Service  6,508

6 Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo
(A. G. Edwards)  5,418

7 St. Louis
St. Louis
Board of Education  4,940

8 US Postal Service  4,577

9 State of Missouri  4,070

10 SSM Health  4,070

Education[edit] Main article: Education in St. Louis For education in the region, see Education in Greater St. Louis. Colleges and universities[edit]

Brookings Hall
Brookings Hall
at Washington University
Washington University
in St. Louis

The city is home to three national research universities, University of Missouri-St. Louis, Washington University in St. Louis
Washington University in St. Louis
and Saint Louis University, as classified under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Washington University
Washington University
School of Medicine in St. Louis
St. Louis
has been ranked among the top 10 medical schools in the country by US News & World Report for as long as the list has been published, and as high as second, in 2003 and 2004.[25] In addition to Catholic theological institutions such as Kenrick-Glennon Seminary, St. Louis
St. Louis
is home to three Protestant seminaries: Eden Theological Seminary
Eden Theological Seminary
of the United Church of Christ, Covenant Theological Seminary
Covenant Theological Seminary
of the Presbyterian Church in America, and Concordia Seminary
Concordia Seminary
of the St. Louis-based Lutheran Church– Missouri
Missouri
Synod. Primary and secondary schools[edit]

St. Louis University
St. Louis University
High School was founded in 1818. Their current building pictured here was built in 1924.

The St. Louis Public Schools
St. Louis Public Schools
(SLPS) operate more than 75 schools, attended by more than 25,000 students, including several magnet schools. SLPS operates under provisional accreditation from the state of Missouri
Missouri
and is under the governance of a state-appointed school board called the Special
Special
Administrative Board, although a local board continues to exist without legal authority over the district. Since 2000, charter schools have operated in the city of St. Louis
St. Louis
using authorization from Missouri
Missouri
state law. These schools are sponsored by local institutions or corporations and take in students from kindergarten through high school.[75] In addition, several private schools exist in the city, and the Archdiocese of St. Louis
Archdiocese of St. Louis
operates dozens of parochial schools in the city, including parochial high schools. The city also has several private high schools, including secular, Catholic and Lutheran schools. St. Louis University
St. Louis University
High School - a Jesuit preparatory high school founded in 1818 - is the oldest secondary educational institution in the U.S. west of the Mississippi River.[76] Culture[edit]

The Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis

Main article: Culture of St. Louis See also: St. Louis
St. Louis
cuisine With its French past and waves of Catholic immigrants in the 19th and 20th centuries, from Ireland, Germany
Germany
and Italy, St. Louis
St. Louis
is a major center of Roman Catholicism in the United States. St. Louis
St. Louis
also boasts the largest Ethical Culture Society in the United States, and consistently ranks as one of the most generous cities in the United States, ranking ninth in 2013.[77] Several places of worship in the city are noteworthy, such as the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis, home of the world's largest mosaic installation.[78]

The St. Louis Art Museum
St. Louis Art Museum
in Forest Park

Other locally notable churches include the Basilica of St. Louis, King of France, the oldest Roman Catholic cathedral west of the Mississippi River and the oldest church in St. Louis; the St. Louis
St. Louis
Abbey, whose distinctive architectural style garnered multiple awards at the time of its completion in 1962; and St. Francis de Sales Oratory, a neo-Gothic church completed in 1908 in South St. Louis
St. Louis
and the second-largest church in the city. The city is defined by music and the performing arts, especially its association with blues, jazz, and ragtime. St. Louis
St. Louis
is home to the St. Louis
St. Louis
Symphony, the second-oldest symphony orchestra in the United States, which has toured nationally and internationally to strong reviews. Until 2010, it was also home to KFUO-FM, one of the oldest classical music FM radio stations west of the Mississippi River.[79] The Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
marks downtown St. Louis
St. Louis
and a historic center that includes the Federal courthouse where the Dred Scott
Dred Scott
case was first argued, a newly renovated and expanded public library, major churches and businesses, and retail. An increasing downtown residential population has taken to adapted office buildings and other historic structures. In nearby University City is the Delmar Loop, ranked by the American Planning Association
American Planning Association
as a "great American street" for its variety of shops and restaurants, and the Tivoli Theater, all within walking distance. Unique city and regional cuisine reflecting various immigrant groups include toasted ravioli, gooey butter cake, provel cheese, the slinger, the Gerber sandwich, the St. Paul sandwich, and St. Louis-style pizza, featuring thin crust and provel cheese. Some St. Louis chefs have begun emphasizing use of local produce, meats and fish, and neighborhood farmers' markets have become increasingly popular, as well as one downtown. Artisan bakeries, salumeria, and chocolatiers also operate in the city. Also unique to St. Louis
St. Louis
are St. Louis
St. Louis
style pizza (extremely thin crust, Provel cheese, and cut in small squares, marketed by one leading purveyor as "The Square Beyond Compare") [80] and the Ted Drewes "Concrete", which is frozen custard blended with any combination of dozens of ingredients, served in a large yellow cup with a spoon and straw. The mixture is so thick that a spoon inserted into the custard does not fall if the cup is inverted.[81] It is also widely noted among natives of St. Louis
St. Louis
that a standard first question among adults of any age in the St. Louis
St. Louis
metro area is "where did you go to High School?" due to the large number of private and prestigious high schools. Sports[edit] See also: Sports in St. Louis
Sports in St. Louis
and Soccer in St. Louis St. Louis
St. Louis
is home to Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
and the National Hockey League, notable collegiate-level soccer teams, and has hosted several collegiate sports tournaments. It is one of three American cities to have hosted an Olympic Games. Professional sports[edit]

Busch Stadium
Busch Stadium
in downtown St. Louis

St. Louis
St. Louis
is home to two major league sports teams. The St. Louis Cardinals are one of the most successful franchises in Major League Baseball. The Cardinals have won 19 National League
National League
(NL) titles (the most pennants for the league franchise in one city) and 11 World Series titles (second only to the New York Yankees
New York Yankees
and the most by any NL franchise), most recently in 2011. They play at Busch Stadium. Previously, the St. Louis
St. Louis
Browns played in the American League
American League
(AL) from 1902 to 1953, before moving to Baltimore, Maryland to become the current incarnation of the Orioles. The 1944 World Series
World Series
was an all- St. Louis
St. Louis
World Series, matching up the St. Louis Cardinals
St. Louis Cardinals
and St. Louis
St. Louis
Browns at Sportsman's Park.

The St. Louis Blues
St. Louis Blues
play at the Scottrade Center
Scottrade Center
in downtown St. Louis.

The St. Louis Blues
St. Louis Blues
of the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
(NHL) play at the Scottrade Center. They were one of the six teams added to the NHL in the 1967 expansion. The Blues
Blues
have never won the Stanley Cup, and are the oldest team not to do so. Prior to the Blues, the city was home to the St. Louis
St. Louis
Eagles. The team only played in the 1934-35 season. St. Louis
St. Louis
has been home to four different National Football League (NFL) teams. The St. Louis All-Stars played in the city in 1923, the St. Louis Gunners
St. Louis Gunners
in 1934, the St. Louis Cardinals
St. Louis Cardinals
from 1960 to 1987, and the St. Louis
St. Louis
Rams from 1995 to 2015. The football Cardinals advanced to the NFL playoffs just three times (1974, 1975 and 1982), never hosting or winning in any appearance. The Cardinals moved to Phoenix, Arizona, in 1988. The Rams played at the Edward Jones Dome from 1995 to 2015 and went on to win Super Bowl XXXIV. The Rams returned to Los Angeles, California in 2016. The St. Louis
St. Louis
Hawks of the National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
(NBA) played at Kiel Auditorium
Kiel Auditorium
from 1955 to 1968. They won the NBA championship in 1958 and played in two other NBA Finals: 1957 and 1960. In 1968 the Hawks moved to Atlanta, Georgia. St. Louis
St. Louis
also hosts several minor league sports teams. The Gateway Grizzlies and the River City Rascals
River City Rascals
of the Frontier League
Frontier League
(which are not affiliated with Major League Baseball) play in the area. The St. Louis Trotters of the Independent Basketball Association
Independent Basketball Association
play at Matthews Dickey. St. Louis
St. Louis
FC of the United Soccer League
United Soccer League
play at World Wide Technology Soccer Park
World Wide Technology Soccer Park
and both River City Raiders
River City Raiders
and St. Louis Ambush play at the Family Arena. The region hosts INDYCAR, NHRA drag racing, and NASCAR
NASCAR
events at the Gateway International Raceway
Gateway International Raceway
in Madison, Illinois. St. Louis Slam
St. Louis Slam
play at the Harlen C. Hunter Stadium Amateur sports[edit] At the collegiate level, St. Louis
St. Louis
has hosted the Final Four of both the women's and men's college basketball NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
championship tournaments, and the Frozen Four
Frozen Four
collegiate ice hockey tournament. Although the area does not have a National Basketball Association team, it hosts an American Basketball Association team called the St. Louis Phoenix. St. Louis University
St. Louis University
has won 10 NCAA Men's Soccer Championships, and the city has hosted the College Cup several times. In addition to collegiate soccer, many St. Louisans have played for the United States
United States
men's national soccer team, and 20 St. Louisans have been elected into the National Soccer Hall of Fame. St. Louis
St. Louis
also is the origin of the sport of corkball, a type of baseball in which there is no base running. Chess[edit]

The Sinquefield Cup
Sinquefield Cup
chess tournament is hosted annually in St. Louis

St. Louis
St. Louis
is home to the Chess Club and Scholastic Center of St. Louis (CCSCSL) where the U.S. Chess Championship is held. St. Louisan Rex Sinquefield founded the CCSCSL and moved the World Chess Hall of Fame to St. Louis
St. Louis
in 2011. The Sinquefield Cup
Sinquefield Cup
Tournament started at St. Louis in 2013. In 2014 the Sinquefield Cup
Sinquefield Cup
was the highest rated chess tournament of all time. Former U.S. Chess Champions Caruana and Hikaru Nakamura have lived in St. Louis. Women's chess champion Susan Polgar also resides in St. Louis. Parks[edit]

Forest Park features a variety of attractions, including the St. Louis Zoo, the St. Louis
St. Louis
Art Museum, the Missouri
Missouri
History Museum, and the St. Louis
St. Louis
Science Center.

Main article: Parks in St. Louis For parks in the region, see Parks in Greater St. Louis. The city operates more than 100 parks, with amenities that include sports facilities, playgrounds, concert areas, picnic areas, and lakes. Forest Park, located on the western edge of city, is the largest, occupying 1,400 acres of land, making it almost twice as large as Central Park
Central Park
in New York City.[25] The park is home to five major institutions, including the St. Louis
St. Louis
Art Museum, the St. Louis Zoo, the St. Louis
St. Louis
Science Center, the Missouri
Missouri
History Museum, and the Muny amphitheatre.[25] Another significant park in the city is the Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
National Park, a National Memorial
National Memorial
which was known as the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial until 2018 and is located on the riverfront in downtown St. Louis. The centerpiece of the park is the 630 feet (190 m) tall Gateway Arch, designed by noted architect Eero Saarinen
Eero Saarinen
and completed on October 28, 1965. Also part of the historic park is the Old Courthouse, where the first two trials of Dred Scott
Dred Scott
v. Sandford were held in 1847 and 1850.

The Jewel Box, a greenhouse and event venue in Forest Park

Other notable parks in the city include the Missouri
Missouri
Botanical Garden, Tower Grove Park, Carondelet Park
Carondelet Park
and Citygarden. The Missouri Botanical Garden, a private garden and botanical research facility, is a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
and one of the oldest botanical gardens in the United States.[25] The Garden features 79 acres of horticultural displays from around the world. This includes a Japanese strolling garden, Henry Shaw's original 1850 estate home and a geodesic dome called the Climatron.[25] Immediately south of the Missouri
Missouri
Botanical Garden is Tower Grove Park, a gift to the city by Henry Shaw. Citygarden
Citygarden
is an urban sculpture park located in downtown St. Louis, with art from Fernand Léger, Aristide Maillol, Julian Opie, Tom Otterness, Niki de Saint Phalle, and Mark di Suvero.[82][83] The park is divided into three sections, each of which represent a different theme: river bluffs; flood plains; and urban gardens. The park also has a restaurant – Death in the Afternoon. Another downtown sculpture park is the Serra Sculpture Park, with the 1982 Richard Serra
Richard Serra
sculpture Twain.[84] Government[edit] The city of St. Louis
St. Louis
has a strong mayor-council government with legislative authority vested in the Board of Aldermen of the City of St. Louis
St. Louis
and with executive authority in the Mayor of St. Louis
Mayor of St. Louis
and six other separately elected officials.[85] The Board of Aldermen is made up of 28 members (one elected from each of the city's wards) plus a board president who is elected citywide.[86] The 2014 fiscal year budget topped $1 billion for the first time, a 1.9% increase over the $985.2 million budget in 2013.[87] 238,253 registered voters lived in the city in 2012,[88] down from 239,247 in 2010, and 257,442 in 2008.[89] Local and regional government[edit]

Citywide officials[90] Featured

Mayor of St. Louis Lyda Krewson

President of the Board of Aldermen Lewis E. Reed

Comptroller Darlene Green

Recorder of Deeds Sharon Quigley Carpenter

Collector of Revenue Gregory F.X. Daly

License Collector Mavis Thompson

Treasurer Tishaura O. Jones

Circuit Attorney Kim Gardner

St. Louis
St. Louis
Sheriff Vernon Betts

St. Louis
St. Louis
Fire Department Dennis Jenkerson

Metropolitan Police Department, City of St. Louis John Hayden Jr.

St. Louis
St. Louis
Lambert International Airport Rhonda Hamm-Niebruegge

St. Louis
St. Louis
Mayor Lyda Krewson
Lyda Krewson
in 2017

Municipal elections in St. Louis
St. Louis
are held in odd numbered years, with the primary elections in March and the general election in April. The mayor is elected in odd numbered years following the United States Presidential Election, as are the aldermen representing odd-numbered wards. The President of the Board of Aldermen and the aldermen from even-numbered wards are elected in the off-years. The Democratic Party has dominated St. Louis
St. Louis
city politics for decades. The city has not had a Republican mayor since 1949 and the last time a Republican was elected to another citywide office was in the 1970s. As of 2015, all 28 of the city's Aldermen are Democrats.[91] Forty-Six individuals have held the office of mayor of St. Louis, four of whom—William Carr Lane, John Fletcher Darby, John Wimer, and John How—served non-consecutive terms. The most terms served by a mayor was by Lane who served 8 full terms plus the unexpired term of Darby. The current mayor is Lyda Krewson, who took office April 18, 2017 The second-longest serving mayor was Henry Kiel, who took office April 15, 1913 and left office April 21, 1925, a total of 12 years and 9 days over three terms in office. Two others—Raymond Tucker, and Vincent C. Schoemehl—also served three terms as mayor, but served seven fewer days. The shortest serving mayor was Arthur Barret who died 11 days after taking office. Although St. Louis
St. Louis
separated from St. Louis
St. Louis
County in 1876, some mechanisms have been put in place for joint funding management and funding of regional assets. The St. Louis
St. Louis
Zoo-Museum district collects property taxes from residents of both St. Louis
St. Louis
City and County and the funds are used to support cultural institutions including the St. Louis Zoo, St. Louis Art Museum
St. Louis Art Museum
and the Missouri
Missouri
Botanical Gardens. Similarly, the Metropolitan Sewer District provides sanitary and storm sewer service to the city and much of St. Louis
St. Louis
County. The Bi-State Development Agency (now known as Metro) runs the region's MetroLink light rail system and bus system. State and federal government[edit]

Presidential Elections Results (Recent)[92]

Year Republican Democratic Third Parties

2016 15.7% 20,832 78.7% 104,235 5.6% 7,420

2012 15.9% 22,943 82.5% 118,780 1.6% 2,343

2008 15.5% 24,662 83.6% 132,925 1.0% 1,517

Presidential Elections Results (Full)

Year Republican Democratic Third Parties

2016 15.7% 20,832 78.7% 104,235 5.6% 7,420

2012 15.9% 22,943 82.5% 118,780 1.6% 2,343

2008 15.5% 24,662 83.6% 132,925 1.0% 1,517

2004 19.2% 27,793 80.3% 116,133 0.5% 712

2000 19.9% 24,799 77.4% 96,557 2.7% 3,396

1996 18.1% 22,121 74.8% 91,233 7.1% 8,649

1992 17.3% 25,441 69.4% 102,356 13.3% 19,607

1988 27.0% 40,906 72.6% 110,076 0.5% 732

1984 35.2% 61,020 64.8% 112,318

1980 29.5% 50,333 66.6% 113,697 3.9% 6,721

1976 32.5% 58,367 66.0% 118,703 1.5% 2,714

1972 37.7% 72,402 62.3% 119,817

1968 26.4% 58,252 64.7% 143,010 8.9% 19,652

1964 22.3% 59,604 77.7% 207,958

1960 33.4% 101,331 66.6% 202,319

1956 39.1% 130,045 60.9% 202,210

1952 38.0% 144,828 61.9% 235,893 0.1% 427

1948 35.1% 120,656 64.2% 220,654 0.7% 2,460

1944 39.5% 134,411 60.2% 204,687 0.2% 821

1940 41.8% 168,165 58.0% 233,338 0.2% 948

1936 32.2% 127,887 65.5% 260,063 2.2% 8,880

1932 34.6% 123,448 63.4% 226,338 2.1% 7,319

1928 47.7% 161,701 52.0% 176,428 0.3% 1,065

1924 52.7% 139,433 36.2% 95,888 11.1% 29,276

1920 57.8% 163,280 37.5% 106,047 4.7% 13,325

1916 51.7% 83,798 45.7% 74,059 2.6% 4,175

1912 33.1% 46,509 41.9% 58,845 24.9% 34,973

1908 52.8% 74,160 43.3% 60,917 3.9% 5,473

1904 49.7% 57,547 44.8% 51,858 5.5% 6,387

1900 48.6% 60,597 48.1% 59,931 3.3% 4,046

1896 56.2% 65,708 42.8% 50,091 1.0% 1,197

1892 49.9% 35,528 48.7% 34,669 1.3% 942

1888 53.4% 33,656 43.5% 27,401 3.1% 1,969

St. Louis
St. Louis
is split between 11 districts in the Missouri
Missouri
House of Representatives: all of the 76th, 77th, 78th, 79th, 80th, 81st, 82nd, and 84th, and parts of the 66th, 83rd, and 93rd, which are shared with St. Louis
St. Louis
County.[93] The 5th Missouri
Missouri
Senate district is entirely within the city, while the 4th is shared with St. Louis
St. Louis
County.[93] At the federal level, St. Louis
St. Louis
is the heart of Missouri's 1st congressional district, which also includes part of northern St. Louis County.[93] A Republican has not represented a significant portion of St. Louis
St. Louis
in the U.S. House since 1953. The United States
United States
Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit and the United States
United States
District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri
Missouri
are based in the Thomas F. Eagleton United States
United States
Courthouse in downtown St. Louis. St. Louis
St. Louis
is also home to a Federal Reserve System
Federal Reserve System
branch, the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) also maintains major facilities in the St. Louis
St. Louis
area.[94] The Military Personnel Records Center (NPRC-MPR) located at 9700 Page Avenue in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, is a branch of the National Personnel Records Center and is the repository of over 56 million military personnel records and medical records pertaining to retired, discharged, and deceased veterans of the U.S. armed forces.[95] Crime[edit] Main article: Crime in St. Louis The city of St. Louis
St. Louis
has, as of April 2017, the highest murder rate, per capita, in the USA,[96] with 188 homicides in 2015 (59.3 homicides per 100,000).[97][98] Detroit, Flint, Memphis, Oakland, and some smaller cities with fewer than 100,000 population (ex, Camden, New Jersey) have higher overall violent crime rates than St. Louis, when comparing other crimes such as rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.[97] St. Louis
St. Louis
index crime rates have declined almost every year since the peak in 1993 (16,648), to the 2014 level of 7,931 (which is the sum of violent crimes and property crimes) per 100,000. In 2015, the index crime rate reversed the 2005-2014 decline to a level of 8,204. Between 2005 and 2014, violent crime has declined by 20%, although rates of violent crime remains 6 times higher than the United States
United States
national average and property crime in the city remains 2 1/2 times the national average.[99] St. Louis
St. Louis
has a significantly higher homicide rate than the rest of the US for both whites and especially blacks and a higher proportion committed by males. As of October 2016, 7 of the homicide suspects were white, 95 black, 0 Hispanic, 0 Asian and only 1 female out of the 102 suspects. In 2016, St. Louis
St. Louis
was the most dangerous city in the United States
United States
with populations of 100,000 or more, ranking 1st in violent crime and 2nd in property crime. It was also ranked 6th of the most dangerous of all establishments in the United States—and East St. Louis—a suburb of the city itself was ranked 1st.[100][101] The St. Louis
St. Louis
Police Department at the end of 2016 reported a total of 188 murders for the year, the same number of homicides that had occurred in the city in 2015.[102] At the end of 2017, St. Louis
St. Louis
had 205 murders (+9%) in a city of fewer than 315,000.[103][104] The new Chief of Police, John Hayden said two-thirds (67%) of all the murders and one-half of all the assaults are concentrated in a triangular area in the North part of the city.[103] Media[edit] Main article: Media in St. Louis

St. Louis Post-Dispatch
St. Louis Post-Dispatch
building in Downtown St. Louis

Greater St. Louis
Greater St. Louis
commands the 19th-largest media market in the United States, a position roughly unchanged for over a decade.[105] All of the major U.S. television networks have affiliates in St. Louis, including KTVI
KTVI
2 (Fox), KMOV
KMOV
4 (CBS), KSDK
KSDK
5 (NBC), KETC
KETC
9 (PBS), KPLR-TV
KPLR-TV
11 (CW), KDNL 30 (ABC), WRBU 46 (Ion), and WPXS 51 Daystar Television Network. Among the area's most popular radio stations are KMOX
KMOX
(AM sports and talk, notable as the longtime flagship station for St. Louis Cardinals
St. Louis Cardinals
broadcasts), KLOU
KLOU
(FM oldies), WIL-FM
WIL-FM
(FM country), WARH
WARH
(FM adult hits), and KSLZ
KSLZ
(FM Top 40 mainstream).[106] St. Louis
St. Louis
also supports public radio's KWMU, an NPR
NPR
affiliate, and community radio's KDHX. KZQZ
KZQZ
is a popular Oldies station. All-sports stations, such as KFNS 590 AM "The Fan", WXOS
WXOS
"101.1 ESPN", and KSLG are also popular. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch
St. Louis Post-Dispatch
is the region's major daily newspaper. Others in the region include the Suburban Journals, which serve parts of St. Louis
St. Louis
County, while the primary alternative newspaper is the Riverfront Times. Three weeklies serve the African-American community: the St. Louis
St. Louis
Argus, the St. Louis
St. Louis
American, and the St. Louis Sentinel. St. Louis
St. Louis
Magazine, a local monthly magazine, covers topics such as local history, cuisine, and lifestyles, while the weekly St. Louis Business Journal
Business Journal
provides coverage of regional business news. St. Louis
St. Louis
was served by an online newspaper, the St. Louis
St. Louis
Beacon, but that publication merged with KWMU
KWMU
in 2013.[107] Many books and movies have been written about St. Louis. A few of the most influential and prominent films are Meet Me in St. Louis
Meet Me in St. Louis
and American flyers,[108] and novels include The Killing Dance, Meet Me in St. Louis, The Runaway Soul
The Runaway Soul
(novel), The Rose of Old St. Louis, and Circus of the Damned. As St. Louis
St. Louis
was a prime location for immigrants to move to, much of the early social work depicting immigrant life was based on St. Louis, such as in the book The Immigrant of St. Louis. Transportation[edit] This article is about transportation in the city of St. Louis, Missouri. For transportation in the region, see Transportation in Greater St. Louis.

Interstate 44
Interstate 44
in downtown St. Louis

Road, rail, ship, and air transportation modes connect the city with surrounding communities in Greater St. Louis, national transportation networks, and international locations. St. Louis
St. Louis
also supports a public transportation network that includes bus and light rail service. Roads and highways[edit] See also: Streets of St. Louis, Missouri Four interstate highways connect the city to a larger regional highway system. Interstate 70, an east-west highway, runs roughly from the northwest corner of the city to downtown St. Louis. The north-south Interstate 55
Interstate 55
enters the city at the south near the Carondelet neighborhood and runs toward the center of the city, and both Interstate 64
Interstate 64
and Interstate 44
Interstate 44
enter the city on the west, running parallel to the east. Two of the four interstates (Interstates 55 and 64) merge south of the Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
National Park and leave the city on the Poplar Street Bridge
Poplar Street Bridge
into Illinois, while Interstate 44 terminates at Interstate 70
Interstate 70
at its new interchange near N Broadway and Cass Ave. The 563-mile Avenue of the Saints
Avenue of the Saints
links St. Louis
St. Louis
with St. Paul, Minnesota. Major roadways include the north-south Memorial Drive, located on the western edge of the Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
National Park and parallel to Interstate 70, the north-south streets of Grand Boulevard and Jefferson Avenue, both of which run the length of the city, and Gravois Road, which runs from the southeastern portion of the city to downtown and used to be signed as U.S. Route 66. An east-west roadway that connects the city with surrounding communities is Martin Luther King, Jr. Drive, which carries traffic from the western edge of the city to downtown. Metrolink Light rail
Light rail
and Metro Subway[edit] Main article: MetroLink

St. Louis MetroLink
St. Louis MetroLink
Red Line train leaving St. Louis
St. Louis
Union Station

University City-Big Bend Subway Station along the Blue Line, near Washington University.

The St. Louis
St. Louis
metro area is served by Metrolink (known as Metro) and is the 11th-largest light rail system in the country with 46 mi (74 km) of double track light rail. The Red Line and The Blue Line both serve all the stations in the inner city, and branch to different destinations beyond in the suburban areas. Both lines enter the city north of Forest Park on the western edge of the city or on the Eads Bridge
Eads Bridge
in downtown St. Louis
St. Louis
to Illinois. All of the system track is in independent right of way, with both surface level and underground subways track in the city. All stations are independent entry, while all platforms are flush-level with trains. Rail service is provided by the Bi-State Development Agency
Bi-State Development Agency
(also known as Metro), which is funded by a sales taxes levied in the city and other counties in the region.[109] The Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center
Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center
acts as the hub station in the city of St. Louis, linking the city's light rail system, local bus system, passenger rail service, and national bus service. It is located just east of the historic grand St. Louis Union Station. Airports[edit]

Control tower and main terminal at Lambert St. Louis

St. Louis
St. Louis
is served by two passenger airports. St. Louis
St. Louis
Lambert International Airport, owned and operated by the City of St. Louis, is 11 miles northwest of downtown along highway I-70 between I-170 and I-270 in St. Louis
St. Louis
County. It is the largest and busiest airport in the state. In 2016, the airport has over 255 daily departures to about 90 domestic and international locations and a total of over 13 million passengers.[110] The airport serves as a focus hub city for Southwest Airlines and was a former hub for Trans World Airlines
Trans World Airlines
and former focus-city for American Airlines
American Airlines
and AmericanConnection.[110] MidAmerica St. Louis Airport
MidAmerica St. Louis Airport
is the secondary passenger airport serving the metropolitan area. Located 17 miles east of the city downtown core, the airport serves domestic passengers. Air cargo transportation is available at Lambert International and at other nearby regional airports, including MidAmerica St. Louis
St. Louis
Airport, Spirit of St. Louis
St. Louis
Airport, and St. Louis
St. Louis
Downtown Airport. The airport has two terminals with a total of five concourses. International flights and passengers use Terminal 2, whose lower level holds the Immigration and Customs gates. Passengers can move between the terminals on complimentary buses that run continuously, or via MetroLink for a fee. It was possible to walk between the terminals until Concourse D was closed in 2008.[111] Port
Port
authority[edit] River transportation
River transportation
is available through the Port
Port
of St. Louis, which is 19.3 miles of riverbank on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
that handles more than 32 million tons of freight annually. The Port
Port
is the 2nd largest inland port by trip-ton miles, and the 3rd largest by tonnage in the United States, with more than one hundred docking facilities for barge shipping and 16 public terminals on the river.[112] The Port
Port
Authority added 2 new small fire and rescue craft in 2012 and 2013. Railroad service[edit] Main article: Transportation in St. Louis
Transportation in St. Louis
§ Railroad Service

An eastbound Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis
Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis
freight train passing under the Hampton Avenue viaduct. Scott Nauert photo

Inter-city rail
Inter-city rail
passenger train service in the city is provided by Amtrak. All Amtrak
Amtrak
trains serving St. Louis
St. Louis
use the Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center downtown. Amtrak
Amtrak
trains terminating in the city include the Lincoln Service
Lincoln Service
to Chicago
Chicago
and the Missouri
Missouri
River Runner to Kansas City, Missouri. St. Louis
St. Louis
is an intermediate stop on the Texas Eagle
Texas Eagle
route which provides long-distance passenger service between San Antonio, Texas, and Chicago.[113] St. Louis
St. Louis
is the nation's third-largest freight rail hub, moving Missouri
Missouri
exports such as fertilizer, gravel, crushed stone, prepared foodstuffs, fats, oils, nonmetallic mineral products, grain, alcohol, tobacco products, automobiles, and automobile parts.[114] Freight rail service in St. Louis
St. Louis
is provided on tracks owned by Union Pacific Railroad, Norfolk Southern Railway, Foster Townsend Rail Logistics – formerly Manufacturers Railway (St. Louis), Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis, Affton Trucking,[115] and the BNSF Railway. The Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis
Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis
(reporting mark: TRRA) is a switching and terminal railroad jointly owned by all the major rail carriers in St. Louis. The company operates 30 diesel-electric locomotives to move railcars around the classification yards, deliver railcars to local industries, and ready trains for departure.[116] The TRRA processes and dispatches a significant portion of railroad traffic moving through the city and owns and operates a network of rail bridges and tunnels including the MacArthur Bridge (St. Louis) and the Merchants Bridge.[117] This infrastructure is also used by inter-city rail and long-distance passenger trains serving St. Louis. Bus service[edit] Main article: MetroBus

Bus passing under the St. Louis Science Center
St. Louis Science Center
walkway

Local bus service in the city of St. Louis
St. Louis
is provided by the Bi-State Development Agency via MetroBus, with more than 75 routes connecting to MetroLink commuter rail transit and stops in the city and region. The city is also served by Madison County Transit, which connects downtown St. Louis
St. Louis
to Madison County, Illinois. National bus service in the city is offered by Greyhound Lines, Burlington Trailways
Burlington Trailways
and Amtrak
Amtrak
Thruway Motorcoach, with a station at the Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center, and Megabus, with a stop at St. Louis
St. Louis
Union Station. Taxi[edit] Taxicab
Taxicab
service in the city is provided by private companies regulated by the Metropolitan Taxicab
Taxicab
Commission. Rates vary by vehicle type, size, passengers and distance, and by regulation all taxicab fares must be calculated using a taximeter and be payable in cash or credit card.[118] Solicitation by a driver is prohibited, although a taxicab may be hailed on the street or at a stand.

Notable residents[edit] Further information: List of people from St. Louis Sister cities[edit] During the early 21st century, St. Louis
St. Louis
has 16 sister cities.[119]

Bologna, Italy Bogor, Indonesia Brčko, Brčko District, Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina Donegal, County Donegal, Ireland Galway, County Galway, Ireland Lyon, France Nanjing, China Saint-Louis, Senegal São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil Samara, Russia San Luis Potosí, Mexico Stuttgart, Germany[120] Suwa, Japan Szczecin, Poland[121] Wuhan, China Yokneam Illit, Israel

With informal relations with Tuguegarao, Philippines. See also[edit]

Caves of St. Louis Delmar Divide Downtown St. Louis

Laclede's Landing, St. Louis Downtown West, St. Louis

Great Flood of 1993 Heat wave of 2006 derecho series History of the Jews in St. Louis LaClede Town List of mayors of St. Louis List of tallest buildings in St. Louis National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Louis
St. Louis
(city, A–L), Missouri National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Louis
St. Louis
(city, M-Z), Missouri Neighborhoods of St. Louis Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St. Louis St. Louis
St. Louis
cuisine St. Louis
St. Louis
in the Civil War St. Louis
St. Louis
smog episode (1939)

Geography portal North America portal United States
United States
portal Missouri
Missouri
portal

Notes[edit]

^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official records for St. Louis
St. Louis
were kept at the Weather Bureau Office from January 1874 to December 1892, Eads Bridge
Eads Bridge
from January 1893 to December 1929, and at Lambert– St. Louis
St. Louis
Int'l since January 1930.[32]

References[edit]

^ a b " St. Louis
St. Louis
United States
United States
– Visiting the Gateway to the West". Globosapiens.net. Retrieved March 14, 2011.  ^ St. Louis Public Library
St. Louis Public Library
on "Mound City" Archived October 1, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. ^ STLtoday.com on "The Lou". ^ " Rome
Rome
of the West". Stltoday.com. Retrieved August 10, 2017.  ^ " St. Louis
St. Louis
City, Missouri
Missouri
– Population Finder – American FactFinder". United States
United States
Geological Survey. October 24, 1980. Retrieved December 23, 2008.  ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S. Geological Survey. U.S. Department of the Interior — U.S. Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. Retrieved October 17, 2016.  ^ a b c "State & County QuickFacts". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 12, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013.  ^ a b c " St. Louis
St. Louis
region falls out of the top 20 metros in the U.S." stltoday.com. March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018.  ^ "Zip Code Lookup". USPS. Archived from the original on January 1, 2008. Retrieved November 27, 2014.  ^ "Definition of SAINT LOUIS". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved August 10, 2017.  ^ Company, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing. "The American Heritage Dictionary entry: saint louis". Ahdictionary.com.  ^ /seɪnt ˈluːwi/ is a common alternate pronunciation outside of St. Louis. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 2, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2009.  ^ " Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
- United States
United States
history". Britannica.com. Retrieved August 10, 2017.  ^ Hoffhaus. (1984). Chez Les Canses: Three Centuries at Kawsmouth, Kansas City: Lowell Press. ISBN 0-913504-91-2. ^ www.usgennet.org. Attack On St. Louis: May 26, 1780. ^ Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p. 32. ^ "1904 Summer Olympics". International Olympics Committee.  ^ O'Neil, Tim (November 28, 2016). "Nov. 28 1939: The day 'Black Tuesday' rolled into St. Louis". Post-Dispatch. Retrieved December 8, 2016.  ^ "St. Louis: Desegregation and School Choice in the Land of Dred Scott" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 21, 2004. Retrieved October 1, 2010.  ^ "Physical Growth of the City of St. Louis". Retrieved July 27, 2010.  ^ "St. Louis: From Carthage to Rising Phoenix" (PDF). Rental Car Tours (Demographia). Retrieved December 17, 2007.  ^ Spence Jackson (December 8, 2006). "Steinhoff Congratulates St. Louis on Receiving Urban Renewal Award". Missouri
Missouri
Department of Economic Development. Archived from the original on April 19, 2008. Retrieved February 18, 2008.  ^ Lohraff, Kevin (2009). Hiking Missouri
Missouri
(2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-7360-7588-6.  ^ a b c d e f Saldivar, Marcos. "26 Reasons St. Louis
St. Louis
Is America's Hidden Gem". Huffington Post.  ^ Neighborhoods of the City of St. Louis, StLouis-mo.gov ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States
United States
Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved November 20, 2014.  ^ St. Louis
St. Louis
– News – A Sewer Runs Through It. ^ a b "National Weather Service archives – St. Louis
St. Louis
office". Retrieved October 28, 2013.  ^ a b "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2016-09-07.  ^ "Historical Weather for St. Louis, Missouri". Retrieved October 15, 2009.  ^ ThreadEx ^ "Station Name: MO ST LOUIS LAMBERT INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2018-01-30.  ^ "WMO Climate Normals for ST. LOUIS/LAMBERT, MO 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ "Warmer weather attracting Armadillos", accessed October 28, 2013 ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved November 20, 2014.  ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved November 20, 2014.  ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 20, 2014.  ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved November 20, 2014.  ^ Primm, James (1981). Lion of the Valley: St. Louis, Missouri, 1764-1980. Missouri
Missouri
Historical Society Press. ISBN 1-883982-24-3.  James Primm points out that the 1870 census results were modified in order to make St. Louis
St. Louis
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Bosnians
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St. Louis
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St. Louis
Health Care". RCGA St. Louis. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved May 24, 2013.  ^ "Siteman Cancer Center, About Us". Siteman Cancer Center. Retrieved May 24, 2013.  ^ "Ratings and Rankings". RCGA St. Louis. Archived from the original on January 6, 2007. Retrieved May 24, 2013.  ^ Home – The Genome Institute at Washington University. Genome.wustl.edu. Retrieved on August 16, 2013. ^ " Boeing
Boeing
to shed 1,500 IT jobs here over next three years". The Seattle
Seattle
Times. May 10, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.  ^ "Boeing's shift to St. Louis
St. Louis
reflects broader shifts in local economy". St. Louis
St. Louis
Post-Dispatch. May 13, 2013.  ^ "Launch Code: How 42 "Unqualified" People Landed Dream Tech Jobs in St. Louis". Blogs.riverfronttimes.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2017.  ^ Empson, Rip. " Arch
Arch
Grants Raises $2.5M To Turn St. Louis
St. Louis
Into A Startup Hub; Square Co-founder Signs On". Social.techcrunch.com. Retrieved August 10, 2017.  ^ "St. Louis's Largest Employers". St. Louis
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Business Journal. July 18, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2018.  ^ "Current Year Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR)". City of St. Louis
St. Louis
(Comptroller's Office). December 27, 2017. p. 219. Retrieved March 1, 2018.  ^ "City of St. Louis
St. Louis
CAFR (FY June 30, 2016)" (PDF). City of St. Louis. January 20, 2017. p. 212. Retrieved February 15, 2017.  ^ "Slps.org". Slps.org. Retrieved March 14, 2011.  ^ "Private Catholic School - Chesterfield - History". Sluh.org.  ^ "Charity Navigator - 2015 Metro Market Study". Charitynavigator.org. Retrieved August 10, 2017.  ^ "25 Things to Do in St. Louis". Retrieved February 17, 2012.  ^ The station was sold by the Lutheran Church– Missouri
Missouri
Synod for $18 million, funded in part through a donation by then- St. Louis
St. Louis
Cardinals star Albert Pujols, and converted to contemporary Christian music.Deidre Pujols sounds off on Christian radio, STLtoday.com, December 12, 2011 ^ "Imo's Pizza - The Square Beyond Compare". Imospizza.com. Retrieved August 10, 2017.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 8, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2014.  ^ Tim Bryant, " Citygarden
Citygarden
an immediate hit with visitors[permanent dead link]." St. Louis
St. Louis
Post-Dispatch. July 1, 2009. ^ David Bonetti, "Spectacular Citygarden
Citygarden
is opening on schedule in St. Louis Archived July 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, June 28, 2009. ^ [1] Archived June 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "City of St. Louis
St. Louis
Elected Officials". Stlouis-mo.gov. July 8, 2010. Retrieved March 24, 2012.  ^ Guide to the Board of Aldermen, StLouis-mo.gov ^ "City's budget tops $1 billion for first time". Business Journal. July 1, 2014.  ^ "SoS, Missouri
Missouri
– Elections: Registered Voters in Missouri
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2012". Sos.mo.gov. Retrieved November 10, 2012.  ^ "SoS, Missouri
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– Elections: Registered Voters in Missouri
Missouri
2008". Sos.mo.gov. Retrieved April 1, 2012.  ^ "City of St. Louis
St. Louis
Departments". Stlouis-mo.gov. Retrieved August 10, 2017.  ^ "First Time All 28 Aldermen Are Democrats – UrbanReview - ST LOUIS". webcache.googleusercontent.com.  ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org.  ^ a b c "Missouri's New Congressional District Maps". Missouri
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Digital News. Retrieved January 14, 2013.  ^ "Who We Are". National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. August 4, 2008. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved January 22, 2010.  ^ "Veterans' Service Records". Archives.gov. Retrieved August 10, 2017.  ^ "Millennials really like St Louis". The Economist. April 12, 2017. Retrieved April 14, 2017.  ^ a b "Crime in the United States, 2015". FBI.gov (Uniform Crime Reports). Retrieved April 5, 2017.  ^ Bosman, Julie and Mitch Smith (December 28, 2016). Article comparing Chicago's annual homicide statistics to those of other American cities, including St. Louis, New York Times. ^ "Methodology". Morganquitno.com. Retrieved March 14, 2011.  ^ "2015". Ucr.fbi.gov. Retrieved August 10, 2017.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2016.  ^ Murphy, Doyle (January 3, 2017). " St. Louis
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Murder Toll Hit 188 in 2016--Tying 2015's Unusually High Number." Riverfront Times
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Crime tracker-City snapshot, https://graphics.stltoday.com/apps/crime/index.html Retrieved January 30, 2018 ^ "Nielsen Media 2010–2011 Local Market Estimates". Nielsen Media Research. Broadcast Employment Services. October 1, 2010. Retrieved July 20, 2011.  ^ Arbitron (June 2011). ^ [2] Archived July 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Tucker, Justin. "Top 10 Films Set (or Partially Set) in St. Louis". Inside St. Louis. Retrieved April 25, 2016.  ^ "Metro – Inside MetroLink". Metro. Archived from the original on September 11, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2008.  ^ a b "Lambert – St. Louis
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Port
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Szczecin
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Further reading[edit]

Henry W. Berger, St. Louis
St. Louis
and Empire: 250 Years of Imperial Quest and Urban Crisis. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois
Illinois
University Press, 2015. Carl J. Ekberg and Sharon K. Person, St. Louis
St. Louis
Rising: The French Regime of Louis St. Ange de Bellerive. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois
Illinois
Press, 2015.

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[c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II

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