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Baruch Spinoza
Spinoza
(/bəˈruːk spɪˈnoʊzə/;[6] Dutch: [baːˈrux spɪˈnoːzaː]; born Benedito de Espinosa, Portuguese: [bɨnɨˈðitu ðɨ ʃpiˈnɔzɐ]; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.[5] By laying the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment[7] and modern biblical criticism,[8] including modern conceptions of the self and the universe,[9] he came to be considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy.[10] Along with René Descartes, Spinoza
Spinoza
was a leading philosophical figure of the Dutch Golden Age. Spinoza's given name, which means "Blessed", varies among different languages. In Hebrew, it is written ברוך שפינוזה‬. His Portuguese name is Benedito "Bento" de Espinosa. In his Latin works, he used Latin: Benedictus de Spinoza. Spinoza's magnum opus, Ethics, was published posthumously in 1677. The work opposed Descartes' philosophy on mind–body dualism, and earned Spinoza
Spinoza
recognition as one of Western philosophy's most important thinkers. In the Ethics, " Spinoza
Spinoza
wrote the last indisputable Latin masterpiece, and one in which the refined conceptions of medieval philosophy are finally turned against themselves and destroyed entirely".[11] Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
said, "The fact is that Spinoza
Spinoza
is made a testing-point in modern philosophy, so that it may really be said: You are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all."[12] His philosophical accomplishments and moral character prompted Gilles Deleuze
Gilles Deleuze
to name him "the 'prince' of philosophers."[13] Spinoza
Spinoza
was raised in a Portuguese Jewish community in Amsterdam. He developed highly controversial ideas regarding the authenticity of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
and the nature of the Divine. Jewish religious authorities issued a herem (חרם‬) against him, causing him to be effectively shunned by Jewish society at age 23. His books were also later put on the Catholic Church's Index of Forbidden Books. Spinoza
Spinoza
lived an outwardly simple life as a lens grinder, turning down rewards and honours throughout his life, including prestigious teaching positions. He died at the age of 44 allegedly of a lung illness, perhaps tuberculosis or silicosis exacerbated by the inhalation of fine glass dust while grinding optical lenses. He is buried in the churchyard of the Christian
Christian
Nieuwe Kerk in The Hague.[14]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Family and community origins 1.2 17th-century Netherlands 1.3 Early life 1.4 Expulsion from the Jewish community 1.5 Later life and career 1.6 Voorburg 1.7 Lens-grinding and optics 1.8 The Hague 1.9 Writings and correspondence

2 Philosophy

2.1 Substance, attributes, and modes 2.2 Ethical philosophy 2.3 Spinoza's "Ethics"

3 History of reception

3.1 Pantheist, panentheist, or atheist? 3.2 Comparison to Eastern philosophies 3.3 Spinoza's reception in the 19th and 20th centuries 3.4 Spinoza's religious criticism and its effect on the philosophy of language 3.5 Spinoza
Spinoza
in literature, art, and popular culture

4 Bibliography 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Biography[edit] Family and community origins[edit] Spinoza's ancestors were of Sephardic Jewish descent and were a part of the community of Portuguese Jews
Portuguese Jews
that had settled in the city of Amsterdam
Amsterdam
in the wake of the Portuguese Inquisition
Portuguese Inquisition
(1536), which had resulted in forced conversions and expulsions from the Iberian peninsula.[15] Although the Portuguese name "de Espinosa" or "Espinosa," then spelled with a "z," can be confused with the Spanish "de Espinoza" or "Espinoza," there is no evidence in Spinoza's genealogy that his family came from Espinosa de los Monteros, near Burgos, or from Espinosa de Cerrato, near Palencia, both in Northern Castile, Spain.[16] Still, this was a common Portuguese conversos family name.[17] Attracted by the Decree of Toleration issued in 1579 by the Union of Utrecht, Portuguese "conversos" first sailed to Amsterdam
Amsterdam
in 1593 and promptly reconverted to Judaism.[18] In 1598 permission was granted to build a synagogue, and in 1615 an ordinance for the admission and government of the Jews was passed.[19] As a community of exiles, the Portuguese Jews
Portuguese Jews
of Amsterdam
Amsterdam
were highly proud of their identity.[19] Spinoza's father was born roughly a century after this forced conversion in the small Portuguese city of Vidigueira, near Beja in Alentejo. When Spinoza's father was still a child, Spinoza's grandfather, Isaac de Spinoza, who was from Lisbon, took his family to Nantes
Nantes
in France. They were expelled in 1615 and moved to Rotterdam, where Isaac died in 1627. Spinoza's father, Miguel (Michael), and his uncle, Manuel, then moved to Amsterdam
Amsterdam
where they resumed the practice of Judaism. Miguel was a successful merchant and became a warden of the synagogue and of the Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Jewish school.[19] He buried three wives and three of his six children died before reaching adulthood.[16] 17th-century Netherlands[edit] Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and Rotterdam
Rotterdam
operated as important cosmopolitan centres where merchant ships from many parts of the world brought people of various customs and beliefs. This flourishing commercial activity encouraged a culture relatively tolerant of the play of new ideas, to a considerable degree sheltered from the censorious hand of ecclesiastical authority (though those considered to have gone "too far" might have gotten persecuted even in the Netherlands). Not by chance were the philosophical works of both Descartes
Descartes
and Spinoza developed in the cultural and intellectual background of the Dutch Republic in the 17th century.[20] Spinoza
Spinoza
may have had access to a circle of friends who were unconventional in terms of social tradition, including members of the Collegiants.[21] One of the people he knew was Niels Stensen, a brilliant Danish student in Leiden;[22] others included Albert Burgh, with whom Spinoza
Spinoza
is known to have corresponded.[23] Early life[edit]

Map by Balthasar Florisz van Berckenrode (1625) with the present location of the Moses
Moses
and Aaron Church in white, but also the spot where Spinoza
Spinoza
grew up.[24]

Spinoza
Spinoza
lived where the Moses
Moses
and Aaron Church is located now, and there is strong evidence that he may have been born there.[25]

Benedito de Espinoza was born on 24 November 1632 in the Jodenbuurt
Jodenbuurt
in Amsterdam, Netherlands. He was the second son of Miguel de Espinoza, a successful, although not wealthy, Portuguese Sephardic Jewish merchant in Amsterdam.[26] His mother, Ana Débora, Miguel's second wife, died when Baruch was only six years old.[27] Spinoza's mother tongue was Portuguese, although he also knew Hebrew, Spanish, Dutch, perhaps French, and later Latin.[28] Although he wrote in Latin, Spinoza learned the language only late in his youth. Spinoza
Spinoza
had a traditional Jewish upbringing, attending the Keter Torah yeshiva of the Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Talmud Torah congregation headed by the learned and traditional senior Rabbi Saul Levi Morteira. His teachers also included the less traditional Rabbi Manasseh ben Israel, "a man of wide learning and secular interests, a friend of Vossius, Grotius, and Rembrandt".[29] While presumably a star pupil, and perhaps considered as a potential rabbi, Spinoza
Spinoza
never reached the advanced study of the Torah in the upper levels of the curriculum.[26] Instead, at the age of 17, after the death of his elder brother, Isaac, he cut short his formal studies in order to begin working in the family importing business.[26] In 1653, at age 20, Spinoza
Spinoza
began studying Latin with Francis van den Enden (Franciscus van den Enden), a notorious free thinker, former Jesuit, and radical democrat who likely introduced Spinoza
Spinoza
to scholastic and modern philosophy, including that of Descartes.[16][30][31][32] (A decade later, in the early 1660s, Van den Enden was considered to be a Cartesian and atheist,[33] and his books were put on the Catholic Index of Banned Books.) Spinoza's father, Miguel, died in 1654 when Spinoza
Spinoza
was 21. He duly recited Kaddish, the Jewish prayer of mourning, for eleven months as required by Jewish law.[26] When his sister Rebekah disputed his inheritance, he took her to court to establish his claim, won his case, but then renounced his claim in her favour.[30] Spinoza
Spinoza
adopted the Latin name Benedictus de Spinoza,[34] began boarding with Van den Enden, and began teaching in his school.[30][31][32] Following an anecdote in an early biography by Johannes Colerus,[35] he is said to have fallen in love with his teacher's daughter, Clara, but she rejected him for a richer student. (This story has been discounted on the basis that Clara Maria van den Enden was born in 1643 and would have been no more than about 18 years old when Spinoza
Spinoza
left Amsterdam.[28] In 1671 she married Dirck Kerckring.) During this period Spinoza
Spinoza
also became acquainted with the Collegiants, an anti-clerical sect of Remonstrants
Remonstrants
with tendencies towards rationalism, and with the Mennonites who had existed for a century but were close to the Remonstrants.[16] Many of his friends belonged to dissident Christian
Christian
groups which met regularly as discussion groups and which typically rejected the authority of established churches as well as traditional dogmas.[5] Spinoza's break with the prevailing dogmas of Judaism, and particularly the insistence on non- Mosaic authorship
Mosaic authorship
of the Pentateuch, was not sudden; rather, it appears to have been the result of a lengthy internal struggle: "If anyone thinks my criticism [regarding the authorship of the Bible] is of too sweeping a nature and lacking sufficient foundation, I would ask him to undertake to show us in these narratives a definite plan such as might legitimately be imitated by historians in their chronicles... If he succeeds, I shall at once admit defeat, and he will be my mighty Apollo. For I confess that all my efforts over a long period have resulted in no such discovery. Indeed, I may add that I write nothing here that is not the fruit of lengthy reflection; and although I have been educated from boyhood in the accepted beliefs concerning Scripture, I have felt bound in the end to embrace the views I here express."[36] Nevertheless, once branded as a heretic, Spinoza's clashes with authority became more pronounced. For example, questioned by two members of his synagogue, Spinoza
Spinoza
apparently responded that God
God
has a body and nothing in scripture says otherwise.[30] He was later attacked on the steps of the synagogue by a knife-wielding assailant shouting "Heretic!" He was apparently quite shaken by this attack and for years kept (and wore) his torn cloak, unmended, as a souvenir.[30] After his father's death in 1654, Spinoza
Spinoza
and his younger brother Gabriel (Abraham)[26] ran the family importing business. The business ran into serious financial difficulties, however, perhaps as a result of the First Anglo-Dutch War. In March 1656, Spinoza
Spinoza
filed suit with the Amsterdam
Amsterdam
municipal authorities to be declared an orphan in order to escape his father's business debts and so that he could inherit his mother's estate (which at first was incorporated into his father's estate) without it being subject to his father's creditors.[37] In addition, after having made substantial contributions to the Talmud Torah synagogue in 1654 and 1655, he reduced his December 1655 contribution and his March 1656 pledge to nominal amounts (and the March 1656 pledge was never paid).[38][31] Spinoza
Spinoza
was eventually able to relinquish responsibility for the business and its debts to his younger brother, Gabriel, and devote himself chiefly to the study of philosophy, especially the system expounded by Descartes, and to optics. Expulsion from the Jewish community[edit] On 27 July 1656, the Talmud Torah congregation of Amsterdam
Amsterdam
issued a writ of cherem (Hebrew: חרם‬, a kind of ban, shunning, ostracism, expulsion, or excommunication) against the 23-year-old Spinoza.[30] The following document translates the official record of the censure:[39]

The Lords of the ma'amad, having long known of the evil opinions and acts of Baruch de Espinoza, have endeavoured by various means and promises, to turn him from his evil ways. But having failed to make him mend his wicked ways, and, on the contrary, daily receiving more and more serious information about the abominable heresies which he practised and taught and about his monstrous deeds, and having for this numerous trustworthy witnesses who have deposed and borne witness to this effect in the presence of the said Espinoza, they became convinced of the truth of the matter; and after all of this has been investigated in the presence of the honourable chachamin [sages], they have decided, with their consent, that the said Espinoza should be excommunicated and expelled from the people of Israel. By the decree of the angels, and by the command of the holy men, we excommunicate, expel, curse and damn Baruch de Espinoza, with the consent of God, Blessed be He, and with the consent of all the Holy Congregation, in front of these holy Scrolls with the six-hundred-and-thirteen precepts which are written therein, with the excommunication with which Joshua banned Jericho,[40] with the curse with which Elisha cursed the boys [41] and with all the curses which are written in the Book of the Law. Cursed be he by day and cursed be he by night; cursed be he when he lies down, and cursed be he when he rises up; cursed be he when he goes out, and cursed be he when he comes in. The Lord will not spare him; the anger and wrath of the Lord will rage against this man, and bring upon him all the curses which are written in this book, and the Lord will blot out his name from under heaven, and the Lord will separate him to his injury from all the tribes of Israel with all the curses of the covenant, which are written in the Book of the Law. But you who cleave unto the Lord God
God
are all alive this day. We order that no one should communicate with him orally or in writing, or show him any favour, or stay with him under the same roof, or within four ells of him, or read anything composed or written by him.

Statue of Spinoza, near his house on the Paviljoensgracht in The Hague.

The Talmud Torah congregation issued censure routinely, on matters great and small, so such an edict was not unusual.[42][43] The language of Spinoza's censure is unusually harsh, however, and does not appear in any other censure known to have been issued by the Portuguese Jewish community in Amsterdam.[44] The exact reason for expelling Spinoza
Spinoza
is not stated.[45] The censure refers only to the "abominable heresies that he practised and taught," to his "monstrous deeds," and to the testimony of witnesses "in the presence of the said Espinoza." There is no record of such testimony, but there appear to have been several likely reasons for the issuance of the censure. First, there were Spinoza's radical theological views that he was apparently expressing in public. As philosopher and Spinoza
Spinoza
biographer Steven Nadler puts it: "No doubt he was giving utterance to just those ideas that would soon appear in his philosophical treatises. In those works, Spinoza
Spinoza
denies the immortality of the soul; strongly rejects the notion of a providential God—the God
God
of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; and claims that the Law
Law
was neither literally given by God
God
nor any longer binding on Jews. Can there be any mystery as to why one of history's boldest and most radical thinkers was sanctioned by an orthodox Jewish community?"[46] Second, the Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Jewish community was largely composed of former "conversos" who had fled from the Portuguese Inquisition
Portuguese Inquisition
within the previous century, with their children and grandchildren. This community must have been concerned to protect its reputation from any association with Spinoza
Spinoza
lest his controversial views provide the basis for their own possible persecution or expulsion.[47][48][49][50][51][52] There is little evidence that the Amsterdam
Amsterdam
municipal authorities were directly involved in Spinoza's censure itself. But "in 1619, the town council expressly ordered [the Portuguese Jewish community] to regulate their conduct and ensure that the members of the community kept to a strict observance of Jewish law."[49] Other evidence makes it clear that the danger of upsetting the civil authorities was never far from mind, such as bans adopted by the synagogue on public wedding or funeral processions and on discussing religious matters with Christians, lest such activity might "disturb the liberty we enjoy."[50] Thus, the issuance of Spinoza's censure was almost certainly, in part, an exercise in self-censorship by the Portuguese Jewish community in Amsterdam.[49][50][51] Third, it appears likely that Spinoza
Spinoza
had already taken the initiative to separate himself from the Talmud Torah congregation and was vocally expressing his hostility to Judaism
Judaism
itself. He had probably stopped attending services at the synagogue, either after the lawsuit with his sister or after the knife attack on its steps. He might already have been voicing the view expressed later in his Theological-Political Treatise that the civil authorities should suppress Judaism
Judaism
as harmful to the Jews themselves. Either for financial or other reasons,[53][32] he had in any case effectively stopped contributing to the synagogue by March 1656. He had also committed the "monstrous deed," contrary to the regulations of the synagogue and the views of some rabbinical authorities (including Maimonides), of filing suit in a civil court rather than with the synagogue authorities[37]—to renounce his father's heritage, no less. Upon being notified of the issuance of the censure, he is reported to have said: "Very well; this does not force me to do anything that I would not have done of my own accord, had I not been afraid of a scandal."[54] Thus, unlike most of the censure issued routinely by the Amsterdam
Amsterdam
congregation to discipline its members, the censure issued against Spinoza
Spinoza
did not lead to repentance and so was never withdrawn. After the censure, Spinoza
Spinoza
is said to have addressed an "Apology" (defence), written in Spanish, to the elders of the synagogue, "in which he defended his views as orthodox, and condemned the rabbis for accusing him of 'horrible practices and other enormities' merely because he had neglected ceremonial observances."[54] This "Apology" does not survive, but some of its contents may later have been included in his Theological-Political Treatise.[54] For example, he cited a series of cryptic statements by medieval Biblical commentator Abraham ibn Ezra
Abraham ibn Ezra
intimating that some apparently anachronistic passages of the Pentateuch
Pentateuch
(i.e., "[t]he Canaanite was then in the land," Genesis 12:6, which ibn Ezra called a "mystery" and exhorted those "who understand[] it keep silent") were not of Mosaic authorship as proof that his own views had valid historical precedent.[36] The most remarkable aspect of the censure may be not so much its issuance, or even Spinoza's refusal to submit, but the fact that Spinoza's expulsion from the Jewish community did not lead to his conversion to Christianity.[55] Spinoza
Spinoza
kept the Latin (and so implicitly Christian) name Benedict de Spinoza, maintained a close association with the Collegiants, a Christian
Christian
sect, even moved to a town near the Collegiants' headquarters, and was buried in a Christian graveyard—but there is no evidence or suggestion that he ever accepted baptism or participated in a Christian
Christian
mass. Thus, by default, Baruch de Espinoza became the first secular Jew of modern Europe.[55] In September 2012, the Portugees-Israëlietische Gemeente te Amsterdam asked the chief rabbi of their community Haham Pinchas Toledano to reconsider the cherem after consulting several Spinoza
Spinoza
experts. However he declined to remove it, citing Spinoza's "preposterous ideas, where he was tearing apart the very fundamentals of our religion".[56] Later life and career[edit]

Spinoza's house in Rijnsburg
Rijnsburg
from 1661 to 1663, now a museum

Study room of Spinoza

Spinoza
Spinoza
spent his remaining 21 years writing and studying as a private scholar.[5] Spinoza
Spinoza
believed in a "Philosophy of tolerance and benevolence"[57] and actually lived the life which he preached. He was criticized and ridiculed during his life and afterwards for his alleged atheism. However, even those who were against him "had to admit he lived a saintly life".[57] Besides the religious controversies, nobody really had much bad to say about Spinoza
Spinoza
other than, "he sometimes enjoyed watching spiders chase flies".[57] After the cherem, the Amsterdam
Amsterdam
municipal authorities expelled Spinoza from Amsterdam, "responding to the appeals of the rabbis, and also of the Calvinist
Calvinist
clergy, who had been vicariously offended by the existence of a free thinker in the synagogue".[54] He spent a brief time in or near the village of Ouderkerk aan de Amstel, but returned soon afterwards to Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and lived there quietly for several years, giving private philosophy lessons and grinding lenses, before leaving the city in 1660 or 1661.[54] During this time in Amsterdam, Spinoza
Spinoza
wrote his Short Treatise on God, Man, and His Well-Being, which he never published in his lifetime—assuming with good reason that it might get suppressed. Two Dutch translations of it survive, discovered about 1810."[54] Spinoza
Spinoza
moved around 1660 or 1661 from Amsterdam
Amsterdam
to Rijnsburg
Rijnsburg
(near Leiden), the headquarters of the Collegiants.[58] In Rijnsburg, he began work on his Descartes' "Principles of Philosophy" as well as on his masterpiece, the Ethics. In 1663, he returned briefly to Amsterdam, where he finished and published Descartes' "Principles of Philosophy," the only work published in his lifetime under his own name, and then moved the same year to Voorburg.[59] Voorburg[edit] In Voorburg, Spinoza
Spinoza
continued work on the Ethics
Ethics
and corresponded with scientists, philosophers, and theologians throughout Europe.[60] He also wrote and published his Theological Political Treatise in 1670, in defence of secular and constitutional government, and in support of Jan de Witt, the Grand Pensionary of the Netherlands, against the Stadholder, the Prince of Orange.[60][10] Leibniz visited Spinoza
Spinoza
and claimed that Spinoza's life was in danger when supporters of the Prince of Orange murdered de Witt in 1672.[61] While published anonymously, the work did not long remain so, and de Witt's enemies characterized it as "forged in Hell by a renegade Jew and the Devil, and issued with the knowledge of Jan de Witt."[10] It was condemned in 1673 by the Synod of the Reformed Church and formally banned in 1674.[10] Lens-grinding and optics[edit] Spinoza
Spinoza
earned a modest living from lens-grinding and instrument making, yet he was involved in important optical investigations of the day while living in Voorburg, through correspondence and friendships with scientist Christiaan Huygens
Christiaan Huygens
and mathematician Johannes Hudde, including debate over microscope design with Huygens, favouring small objectives[62] and collaborating on calculations for a prospective 40 ft telescope which would have been one of the largest in Europe at the time.[63] The quality of Spinoza's lenses was much praised by Christiaan Huygens, among others.[64] In fact, his technique and instruments were so esteemed that Constantijn Huygens ground a "clear and bright" 42 ft. telescope lens in 1687 from one of Spinoza's grinding dishes, ten years after his death.[65] The exact type of lenses that Spinoza
Spinoza
made are not known, but very likely included lenses for both the microscope and telescope. He was said by anatomist Theodor Kerckring
Theodor Kerckring
to have produced an "excellent" microscope, the quality of which was the foundation of Kerckring's anatomy claims.[66] During his time as a lens and instrument maker, he was also supported by small but regular donations from close friends.[5] The Hague[edit] In 1670, Spinoza
Spinoza
moved to The Hague
The Hague
where he lived on a small pension from Jan de Witt and a small annuity from the brother of his dead friend, Simon de Vries.[10] He worked on the Ethics, wrote an unfinished Hebrew grammar, began his Political Treatise, wrote two scientific essays ("On the Rainbow" and "On the Calculation of Chances"), and began a Dutch translation of the Bible
Bible
(which he later destroyed).[10] Spinoza
Spinoza
chose for his device the Latin word "caute" ("cautiously"), inscribed beneath a rose, itself a symbol of secrecy.[11] "For, having chosen to write in a language that was so widely intelligible, he was compelled to hide what he had written."[11] Spinoza
Spinoza
was offered the chair of philosophy at the University of Heidelberg, but he refused it, perhaps because of the possibility that it might in some way curb his freedom of thought.[67] In 1676, Spinoza
Spinoza
met with Leibniz at The Hague
The Hague
for a discussion of his principal philosophical work, Ethics, which had been completed in 1676. This meeting was described in Matthew Stewart's The Courtier and the Heretic.[68] Spinoza's health began to fail in 1676, and he died on 21 February 1677 at the age of 44.[69] His premature death was said to be due to lung illness, possibly silicosis as a result of breathing in glass dust from the lenses that he ground. Later, a shrine was made of his home in The Hague.[70] Textbooks and encyclopaedias often depict Spinoza
Spinoza
as a solitary soul who eked out a living as a lens grinder; in reality, he had many friends but kept his needs to a minimum.[5] He preached a philosophy of tolerance and benevolence. Anthony Gottlieb described him as living "a saintly life."[5] Reviewer M. Stuart Phelps noted, "No one has ever come nearer to the ideal life of the philosopher than Spinoza."[71] Harold Bloom wrote, "As a teacher of reality, he practised his own wisdom, and was surely one of the most exemplary human beings ever to have lived."[72] According to The New York Times: "In outward appearance he was unpretending, but not careless. His way of living was exceedingly modest and retired; often he did not leave his room for many days together. He was likewise almost incredibly frugal; his expenses sometimes amounted only to a few pence a day."[73] Bloom writes of Spinoza, "He appears to have had no sexual life."[72] Spinoza
Spinoza
also corresponded with Peter Serrarius, a radical Protestant and millennarian merchant. Serrarius was a patron to Spinoza
Spinoza
after Spinoza
Spinoza
left the Jewish community and even had letters sent and received for the philosopher to and from third parties. Spinoza
Spinoza
and Serrarius maintained their relationship until Serrarius' death in 1669.[74] By the beginning of the 1660s, Spinoza's name became more widely known, and eventually Gottfried Leibniz[68] and Henry Oldenburg paid him visits, as stated in Matthew Stewart's The Courtier and the Heretic.[68] Spinoza
Spinoza
corresponded with Oldenburg for the rest of his short life. Writings and correspondence[edit] The writings of René Descartes
René Descartes
have been described as "Spinoza's starting point."[72] Spinoza's first publication was his geometric exposition (proofs using the geometric method on the model of Euclid with definitions, axioms, etc.) of Descartes's Parts I and II of Principles of Philosophy (1663). Spinoza
Spinoza
has been associated with Leibniz and Descartes
Descartes
as "rationalists" in contrast to "empiricists."[75] Spinoza
Spinoza
engaged in correspondence from December 1664 to June 1665 with Willem van Blijenbergh, an amateur Calvinist
Calvinist
theologian, who questioned Spinoza
Spinoza
on the definition of evil. Later in 1665, Spinoza notified Oldenburg that he had started to work on a new book, the Theologico-Political Treatise, published in 1670. Leibniz disagreed harshly with Spinoza
Spinoza
in his own manuscript "Refutation of Spinoza,"[76] but he is also known to have met with Spinoza
Spinoza
on at least one occasion[68][75] (as mentioned above), and his own work bears some striking resemblances to specific important parts of Spinoza's philosophy (see: Monadology). When the public reactions to the anonymously published Theologico-Political Treatise
Theologico-Political Treatise
were extremely unfavourable to his brand of Cartesianism, Spinoza
Spinoza
was compelled to abstain from publishing more of his works. Wary and independent, he wore a signet ring which he used to mark his letters and which was engraved with a rose and the word "caute" (Latin for "cautiously").[77] The Ethics
Ethics
and all other works, apart from the Descartes' Principles of Philosophy and the Theologico-Political Treatise, were published after his death in the Opera Posthuma, edited by his friends in secrecy to avoid confiscation and destruction of manuscripts. The Ethics
Ethics
contains many still-unresolved obscurities and is written with a forbidding mathematical structure modelled on Euclid's geometry[5] and has been described as a "superbly cryptic masterwork."[72] Philosophy[edit] Substance, attributes, and modes[edit] Main article: Philosophy of Baruch Spinoza

These are the fundamental concepts with which Spinoza
Spinoza
sets forth a vision of Being, illuminated by his awareness of God. They may seem strange at first sight. To the question "What is?" he replies: "Substance, its attributes, and modes". — Karl Jaspers[78]

Spinoza
Spinoza
argued that God
God
exists and is abstract and impersonal.[5] Spinoza's view of God
God
is what Charles Hartshorne
Charles Hartshorne
describes as Classical Pantheism.[79] Spinoza
Spinoza
has also been described as an "Epicurean materialist,"[72] specifically in reference to his opposition to Cartesian mind-body dualism. This view was held by Epicureans before him, as they believed that atoms with their probabilistic paths were the only substance that existed fundamentally.[80][81] Spinoza, however, deviated significantly from Epicureans by adhering to strict determinism, much like the Stoics before him, in contrast to the Epicurean belief in the probabilistic path of atoms, which is more in line with contemporary thought on quantum mechanics.[82][80] Spinoza's system imparted order and unity to the tradition of radical thought, offering powerful weapons for prevailing against "received authority." He contended that everything that exists in Nature (i.e., everything in the Universe) is one Reality
Reality
(substance) and there is only one set of rules governing the whole of the reality which surrounds us and of which we are part. Spinoza
Spinoza
viewed God
God
and Nature as two names for the same reality,[72] namely a single, fundamental substance (meaning "that which stands beneath" rather than "matter") that is the basis of the universe and of which all lesser "entities" are actually modes or modifications, that all things are determined by Nature to exist and cause effects, and that the complex chain of cause and effect is understood only in part. His identification of God
God
with nature was more fully explained in his posthumously published Ethics.[5] Spinoza's main contention with Cartesian mind–body dualism was that, if mind and body were truly distinct, then it is not clear how they can coordinate in any manner. Humans presume themselves to have free will, he argues, which is a result of their awareness of appetites that affect their minds, while being unable to understand the reasons why they want and act as they do. Spinoza
Spinoza
contends that "Deus sive Natura" is a being of infinitely many attributes, of which thought and extension are two. His account of the nature of reality, then, seems to treat the physical and mental worlds as intertwined, causally related, and deriving from the same substance. It is important to note here that, in Parts 3 through 4 of the Ethics, Spinoza
Spinoza
describes how the human mind is affected by both mental and physical factors. He directly contests dualism. The universal substance emanates both body and mind; while they are different attributes, there is no fundamental difference between these aspects. This formulation is a historically significant solution to the mind–body problem known as neutral monism. Spinoza's system also envisages a God
God
that does not rule over the universe by Providence in which God
God
can make changes, but a God
God
which itself is the deterministic system of which everything in nature is a part. Spinoza argues that "things could not have been produced by God
God
in any other way or in any other order than is the case,";[83] he directly challenges a transcendental God
God
which actively responds to events in the universe. Everything that has and will happen is a part of a long chain of cause and effect which, at a metaphysical level, humans are unable to change. No amount of prayer or ritual will sway God. Only knowledge of God, or the existence which humans inhabit, allows them to best respond to the world around them. Not only is it impossible for two infinite substances to exist (two infinities being absurd),[84] God—being the ultimate substance—cannot be affected by anything else, or else it would be affected by something else, and not be the fundamental substance. Spinoza
Spinoza
was a thoroughgoing determinist who held that absolutely everything that happens occurs through the operation of necessity. For him, even human behaviour is fully determined, with freedom being our capacity to know we are determined and to understand why we act as we do. By forming more "adequate" ideas about what we do and our emotions or affections, we become the adequate cause of our effects (internal or external), which entails an increase in activity (versus passivity). This means that we become both more free and more like God, as Spinoza
Spinoza
argues in the Scholium to Prop. 49, Part II. However, Spinoza
Spinoza
also held that everything must necessarily happen the way that it does. Therefore, humans have no free will. They believe, however, that their will is free. This illusionary perception of freedom stems from our human consciousness, experience, and indifference to prior natural causes. Humans think they are free but they ″dream with their eyes open″. For Spinoza, our actions are guided entirely by natural impulses. In his letter to G. H. Schuller (Letter 58), he wrote: "men are conscious of their desire and unaware of the causes by which [their desires] are determined."[85] This picture of Spinoza's determinism is ever more illuminated through reading this famous quote in Ethics: ″the infant believes that it is by free will that it seeks the breast; the angry boy believes that by free will he wishes vengeance; the timid man thinks it is with free will he seeks flight; the drunkard believes that by a free command of his mind he speaks the things which when sober he wishes he had left unsaid. … All believe that they speak by a free command of the mind, whilst, in truth, they have no power to restrain the impulse which they have to speak.″[86] Thus for Spinoza
Spinoza
morality and ethical judgement like choice is predicated on an illusion. For Spinoza, ″Blame″ and ″Praise″ are non existent human ideals only fathomable in the mind because we are so acclimatized to human consciousness interlinking with our experience that we have a false ideal of choice predicated upon this. Spinoza's philosophy has much in common with Stoicism
Stoicism
inasmuch as both philosophies sought to fulfil a therapeutic role by instructing people how to attain happiness. However, Spinoza
Spinoza
differed sharply from the Stoics in one important respect: he utterly rejected their contention that reason could defeat emotion. On the contrary, he contended, an emotion can only be displaced or overcome by a stronger emotion. For him, the crucial distinction was between active and passive emotions, the former being those that are rationally understood and the latter those that are not. He also held that knowledge of true causes of passive emotion can transform it to an active emotion, thus anticipating one of the key ideas of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis.[87] Ethical philosophy[edit] Spinoza
Spinoza
shared ethical beliefs with ancient Epicureans, in renouncing ethics beyond the material world, although Epicureans focused more on physical pleasure and Spinoza
Spinoza
more on emotional wellbeing.[88] Encapsulated at the start in his Treatise on the Improvement of the Understanding (Tractatus de intellectus emendatione) is the core of Spinoza's ethical philosophy, what he held to be the true and final good. Spinoza
Spinoza
held good and evil to be relative concepts, claiming that nothing is intrinsically good or bad except relative to a particularity. Things that had classically been seen as good or evil, Spinoza
Spinoza
argued, were simply good or bad for humans. Spinoza
Spinoza
believes in a deterministic universe in which "All things in nature proceed from certain [definite] necessity and with the utmost perfection." Nothing happens by chance in Spinoza's world, and nothing is contingent. Given Spinoza's insistence on a completely ordered world where "necessity" reigns, Good and Evil
Evil
have no absolute meaning. The world as it exists looks imperfect only because of our limited perception. Spinoza's "Ethics"[edit] Main article: Ethics
Ethics
(Spinoza)

The opening page of Spinoza's magnum opus, Ethics

In the universe anything that happens comes from the essential nature of objects, or of God
God
or Nature. According to Spinoza, reality is perfection. If circumstances are seen as unfortunate it is only because of our inadequate conception of reality. While components of the chain of cause and effect are not beyond the understanding of human reason, human grasp of the infinitely complex whole is limited because of the limits of science to empirically take account of the whole sequence. Spinoza
Spinoza
also asserted that sense perception, though practical and useful, is inadequate for discovering truth. His concept of "conatus" states that human beings' natural inclination is to strive toward preserving an essential being, and asserts that virtue/human power is defined by success in this preservation of being by the guidance of reason as one's central ethical doctrine. According to Spinoza, the highest virtue is the intellectual love or knowledge of God/Nature/Universe. Also in the "Ethics",[89] Spinoza
Spinoza
discusses his beliefs about what he considers to be the three kinds of knowledge that come with perceptions. The first kind of knowledge he writes about is the knowledge of experiences. More precisely, this first type of knowledge can be known as the knowledge of things that could be "mutilated, confused, and without order."[90] Another explanation of what the first knowledge can be is that it is the knowledge of dangerous reasoning. Dangerous reason lacks any type of rationality, and causes the mind to be in a "passive" state. This type of "passive mind" that Spinoza
Spinoza
writes about in the earlier books of The Ethics
Ethics
is a state of the mind in which adequate causes become passions. Spinoza’s second knowledge involves reasoning plus emotions. He explains that this knowledge is had by the rationality of any adequate causes that have to do with anything common to the human mind. An example of this could be anything that is classified as being of imperfect virtue. Imperfect virtues are seen as those which are incomplete. Many philosophers, such as Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
and Aristotle, would compare imperfect virtue to pagan virtue. Spinoza
Spinoza
defines the third and final knowledge as the knowledge of God, which requires rationality and reason of the mind. In more detail, Spinoza
Spinoza
uses this type of knowledge to join together the essence of God
God
with the individual essence. This knowledge is also formed from any adequate causes that include perfect virtue.[90] In the final part of the "Ethics", his concern with the meaning of "true blessedness", and his explanation of how emotions must be detached from external causes in order to master them, foreshadow psychological techniques developed in the 1900s. His concept of three types of knowledge—opinion, reason, intuition—and his assertion that intuitive knowledge provides the greatest satisfaction of mind, lead to his proposition that the more we are conscious of ourselves and Nature/Universe, the more perfect and blessed we are (in reality) and that only intuitive knowledge is eternal. History of reception[edit] Pantheist, panentheist, or atheist?[edit] Main article: Spinozism See also: Pantheism
Pantheism
controversy

An unfavorable engraving depiction of philosopher Spinoza, captioned in Latin, "A Jew and an Atheist".

It is a widespread belief that Spinoza
Spinoza
equated God
God
with the material universe. He has therefore been called the "prophet"[91] and "prince"[92] and most eminent expounder of pantheism. More specifically, in a letter to Henry Oldenburg
Henry Oldenburg
he states, "as to the view of certain people that I identify God
God
with Nature (taken as a kind of mass or corporeal matter), they are quite mistaken".[93] For Spinoza, our universe (cosmos) is a mode under two attributes of Thought
Thought
and Extension. God
God
has infinitely many other attributes which are not present in our world. According to German philosopher Karl Jaspers
Karl Jaspers
(1883–1969), when Spinoza
Spinoza
wrote in Deus sive Natura
Deus sive Natura
(Latin for ' God
God
or Nature'), Spinoza meant God
God
was natura naturans (nature doing what nature does; literally, 'nature naturing'), not natura naturata (nature already created; literally, 'nature natured'). Jaspers believed that Spinoza, in his philosophical system, did not mean to say that God
God
and Nature are interchangeable terms, but rather that God's transcendence was attested by his infinitely many attributes, and that two attributes known by humans, namely Thought
Thought
and Extension, signified God's immanence.[94] Even God
God
under the attributes of thought and extension cannot be identified strictly with our world. That world is of course "divisible"; it has parts. But Spinoza
Spinoza
said, "no attribute of a substance can be truly conceived from which it follows that the substance can be divided", meaning that one cannot conceive an attribute in a way that leads to division of substance. He also said, "a substance which is absolutely infinite is indivisible" (Ethics, Part I, Propositions 12 and 13).[95] Following this logic, our world should be considered as a mode under two attributes of thought and extension. Therefore, according to Jaspers, the pantheist formula "One and All" would apply to Spinoza
Spinoza
only if the "One" preserves its transcendence and the "All" were not interpreted as the totality of finite things.[94] Martial Guéroult (1891–1976) suggested the term "panentheism", rather than "pantheism" to describe Spinoza's view of the relation between God
God
and the world. The world is not God, but it is, in a strong sense, "in" God. Not only do finite things have God
God
as their cause; they cannot be conceived without God.[95] However, American panentheist philosopher Charles Hartshorne
Charles Hartshorne
(1897–2000) insisted on the term Classical Pantheism
Pantheism
to describe Spinoza's view.[79] In 1785, Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi
Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi
published a condemnation of Spinoza's pantheism, after Gotthold Lessing was thought to have confessed on his deathbed to being a "Spinozist", which was the equivalent in his time of being called an atheist. Jacobi claimed that Spinoza's doctrine was pure materialism, because all Nature and God are said to be nothing but extended substance. This, for Jacobi, was the result of Enlightenment rationalism and it would finally end in absolute atheism. Moses
Moses
Mendelssohn disagreed with Jacobi, saying that there is no actual difference between theism and pantheism. The issue became a major intellectual and religious concern for European civilization at the time. The attraction of Spinoza's philosophy to late 18th-century Europeans was that it provided an alternative to materialism, atheism, and deism. Three of Spinoza's ideas strongly appealed to them:

the unity of all that exists; the regularity of all that happens; the identity of spirit and nature.[96]

By 1879, Spinoza’s pantheism was praised by many, but was considered by some to be alarming and dangerously inimical.[97] Spinoza's " God
God
or Nature" (Deus sive Natura) provided a living, natural God, in contrast to Isaac Newton's first cause argument and the dead mechanism of Julien Offray de La Mettrie's (1709–1751) work, Man a Machine (L'homme machine). Coleridge and Shelley saw in Spinoza's philosophy a religion of nature.[5] Novalis
Novalis
called him the "God-intoxicated man".[72][98] Spinoza
Spinoza
inspired the poet Shelley to write his essay "The Necessity of Atheism".[72] Spinoza
Spinoza
was considered to be an atheist because he used the word "God" (Deus) to signify a concept that was different from that of traditional Judeo– Christian
Christian
monotheism. " Spinoza
Spinoza
expressly denies personality and consciousness to God; he has neither intelligence, feeling, nor will; he does not act according to purpose, but everything follows necessarily from his nature, according to law...."[99] Thus, Spinoza's cool, indifferent God[100] is the antithesis to the concept of an anthropomorphic, fatherly God
God
who cares about humanity. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Spinoza's God
Spinoza's God
is an "infinite intellect" ( Ethics
Ethics
2p11c) — all knowing (2p3), and capable of loving both himself—and us, insofar as we are part of his perfection (5p35c). And if the mark of a personal being is that it is one towards which we can entertain personal attitudes, then we should note too that Spinoza
Spinoza
recommends amor intellectualis dei (the intellectual love of God) as the supreme good for man (5p33). However, the matter is complex. Spinoza's God
Spinoza's God
does not have free will (1p32c1), he does not have purposes or intentions (1 appendix), and Spinoza insists that "neither intellect nor will pertain to the nature of God" (1p17s1). Moreover, while we may love God, we need to remember that God
God
is really not the kind of being who could ever love us back. "He who loves God
God
cannot strive that God
God
should love him in return," says Spinoza
Spinoza
(5p19).[101] Steven Nadler suggests that settling the question of Spinoza's atheism or pantheism depends on an analysis of attitudes. If pantheism is associated with religiosity, then Spinoza
Spinoza
is not a pantheist, since Spinoza
Spinoza
believes that the proper stance to take towards God
God
is not one of reverence or religious awe, but instead one of objective study and reason, since taking the religious stance would leave one open to the possibility of error and superstition.[102] Comparison to Eastern philosophies[edit] Similarities between Spinoza's philosophy and Eastern philosophical traditions have been discussed by many authors. The 19th-century German Sanskritist Theodor Goldstücker was one of the early figures to notice the similarities between Spinoza's religious conceptions and the Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition of India, writing that Spinoza's thought was

... a western system of philosophy which occupies a foremost rank amongst the philosophies of all nations and ages, and which is so exact a representation of the ideas of the Vedanta, that we might have suspected its founder to have borrowed the fundamental principles of his system from the Hindus, did his biography not satisfy us that he was wholly unacquainted with their doctrines... We mean the philosophy of Spinoza, a man whose very life is a picture of that moral purity and intellectual indifference to the transitory charms of this world, which is the constant longing of the true Vedanta
Vedanta
philosopher... comparing the fundamental ideas of both we should have no difficulty in proving that, had Spinoza
Spinoza
been a Hindu, his system would in all probability mark a last phase of the Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy.[103][104]

Max Müller, in his lectures, noted the striking similarities between Vedanta
Vedanta
and the system of Spinoza, saying "the Brahman, as conceived in the Upanishads and defined by Sankara, is clearly the same as Spinoza's 'Substantia'."[105] Helena Blavatsky, a founder of the Theosophical Society
Theosophical Society
also compared Spinoza's religious thought to Vedanta, writing in an unfinished essay "As to Spinoza's Deity—natura naturans—conceived in his attributes simply and alone; and the same Deity—as natura naturata or as conceived in the endless series of modifications or correlations, the direct out-flowing results from the properties of these attributes, it is the Vedantic Deity pure and simple."[106] Spinoza's reception in the 19th and 20th centuries[edit] Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries grew even more interested in Spinoza, often from a left-wing or Marxist
Marxist
perspective. Karl Marx liked Spinoza's account of the universe, interpreting it as materialistic.[5] The philosophers Louis Althusser, Gilles Deleuze, Antonio Negri
Antonio Negri
and Étienne Balibar
Étienne Balibar
have each drawn upon Spinoza's philosophy. Deleuze's doctoral thesis, published in 1968, calls him "the prince of philosophers".[107] Nietzsche
Nietzsche
esteemed few philosophers, but he esteemed Spinoza.[108][109][110] However, Nietzsche
Nietzsche
never read Spinoza's works themselves, but learned about Spinoza
Spinoza
from Kuno Fischer's History of Modern Philosophy.[111] When George Santayana
George Santayana
graduated from college, he published an essay, "The Ethical Doctrine of Spinoza", in The Harvard Monthly.[112] Later, he wrote an introduction to Spinoza's Ethics
Ethics
and "De intellectus emendatione".[113] In 1932, Santayana was invited to present an essay (published as "Ultimate Religion")[114] at a meeting at The Hague celebrating the tricentennial of Spinoza's birth. In Santayana's autobiography, he characterized Spinoza
Spinoza
as his "master and model" in understanding the naturalistic basis of morality.[115] Spinoza's religious criticism and its effect on the philosophy of language[edit]

Tractatus Theologico-Politicus

Philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein
Ludwig Wittgenstein
evoked Spinoza
Spinoza
with the title (suggested to him by G. E. Moore) of the English translation of his first definitive philosophical work, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, an allusion to Spinoza's Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. Elsewhere, Wittgenstein deliberately borrowed the expression sub specie aeternitatis from Spinoza
Spinoza
(Notebooks, 1914-16, p. 83). The structure of his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
does have some structural affinities with Spinoza's Ethics
Ethics
(though, admittedly, not with the latter's own Tractatus) in erecting complex philosophical arguments upon basic logical assertions and principles. Furthermore, in propositions 6.4311 and 6.45 he alludes to a Spinozian understanding of eternity and interpretation of the religious concept of eternal life, stating that "If by eternity is understood not eternal temporal duration, but timelessness, then he lives eternally who lives in the present." (6.4311) "The contemplation of the world sub specie aeterni is its contemplation as a limited whole." (6.45) Leo Strauss
Leo Strauss
dedicated his first book, Spinoza's Critique of Religion, to an examination of the latter's ideas. In the book, Strauss identified Spinoza
Spinoza
as part of the tradition of Enlightenment rationalism that eventually produced Modernity. Moreover, he identifies Spinoza
Spinoza
and his works as the beginning of Jewish Modernity.[72] More recently Jonathan Israel argued that, from 1650 to 1750, Spinoza
Spinoza
was "the chief challenger of the fundamentals of revealed religion, received ideas, tradition, morality, and what was everywhere regarded, in absolutist and non-absolutist states alike, as divinely constituted political authority."[116] Spinoza
Spinoza
in literature, art, and popular culture[edit] Spinoza
Spinoza
has had influence beyond the confines of philosophy.

Spinoza's Tractatus theologico-politicus was presented to the Chair of the Dutch Parliament, and shares a shelf with the Bible
Bible
and the Quran.[117] The 17th-century philosopher John Locke, who also spent time in Amsterdam, was influenced by his "pioneering and profound conceptions of religious tolerance and democratic government," according to Cornel West.[118] The 19th-century novelist George Eliot
George Eliot
produced her own translation of the Ethics, the first known English translation of it. Eliot liked Spinoza's vehement attacks on superstition.[5] In his autobiography "From My Life: Poetry and Truth", Goethe
Goethe
recounts the way in which Spinoza's Ethics
Ethics
calmed the sometimes unbearable emotional turbulence of his youth. Goethe
Goethe
later displayed his grasp of Spinoza's metaphysics in a fragmentary elucidation of some Spinozist ontological principles entitled Study After Spinoza.[119] Moreover, he cited Spinoza
Spinoza
alongside Shakespeare and Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
as one of the three strongest influences on his life and work.[120] The 20th century novelist W. Somerset Maugham
W. Somerset Maugham
alluded to one of Spinoza's central concepts with the title of his novel Of Human Bondage.[citation needed] In the early Star Trek
Star Trek
episode "Where No Man Has Gone Before", the antagonist, Gary Mitchell is seen reading Spinoza, and Mitchell's remark regarding his ease in comprehending Spinoza
Spinoza
implies that his intellectual capacity is increasing dramatically. The dialogue indicates that Captain Kirk is familiar with Spinoza's work, perhaps as part of his studies at Starfleet Academy. In the M*A*S*H episode "Fade Out, Fade In, Part 2", Major Charles Emerson Winchester, on his exile to Korea, describes himself as someone who "can quote Spinoza
Spinoza
from memory".[121] Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
named Spinoza
Spinoza
as the philosopher who exerted the most influence on his world view (Weltanschauung). Spinoza
Spinoza
equated God (infinite substance) with Nature, consistent with Einstein's belief in an impersonal deity. In 1929, Einstein was asked in a telegram by Rabbi Herbert S. Goldstein
Herbert S. Goldstein
whether he believed in God. Einstein responded by telegram: "I believe in Spinoza's God
Spinoza's God
who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God
God
who concerns himself with the fates and actions of human beings."[122][123] Spinoza's pantheism has also influenced environmental theory; Arne Næss, the father of the deep ecology movement, acknowledged Spinoza as an important inspiration.[124] The Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges
was greatly influenced by Spinoza's world view. Borges makes allusions to the philosopher's work in many of his poems and short stories, as does Isaac Bashevis Singer in his short story The Spinoza
Spinoza
of Market Street.[125] The title character of Hoffman's Hunger, the fifth novel by the Dutch novelist Leon de Winter, reads and comments upon the Tractatus de Intellectus Emendatione over the course of the novel. Spinoza
Spinoza
has been the subject of numerous biographies and scholarly treatises.[98][126][127][128]

Spinoza
Spinoza
is an important historical figure in the Netherlands, where his portrait was featured prominently on the Dutch 1000-guilder banknote, legal tender until the euro was introduced in 2002. The highest and most prestigious scientific award of the Netherlands
Netherlands
is named the Spinozaprijs ( Spinoza
Spinoza
prize). Spinoza
Spinoza
was included in a 50 theme canon that attempts to summarise the history of the Netherlands.[129] The 2008 play "New Jerusalem", by David Ives, is based on the cherem (ban, shunning, ostracism, expulsion or excommunication) issued against Spinoza
Spinoza
by the Talmud Torah congregation in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
in 1656, and events leading to it. Ives speculates that Spinoza
Spinoza
was excommunicated in order to appease Dutch authorities who threatened to expel Amsterdam's Jews because of Spinoza's anti-religious activities amongst the city's Christian
Christian
community.[130] In Bento's Sketchbook (2011), the writer John Berger
John Berger
combines extracts from Spinoza, sketches, memoir, and observations in a book that contemplates the relationship of materialism to spirituality. According to Berger, what could be seen as a contradiction "is beautifully resolved by Spinoza, who shows that it is not a duality, but in fact an essential unity."[131] Leopold Bloom
Leopold Bloom
is shown several times to be an admirer of Spinoza
Spinoza
in James Joyce's Ulysses. Thoughts from Spinoza, an anthology, is represented on Bloom's bookshelf towards the end of the novel.[132]

Bibliography[edit]

c. 1660. Korte Verhandeling van God, de mensch en deszelvs welstand (A Short Treatise on God, Man and His Well-Being). 1662. Tractatus de Intellectus Emendatione
Tractatus de Intellectus Emendatione
(On the Improvement of the Understanding). 1663. Principia philosophiae cartesianae
Principia philosophiae cartesianae
(The Principles of Cartesian Philosophy, translated by Samuel Shirley, with an Introduction and Notes by Steven Barbone and Lee Rice, Indianapolis, 1998). Gallica (in Latin). 1670. Tractatus Theologico-Politicus
Tractatus Theologico-Politicus
(A Theologico-Political Treatise). 1675–76. Tractatus Politicus
Tractatus Politicus
(unfinished) (PDF version) 1677. Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata (The Ethics, finished 1674, but published posthumously) 1677. Compendium grammatices linguae hebraeae (Hebrew Grammar).[133] Morgan, Michael L. (ed.), 2002. Spinoza: Complete Works, with the Translation of Samuel Shirley, Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-87220-620-5. Edwin Curley (ed.), 1985–2016. The Collected Works of Spinoza
Spinoza
(two volumes), Princeton: Princeton University Press. Spruit, Leen and Pina Totaro, 2011. The Vatican Manuscript of Spinoza’s Ethica, Leiden: Brill.

See also[edit]

Biography portal Philosophy portal Amsterdam
Amsterdam
portal

Criticism of Judaism Pantheism Philosophy of Baruch Spinoza Plane of immanence Spinozism Uriel da Costa

References[edit]

^ Nadler 1999, p. 64. ^ Nadler 1999, p. 65. ^ Steven Nadler, Spinoza
Spinoza
and Medieval Jewish Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 27: " Spinoza
Spinoza
attended lectures and anatomical dissections at the University of Leiden..." ^ Scruton 2002, "Through the works of Moses
Moses
Maimonides
Maimonides
and the commentaries of the Arab Averroës, Spinoza
Spinoza
would have become acquainted with Aristotle". ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Anthony Gottlieb. " God
God
Exists, Philosophically (review of "Spinoza: A Life" by Steven Nadler)". The New York Times, Books. 18 July 1999. Retrieved 7 September 2009.  ^ "Spinoza" entry in Collins English Dictionary. ^ Yalom, Irvin (21 February 2012). "The Spinoza
Spinoza
Problem". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2013.  ^ Yovel, Yirmiyahu, Spinoza
Spinoza
and Other Heretics: The Adventures of Immanence
Immanence
(Princeton University Press, 1992), p. 3 ^ "Destroyer and Builder". The New Republic. 3 May 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2013.  ^ a b c d e f Scruton 2002, p. 26. ^ a b c Scruton 2002, p. 32. ^ Hegel's History of Philosophy. Google Books. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011.  ^ quoted in the translator's preface of Deleuze Expressionism in Philosophy: Spinoza
Spinoza
(1990). ^ de Spinoza, Benedictus; Hessing, Siegfried (1977). Speculum Spinozanum, 1677–1977. Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 828. , Snipped view of page 828 ^ Magnusson 1990. ^ a b c d Scruton 2002, p. 20. ^ The family was probably expelled from Spain
Spain
in 1492 and fled to Portugal. Portugal
Portugal
compelled them to convert to Catholicism in 1498. Cf. Javier Muguerza in his Desde la perplejidad; see also Ben-Menahem, Ari, Historical Encyclopedia of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Volume 1 (Springer, 2009), p. 1095. ^ Scruton 2002, p. 15. ^ a b c Scruton 2002, p. 19. ^ Israel, J. (1998), The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477–1806, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 4, 583, 677, 917. ^ De Dijn, Herman, Spinoza: The Way to Wisdom (Purdue University Press, 1996), pp. 3 & 4. ^ Nadler 2001, p. 195. ^ Curley, Edwin, "Spinoza's exchange with Albert Burgh," in Melamed & Rosenthal (eds.), Spinoza's Theological-Political Treatise: A Critical Guide (Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 11–28. ^ Historische Gids van Amsterdam, opnieuw bewerkt door Mr H.F. Wijnman, p. 205; Vaz Dias A.M. & W.G. van der Tak (1932) Spinoza, Merchant & autodidact, pp. 140, 174–75. Reprint in: Studia Resenthaliana. Vol. XVI, number 2, 1982. ^ Die Lebensgeschichte Spinozas. Zweite, stark erweiterte und vollständig neu kommentierte Auflage der Ausgabe von Jakob Freudenthal 1899. M. e. Bibliographie hg. v. Manfred Walther unter Mitarbeit v. Michael Czelinski. 2 Bde. Stuttgart-Bad Canstatt: frommann-holzboog, 2006. (Specula 4,1 – 4,2.) Erläuterungen. S. 98, 119. ^ a b c d e Nadler 2001, p. 1. ^ Nadler 2001, p. 23, "his mother's death when he was six years old". ^ a b Nadler 1999, p. 47. ^ Scruton 2002, p. 8. ^ a b c d e f Scruton 2002, p. 21. ^ a b c Nadler 2001, p. 27. ^ a b c Nadler 2001, p. 189. ^ Frank Mertens, Ghent University
Ghent University
(30 June 2009). "Franciscus van den Enden/Biography". Retrieved 7 October 2011.  ^ Strathern, Paul (25 September 1998). Spinoza
Spinoza
in 90 Minutes. Ivan R. Dee. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-1-56663-215-7.  ^ Johannes Colerus, The Life of Benedict de Spinosa (London: Benjamin Bragg, 1706), 4. ^ a b Benedictus de Spinoza, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus: Gebhardt Edition (E.J. Brill, 1989), p. 179 (available at https://books.google.com/books?id=y3Cd7Yd73esC&pg=PA186&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=false). ^ a b Nadler 2001, p. 25. ^ Nadler 2001, p. 26. ^ Nadler 2001, p. 120. ^ Book of Joshua
Joshua
6, 26: "And Joshua
Joshua
adjured them at that time, saying, Cursed be the man before the Lord, that riseth up and buildeth this city Jericho: he shall lay the foundation thereof in his firstborn, and in his youngest son shall he set up the gates of it." ^ Second Book of Kings
Second Book of Kings
2, 23–24: "And as he [Elisha] was going up by the way, there came forth little children out of the city, and mocked him, and said unto him, Go up, thou bald head; go up, thou bald head. And he turned back, and looked on them, and cursed them in the name of the Lord. And there came forth two she bears out of the wood, and tare forty and two children of them. ^ Yitzhak Melamed, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Johns Hopkins University, speaking at an Artistic Director's Roundtable, Theater J, Washington D.C., 18 March 2012. ^ Nadler 2001, p. 7. ^ Nadler 2001, p. 2. ^ Steven B. Smith, Spinoza's book of life: freedom and redemption in the Ethics, Yale University Press (1 December 2003), p. xx – Introduction Google Books ^ Steven Nadler, Baruch Spinoza, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, First published Fri 29 June 2001; substantive revision Mon 1 December 2008, plato.standord.eu ^ Nadler 2001, p. 17. ^ Nadler 2001, p. 18. ^ a b c Nadler 2001, p. 19. ^ a b c Nadler 2001, p. 20. ^ a b Nadler 2001, p. 21. ^ Nadler 2001, p. 22. ^ Nadler 2001, p. 28. ^ a b c d e f Scruton 2002, p. 22. ^ a b Yitzhak Melamed, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Johns Hopkins University, speaking at an Artistic Director's Roundtable, Theater J, Washington D.C., 18 March 2012. ^ Simon Rocker (August 28, 2014). "Why Baruch Spinoza
Spinoza
is still excommunicated". The Jewish Chronicle Online.  ^ a b c GOTTLIEB, ANTHONY. " God
God
Exists, Philosophically". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 14 July 2014.  ^ Scruton 2002, p. 23. ^ Scruton 2002, p. 24. ^ a b Scruton 2002, p. 25. ^ "…he [Spinoza] told me [Leibniz] he had a strong desire, on the day of the massacre of Mess. De Witt, to sally forth at night, and put up somewhere, near the place of the massacre, a paper with the words Ultimi barbarorum [ultimate barbarity]. But his host had shut the house to prevent his going out, for he would have run the risk of being torn to pieces." (A Refutation Recently Discovered of Spinoza
Spinoza
by Leibnitz, "Remarks on the Unpublished Refutation of Spinoza
Spinoza
by Leibnitz," Edinburg: Thomas Constable and Company, 1855. p. 70. Available on Google Books ^ Christiaan Huygens, Oeuvres complètes, Letter No. 1638, 11 May 1668 ^ Christiaan Huygens, aOeuvres complètes, letter to his brother 23 September 1667 ^ Nadler 2001, p. 183. ^ Christiaan Huygens, Oeuvres complètes, vol. XXII, p. 732, footnote ^ Theodore Kerckring, "Spicilegium Anatomicum" Observatio XCIII (1670) ^ Chauí 1995 (2001 ed.), ch. 1, pp. 30–31: A commentary on Descartes' work, Principles of Cartesian Philosophy, only work published under his own name, brought him on an invitation to teach philosophy at the University of Heidelberg. Spinoza, however, refused, thinking that it might be demanded the renouncement of his freedom of thought, for the invite stipulated that all care should be taken to "not insult the principles of the established religion." ^ a b c d Lucas, 1960. ^ Scruton 2002, p. 29. ^ Special
Special
Features (5 December 1926). "Shrine will be made of old Spinoza
Spinoza
home; Society
Society
That Bears His Name Seeks Fund to Buy Dwelling of Great Philosopher at The Hague
The Hague
on the 250th Anniversary of His Death". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 September 2009.  ^ Phelps, M. Stuart (21 February 1877). "Spinoza. Oration by M. Ernest Renan, delivered at the Hague, February 21, 1877 by Translated by M. Stuart Phelps [pp. 763–76]". New Englander and Yale Review
New Englander and Yale Review
Volume 0037 Issue 147 (November 1878). Retrieved 8 September 2009.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Harold Bloom (book reviewer) (16 June 2006). "Deciphering Spinoza, the Great Original -- Book review of "Betraying Spinoza. The Renegade Jew Who Gave Us Modernity." By Rebecca Goldstein". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 September 2009.  ^ "How Spinoza
Spinoza
lived". The New York Times. 17 March 1878. Retrieved 8 September 2009.  ^ Popkin, Richard H., " Spinoza
Spinoza
de Spinoza" in The Columbia History of Western Philosophy (Columbia University Press, 1999), p. 381. ^ a b Lisa Montanarelli (book reviewer) (8 January 2006). "Spinoza stymies 'God's attorney' -- Stewart argues the secular world was at stake in Leibniz face off". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 8 September 2009.  ^ see Refutation of Spinoza ^ Stewart, Matthew, The Courtier and the Heretic (W. W. Norton & Company, 2006), p. 106. ^ Spinoza, Karl Jaspers
Karl Jaspers
p. 9 ^ a b Charles Hartshorne
Charles Hartshorne
and William Reese, "Philosophers Speak of God," Humanity Books, 1953 ch. 4 ^ a b Konstan, David (1 January 2016). Zalta, Edward N., ed. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics
Metaphysics
Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 21 February 2017 – via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ^ Ethics, Part IV, preface: "Deus seu Natura". ^ "Baruch Spinoza, "Human Beings are Determined"". Lander.edu. Retrieved 21 February 2017.  ^ Baruch Spinoza. Ethics, in Spinoza: Complete Works, trans. by Samuel Shirley and ed. by Michael L. Morgan (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2002), see Part I, Proposition 33. ^ Ethics, Part I, Proposition 6. ^ Ethics, Pt. I, Prop. XXXVI, Appendix: "[M]en think themselves free inasmuch as they are conscious of their volitions and desires, and never even dream, in their ignorance, of the causes which have disposed them so to wish and desire." ^ Ethics, Part III, Proposition 2. ^ Scruton 2002, p. 86. ^ Cook, Vincent. " Epicurus
Epicurus
- Principal Doctrines". Epicurus.net. Retrieved 21 February 2017.  ^ Spinoza, Benedict. The Ethics.  ^ a b Spinoza, Benedict (1677). "Books 1–5". The Ethics.  ^ Picton, J. Allanson, "Pantheism: Its Story and Significance", 1905 ^ Fraser, Alexander Campbell "Philosophy of Theism", William Blackwood and Sons, 1895, p. 163 ^ Correspondence of Benedict de Spinoza, Wilder Publications (26 March 2009), ISBN 978-1-60459-156-9, letter 73 ^ a b Karl Jaspers, Spinoza
Spinoza
(Great Philosophers), Harvest Books (23 October 1974), ISBN 978-0-15-684730-8, pp. 14, 95 ^ a b Genevieve Lloyd, Routledge Philosophy GuideBook to Spinoza
Spinoza
and The Ethics
Ethics
(Routledge Philosophy Guidebooks), Routledge; 1 edition (2 October 1996), ISBN 978-0-415-10782-2, p. 40 ^ Lange, Frederick Albert (1880). History of Materialism
Materialism
and Criticism of its Present Importance, Vol. II. Boston: Houghton, Osgood, & Co. p. 147. Retrieved 11 November 2015.  ^ "The Pantheism
Pantheism
of Spinoza
Spinoza
Dr. Smith regarded as the most dangerous enemy of Christianity, and as he announced his conviction that it had gained the control of the schools, press and pulpit of the Old World [Europe], and was rapidly gaining the same control of the New [United States], his alarm and indignation sometimes rose to the eloquence of genuine passion." Memorial of the Rev. Henry Smith, D.D., LL D., Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Pastoral Theology
Theology
in Lane Theological Seminary, Consisting of Addresses on Occasion of the Anniversary of the Seminary, May 8th, 1879, Together with Commemorative Resolutions, p. 26. ^ a b Hutchison, Percy (20 November 1932). "Spinoza, "God-Intoxicated Man"; Three Books Which Mark the Three Hundredth Anniversary of the Philosopher's Birth". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 September 2009.  ^ Frank Thilly, A History of Philosophy, § 47, Holt & Co., New York, 1914 ^ "I believe in Spinoza's God
Spinoza's God
who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God
God
who concerns himself with fates and actions of human beings." These words were spoken by Albert Einstein, upon being asked if he believed in God
God
by Rabbi Herbert Goldstein of the Institutional Synagogue, New York, 24 April 1921, published in the New York Times, 25 April 1929; from Einstein: The Life and Times Ronald W. Clark, New York: World Publishing Co., 1971, p. 413; also cited as a telegram to a Jewish newspaper, 1929, Einstein Archive 33-272, from Alice Calaprice, ed., The Expanded Quotable Einstein, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University ^ " Pantheism
Pantheism
(Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 3 October 2014.  ^ "Baruch Spinoza
Spinoza
(Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 24 December 2011.  ^ Literary Remains of the Late Professor Theodore Goldstucker, W. H. Allen, 1879. p. 32. ^ The Westminster Review, Volumes 78–79, Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1862. p. 1862 ^ Three Lectures on the Vedanta
Vedanta
Philosophy. F. Max Muller. Kessinger Publishing, 2003. p. 123 ^ H.P Blavatsky's Collected Writings, Volume 13, pp. 308–10. Quest Books ^ Deleuze, 1968. ^ Nietzsche, Friedrich, "FOURTH DIVISION Concerning the Soul
Soul
of Artists and Authors", in Human, All-Too-Human: Parts One and Two: Pt. I&II (Dover Philosophical Classics), Kindle Edition (2012-03-15), Aphorism 157, p. 95. ^ Nietzsche, Friedrich, "EIGHTH DIVISION A Glance at the State", in Human, All-Too-Human: Parts One and Two: Pt. I&II (Dover Philosophical Classics), Kindle Edition (2012-03-15), Aphorism 475, p. 204. ^ Nietzsche, Friedrich, "PART I Miscellaneous Maxims and Opinions", in Human, All-Too-Human: Parts One and Two: Pt. I&II (Dover Philosophical Classics), Kindle Edition (2012-03-15), Aphorism 408, p. 356. ^ Andreas Urs Sommer: Nietzsche’s Readings on Spinoza. A Contextualist Study, Particularly on the Reception of Kuno Fischer, in: Journal of Nietzsche
Nietzsche
Studies 43/2 (2012), pp. 156–84. ^ George Santayana, "The Ethical Doctrine of Spinoza", The Harvard Monthly, 2 (June 1886: 144–52) ^ George Santayana, "Introduction", in Spinoza's Ethics
Ethics
and "De intellectus emendatione"(London: Dent, 1910, vii–xxii) ^ George Santayana, "Ultimate Religion", in Obiter Scripta, eds. Justus Buchler and Benjamin Schwartz (New York and London: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936) 280–97. ^ George Santayana, Persons and Places (Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press, 1986) 233–36. ^ Israel, J. (2001) Radical Enlightenment; Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650–1750, Oxford, Oxford University Press, p. 159. ^ "Van der Ham biedt Verbeet Spinoza
Spinoza
aan". RTL Nieuws. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2014.  ^ West, Cornel (28 July 2006). "The spirit of Spinoza". Boston Globe. Retrieved 6 December 2017.  ^ "Goethe: Studie nach Spinoza
Spinoza
– Aufsätze und Rezensionen". Textlog.de. 30 October 2007. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011.  ^ "Linné on line – What people have said about Linnaeus". Linnaeus.uu.se. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011.  ^ http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x5el200 ^ "Einstein believes in "Spinoza's God"; Scientist Defines His Faith in Reply, to Cablegram From Rabbi Here. Sees a Divine Order But Says Its Ruler Is Not Concerned "Wit [sic] Fates and Actions of Human Beings."". The New York Times. 25 April 1929. Retrieved 8 September 2009.  ^ "Einstein's Third Paradise, by Gerald Holton". Aip.org. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011.  ^ Rothenberg, David; Naess, Arne (2001). Ecology, community and lifestyle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-521-34873-0.  ^ Spinoza
Spinoza
of Market Street and Other ... - Google Books. Google Books. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011.  ^ "Spinoza's First Biography Is Recovered; The oldest biography of Spinoza. Edited with Translations, Introduction, Annotations, &c., by A. Wolf. 196 pp. New York: Lincoln Macveagh. The Dial Press". The New York Times. 11 December 1927. Retrieved 8 September 2009.  ^ Irwin Edman (22 July 1934). "The Unique and Powerful Vision of Baruch Spinoza; Professor Wolfson's Long-Awaited Book Is a Work of Illuminating Scholarship. (Book review) The Philosophy of Spinoza. By Henry Austryn Wolfson". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 September 2009.  ^ Cummings, M E (8 September 1929). "Roth Evaluates Spinoza". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 September 2009.  ^ "Entoen.nu". Entoen.nu. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011.  ^ Ives 2009. ^ Berger, John. Qtd. in Nicholas Wroe, "John Berger: A Life in Writing." The Guardian online. 23 April 2011. https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/23/john-berger-life-in-writing ^ Joyce, James (1986). Ulysses. New York: Random House, Inc. pp. 280, 582, etc. ISBN 0-394-74312-1.  ^ See G. Licata, " Spinoza
Spinoza
e la cognitio universalis dell'ebraico. Demistificazione e speculazione grammaticale nel Compendio di grammatica ebraica", Giornale di Metafisica, 3 (2009), pp. 625–61.

Further reading[edit]

Albiac, Gabriel, 1987. La sinagoga vacía: un estudio de las fuentes marranas del espinosismo. Madrid: Hiperión D.L. ISBN 978-84-7517-214-9 Balibar, Étienne, 1985. Spinoza
Spinoza
et la politique (" Spinoza
Spinoza
and politics") Paris: PUF. Bennett, Jonathan, 1984. A Study of Spinoza's Ethics. Hackett. Boucher, Wayne I., 1999. Spinoza
Spinoza
in English: A Bibliography from the Seventeenth Century to the Present. 2nd edn. Thoemmes Press. Boucher, Wayne I., ed., 1999. Spinoza: Eighteenth and Nineteenth-Century Discussions. 6 vols. Thoemmes Press. Carlisle, Claire. "Questioning Transcendence, Teleology
Teleology
and Truth" in Kierkegaard and the Renaissance and Modern Traditions (ed. Jon Stewart. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, 2009). Chauí, Marilena Espinosa: uma filosofia da liberdade. São Paulo: Editora Moderna, 1995. 111 pp. Damásio, António, 2003. Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain, Harvest Books, ISBN 978-0-15-602871-4 Deleuze, Gilles, 1968. Spinoza
Spinoza
et le problème de l'expression. Trans. "Expressionism in Philosophy: Spinoza" Martin Joughin (New York: Zone Books). ———, 1970. Spinoza: Philosophie pratique. Transl. "Spinoza: Practical Philosophy". ———, 1990. Negotiations trans. Martin Joughin (New York: Columbia University Press). Della Rocca, Michael. 1996. Representation and the Mind-Body Problem in Spinoza. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509562-3 Garrett, Don, ed., 1995. The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza. Cambridge Uni. Press. Gatens, Moira, and Lloyd, Genevieve, 1999. Collective imaginings : Spinoza, past and present. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16570-9, ISBN 978-0-415-16571-6 Goldstein, Rebecca, 2006. Betraying Spinoza: The Renegade Jew Who Gave Us Modernity. Schocken. ISBN 978-0-8052-1159-7 Goode, Francis, 2012. Life of Spinoza. Smashwords edition. ISBN 978-1-4661-3399-0 Gullan-Whur, Margaret, 1998. Within Reason: A Life of Spinoza. Jonathan Cape. ISBN 978-0-224-05046-3 Hampshire, Stuart, 1951. Spinoza
Spinoza
and Spinozism, OUP, 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-927954-8 Hardt, Michael, trans., University of Minnesota Press. Preface, in French, by Gilles Deleuze, available here: "Multitudes Web - 01. Préface à L'Anomalie sauvage de Negri". Multitudes.samizdat.net. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011.  Israel, Jonathan, 2001. The Radical Enlightenment, Oxford: Oxford University Press. ———, 2006. Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670–1752, (ISBN 978-0-19-927922-7 hardback) Ives 2009: Ives, David, "New Jerusalem: The Interrogation of Baruch de Spinoza
Spinoza
at Talmud Torah Congregation: Amsterdam, July 27, 1656," 2009 (Dramatists Play Service, Inc., New York, ISBN 978-0-8222-2385-6). Kasher, Asa, and Shlomo Biderman. "Why Was Baruch de Spinoza Excommunicated?" Kayser, Rudolf, 1946, with an introduction by Albert Einstein. Spinoza: Portrait of a Spiritual Hero. New York: The Philosophical Library. Lloyd, Genevieve, 1996. Spinoza
Spinoza
and the Ethics. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-10781-5, ISBN 978-0-415-10782-2 LeBuffe, Michael. 2010. Spinoza
Spinoza
and Human Freedom. Oxford University Press. Lucas, P. G., 1960. "Some Speculative and Critical Philosophers", in I. Levine (ed.), Philosophy (London: Odhams) Lovejoy, Arthur O., 1936. "Plenitude and Sufficient Reason
Reason
in Leibniz and Spinoza" in his The Great Chain of Being. Harvard University Press: 144–82 (ISBN 978-0-674-36153-9). Reprinted in Frankfurt, H. G., ed., 1972. Leibniz: A Collection of Critical Essays. Anchor Books. Macherey, Pierre, 1977. Hegel ou Spinoza, Maspéro (2nd ed. La Découverte, 2004). ———, 1994–98. Introduction à l'Ethique de Spinoza. Paris: PUF. Magnusson 1990: Magnusson, M (ed.), Spinoza, Baruch, Chambers Biographical Dictionary, Chambers 1990, ISBN 978-0-550-16041-6. Matheron, Alexandre, 1969. Individu et communauté chez Spinoza, Paris: Minuit. Montag, Warren. Bodies, Masses, Power: Spinoza
Spinoza
and his Contemporaries. (London: Verso, 2002). Moreau, Pierre-François, 2003, Spinoza
Spinoza
et le spinozisme, PUF (Presses Universitaires de France) Nadler, Steven M. (1999). Spinoza: A Life. Cambridge University Press. p. 407. ISBN 978-0-521-55210-3.  Nadler, Steven M. (2001). Spinoza's Heresy: Immortality and the Jewish Mind. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 225. ISBN 0-19-926887-8.  Nadler 2006: Nadler, Steven, Spinoza's Ethics: An Introduction, 2006 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge England, ISBN 978-0-521-83620-3). Nadler 2011: Nadler, Steven, A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age, 2011 (Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ, ISBN 978-0-691-13989-0). Negri, Antonio, 1991. The Savage Anomaly: The Power of Spinoza's Metaphysics
Metaphysics
and Politics. ———, 2004. Subversive Spinoza: (Un)Contemporary Variations). Popkin, R. H., 2004. Spinoza
Spinoza
(Oxford: One World Publications) Prokhovnik, Raia (2004). Spinoza
Spinoza
and republicanism. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0333733908.  Ratner, Joseph, 1927. The Philosophy of Spinoza
Spinoza
(The Modern Library: Random House) Scruton, Roger (May 30, 2002). Spinoza: A Very Short Introduction. OUP Oxford. p. 144. ISBN 0-19-280316-6.  Stewart, Matthew. The Courtier and the Heretic: Leibniz, Spinoza
Spinoza
and the Fate of God. 2006. W. W. Norton Stolze, Ted and Warren Montag (eds.), The New Spinoza; Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. Strauss, Leo. Persecution and the Art of Writing. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1952. Reprint. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. ———ch. 5, "How to Study Spinoza's Tractus Theologico-Politicus;" reprinted in Strauss, Jewish Philosophy and the Crisis of Modernity, ed. Kenneth Hart Green (Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press, 1997), 181–233. ———Spinoza's Critique of Religion. New York: Schocken Books, 1965. Reprint. University of Chicago Press, 1996. ———, "Preface to the English Translation" reprinted as "Preface to Spinoza's Critique of Religion," in Strauss, Liberalism
Liberalism
Ancient and Modern (New York: Basic Books, 1968, 224–59; also in Strauss, Jewish Philosophy and the Crisis of Modernity, 137–77). Smilevski, Goce. Conversation with SPINOZA. Chicago: Northwestern University Press, 2006. Williams, David Lay. 2010. " Spinoza
Spinoza
and the General Will," The Journal of Politics, Vol. 72 (April): 341–56. Wolfson, Henry A. "The Philosophy of Spinoza". 2 vols. Harvard University Press. Yalom, I. (2012) The Spinoza
Spinoza
Problem: A Novel. New York: Basic Books. Yovel, Yirmiyahu, " Spinoza
Spinoza
and Other Heretics, Vol. 1: The Marrano of Reason." Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1989. Yovel, Yirmiyahu, " Spinoza
Spinoza
and Other Heretics, Vol. 2: The Adventures of Immanence." Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1989. Vinciguerra, Lorenzo Spinoza
Spinoza
in French Philosophy Today. Philosophy Today, Vol. 53, No. 4, Winter 2009.

External links[edit]

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:

""Benedict de Spinoza"". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ""Benedict de Spinoza: Epistemology"". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ""Benedict de Spinoza: Metaphysics"". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ""Benedict de Spinoza: Moral Philosophy"". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ""Benedict de Spinoza: Political Philosophy"". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:

"Spinoza" by Steven Nadler. "Spinoza's Psychological Theory" by Michael LeBuffe. "Spinoza's Physical Theory" by Richard Manning. "Spinoza's Political Philosophy" by Justin Steinberg.

Dutton, Blake. "Benedict De Spinoza". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  Bulletin Spinoza
Spinoza
of the journal Archives de philosophie Susan James on Spinoza
Spinoza
on the Passions, Philosophy Bites podcast Spinoza
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and Spinozism
Spinozism
- BDSweb Spinoza, the Moral Heretic by Matthew J. Kisner Immortality in Spinoza BBC Radio 4 In Our Time
Time
programme on Spinoza Spinoza: Mind
Mind
of the Modern - audio from Radio Opensource Infography about Baruch Spinoza Baruch Spinoza
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at Find a Grave The Escamoth stating Spinoza's excommunication Gilles Deleuze's lectures about Spinoza
Spinoza
(1978-1981) Spinoza
Spinoza
in the Jewish Encyclopedia Audio interview with Steven Nadler on Spinoza
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- Minerva podcast Video lecture on Baruch Spinoza
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by Dr. Henry Abramson

Works

Spinoza
Spinoza
Opera Carl Gebhardt's 1925 four volume edition of Spinoza's Works. Works by Benedictus de Spinoza
Spinoza
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Baruch Spinoza
Spinoza
at Internet Archive Works by Baruch Spinoza
Spinoza
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Works by Baruch Spinoza
Spinoza
at Open Library Refutation of Spinoza
Spinoza
by Leibniz In full at Google Books More easily readable versions of the Correspondence, Ethics Demonstrated in Geometrical Order and Treatise on Theology
Theology
and Politics EthicaDB Hypertextual and multilingual publication of Ethics A Theologico-Political Treatise
Theologico-Political Treatise
– English Translation[dead link] A Theologico-Political Treatise
Theologico-Political Treatise
- English Translation (at sacred-texts.com) A letter from Spinoza
Spinoza
to Albert Burgh Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata et in quinque partes distincta, in quibus agetur[permanent dead link] Opera posthuma – Amsterdam
Amsterdam
1677. Complete photographic reproduction, ed. by F. Mignini (Quodlibet publishing house website)

Links to related articles

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Baruch Spinoza

Works

Tractatus de Intellectus Emendatione
Tractatus de Intellectus Emendatione
(1662) Principia philosophiae cartesianae
Principia philosophiae cartesianae
(1663) Tractatus Theologico-Politicus
Tractatus Theologico-Politicus
(1670) Tractatus Politicus
Tractatus Politicus
(1675–1676) Ethics
Ethics
(1677)

Concepts and theories

Spinoza's philosophical system Spinozism Spinozistic metaphysics Spinozistic epistemology (three kinds of knowledge) Spinozistic ethics Spinozistic attributes Spinozistic theory of the emotions Spinozistic conception of freedom Spinozistic conception of power (potentia cogitandi, potentia agendi) God or Nature
God or Nature
(Deus sive Natura) Natura naturans Natura naturata Affect Immanence Conatus Substance theory Mind–body problem Biblical criticism Historical criticism

Related topics

Rationalism Monism Materialism Determinism
Determinism
(causal determinism) Atheism Pantheism
Pantheism
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Environmental ethics
(environmental philosophy) Double-aspect theory Criticism of religion Freedom of thought Freedom of expression Cartesianism Dualism 17th-century philosophy Enlightenment philosophy
Enlightenment philosophy
(Age of Reason) Philosophy and thought in the Dutch Republic Religion
Religion
in the Dutch Republic History of liberalism in the Netherlands History of the Jews in the Netherlands

Reception and interpretation of Spinoza's thought

General

Pantheism
Pantheism
controversy God-intoxicated man
God-intoxicated man
(Novalis) Spinoza's God Omnis determinatio est negatio (Hegel) German Idealism Spinozist Marxism Deep ecology Affective neuroscience Philosophical works about Spinoza Cahiers Spinoza
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(journal) Studia Spinozana (journal)

Notable people

Spinozists Spinoza
Spinoza
scholars Louis Althusser Jorge Luis Borges Antonio Damasio Friedrich Nietzsche Gilles Deleuze Pierre Macherey Albert Einstein Stuart Hampshire Warren Montag Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Evald Ilyenkov Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Steven Nadler Arne Næss Antonio Negri Frédéric Lordon George Santayana

Recognitions

Spinoza
Spinoza
in fiction (cultural depictions) Spinoza: Ein historischer Roman (1837 novel by Berthold Auerbach) Der Spinozist: Dertseylung [The Spinoza
Spinoza
of Market Street] (1944 fiction by Isaac Bashevis Singer) The Spinoza
Spinoza
Problem (2012 novel by Irvin D. Yalom) The Spinoza
Spinoza
Quartet (2013 novel by Bernard Susser) Spinoza
Spinoza
Prize Spinoza
Spinoza
Institute 7142 Spinoza North American Spinoza
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Society

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Thinkers

France

Jean le Rond d'Alembert Étienne Bonnot de Condillac Marquis de Condorcet Denis Diderot Claude Adrien Helvétius Baron d'Holbach Georges-Louis Leclerc Montesquieu François Quesnay Jean-Jacques Rousseau Marquis de Sade Voltaire

Germany

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Georg Hamann Johann Gottfried von Herder Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi Immanuel Kant Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Moses
Moses
Mendelssohn Friedrich Schiller Thomas Wizenmann

Greece

Neophytos Doukas Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Theophilos Kairis Adamantios Korais

Ireland

Robert Boyle Edmund Burke

Italy

Cesare Beccaria Gaetano Filangieri Antonio Genovesi Pietro Verri

The Netherlands

Spinoza Hugo Grotius Balthasar Bekker Bernard Nieuwentyt Frederik van Leenhof Christiaan Huygens Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Jan Swammerdam

Poland

Tadeusz Czacki Hugo Kołłątaj Stanisław Konarski Ignacy Krasicki Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz Stanisław August Poniatowski Jędrzej Śniadecki Stanisław Staszic Józef Wybicki Andrzej Stanisław Załuski Józef Andrzej Załuski

Portugal

Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo

Russia

Catherine II

Spain

Charles III Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro

United Kingdom (Scotland)

Francis Bacon Jeremy Bentham Joseph Black James Boswell Adam Ferguson Edward Gibbon Robert Hooke David Hume Francis Hutcheson Samuel Johnson John Locke Isaac Newton Thomas Reid Adam Smith Mary Wollstonecraft

United States

Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson James Madison George Mason Thomas Paine

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Metaphysics

Metaphysicians

Parmenides Plato Aristotle Plotinus Duns Scotus Thomas Aquinas Francisco Suárez Nicolas Malebranche René Descartes John Locke David Hume Thomas Reid Immanuel Kant Isaac Newton Arthur Schopenhauer Baruch Spinoza Georg W. F. Hegel George Berkeley Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Henri Bergson Friedrich Nietzsche Charles Sanders Peirce Joseph Maréchal Ludwig Wittgenstein Martin Heidegger Alfred N. Whitehead Bertrand Russell Dorothy Emmet G. E. Moore Jean-Paul Sartre Gilbert Ryle Hilary Putnam P. F. Strawson R. G. Collingwood Adolph Stöhr Rudolf Carnap Saul Kripke Willard V. O. Quine G. E. M. Anscombe Donald Davidson Michael Dummett David Malet Armstrong David Lewis Alvin Plantinga Peter van Inwagen Derek Parfit more ...

Theories

Abstract object theory Action theory Anti-realism Determinism Dualism Enactivism Essentialism Existentialism Free will Idealism Libertarianism Liberty Materialism Meaning of life Monism Naturalism Nihilism Phenomenalism Realism Physicalism Pirsig's metaphysics of Quality Platonic idealism Relativism Scientific realism Solipsism Subjectivism Substance theory Type theory

Concepts

Abstract object Anima mundi Being Category of being Causality Choice Cogito ergo sum Concept Embodied cognition Entity Essence Existence Experience Hypostatic abstraction Idea Identity Identity and change Information Insight Intelligence Intention Linguistic modality Matter Meaning Memetics Mental representation Mind Motion Necessity Notion Object Pattern Perception Physical body Principle Property Qualia Quality Reality Soul Subject Substantial form Thought Time Truth Type–token distinction Universal Unobservable Value more ...

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Epistemology

Epistemologists

Thomas Aquinas Augustine of Hippo William Alston Robert Audi A. J. Ayer George Berkeley Laurence BonJour René Descartes John Dewey Fred Dretske Edmund Gettier Roger Gibson Alvin Goldman Nelson Goodman Paul Grice David Hume Immanuel Kant Søren Kierkegaard Saul Kripke David Lewis John Locke G. E. Moore Robert Nozick Alvin Plantinga Plato Hilary Putnam Thomas Reid Gilbert Ryle P. F. Strawson Willard Van Orman Quine Bertrand Russell Baruch Spinoza Timothy Williamson Ludwig Wittgenstein Nicholas Wolterstorff Vienna Circle

Theories

Coherentism Constructivist epistemology Contextualism Determinism Empiricism Evolutionary epistemology Fallibilism Feminist epistemology Fideism Foundationalism Genetic epistemology Holism Infinitism Innatism Internalism and externalism Naïve realism Naturalized epistemology Phenomenalism Positivism Reductionism Reliabilism Representative realism Rationalism Skepticism Theory of forms Transcendental idealism Uniformitarianism

Concepts

A priori knowledge Analysis Analytic–synthetic distinction Belief Causality Common sense Descriptive knowledge Exploratory thought Gettier problem Justification Knowledge Induction Objectivity Problem of induction Problem of other minds Perception Proposition Regress argument Simplicity Speculative reason Truth more...

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Psychology

History Philosophy Portal Psychologist

Basic psychology

Abnormal Affective science Affective neuroscience Behavioral genetics Behavioral neuroscience Behaviorism Cognitive/Cognitivism Cognitive neuroscience Comparative Cross-cultural Cultural Developmental Differential Ecological Evolutionary Experimental Gestalt Intelligence Mathematical Neuropsychology Personality Positive Psycholinguistics Psychophysics Psychophysiology Quantitative Social Theoretical

Applied psychology

Anomalistic Applied behavior analysis Assessment Clinical Community Consumer Counseling Critical Educational Ergonomics Feminist Forensic Health Industrial and organizational Legal Media Military Music Occupational health Pastoral Political Psychometrics Psychotherapy Religion School Sport and exercise Suicidology Systems Traffic

Methodologies

Animal testing Archival research Behavior epigenetics Case study Content analysis Experiments Human subject research Interviews Neuroimaging Observation Qualitative research Quantitative research Self-report inventory Statistical surveys

Psychologists

William James (1842–1910) Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936) Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) Edward Thorndike (1874–1949) Carl Jung (1875–1961) John B. Watson (1878–1958) Clark L. Hull (1884–1952) Kurt Lewin (1890–1947) Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Gordon Allport (1897–1967) J. P. Guilford (1897–1987) Carl Rogers (1902–1987) Erik Erikson (1902–1994) B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) Donald O. Hebb (1904–1985) Ernest Hilgard (1904–2001) Harry Harlow (1905–1981) Raymond Cattell (1905–1998) Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) Neal E. Miller (1909–2002) Jerome Bruner (1915–2016) Donald T. Campbell (1916–1996) Hans Eysenck (1916–1997) Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001) David McClelland (1917–1998) Leon Festinger (1919–1989) George Armitage Miller (1920–2012) Richard Lazarus (1922–2002) Stanley Schachter (1922–1997) Robert Zajonc (1923–2008) Albert Bandura (b. 1925) Roger Brown (1925–1997) Endel Tulving (b. 1927) Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987) Noam Chomsky (b. 1928) Ulric Neisser (1928–2012) Jerome Kagan (b. 1929) Walter Mischel (b. 1930) Elliot Aronson (b. 1932) Daniel Kahneman (b. 1934) Paul Ekman (b. 1934) Michael Posner (b. 1936) Amos Tversky (1937–1996) Bruce McEwen (b. 1938) Larry Squire (b. 1941) Richard E. Nisbett (b. 1941) Martin Seligman (b. 1942) Ed Diener (b. 1946) Shelley E. Taylor (b. 1946) John Anderson (b. 1947) Ronald C. Kessler (b. 1947) Joseph E. LeDoux (b. 1949) Richard Davidson (b. 1951) Susan Fiske (b. 1952) Roy Baumeister (b. 1953)

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Philosophy of mind

Theories

Behaviorism (Radical) Biological naturalism Cognitive psychology Mind–body dualism Eliminative materialism Emergent materialism Emergentism Epiphenomenalism Functionalism Idealism Interactionism Materialism Monism Naïve realism

Neurophenomenology

Neutral monism Occasionalism Psychoanalysis Parallelism Phenomenalism Phenomenology Physicalism

identity theory

Property
Property
dualism Representational Solipsism Substance dualism

Concepts

Abstract object Artificial intelligence Chinese room Cognition Cognitive closure Concept Concept
Concept
and object Consciousness Hard problem of consciousness Hypostatic abstraction Idea Identity Ingenuity Intelligence Intentionality Introspection Intuition Language of thought Materialism Mental event Mental image Mental process Mental property Mental representation Mind Mind–body problem

Non-physical entity

New mysterianism Pain Problem of other minds Propositional attitude Qualia Tabula rasa Understanding Zombie more...

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Philosophy of religion

Concepts in religion

Afterlife Euthyphro dilemma Faith Intelligent design Miracle Problem of evil Religious belief Soul Spirit Theodicy Theological veto

Conceptions of God

Aristotelian view Brahman Demiurge Divine simplicity Egoism Holy Spirit Misotheism Pandeism Personal god Process theology Supreme Being Unmoved mover

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in

Abrahamic religions Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism Mormonism Sikhism Bahá'í Faith Wicca

Existence of God

For

Beauty Christological Consciousness Cosmological

Kalam Contingency

Degree Desire Experience Fine-tuning of the Universe Love Miracles Morality Necessary existent Ontological Pascal's Wager Proper basis Reason Teleological

Natural law Watchmaker analogy

Transcendental

Against

747 gambit Atheist's Wager Evil Free will Hell Inconsistent revelations Nonbelief Noncognitivism Occam's razor Omnipotence Poor design Russell's teapot

Theology

Acosmism Agnosticism Animism Antireligion Atheism Creationism Dharmism Deism Demonology Divine command theory Dualism Esotericism Exclusivism Existentialism

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Religious language

Eschatological verification Language-game Logical positivism Apophatic theology Verificationism

Problem of evil

Augustinian theodicy Best of all possible worlds Euthyphro dilemma Inconsistent triad Irenaean theodicy Natural evil Theodicy

Philosophers of religion

(by date active)

Ancient and Medieval

Anselm of Canterbury Augustine of Hippo Avicenna Averroes Boethius Erasmus Gaunilo of Marmoutiers Pico della Mirandola Heraclitus King James VI and I Marcion of Sinope Thomas Aquinas Maimonides

Enlightenment

Augustin Calmet René Descartes Blaise Pascal Baruch Spinoza Nicolas Malebranche Gottfried W Leibniz William Wollaston Thomas Chubb David Hume Baron d'Holbach Immanuel Kant Johann G Herder

1800 1850

Friedrich Schleiermacher Karl C F Krause Georg W F Hegel

William Whewell Ludwig Feuerbach Søren Kierkegaard Karl Marx Albrecht Ritschl Afrikan Spir

1880 1900

Ernst Haeckel W. K. Clifford Friedrich Nietzsche Harald Høffding William James

Vladimir Solovyov Ernst Troeltsch Rudolf Otto Lev Shestov Sergei Bulgakov Pavel Florensky Ernst Cassirer Joseph Maréchal

1920 postwar

George Santayana Bertrand Russell Martin Buber René Guénon Paul Tillich Karl Barth Emil Brunner Rudolf Bultmann Gabriel Marcel Reinhold Niebuhr

Charles Hartshorne Mircea Eliade Frithjof Schuon J L Mackie Walter Kaufmann Martin Lings Peter Geach George I Mavrodes William Alston Antony Flew

1970 1990 2010

William L Rowe Dewi Z Phillips Alvin Plantinga Anthony Kenny Nicholas Wolterstorff Richard Swinburne Robert Merrihew Adams

Peter van Inwagen Daniel Dennett Loyal Rue Jean-Luc Marion William Lane Craig Ali Akbar Rashad

Alexander Pruss

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Philosophy of science

Concepts

Analysis Analytic–synthetic distinction A priori and a posteriori Causality Commensurability Consilience Construct Creative synthesis Demarcation problem Empirical evidence Explanatory power Fact Falsifiability Feminist method Ignoramus et ignorabimus Inductive reasoning Intertheoretic reduction Inquiry Nature Objectivity Observation Paradigm Problem of induction Scientific law Scientific method Scientific revolution Scientific theory Testability Theory choice Theory-ladenness Underdetermination Unity of science

Metatheory of science

Coherentism Confirmation holism Constructive empiricism Constructive realism Constructivist epistemology Contextualism Conventionalism Deductive-nomological model Hypothetico-deductive model Inductionism Epistemological anarchism Evolutionism Fallibilism Foundationalism Instrumentalism Pragmatism Model-dependent realism Naturalism Physicalism Positivism / Reductionism / Determinism Rationalism / Empiricism Received view / Semantic view of theories Scientific realism / Anti-realism Scientific essentialism Scientific formalism Scientific skepticism Scientism Structuralism Uniformitarianism Vitalism

Philosophy of

Physics

thermal and statistical Motion

Chemistry Biology Environment Geography Social science Technology

Engineering Artificial intelligence Computer science

Information Mind Psychiatry Psychology Perception Space and time

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Alchemy Criticism of science Epistemology Faith
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Philosophers of science by era

Ancient

Plato Aristotle Stoicism Epicureans

Medieval

Averroes Avicenna Roger Bacon William of Ockham Hugh of Saint Victor Dominicus Gundissalinus Robert Kilwardby

Early modern

Francis Bacon Thomas Hobbes René Descartes Galileo Galilei Pierre Gassendi Isaac Newton David Hume

Classical modern

Immanuel Kant Friedrich Schelling William Whewell Auguste Comte John Stuart Mill Herbert Spencer Wilhelm Wundt Charles Sanders Peirce Wilhelm Windelband Henri Poincaré Pierre Duhem Rudolf Steiner Karl Pearson

Late modern

Alfred North Whitehead Bertrand Russell Albert Einstein Otto Neurath C. D. Broad Michael Polanyi Hans Reichenbach Rudolf Carnap Karl Popper Carl Gustav Hempel W. V. O. Quine Thomas Kuhn Imre Lakatos Paul Feyerabend Jürgen Habermas Ian Hacking Bas van Fraassen Larry Laudan Daniel Dennett

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Social and political philosophy

Pre-modern philosophers

Aquinas Aristotle Averroes Augustine Chanakya Cicero Confucius Al-Ghazali Han Fei Laozi Marsilius Mencius Mozi Muhammad Plato Shang Socrates Sun Tzu Thucydides

Modern philosophers

Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Fourier Franklin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire

20th–21th-century Philosophers

Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Simonović Skinner Sombart Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek

Social theories

Ambedkarism Anarchism Authoritarianism Collectivism Communism Communitarianism Conflict theories Confucianism Consensus theory Conservatism Contractualism Cosmopolitanism Culturalism Fascism Feminist political theory Gandhism Individualism Legalism Liberalism Libertarianism Mohism National liberalism Republicanism Social constructionism Social constructivism Social Darwinism Social determinism Socialism Utilitarianism Vaisheshika

Concepts

Civil disobedience Democracy Four occupations Justice Law Mandate of Heaven Peace Property Revolution Rights Social contract Society War more...

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Jurisprudence

Legal theory

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Philosophers

Alexy Allan Aquinas Aristotle Austin Beccaria Bentham Betti Bickel Blackstone Bobbio Bork Brożek Cardozo Castanheira Neves Chafee Coleman Del Vecchio Durkheim Dworkin Ehrlich Feinberg Fineman Finnis Frank Fuller Gardner George Green Grisez Grotius Gurvitch Habermas Han Hart Hegel Hobbes Hohfeld Hägerström Jellinek Jhering Kant Kelsen Köchler Kramer Llewellyn Lombardía Luhmann Lundstedt Lyons MacCormick Marx Nussbaum Olivecrona Pashukanis Perelman Petrazycki Pontes de Miranda Posner Pound Puchta Radbruch Rawls Raz Reale Reinach Renner Ross Rumi Savigny Scaevola Schmitt Shang Simmonds Somló Suárez Tribe Unger Voegelin Waldron Walzer Weber

Theories

Analytical jurisprudence Deontological ethics Interpretivism Legalism Legal moralism Legal positivism Legal realism Libertarian theories of law Natural law Paternalism Utilitarianism Virtue
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jurisprudence

Concepts

Dharma Fa Judicial interpretation Justice Legal system Li Rational-legal authority

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Ethics

Theories

Casuistry Consequentialism Deontology

Kantian ethics

Ethics
Ethics
of care Existentialist ethics Meta-ethics Particularism Pragmatic ethics Role ethics Virtue
Virtue
ethics

Concepts

Autonomy Axiology Belief Conscience Consent Equality Care Free will Good and evil Happiness Ideal Justice Morality Norm Freedom Principles Suffering
Suffering
or Pain Stewardship Sympathy Trust Value Virtue Wrong full index...

Philosophers

Laozi Plato Aristotle Diogenes Valluvar Cicero Confucius Augustine of Hippo Mencius Mozi Xunzi Thomas Aquinas Baruch Spinoza David Hume Immanuel Kant Georg W. F. Hegel Arthur Schopenhauer Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill Søren Kierkegaard Henry Sidgwick Friedrich Nietzsche G. E. Moore Karl Barth Paul Tillich Dietrich Bonhoeffer Philippa Foot John Rawls John Dewey Bernard Williams J. L. Mackie G. E. M. Anscombe William Frankena Alasdair MacIntyre R. M. Hare Peter Singer Derek Parfit Thomas Nagel Robert Merrihew Adams Charles Taylor Joxe Azurmendi Christine Korsgaard Martha Nussbaum more...

Applied ethics

Bioethics Business ethics Discourse ethics Engineering ethics Environmental ethics Legal ethics Media ethics Medical ethics Nursing ethics Professional ethics Sexual ethics Ethics
Ethics
of eating meat Ethics
Ethics
of technology

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ethics Descriptive ethics Ethics
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Skepticism

Types

Academic Moral Scientific Philosophical Religious (Jewish) Local Environmental Pyrrhonian Cartesian Daoist Pseudoskepticism Zététique

Skeptical hypotheses

Evil
Evil
genius Brain in a vat Dream argument Omphalos hypothesis

Responses

Here is one hand Semantic externalism Process reliabilism Epistemic closure Contextualism Relativism

Lists

List of books about skepticism List of notable skeptics List of skeptical conferences List of skeptical magazines List of skeptical organizations List of skeptical podcasts

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The Bible
Bible
and history

General studies

Biblical criticism Biblical studies History of ancient Israel and Judah Quest for the historical Jesus Jesus in comparative mythology

Historicity

Biblical archaeology Historicity of Jesus Historicity of the Bible Historical reliability of the Gospels List of artifacts in biblical archaeology List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources List of burial places of biblical figures List of Hebrew Bible
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Criticism of the Bible Christ myth theory

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By religion

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Religious texts

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India

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violence In Odisha

Nigeria Pakistan

Books

Atheist
Atheist
Manifesto Breaking the Spell: Religion
Religion
as a Natural Phenomenon Christianity Unveiled God
God
in the Age of Science? God
God
Is Not Great God: The Failed Hypothesis Letter to a Christian
Christian
Nation The Age of Reason The Blind Watchmaker The Caged Virgin The End of Faith The God
God
Delusion The Rage Against God Why I Am Not a Christian Why I Am Not a Muslim Books critical of Christianity Books critical of Islam

Movements

Agnosticism Antitheism Atheism Criticism of atheism Cārvāka New Atheism Nontheistic religions Parody religion

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 22149024 LCCN: n79018753 ISNI: 0000 0001 2277 3344 GND: 118616242 SELIBR: 93498 SUDOC: 085696625 BNF: cb11925350v (data) BPN: 54355304 BIBSYS: 90061235 ULAN: 500341371 MusicBrainz: d5587441-9bdd-410b-a8f8-2fa320b5fdae NLA: 35517098 NDL: 00457332 NKC: jn19981002153 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV36328 BNE: XX892

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