Coordinates : 8°S 159°E / 8°S 159°E / -8; 159
Flag Coat of arms
MOTTO: "To Lead is to Serve"
God Save Our Solomon Islands ROYAL ANTHEM : God Save the
and largest city
9°28′S 159°49′E / 9.467°S 159.817°E / -9.467;
ETHNIC GROUPS (1999)
* 3.0% Polynesian
* 1.2% Micronesians
* 1.1% others
* 0.2% unspecified
Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• PRIME MINISTER
• FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM
7 July 1978
28,400 km2 (11,000 sq mi) (142nd )
• WATER (%)
• 2015 ESTIMATE
642,000 (162nd )
18.1/km2 (46.9/sq mi) (200th )
GDP (PPP )
• PER CAPITA
• PER CAPITA
low · 156th
Solomon Islands dollar
Solomon Islands dollar (SBD )
DRIVES ON THE
ISO 3166 CODE
SOLOMON ISLANDS is a sovereign country consisting of six major
islands and over 900 smaller islands in
Oceania lying to the east of
Papua New Guinea and northwest of
Vanuatu and covering a land area of
28,400 square kilometres (11,000 sq mi). The country's capital,
Honiara , is located on the island of
Guadalcanal . The country takes
its name from the
Solomon Islands archipelago , which is a collection
Melanesian islands that also includes the North Solomon Islands
(part of Papua New Guinea), but excludes outlying islands, such as
Rennell and Bellona , and the
Santa Cruz Islands
Santa Cruz Islands .
The islands have been inhabited for thousands of years. In 1568, the
Álvaro de Mendaña was the first European to visit
them, naming them the Islas Salomón. Britain defined its area of
interest in the
Solomon Islands archipelago in June 1893, when Captain
Gibson R.N., of HMS Curacoa , declared the southern
Solomon Islands a
British protectorate . During
World War II
World War II , the Solomon Islands
campaign (1942–1945) saw fierce fighting between the United States
Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan , such as in the Battle of
The official name of the then
British overseas territory was changed
British Solomon Islands
British Solomon Islands Protectorate" to "Solomon Islands"
in 1975. Self-government was achieved in 1976; independence was
obtained two years later. Today,
Solomon Islands is a constitutional
monarchy with the Queen of
Solomon Islands , currently Queen Elizabeth
II , as its head of state .
Manasseh Sogavare is the current prime
* 1 Name
* 2 History
* 2.1 Early history
* 2.2 European contact (1568)
* 2.3 Second World War
* 2.4 Independence (1978)
* 2.5 Ethnic violence (1998–2003)
* 2.6 Earthquakes
* 3 Politics
* 3.1 Judiciary
* 3.2 Foreign relations
* 3.3 Military
* 3.4 Administrative divisions
* 3.5 Human rights
* 4 Geography
* 4.1 Climate
* 4.2 Ecology
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Energy
* 6 Demographics
* 6.2 Languages
* 6.3 Religion
* 6.4 Health
* 6.5 Education
* 7 Culture
* 7.1 Media
* 7.2 Music
* 7.3 Literature
* 7.4 Sport
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 External links
In 1568, the Spanish navigator
Álvaro de Mendaña was the first
European to visit the
Solomon Islands archipelago, naming it Islas
Salomón ("Solomon Islands") after the wealthy biblical
King Solomon .
It is said that they were given this name in the mistaken assumption
that they contained great riches.
During most of the period of British rule the territory was
officially named "the
British Solomon Islands
British Solomon Islands Protectorate". On 22
June 1975 the territory was renamed "Solomon Islands". When Solomon
Islands became independent in 1978 they retained the name. The
definite article, "the", is not part of the country's official name
but is sometimes used, both within and outside the country.
History of Solomon Islands Solomon Island
warriors, armed with spears, aboard an ornamented war canoe (1895).
It is believed that Papuan -speaking settlers began to arrive around
30,000 BC. Austronesian speakers arrived c. 4000 BC also bringing
cultural elements such as the outrigger canoe . Between 1200 and 800
BC the ancestors of the
Polynesians , the
Lapita people, arrived from
Bismarck Archipelago with their characteristic ceramics .
EUROPEAN CONTACT (1568)
The first European to visit the islands was the Spanish navigator
Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira , coming from Peru in 1568. The people of
Solomon Islands were notorious for headhunting and cannibalism before
the arrival of the Europeans.
Missionaries began visiting the Solomons in the mid-19th century.
They made little progress at first, because "blackbirding " (the often
brutal recruitment or kidnapping of labourers for the sugar
Fiji ) led to a series of reprisals and
massacres . The evils of the labour trade prompted the United Kingdom
to declare a protectorate over the southern Solomons in June 1893.
In 1898 and 1899, more outlying islands were added to the
protectorate; in 1900 the remainder of the archipelago, an area
previously under German jurisdiction , was transferred to British
administration, apart from the islands of Buka and Bougainville ,
which remained under German administration as part of German New
Guinea . Traditional trade and social intercourse between the western
Solomon Islands of Mono and Alu (the Shortlands) and the traditional
societies in the south of Bougainville, however, continued without
Missionaries settled in the Solomons under the protectorate,
converting most of the population to Christianity. In the early 20th
century several British and Australian firms began large-scale coconut
planting. Economic growth was slow, however, and the islanders
Joe Melvin visited in 1892, as part of his undercover
investigation into blackbirding. In 1908 the islands were visited by
Jack London , who was cruising the Pacific on his boat, the Snark.
SECOND WORLD WAR
Solomon Islands campaign
Solomon Islands campaign and Battle of
The aircraft carrier
USS Enterprise (CV-6) under aerial attack
Battle of the Eastern Solomons
Battle of the Eastern Solomons .
With the outbreak of the Second World War most planters and traders
were evacuated to
Australia and most cultivation ceased. Some of the
most intense fighting of the war occurred in the Solomons. The most
significant of the Allied Forces' operations against the Japanese
Imperial Forces was launched on 7 August 1942, with simultaneous naval
bombardments and amphibious landings on the
Florida Islands at
and Red Beach on
The Battle of
Guadalcanal became an important and bloody campaign
fought in the Pacific War as the Allies began to repulse Japanese
expansion. Of strategic importance during the war were the
coastwatchers operating in remote locations, often on Japanese held
islands, providing early warning and intelligence of Japanese naval,
army and aircraft movements during the campaign.
Jacob Vouza was a notable coastwatcher who, after
capture, refused to divulge Allied information in spite of
interrogation and torture by
Japanese Imperial forces. He was awarded
Silver Star Medal by the Americans, which is the United States'
third-highest decoration for valor in combat
Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana were the first to find the
John F. Kennedy and his crew of the PT-109 . They
suggested using a coconut to write a rescue message for delivery by
dugout canoe, which was later kept on Kennedy's desk when he became
President of the United States
President of the United States . American Marines rest during the
Guadalcanal Campaign .
Solomon Islands was one of the major staging areas of the South
Pacific and was home to the famous VMF-214 "Black Sheep" Squadron
commanded by Major Greg "Pappy" Boyington . "The Slot" was a name for
New Georgia Sound , when it was used by the
Tokyo Express to supply
the Japanese garrison on Guadalcanal. Of more than 36,000 Japanese on
Guadalcanal, about 26,000 were killed or missing, 9,000 died of
disease, and 1,000 were captured.
Local councils were established in the 1950s as the islands
stabilised from the aftermath of the Second World War. A new
constitution was established in 1970 and elections were held, although
the constitution was contested and a new one was created in 1974. In
1973 the first oil price shock occurred, and the increased cost of
running a colony became apparent to British administrators.
Following the independence of neighbouring
Papua New Guinea from
Australia in 1975, the
Solomon Islands gained self-government in 1976.
Independence was granted on 7 July 1978. The first Prime Minister was
Peter Kenilorea , and
Solomon Islands retained the Monarchy.
In September 2012, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge visited the
islands to mark the 60th anniversary of the accession of Queen
ETHNIC VIOLENCE (1998–2003)
Commonly referred to as the tensions or the ethnic tension, the
initial civil unrest was mainly characterised by fighting between the
Isatabu Freedom Movement (also known as the
Army) and the
Malaita Eagle Force (as well as the Marau Eagle Force).
(Although much of the conflict was between Guales and Malaitans,
Kabutaulaka (2001) and Dinnen (2002) argue that the 'ethnic conflict'
label is an oversimplification.)
In late 1998, militants on the island of
Guadalcanal began a campaign
of intimidation and violence towards Malaitan settlers. During the
next year, thousands of Malaitans fled back to
Malaita or to the
Honiara (which, although situated on Guadalcanal, is
predominantly populated by Malaitans and Solomon Islanders from other
provinces). In 1999, the
Malaita Eagle Force (MEF) was established in
The reformist government of Bartholomew Ulufa\'alu struggled to
respond to the complexities of this evolving conflict. In late 1999,
the government declared a four-month state of emergency. There were
also a number of attempts at reconciliation but to no avail. Ulufa'alu
also requested assistance from
New Zealand in 1999 but
his appeal was rejected.
In June 2000, Ulufa'alu was kidnapped by militia members of the MEF
who felt that, although he was a Malaitan, he was not doing enough to
protect their interests. Ulufa'alu subsequently resigned in exchange
for his release.
Manasseh Sogavare , who had earlier been Finance
Minister in Ulufa'alu's government but had subsequently joined the
opposition, was elected as Prime Minister by 23–21 over Rev. Leslie
Boseto . However Sogavare's election was immediately shrouded in
controversy because six MPs (thought to be supporters of Boseto) were
unable to attend parliament for the crucial vote (Moore 2004, n.5 on
In October 2000, the
Townsville Peace Agreement , was signed by the
Malaita Eagle Force, elements of the IFM, and the Solomon Islands
Government. This was closely followed by the Marau Peace agreement in
February 2001, signed by the Marau Eagle Force, the Isatabu Freedom
Guadalcanal Provincial Government, and the Solomon
Islands Government. However, a key Guale militant leader, Harold Keke
, refused to sign the agreement, causing a split with the Guale
groups. Subsequently, Guale signatories to the agreement led by Andrew
Te'e joined with the Malaitan-dominated police to form the 'Joint
Operations Force'. During the next two years the conflict moved to the
Guadalcanal as the Joint Operations unsuccessfully
attempted to capture Keke and his group.
New elections in December 2001 brought Sir
Allan Kemakeza into the
Prime Minister's chair with the support of his People's Alliance Party
and the Association of Independent Members. Law and order deteriorated
as the nature of the conflict shifted: there was continuing violence
on the Weathercoast while militants in
Honiara increasingly turned
their attention to crime and extortion. The Department of Finance
would often be surrounded by armed men when funding was due to arrive.
In December 2002, Finance Minister Laurie Chan resigned after being
forced at gunpoint to sign a cheque made out to some of the militants.
Conflict also broke out in Western Province between locals and
Malaitan settlers. Renegade members of the Bougainville Revolutionary
Army (BRA) were invited in as a protection force but ended up causing
as much trouble as they prevented.
The prevailing atmosphere of lawlessness, widespread extortion, and
ineffective police prompted a formal request by the Solomon Islands
Government for outside help. With the country bankrupt and the capital
in chaos, the request was unanimously supported in Parliament.
In July 2003, Australian and Pacific Island police and troops arrived
Solomon Islands under the auspices of the Australian-led Regional
Assistance Mission to
Solomon Islands (RAMSI). A sizeable
international security contingent of 2,200 police and troops, led by
Australia and New Zealand, and with representatives from about 20
other Pacific nations, began arriving the next month under Operation
Helpem Fren . Since this time some commentators have considered the
country a failed state . However, other academics argue that rather
than being a 'failed state', it is an unformed state: a state that
never consolidated even after decades of independence.
In April 2006, allegations that the newly elected Prime Minister
Snyder Rini had used bribes from Chinese businessmen to buy the votes
of members of Parliament led to mass rioting in the capital
A deep underlying resentment against the minority Chinese business
community led to much of
Chinatown in the city being destroyed.
Tensions were also increased by the belief that large sums of money
were being exported to China.
China sent chartered aircraft to
evacuate hundreds of Chinese who fled to avoid the riots. Evacuation
of Australian and British citizens was on a much smaller scale.
New Zealand and Fijian police and troops were
dispatched to try to quell the unrest. Rini eventually resigned before
facing a motion of no-confidence in Parliament, and Parliament elected
Manasseh Sogavare as Prime Minister.
2007 Solomon Islands earthquake and 2013 Solomon
On 2 April 2007 at 07:39:56 local time (
UTC+11 ) an earthquake with
magnitude 8.1 occurred at hypocenter S8.453 E156.957, 349 kilometres
(217 miles) northwest of the island's capital,
Honiara and south-east
of the capital of Western Province , Gizo , at a depth of 10 km (6.2
miles). More than 44 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater
occurred up until 22:00:00 UTC, Wednesday, 4 April 2007. A tsunami
followed killing at least 52 people, destroying more than 900 homes
and leaving thousands of people homeless. Land upthrust extended the
shoreline of one island,
Ranongga , by up to 70 metres (230 ft)
exposing many once pristine coral reefs.
On February 6, 2013, an earthquake with magnitude of 8.0 occurred at
epicentre S10.80 E165.11 in the
Santa Cruz Islands
Santa Cruz Islands followed by a
tsunami up to 1.5 metres. At least nine people were killed and many
houses demolished. The main quake was preceded by a sequence of
earthquakes with a magnitude of up to 6.0.
Politics of Solomon Islands Solomon Islands'
National Parliament building was a gift from the United States.
Solomon Islands is a constitutional monarchy and has a parliamentary
system of government. Queen
Elizabeth II is the Monarch of the Solomon
Islands and the head of state ; she is represented by the
Governor-General who is chosen by the Parliament for a five-year term.
There is a unicameral parliament of 50 members, elected for four-year
terms. However, Parliament may be dissolved by majority vote of its
members before the completion of its term.
Parliamentary representation is based on single-member
constituencies. Suffrage is universal for citizens over age 21. The
head of government is the Prime Minister , who is elected by
Parliament and chooses the cabinet. Each ministry is headed by a
cabinet member, who is assisted by a permanent secretary , a career
public servant who directs the staff of the ministry.
Solomon Islands governments are characterised by weak political
List of political parties in Solomon Islands ) and highly
unstable parliamentary coalitions. They are subject to frequent votes
of no confidence , leading to frequent changes in government
leadership and cabinet appointments.
Land ownership is reserved for Solomon Islanders. The law provides
that resident expatriates, such as the Chinese and
Kiribati , may
obtain citizenship through naturalisation. Land generally is still
held on a family or village basis and may be handed down from mother
or father according to local custom. The islanders are reluctant to
provide land for nontraditional economic undertakings, and this has
resulted in continual disputes over land ownership.
No military forces are maintained by
Solomon Islands although a
police force of nearly 500 includes a border protection unit. The
police also are responsible for fire service, disaster relief, and
maritime surveillance. The police force is headed by a commissioner,
appointed by the governor-general and responsible to the prime
minister. On 27 December 2006, the
Solomon Islands Government took
steps to prevent the country's Australian police chief from returning
to the Pacific nation. On 12 January 2007,
Australia replaced its top
diplomat expelled from
Solomon Islands for political interference in a
conciliatory move aimed at easing a four-month dispute between the two
On 13 December 2007, Prime Minister
Manasseh Sogavare was toppled by
a vote of no confidence in Parliament, following the defection of
five ministers to the opposition. It was the first time a prime
minister had lost office in this way in Solomon Islands. On 20
December, Parliament elected the opposition's candidate (and former
Minister for Education)
Derek Sikua as Prime Minister, in a vote of 32
Judiciary of Solomon Islands
The Governor General appoints the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition.
The Governor General appoints the other justices with the advice of a
judicial commission. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
(based in the United Kingdom) serves as the highest appellate court.
The current Chief Justice is Sir Albert Palmer.
From March 2014 Justice Edwin Goldsbrough will serve as the President
of the Court of Appeal for Solomon Islands. Justice Goldsbrough has
previously served a five-year term as a Judge of the High Court of
Solomon Islands (2006–2011). Justice Edwin Goldsbrough then served
as the Chief Justice of the
Turks and Caicos Islands .
Foreign relations of Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth ,
Pacific Islands Forum ,
South Pacific Commission , International
Monetary Fund , and the
European Union /African, Caribbean, and
Pacific (ACP) countries (EEC/ACP) (
Lomé Convention ).
The political stage of
Solomon Islands was influenced by its position
regarding the Republic of
China (ROC) and the People\'s Republic of
Solomon Islands gave diplomatic recognition to the
China (Taiwan), recognising it as the sole-legitimate
government of all of China, thus giving
Taiwan vital votes in the
United Nations. Lucrative investments, political funding and
preferential loans from both the Republic of
China and the People's
China have increasingly manipulated the political
landscape of the Solomon Islands.
Papua New Guinea , which had become strained because
of an influx of refugees from the Bougainville rebellion and attacks
on the northern islands of
Solomon Islands by elements pursuing
Bougainvillean rebels, have been repaired. A 1998 peace accord on
Bougainville removed the armed threat, and the two nations regularised
border operations in a 2004 agreement.
Although the locally recruited
British Solomon Islands
British Solomon Islands Protectorate
Defence Force was part of Allied Forces taking part in fighting in the
Solomons during the Second World War, the country has not had any
regular military forces since independence. The various paramilitary
elements of the
Royal Solomon Islands Police Force (RSIPF) were
disbanded and disarmed in 2003 following the intervention of the
Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (
RAMSI has a
small military detachment headed by an Australian commander with
responsibilities for assisting the police element of
RAMSI in internal
and external security. The RSIPF still operates two Pacific class
patrol boats (RSIPV
Auki and RSIPV Lata), which constitute the de
facto navy of Solomon Islands.
In the long term, it is anticipated that the RSIPF will resume the
defence role of the country. The police force is headed by a
commissioner, appointed by the governor general and responsible to the
Minister of Police, National Security ">
Human rights in the Solomon Islands
There are Human Rights concerns and issues in regards to education,
water, sanitation, women and persons who identify as lesbian, gay,
bisexual or transgender.
Homosexuality is illegal in the Solomon Islands.
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Geography of the Solomon Islands
World Heritage Site in 1998. Aerial view of the
Solomon Islands is an island nation that lies east of Papua New
Guinea and consists of many islands: Choiseul , the Shortland Islands
New Georgia Islands ; Santa Isabel ; the
Russell Islands ;
Florida Islands );
Ulawa ; Uki ;
Makira (San Cristobal ); Santa Ana ;
Rennell and Bellona ; the
Santa Cruz Islands
Santa Cruz Islands and the remote, tiny
Falkie Atoll .
The country's islands lie between latitudes 5° and 13°S , and
longitudes 155° and 169°E . The distance between the westernmost and
easternmost islands is about 1,500 kilometres (930 mi). The Santa Cruz
Islands (of which
Tikopia is part) are situated north of
are especially isolated at more than 200 kilometres (120 mi) from the
other islands. Bougainville is geographically part of the Solomon
Islands archipelago but politically part of Papua New Guinea. Falkie
Atoll, which is closer to Bougainville than to Choiseul, is part of
the nation of Solomon Islands.
The islands' ocean-equatorial climate is extremely humid throughout
the year, with a mean temperature of 26.5 °C (79.7 °F) and few
extremes of temperature or weather. June through August is the cooler
period. Though seasons are not pronounced, the northwesterly winds of
November through April bring more frequent rainfall and occasional
squalls or cyclones. The annual rainfall is about 3,050 millimetres
Solomon Islands archipelago is part of two distinct terrestrial
ecoregions . Most of the islands are part of the
Solomon Islands rain
forests ecoregion, which also includes the islands of Bougainville and
Buka; these forests have come under pressure from forestry activities.
Santa Cruz Islands
Santa Cruz Islands are part of the
Vanuatu rain forests ecoregion,
together with the neighbouring archipelago of Vanuatu. Soil quality
ranges from extremely rich volcanic (there are volcanoes with varying
degrees of activity on some of the larger islands) to relatively
infertile limestone. More than 230 varieties of orchids and other
tropical flowers brighten the landscape.
The islands contain several active and dormant volcanoes. The
Kavachi volcanoes are the most active.
Economy of Solomon Islands A proportional
representation of the Solomon's exports.
Solomon Islands' per-capita GDP of $600 ranks it as a lesser
developed nation, and more than 75% of its labour force is engaged in
subsistence and fishing. Most manufactured goods and petroleum
products must be imported. Until 1998, when world prices for tropical
timber fell steeply, timber was Solomon Islands' main export product,
and, in recent years,
Solomon Islands forests were dangerously
Other important cash crops and exports include copra and palm oil .
In 1998 gold mining began at Gold Ridge on Guadalcanal. Minerals
exploration in other areas continued. In the wake of the ethnic
violence in June 2000, exports of palm oil and gold ceased while
exports of timber fell. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral
resources such as lead, zinc , nickel, and gold.
Solomon Islands' fisheries also offer prospects for export and
domestic economic expansion. A Japanese joint venture, Solomon Taiyo
Ltd., which operated the only fish cannery in the country, closed in
mid-2000 as a result of the ethnic disturbances. Though the plant has
reopened under local management, the export of tuna has not resumed.
Negotiations are underway that may lead to the eventual reopening of
the Gold Ridge mine and the major oil-palm plantation.
Tourism, particularly diving, is an important service industry for
Solomon Islands. Tourism growth is hampered by lack of infrastructure
and transportation limitations.
Solomon Islands Government was insolvent by 2002. Since the RAMSI
intervention in 2003, the government has recast its budget. It has
consolidated and renegotiated its domestic debt and with Australian
backing, is now seeking to renegotiate its foreign obligations.
Principal aid donors are Australia, New Zealand, the European Union,
Japan, and the Republic of China.
Solomon Islands courts have re-approved the export of live
dolphins for profit, most recently to Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
This practice was originally stopped by the government in 2004 after
international uproar over a shipment of 28 live dolphins to Mexico.
The move resulted in criticism from both
New Zealand as
well as several conservation organisations.
A team of renewable energy developers working for the South Pacific
Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) and funded by the Renewable
Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), have developed a
scheme that allows local communities to access renewable energy, such
as solar, water and wind power, without the need to raise substantial
sums of cash. Under the scheme, islanders who are unable to pay for
solar lanterns in cash may pay instead in kind with crops.
Demographics of the Solomon Islands
As of 2006 , there were 552,438 people in Solomon Islands.
Solomon Islander boys from
The majority of Solomon Islanders are ethnically
Polynesian (3%) and Micronesian (1.2%) are the two other significant
groups. There are a few thousand ethnic Chinese .
Languages of the Solomon Islands
While English is the official language, only 1–2% of the population
speak English. The lingua franca is Solomons
Pijin , which is related
Tok Pisin of
Papua New Guinea , but which has no official
The number of local languages listed for
Solomon Islands is 74, of
which 70 are living languages and 4 are extinct, according to
Ethnologue, Languages of the World.
(predominantly of the Southeast Solomonic group ) are spoken on the
Polynesian languages are spoken on
Rennell and Bellona to the south,
Fatutaka to the far east,
Sikaiana to the north
east, and Luaniua to the north (
Ontong Java Atoll , also known as Lord
Howe Atoll ). The immigrant population of Gilbertese (i-
Micronesian language .
Religion in the Solomon Islands
The religion of
Solomon Islands is mainly Christian (comprising about
92% of the population). The main Christian denominations are: the
Anglican Church of
Roman Catholic 19%, South Seas
Evangelical Church 17%, United Church in
Papua New Guinea and the
Solomon Islands 11% and Seventh-day Adventist 10%. Other Christian
denominations are Jehovah\'s Witnesses , and The Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
Another 5% adhere to aboriginal beliefs. The remaining adhere to
Islam , the Baha\'i Faith . According to the most recent reports,
Islam in the
Solomon Islands is made up of approximately 350 Muslims,
including members of the
Ahmadiyya Muslim Community .
Female life expectancy at birth was at 66.7 years and male life
expectancy at birth at 64.9 in 2007. 1990–1995 fertility rate was
at 5.5 births per woman. Government expenditure on health per capita
was at US$99 (PPP). Healthy life expectancy at birth is at 60 years.
Blond hair occurs in 10% of the population in the islands. After
years of questions, studies have resulted in the better understanding
of the blond gene. The findings show that the blond hair trait is due
to an amino acid change of protein
TYRP1 . This accounts for the
highest occurrence of blond hair outside of European influence in the
world. While 10% of Solomon Island's people display the blond
phenotype about 26% of the population carry the recessive trait for it
Children at the school in Tuo village,
Solomon Islands is not compulsory and only 60 percent of
school-age children have access to primary education.
From 1990 to 1994, the gross primary school enrolment rose from 84.5
percent to 96.6 percent. Primary school attendance rates were
Solomon Islands as of 2001. While enrolment rates
indicate a level of commitment to education, they do not always
reflect children's participation in school.
Efforts and plans made by the Department of Education and Human
Resource Development to expand educational facilities and increase
enrolment have been hindered by a lack of government funding,
misguided teacher training programs, poor co-ordination of programs,
and a failure of the government to pay teachers. The percentage of
the government's budget allocated to education was 9.7 percent in
1998, down from 13.2 percent in 1990.
Male educational attainment tends to be higher than female
The University of the South Pacific has a
Solomon Islands while the University of
Papua New Guinea has
also established a foothold in the country at
Culture of the Solomon Islands A Malaitan Chief.
In the traditional culture of the Solomon Islands, age-old customs
are handed down from one generation to the next, allegedly from the
ancestral spirits themselves, to form the cultural values of the
Radio is the most influential type of media in
Solomon Islands due to
language differences, illiteracy, and the difficulty of receiving
television signals in some parts of the country. The Solomon Islands
Broadcasting Corporation (SIBC) operates public radio services,
including the national stations
Radio Happy Isles 1037 on the dial and
Wantok FM 96.3, and the provincial stations
Radio Happy Lagoon and,
formerly, Radio Temotu. There are two commercial FM stations, Z FM at
Honiara but receivable over a large majority of island out
from Honiara, and, PAOA FM at 97.7 in
Honiara (also broadcasting on
107.5 in Auki), and, one community FM radio station, Gold Ridge FM on
There is one daily newspaper
Solomon Star and one daily online news
website Solomon Times Online (www.solomontimes.com), 2 weekly papers
Solomons Voice and Solomon Times, and 2 monthly papers Agrikalsa Nius
and the Citizen's Press. Television
There are no TV services that cover the entire Solomon Islands, but
satellite TV stations can be received. However, in Honiara, there is a
free-to-air channel called One Television, and rebroadcast ABC Asia
Pacific (from Australia's ABC) and
BBC World News
BBC World News . As of Dec 2010,
residents could subscribe to SATSOL, a digital pay TV service,
re-transmitting satellite television.
Music of Solomon Islands A pan flute,
Melanesian music in the
Solomon Islands includes both
group and solo vocals, slit-drum and panpipe ensembles. In the 1920s,
bamboo music gained a following. In the 1950s, Edwin Nanau Sitori
composed the song "Walkabout long
Chinatown ", which has been referred
to by the government as the unofficial "national song " of the Solomon
Islands. Modern Solomon Islander popular music includes various kinds
of rock and reggae as well as island music.
Solomon Islands literature
Solomon Islands include the novelists Rexford Orotaloa
and John Saunana and the poet Jully Makini.
Sport in the Solomon Islands
Rugby Union is played in Solomon Islands. The Solomon Islands
national rugby union team has been playing internationals since 1969.
It took part in the
Oceania qualifying tournament for the 2003 and
2007 Rugby World Cups, but failed to qualify on each occasion.
National teams in association football and the related futsal and
beach soccer have proved among the most successful in Oceania. The
Solomon Islands national football team is part of the OFC
confederation in FIFA. They are currently ranked 184th out of 209
teams in the FIFA World Rankings. The team became the first team to
New Zealand in qualifying for a play-off spot against Australia
for qualification to the
World Cup 2006 . They were defeated 7–0 in
Australia and 2–1 at home.
On 14 June 2008, the
Solomon Islands national futsal team , the
Kurukuru, won the
Futsal Championship in
Fiji to qualify them
for the 2008 FIFA
Futsal World Cup , which was held in Brazil from 30
September to 19 October 2008.
Solomon Islands is the futsal defending
champions in the
Oceania region. In 2008 and 2009 the Kurukuru won the
Futsal Championship in Fiji. In 2009 they defeated the host
Fiji , 8–0, to claim the title. The Kurukuru currently hold
the world record for the fastest ever goal scored in an official
futsal match. It was set by Kurukuru captain Elliot Ragomo, who scored
New Caledonia three seconds into the game in July 2009. They
also, however, hold the less enviable record for the worst defeat in
the history of the
Futsal World Cup , when in 2008 they were beaten by
Russia with two goals to thirty-one.
The Solomon Islands\' beach soccer team , the Bilikiki Boys, are
statistically the most successful team in Oceania. They have won all
three regional championships to date, thereby qualifying on each
occasion for the
FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup . The Bilikiki Boys are
ranked fourteenth in the world as of 2010 , higher than any other team
List of birds of the Solomon Islands
Outline of Solomon Islands
Visa policy of Solomon Islands
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for SOLOMON ISLANDS .
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* Definitions from Wiktionary