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SPANISH NOBLES are persons who possess the legal status of hereditary nobility according to the laws and traditions of the Spanish monarchy. A system of titles and honours of Spain
Spain
and of the former kingdoms that constitute it comprise the Spanish nobility. Some nobles possess various titles that may be inherited, but the creation and recognition of titles is legally a prerogative of the King of Spain
Spain
.

Some noble titles and families still exist which have transmitted that status since time immemorial . Some aristocratic families use the nobiliary particle de before their family name. During the rule of General Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
, some new hereditary titles were conceded to individuals, and the titles granted by the Carlist
Carlist
pretenders were officially recognized.

Despite accession to Spain's throne of Juan Carlos I in 1975, the court of nobles holding positions and offices attached to the royal household was not restored. Noble titleholders are subjected to taxation , whereas under Spain's ancien régime (until 1923) they were exempt . King Juan Carlos resumed conferral of titles to recognize those whose public service, artistic endeavour, personal achievement, philanthropy, etc. are deemed to have benefitted the Spanish nation.

CONTENTS

* 1 Classification of Spanish nobles * 2 Form of address

* 3 Ranks

* 3.1 Princes * 3.2 Duke/Duchess (Duque/Duquesa) * 3.3 Marquis/Marchioness (Marqués/Marquesa) * 3.4 Count/Countess (Conde/Condesa) * 3.5 Viscount/Viscountess (Vizconde/Vizcondesa) * 3.6 Baron/Baroness (Barón/Baronesa) * 3.7 Lord/Lady (Señor/Señora) (Don/Doña) * 3.8 Other titles * 3.9 Lower nobility

* 4 Succession * 5 Titles created during the reign of King Juan Carlos I * 6 Gallery * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References

CLASSIFICATION OF SPANISH NOBLES

Titles of Spain
Spain
ROYAL TITLES

The crown of the Spanish monarch

The crown of the Princess of Asturias (crown princess)

The coronet of an infante (prince)

TITLES OF NOBILITY

A coronet of a grandee

A Spanish coronet of a duke

A Spanish coronet of a marquess

A Spanish coronet of a count

A Spanish coronet of a viscount

A Spanish coronet of a baron

A Spanish coronet of a señor (lord)

Spanish nobles are classified as either grandees , as titled nobles, or as untitled nobles.

In the past, grandees were divided into first, second, and third classes, but this division has ceased to be relevant in practice while remaining a titular distinction; legally all grandees enjoy the same privileges in modern times. At one time however, each class held special privileges such as:

* those who spoke to the king and received his reply with their heads covered. * those who addressed the king uncovered, but put on their hats to hear his answer. * those who awaited the permission of the king before covering themselves.

Additionally, all grandees were addressed by the king as mi Primo (my Cousin), whereas ordinary nobles were only qualified as mi Pariente (my Kinsman).

An individual may hold a grandeeship, whether in possession of a title of nobility or not. Normally, however, each grandeeship is attached to a title. A grandeeship is always attached to the grant of a ducal title. The grant of a grandeeship with any other rank of nobility has always been at the will of the sovereign. Excepting dukes and some very ancient titles of marquises and counts , most Spanish titles of nobility are not attached to grandeeships.

A grandee of any rank outranks a non-grandee, even if that non-grandee's title is of a higher degree, with the exception of official members of the Spanish Royal Family who may in fact hold no title at all. Thus, a baron -grandee enjoys higher precedence than a marquis who is not a grandee.

Since 1987, the children of Spanish infantes , traditionally considered part of the royal family, have been entitled to the rank and style of a grandee but do not hold the legal dignity of grandee unless a grandeza is officially conferred by the sovereign; once the dignity has been officially bestowed, it becomes hereditary.

Some notable titles, which are attached to grandeeships, are: Duke
Duke
of Alba, Duke
Duke
of Medinaceli, Duke
Duke
of Osuna, Duke
Duke
of Infantado, Duke
Duke
of Albuquerque, Duke
Duke
of Nájera, Duke
Duke
of Frías and Duke
Duke
of Medina Sidonia, Marquis
Marquis
of Aguilar de Campoo, Marquis
Marquis
of Astorga, Marquis
Marquis
of Santillana, Marquis
Marquis
of Los Vélez, Count
Count
of Benavente, Count
Count
of Lerín, Count
Count
of Olivares, Count
Count
of Oñate, and Count
Count
of Lemos.

FORM OF ADDRESS

Dukes and other individuals who are grandees are entitled to the honorific style of The Most Excellent Lord/Lady or His/Her Excellency.

Titled nobles (without a grandeeship) who are of the rank of marquis or count use the style of The Most Illustrious Lord/Lady. Those who hold a title with the rank of viscount , baron or Señor use his lordship/ her ladyship.

RANKS

The ordinary Spanish nobility
Spanish nobility
is divided into six ranks. From highest to lowest, these are: Duque (Duke), Marqués (Marquis), Conde (Count), Vizconde (Viscount), Barón (Baron), and Señor (Lord) (as well as the feminine forms of these titles).

Nobility
Nobility
descends from the first man of a family who was raised to the nobility (or recognized as belonging to the hereditary nobility) to all his legitimate descendants, male and female, in the male line . Thus, most persons who are legally noble, hold no noble title. Hereditary titles formerly descended by male-preference primogeniture , a woman being eligible to inherit only if she had no brother or if her brothers also inherited titles. However, by Spanish law, all hereditary titles descend by absolute primogeniture, gender no longer being a criterion for preference in inheritance, since 2005.

PRINCES

The often overlooked title of 'prince' (príncipe/princesa) has historically been borne by those who have been granted or have inherited that title. It is often not included in lists of the Spanish nobility because it is rare. Prince/Princess are English translations of Infante/Infanta, referring to the son or daughter of a king; such titles are reserved for members of the royal family (the heir to the throne or the consort of the Queen regnant). Historically, infante or infanta could refer to offspring, siblings, uncles and aunts of a king. The heir's princely titles derive from the ancient kingdoms which united to form Spain.

Three titles of prince are held by the heir to the Spanish throne.

* Prince of Asturias
Prince of Asturias
as heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of Castile and León . * Prince of Girona as heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of Aragon . * Prince of Viana as heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of Navarre .

Other titles of 'prince' were frequently granted by the kings of Spain, but usually in their capacity as kings of Naples or of Sicily. Such nobles often sojourned at the Spanish court where their titles were acknowledged, but rarely were Spanish nobles the recipients of a title of prince in Spain. The most notable exception was the title "Prince of the Peace" conferred in 1795 on Manuel Godoy
Manuel Godoy
, a favourite of the Spanish king.

Although legislation of the twentieth century ended official recognition of the title of prince outside the royal family, it did allow the holder of a princedom to have the dignity converted to a ducal title of the same name.

DUKE/DUCHESS (DUQUE/DUQUESA)

All dukedoms are attached to a grandeeship . A partial list includes:

* Duke
Duke
of Abrantes * Duke
Duke
of Acerenza * Duke
Duke
of Ahumada * Duke
Duke
of Alagón * Duke
Duke
of Alba * Duke
Duke
of Alburquerque * Duke
Duke
of Alcalá de los Gazules * Duke
Duke
of Alcudia * Duke
Duke
of Algeciras * Duke
Duke
of Algete * Duke
Duke
of Aliaga * Duke
Duke
of Almazán * Duke
Duke
of Almazán de Saint Priest * Duke
Duke
of Almenara Alta * Duke
Duke
of Almodóvar del Campo * Duke
Duke
of Almodóvar del Río * Duke
Duke
of Almodóvar del Valle * Duke
Duke
of Amalfi * Duke
Duke
of Andria * Duke
Duke
of Ansola * Duke
Duke
of Arco * Duke
Duke
of Arcos * Duke
Duke
of Arevalo del Rey * Duke
Duke
of Arion * Duke
Duke
of Arjona * Duke
Duke
of Atrisco * Duke
Duke
of Aveiro * Duke
Duke
of Badajoz * Duke
Duke
of Baena * Duke
Duke
of Bailén * Duke
Duke
of Baños * Duke
Duke
of Béjar * Duke
Duke
of Benavente * Duke
Duke
of Bivona * Duke
Duke
of Cádiz * Duke
Duke
of Camiña * Duke
Duke
of Canalejas * Duke
Duke
of Cánovas del Castillo * Duke
Duke
of Cardona * Duke
Duke
of Ciudad Rodrigo , bestowed on the 1st Duke
Duke
of Wellington for his services to the Spanish King * Duke
Duke
of Feria * Duke
Duke
of Fernández-Miranda * Duke
Duke
of Franco , bestowed upon the descendants of the fascist military dictator Francisco Franco * Duke
Duke
of Lugo * Duke
Duke
of Medina Sidonia * Duke
Duke
of Medinaceli * Duke
Duke
of Moctezuma de Tultengo , held by the descendants of the Aztec
Aztec
Emperor Moctezuma II
Moctezuma II
* Duke
Duke
of Mola , held by the descendants of Emilio Mola, a leader of the 1936 military putsch * Duke
Duke
of Najera * Duke
Duke
of Palma de Mallorca * Duke
Duke
of Primo de Rivera * Duke
Duke
of Ripperda * Duke
Duke
of Segovia * Duke
Duke
of Seville * Duke
Duke
of Sotomayor * Duke
Duke
of Suárez * Duke
Duke
of Tetuan * Duke
Duke
of Veragua , held by the descendants of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
* Duke
Duke
of the Victory

MARQUIS/MARCHIONESS (MARQUéS/MARQUESA)

* Marquis
Marquis
of Aguilar de Campoo * Marquis
Marquis
of Albudeyte * Marquis
Marquis
of La Algaba * Marquis
Marquis
of Almazán * Marquis
Marquis
of Altamira * Marquis
Marquis
of Arcicóllar * Marquis
Marquis
of Ardales * Marquis
Marquis
of Arellano * Marquis
Marquis
of Astorga * Marquis
Marquis
de la Cadena (of Nueva España/Mexico; extinct) * Marquis
Marquis
of Cañada Honda * Marquis
Marquis
de la Candia * Marquis
Marquis
of Chinchilla * Marquis
Marquis
de Cortes de Aragón (Provincia de Teruel) * Marquis
Marquis
Del Bosque * Marquis
Marquis
of Figueroa * Marquis
Marquis
of Frigiliana * Marquis
Marquis
of Galatone * Marquis
Marquis
of Guadalest * Marquis
Marquis
of Iria Flavia * Marquis
Marquis
of Irujo y los Arcos * Marquis
Marquis
of Isla de Arousa * Marquis
Marquis
de los Jardines de Aranjuez * Marquis
Marquis
of Mariño * Marquis
Marquis
of Menendez * Marquis
Marquis
of Montsalud * Marquis
Marquis
of Morella * Marquis
Marquis
of Novaliches * Marquis
Marquis
of Olías (es) * Marquis
Marquis
of Prado Ameno * Marquis
Marquis
of Ría de Ribadeo * Marquis
Marquis
of Las Salinas * Marquis
Marquis
of Salobreña * Marquis
Marquis
of Samaranch * Marquis
Marquis
of San Lorenzo del Valleumbroso * Marquis
Marquis
of Santa Maria de Silvela * Marquis
Marquis
of San Isidro * Marquis
Marquis
of San Saturnino * Marquis
Marquis
of Santillana * Marquis
Marquis
de Sierra de Outes * Marquess of Sierra Nevada * Marquis
Marquis
of Valdecarzana * Marquis
Marquis
de Vallado * Marquis
Marquis
of Vargas Llosa * Marquis
Marquis
of Villaverde * Marquis
Marquis
of Villena

COUNT/COUNTESS (CONDE/CONDESA)

* County of Aguilar de Inestrillas * County of Barcelona
County of Barcelona
held by Don Juan , heir of Alfonso XIII, father of Juan Carlos I * County of Candia de Valencia * County of Casa Bayona * County of Castille de Vigo * County of Cervera * County of Covadonga * County of Elda : belonged to the House of Coloma . * County of Empúries * County of Estrada * County of Fontao * County of Fuensaldaña * County of Frigiliana * County of Guadalupe del Peñasco * County of Guaqui * County of Lacambra * County of Lucena * County of Luchana * County of Mansilla * County of Molins * County of Montealegre * County of Olivito * County of Olocau * County of Ripalda * County of Roussillon
County of Roussillon
* County of Salvatierra * County of Teba * County of Toreno * County of Urgell
County of Urgell
* County of Vigo

VISCOUNT/VISCOUNTESS (VIZCONDE/VIZCONDESA)

* Viscountcy of la Alborada * Viscountcy of Altamira * Viscountcy of Banderas * Viscountcy of Cabrera * Viscountcy of la Calzada * Viscountcy of Quintanilla de Florez

BARON/BARONESS (BARóN/BARONESA)

Baronies did not exist in the Kingdom of Castile nor the Kingdom of Navarre, and the subsequent kings of Spain
Spain
did not confer any baronies attached to Castilian or Navarrese estates. However, they did exist in the Kingdom of Aragon, such as:

* Baron
Baron
of Polop

LORD/LADY (SEñOR/SEñORA) (DON/DOñA)

The title of Señor is, together with that of Conde, the oldest in seniority of the Spanish realms. Many of these lordships are among the oldest titles of nobility in Spain, and the Señor usually exercised military and administrative powers over the lordship. Although some lordships were created by the kings of Spain, others existed before them and have not been created by any known king. For example, the Señor of Biscay held a great degree of independence from the king of Castile, to whom he could pledge or not pledge feudal allegiance , but of whom he was not automatically a vassal : each new lord of Biscay had to renew his oath to the king. Ultimately however, the kings of Castile inherited the lordship.

Besides those held by the King, in Spain
Spain
remain seven lordships that maintain the official consideration of Titles of the Kingdom according to the Official Guide of the Titles and Grandees of the Kingdom published by the Ministry of Justice: the LORDSHIP OF SOLAR DE TEJADA, the LORDSHIP OF ALCONCHEL, the LORDSHIP OF LAZCANO (with Grandee of Spain), the LORDSHIP OF RUBIANES (with Grandee of Spain), the LORDSHIP OF HIGUERA DE VARGAS (with Grandee of Spain), the LORDSHIP OF MEIRáS (with Grandee of Spain) and the LORDSHIP OF SONSECA. Other lordships that were considered as Titles of the Kingdom in the past, have not been rehabilitated.

* Lord
Lord
of Alconchel * Lord
Lord
of Balaguer , held by the King of Spain * Lord
Lord
of Benafarces y Lobones * Lord
Lord
of Biscay , held by the Spanish monarchy
Spanish monarchy
since 1378, when merged with the previously semi-independent lordship of Biscay * Lord
Lord
of Cameros * Lord
Lord
of Higuera de Vargas * Lord
Lord
of Lazcano * Lord
Lord
of Lecubarri , held by the descendants of the dukes of Vasconia . * Lord
Lord
of Marcoartu * Lord
Lord
of Meiras , señora de Meiras, Carmen Polo wife of Francisco Franco * Lord
Lord
of Molina de Aragón , held by the King of Spain * Lord
Lord
of Rubianes * Lord
Lord
of Solar de Tejada * Lord
Lord
of Sonseca

OTHER TITLES

* INFANTE : currently borne by royal princes, other than the heir apparent to the throne, who are sons of a Spanish king. * RICOHOMBRE (fem. Ricahembra): used during the Reconquista
Reconquista
. By the 17th century, it was a synonym of nobleman. * CONDESTABLE: cognate with "constable ", it was a hereditary title used in the kingdoms of Castile and León for the official second in authority to the king. It became hereditary in the Velasco family which, however, gradually lost the powers once attributed to the Condestable of Castile.

* CABALLERO: equivalent to knight , it was very rare in the kingdom of Castile, but common in the kingdom of Aragon, where there were four types of caballeros:

* Golden-spur caballero: borne by those infanzones (descendants of one of the cadet branches of the kings of Aragon which did not inherit the throne) who had been knighted. They were the highest ranking knights. * Royal-privilege caballero: a personal, non-hereditary title granted by the king to doctors of the law. It was rarely used by its holders, since the doctoral status enjoyed more privileges. * Caballero Mesnadero: borne by the cadet sons of a Ricohombre. It fell into desuetude during the 18th century, when the Bourbon kings purged the ranks of the nobility. * Caballero franco: borne by those of hijosdalgo or infanzone status, but who were commoner-born.

* POTESTAD: borne only in the kingdom of Aragon, the equivalent of the Italian podestà , an administrative title. It disappeared with the Nueva Planta decrees
Nueva Planta decrees
in 1713.

LOWER NOBILITY

Lower nobility held ranks, without individual titles, such as infanzon (in Aragon, e.g. Latas Family ), hidalgo or escudero . These did not, however, correspond to the status of a baron , a title unknown to Spanish nobility
Spanish nobility
except in Catalonia.

Hidalgo was the most common of these: Originally all the nobles in the Western Peninsular Christian Realms were hidalgos and, as cristianos viejos, held nearly exclusive right to privileged status (although there were some Jews and Muslims recognized as hidalgos, who shared their privilege to bear arms as knights in the mesnada real ). The first of the kings of Pamplona and Asturias were originally elected and lifted up on a shield to assume Princeps inter Pares status, by these otherwise untitled nobles. For approximately three hundred years the hidalgos retained this privilege, only a few of them eventually being granted the non-heritable title of Comes#Medieval usages . Unlike Spain's later titled nobles, the early hidalgo did not necessarily possess or receive any fief or land grant . Many were as poor as commoners, although they were tax-exempt and could join the civil service or the army.

During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
hidalgo became a title granted by the kings of Castile as a reward for service done to the crown (or, as in Biscay, as a way of recognizing prior rights). In the same way escudero was granted for military achievement when the Reconquista
Reconquista
ended. Being the most obvious proof of noble descent, hidalgo came to be the only lesser title to remain among the modern ranks of Spanish nobility. From this ancient estate of the realm emerged Spain's nobility. All titled and untitled nobles are considered hidalgos, but many of the modern titled nobility do not descend from the original hidalguía.

The term Hidalgo de Sangre indicated membership in a family whose noble status was recognized in the earliest records of its existence; thus its immemorial nobility was acknowledged but not created by any monarch.

SUCCESSION

The evidence supporting one's claim to a title may be reviewed by the Deputation of Grandees and Titled Nobles of the Kingdom (Diputación de Grandes y Títulos del Reino). The body includes eight grandees, eight nobles who are not grandees, and a president who must hold both a grandeeship and a hereditary title unattached to a grandeeship.

Succession to Spanish noble titles is hereditary, but not automatic. The original letters patent which created the title determine the order of succession . Payment of substantial fees is required whenever a title is inherited.

While noble titles historically have followed the rule of male-preference primogeniture, a Spanish law came into effect on October 30, 2006, after approval by both houses of the Cortes , establishing the inheritance of hereditary noble titles by the firstborn regardless of gender. The law is retroactive to July 27, 2005.

Following the death of a noble, the senior heir may petition the sovereign through the Spanish Ministry of Justice for permission to use the title. If the senior heir does not make a petition within two years, then other potential heirs may do so on their own behalf. There is a limit of forty years from the vacancy by death or relinquishment of a title within which that title may be claimed and revived by an heir.

The petitioner must demonstrate that he or she is a child, grandchild or direct male line descendant of a noble (whether a grandee or not), or that he or she belongs to certain bodies or orders of chivalry deemed noble, or that the father's family is recognized as noble (if succeeding to a grandeeship, the mother's family also). The amount of fees due depend on whether the title is attached to a grandeeship or not, and on whether the heir is a direct descendant or a collateral kinsman of the previous holder. The petition is normally granted, except if the petitioner is a criminal.

Titles may also be ceded to heirs other than the senior heir, during the lifetime of the main titleholder. Normally, this process is used to allow younger children to succeed to lesser titles, while the highest or principal title goes to the senior heir. Only subsidiary titles may be ceded; the principal title must be reserved for the senior heir. The cession of titles may only be done with the approval of the monarch.

The late Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart, 18th Duchess of Alba (d. 20 November 2014) holds the Guinness Book of Records
Guinness Book of Records
for number of titles with over 50 titles. Before her death, the Duchess ceded some of her titles to each of her six children; otherwise, all but the eldest would have been excluded from succession.

TITLES CREATED DURING THE REIGN OF KING JUAN CARLOS I

Since the beginning of his reign in 1975, King Juan Carlos has created new titles for about 51 people (as of April 2011), among others recognizing the merits of politicians and artists. Some of these dignities have been hereditary. Examples include:

* Camilo José Cela , author and Nobel laureate , created 1st Marquis
Marquis
of Iria Flavia in 1996 * Vicente del Bosque
Vicente del Bosque
, football manager, created 1st Marquis
Marquis
of Del Bosque in 2011 * Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
, surrealist painter, created 1st Marquis
Marquis
of Dalí de Púbol in 1982 * Carmen Franco y Polo
Carmen Franco y Polo
, daughter of dictator Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
, created 1st Duchess of Franco and Grandee of Spain
Spain
in 1975 * Joaquín Rodrigo
Joaquín Rodrigo
, composer and pianist, created 1st Marquis
Marquis
de los Jardines de Aranjuez in 1991 * Margarita Salas , scientist, created 1st Marquise of Canero in 2008 * Juan Antonio Samaranch
Juan Antonio Samaranch
, President of the International Olympic Committee , created 1st Marquis
Marquis
of Samaranch and Grandee of Spain
Spain
in 1991 * José Ángel Sánchez Asiaín , an international banker, created 1st Marquis
Marquis
of Asiaín in 2010 * Andrés Segovia
Andrés Segovia
, classical guitarist, created 1st Marquis
Marquis
of Salobreña in 1981 * Adolfo Suárez
Adolfo Suárez
, Prime Minister, created 1st Duke
Duke
of Suárez and Grandee of Spain
Spain
in 1981 * Antoni Tàpies
Antoni Tàpies
, painter, created 1st Marquis
Marquis
of Tàpies in 2010 * Mario Vargas Llosa , author and Nobel laureate , created 1st Marquis
Marquis
of Vargas Llosa in 2011.

King Juan Carlos also exceptionally confirmed the title of Count
Count
of Barcelona, a title historically attached to the Crown , but used as a title of pretence by his father Juan de Borbón during the dynasty 's 20th century exile and the subsequent reign of his son.

GALLERY

*

Álvaro de Luna, Duke
Duke
of Trujillo (1390–1453) *

Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 1st Duke
Duke
of the Infantado (1417–1479) *

Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI
(Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja) (1431–1503) *

Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, Duke
Duke
of Terranova and Santangelo, Andria, Montalto and Sessa (1453–1515) *

Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke
Duke
of Alba (1507–1582) *

Gabriel de la Cueva, 5th Duke
Duke
of Alburquerque (1515–1571) *

Luis de Velasco, marqués de Salinas (1534–1617) *

García Hurtado de Mendoza, 5th Marquis
Marquis
of Cañete (1535–1609) *

Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, 7th Duke
Duke
of Medina Sidonia (1550–1615)

*

Juan Alonso Pimentel de Herrera, 5th Duke
Duke
of Benavente (c. 1550 – 1621) *

Francisco Gómez de Sandoval, 1st Duke
Duke
of Lerma (1552–1625) *

Ambrogio Spinola, 1st Marquis
Marquis
of the Balbases (1569–1630) *

Álvaro de Bazán, 2nd Marquis
Marquis
of Santa Cruz (1571–1646) *

Pedro Téllez-Girón, 3rd Duke
Duke
of Osuna (1574–1624) *

Gaspar de Guzmán, Count- Duke
Duke
of Olivares (1587–1645) *

Diego López Pacheco, 7th Duke
Duke
of Escalona (1599–1653) *

Luis de Benavides Carrillo, Marquis
Marquis
of Caracena (1608–1668) *

Francisco de Moura, 3rd Marquis
Marquis
of Castelo Rodrigo (1610–1675) *

Cardinal Luis Manuel Fernández de Portocarrero (1635–1709) *

Íñigo Melchor de Velasco, 7th Duke
Duke
of Frías (1635–1696) *

Juan Tomas Enriquez de Cabrera, 7th Duke
Duke
of Medina de Rioseco (1646–1705) *

Gregorio María de Silva y Mendoza, 9th Duke
Duke
of the Infantado (1649–1693) *

Luis Francisco de la Cerda, 9th Duke
Duke
of Medinaceli (1660–1711) *

Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, 10th Count
Count
of Aranda (1718–1798) *

José Moñino, 1st Count
Count
of Floridablanca (1728–1808) *

María Josefa Pimentel, Duchess of Osuna
María Josefa Pimentel, Duchess of Osuna
(1752–1834) *

Don Pedro de Alcántara Álvarez de Toledo, 13th Duke
Duke
of the Infantado (1768–1841) *

José Miguel de Carvajal-Vargas, 2nd Duke
Duke
of San Carlos (1771–1828) *

Ángel de Saavedra, 3rd Duke
Duke
of Rivas (1815–1854) *

Diego del Alcázar, 10th Marquis
Marquis
of la Romana (1950)

SEE ALSO

* Immemorial nobility

NOTES

* ^ "The Agony of Spanish Liberalism: From Revolution to Dictatorship 1913–23". Francisco J. Romero Romero Salvadó,A. Smith. Retrieved 24 November 2016. ISBN 978-1-349-36383-4 . * ^ Antonio Luque García (2005). Grandezas de España y títulos nobiliarios (in Spanish). Ministerio de Justicia. p. 258. ISBN 978-84-7787-825-4 . Retrieved 9 April 2017. * ^ "Ley 33/2006, de 30 de octubre, sobre igualdad del hombre y la mujer en el orden de sucesión de los títulos nobiliarios" (in Spanish). Boletin Oficial del Estado. Retrieved 10 January 2016. * ^ “Nobiliario Español” : Titles and Grandeeships conferred by Juan Carlos I., with actual holders.

REFERENCES

* Atienza, Julio de. Nobiliario Español: Diccionario Heráldico de Apellidos Españoles y de Títulos Nobiliarios. Madrid: Aguilar, 1948. * Figueroa y Melgar, Alfonso de. Estudio Histórico Sobre Algunas Familias Españolas. 6v. in 12 parts. Madrid: Editions Dawson & Fry, 1965. * Noble Titles in Spain
Spain
and Spanish Grandees * Nobility
Nobility
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* t * e

Nobility
Nobility
of Europe

PRESENT MONARCHIES

* Belgium * Denmark * Netherlands * Norway * Spain * Sweden * United Kingdom * Vatican

FORMER MONARCHIES

* Albania * Austria * Bohemia * Croatia * Estonia and Latvia * Finland * France * Germany * Hungary * Iceland * Italy * Ireland * Lithuania * Montenegro * Poland * Portugal * Romania * Russia * Serbia

* v * t * e

Nobility
Nobility
by nation

(*) : state where monarchy still exists

AFRICA

* Egypt * Ethiopia * Nigeria * Madagascar * Somalia * South Africa (Zulu)

AMERICAS

NORTH

* Canada *

* Mexico

* pre-Columbian * post-Columbian

SOUTH

* Brazil * Cuba

ASIA

* China * India * Indonesia

* Japan*

* Kuge * Daimyō
Daimyō
* Meiji

* Korea * Mongolia * Philippines * Vietnam

EUROPE

NORTH

* Denmark * * Finland * Norway * * Sweden *

WEST

* Austria * Belgium *

* Britain *

* England * Ireland * Scotland

* France

* Kingdom * Empire

* Iceland

* Ireland

* Gaelic * Norman

* The Netherlands * * Switzerland

SOUTH

* Italy * Malta * Portugal * Spain* * Vatican *

Central, Eastern and Caucasus

* Albania * Armenia * Germany

* Baltic countries

* Ritterschaft * Lithuania

* Bohemia * Croatia * Hungary * Montenegro * Poland * Romania * Russia * Serbia (medieval) * Ukraine (Galicia)

OCEANIA

* Australia *

MELANESIA

* Fiji

MICRONESIA

* Marshall Islands

POLYNESIA

* Samoan Islands * Tonga *

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