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SOLOMON (/ˈsɒləmən/ ; Hebrew : שְׁלֹמֹה, Modern Shlomo , Tiberian Šəlōmō ISO 259-3 Šlomo; Syriac : ܫܠܝܡܘܢ‎ Shlemun; Arabic : سُليمان‎‎ Sulaymān, also colloquially : Silimān or Slemān; Greek : Σολομών Solomōn; Latin : Salomon), also called JEDIDIAH (Hebrew יְדִידְיָהּ‎), was, according to the Bible
Bible
(Book of Kings : 1 Kings 1–11; Book of Chronicles : 1 Chronicles 28–29, 2 Chronicles 1–9), Quran
Quran
, hadith and Hidden Words
Hidden Words
a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel and a son of David
David
, the previous king of Israel. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy
United Monarchy
, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone.

According to the Talmud , Solomon
Solomon
is one of the 48 prophets . In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet , and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman , son of David
David
.

The Hebrew Bible
Bible
credits him as the builder of the First Temple
First Temple
in Jerusalem. It portrays him as great in wisdom, wealth, and power beyond any of the previous kings of the country, but ultimately as a human king who sinned. His sins included idolatry , marrying foreign women, and ultimately turning away from Yahweh , and led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam . Solomon
Solomon
is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon
Solomon
. In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist , with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period invoking his name.

CONTENTS

* 1 Biblical account

* 1.1 Childhood * 1.2 Succession and administration * 1.3 Wisdom
Wisdom
* 1.4 Wives
Wives
and concubines * 1.5 Relationship with Queen of Sheba * 1.6 Sins and punishment * 1.7 Enemies * 1.8 Death, succession of Rehoboam, and kingdom division

* 2 Jewish scriptures * 3 Apocryphal texts

* 4 Historicity

* 4.1 Chronology

* 5 Wealth

* 6 Religious views

* 6.1 Judaism * 6.2 Christianity * 6.3 Islam
Islam
* 6.4 Bahá\'í

* 7 Legends

* 7.1 One Thousand and One Nights
One Thousand and One Nights

* 7.2 Angels and magic

* 7.2.1 Seal of Solomon * 7.2.2 Solomon
Solomon
and Asmodeus
Asmodeus
* 7.2.3 Artifacts * 7.2.4 Angels * 7.2.5 In the Kabbalah * 7.2.6 The palace without entrance

* 7.3 Throne

* 8 Freemasonry

* 9 In literature, art and music

* 9.1 Literature * 9.2 Film * 9.3 Music * 9.4 Video games

* 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Bibliography * 14 External links

BIBLICAL ACCOUNT

CHILDHOOD

Solomon
Solomon
was born in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, the second born child of David
David
and his wife Bathsheba
Bathsheba
, widow of Uriah the Hittite . The first child (unnamed in that account), a son conceived adulterously during Uriah's lifetime, had died before Solomon
Solomon
was conceived as a punishment on account of the death of Uriah by David's order. Solomon
Solomon
had three named full brothers through Bathsheba, Nathan , Shammua, and Shobab, besides six known older half-brothers through as many mothers.

SUCCESSION AND ADMINISTRATION

The Anointing
Anointing
of Solomon
Solomon
by Cornelis de Vos
Cornelis de Vos
(c. 1630). According to 1 Kings 1:39, Solomon
Solomon
was anointed by Zadok .

According to the First Book of Kings , when David
David
was old, "he could not get warm." "So they sought a beautiful young woman throughout all the territory of Israel, and found Abishag the Shunamite , and brought her to the king. The young woman was very beautiful, and she was of service to the king and attended to him, but the king knew her not."

While David
David
was in this state, court factions were maneuvering for power. David's heir apparent, Adonijah , acted to have himself declared king, but was outmaneuvered by Bathsheba
Bathsheba
and the prophet Nathan , who convinced David
David
to proclaim Solomon
Solomon
king according to his earlier promise, despite Solomon
Solomon
being younger than his brothers.

Solomon, as instructed by David, began his reign with an extensive purge, including his father's chief general, Joab
Joab
, among others, and further consolidated his position by appointing friends throughout the administration, including in religious positions as well as in civic and military posts.

Solomon
Solomon
greatly expanded his military strength, especially the cavalry and chariot arms. He founded numerous colonies, some of which doubled as trading posts and military outposts.

Trade relationships were a focus of his administration. In particular he continued his father's very profitable relationship with the Phoenician king Hiram of Tyre (see 'wealth' below); they sent out joint expeditions to the lands of Tarshish and Ophir to engage in the trade of luxury products, importing gold, silver, sandalwood, pearls, ivory, apes and peacocks. Solomon
Solomon
is considered the most wealthy of the Israelite kings named in the Bible. Solomon
Solomon
also built the First Temple , beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he has accumulated.

WISDOM

Luca Giordano
Luca Giordano
– Dream of Solomon
Solomon
God
God
promises Solomon Wisdom.

Solomon
Solomon
was the Biblical king most famous for his wisdom . In 1 Kings he sacrificed to God, and God
God
later appeared in a dream to Solomon
Solomon
in 1 Kings 3 asking what Solomon
Solomon
wanted from Him. Solomon
Solomon
asked for wisdom. Pleased, God
God
personally answered Solomon's prayer, promising him great wisdom because he did not ask for self-serving rewards like long life or the death of his enemies. The judgment of Solomon, painting on ceramic, Castelli, 18th century, Lille Museum of Fine Arts

Perhaps the best known story of his wisdom is the Judgment of Solomon ; two women each lay claim to being the mother of the same child. Solomon
Solomon
easily resolved the dispute by commanding the child to be cut in half and shared between the two. One woman promptly renounced her claim, proving that she would rather give up the child than see it killed. Solomon
Solomon
declared the woman who showed compassion to be the true mother, entitled to the whole child.

Solomon
Solomon
was traditionally considered the author of several Biblical books, "including not only the collections of Proverbs , but also of Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon
Song of Solomon
and the later apocryphal book the Wisdom
Wisdom
of Solomon. "

WIVES AND CONCUBINES

According to the Bible, Solomon
Solomon
had 700 wives and 300 concubines . The wives were described as foreign princesses, including Pharaoh\'s daughter and women of Moab , Ammon
Ammon
, Sidon and of the Hittites . The only wife mentioned by name is Naamah the Ammonite , mother of Solomon's successor, Rehoboam . The Biblical narrative notes with disapproval that Solomon
Solomon
permitted his foreign wives to import their national deities, building temples to Ashtoreth and Milcom .

RELATIONSHIP WITH QUEEN OF SHEBA

Main article: Queen of Sheba The Visit of the Queen of Sheba to King Solomon', oil on canvas painting by Edward Poynter, 1890 Renaissance relief of the Queen of Sheba meeting Solomon
Solomon
– Ghiberti 's Gates of Paradise at the Florence Baptistry
Florence Baptistry

In a brief, unelaborated, and enigmatic passage, the Hebrew Bible describes how the fame of Solomon's wisdom and wealth spread far and wide, so much so that the queen of Sheba decided that she should meet him. The queen is described as visiting with a number of gifts including gold, spices and precious stones. When Solomon
Solomon
gave her "all her desire, whatsoever she asked," she left satisfied (1 Kings 10:10).

Whether the passage is simply to provide a brief token, foreign witness of Solomon's wealth and wisdom, or whether there is meant to be something more significant to the queen's visit is unknown; nevertheless the visit of the Queen of Sheba has become the subject of numerous stories.

Sheba is typically identified as Saba , a nation once spanning the Red Sea
Red Sea
on the coasts of what are now Eritrea
Eritrea
, Somalia
Somalia
, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Yemen
Yemen
, in Arabia Felix . In a Rabbinical account (e.g., Targum Sheni ), Solomon
Solomon
was accustomed to ordering the living creatures of the world to dance before him ( Rabbinical accounts say that Solomon
Solomon
had been given control over all living things by Yahweh), but one day upon discovering that the mountain-cock or hoopoe (Aramaic name: nagar tura) was absent, he summoned it to him, and the bird told him that it had been searching for somewhere new (see: Colloquy of the Queen of Sheba).

The bird had discovered a land in the east, exceedingly rich in gold, silver, and plants, whose capital was called Kitor and whose ruler was the Queen of Sheba, and the bird, on its own advice, was sent by Solomon
Solomon
to request the queen's immediate attendance at Solomon's court.

An Ethiopian account from the 14th century ( Kebra Nagast
Kebra Nagast
) maintains that the Queen of Sheba had sexual relations with King Solomon
Solomon
and gave birth by the Mai Bella stream in the province of Hamasien , Eritrea
Eritrea
. The Ethiopian tradition has a detailed account of the affair . The child was a son who went on to become Menelik I , King of Axum , and founded a dynasty that would reign as the first Jewish, then Christian Empire of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
for 2,900+ years (less one usurpation episode , an interval of c. 133 years until a legitimate male heir regained the crown) until Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
was overthrown in 1974. Menelik was said to be a practicing Jew who was given a replica of the Ark of the Covenant
Ark of the Covenant
by King Solomon; and, moreover, that the original was switched and went to Axum with him and his mother, and is still there, guarded by a single priest charged with caring for the artifact as his life's task.

The claim of such a lineage and of possession of the Ark has been an important source of legitimacy and prestige for the Ethiopian monarchy throughout the many centuries of its existence, and had important and lasting effects on Ethiopian culture as a whole. The Ethiopian government and church deny all requests to view the alleged ark.

Some classical-era Rabbis, attacking Solomon's moral character, have claimed instead that the child was an ancestor of Nebuchadnezzar II , who destroyed Solomon\'s temple some 300 years later.

SINS AND PUNISHMENT

"Vanity of vanities; all is vanity." Old and meditative king Solomon
Solomon
by Isaak Asknaziy .

According to 1 Kings 11:4 Solomon's "wives turned his heart after other gods", their own national deities, to whom Solomon
Solomon
built temples, thus incurring divine anger and retribution in the form of the division of the kingdom after Solomon's death (1 Kings 11:9–13). 1 Kings 11 describes Solomon's descent into idolatry, particularly his turning after Ashtoreth , the goddess of the Sidonians , and after Milcom , the abomination of the Ammonites . In Deuteronomy 17:16–17, a king is commanded not to multiply horses or wives, neither greatly multiply to himself gold or silver. Solomon
Solomon
sins in all three of these areas. Solomon
Solomon
collects 666 talents of gold each year (1 Kings 10:14), a huge amount of money for a small nation like Israel. Solomon
Solomon
gathers a large number of horses and chariots and even brings in horses from Egypt. Just as Deuteronomy 17 warns, collecting horses and chariots takes Israel back to Egypt. Finally, Solomon
Solomon
marries foreign women, and these women turn Solomon
Solomon
to other gods. Solomon
Solomon
sinned by acquiring many foreign wives. Solomon's descent into idolatry, Willem de Poorter , Rijksmuseum
Rijksmuseum
.

According to 1 Kings 11:30–34, it was because of these sins that "the Lord punishes Solomon
Solomon
by removing 10 of the 12 Tribes of Israel from the Israelites.

And the Lord was angry with Solomon, because his heart had turned away from the Lord, the God
God
of Israel, who had appeared to him twice and had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods. But he did not keep what the Lord commanded. Therefore the Lord said to Solomon, "Since this has been your practice and you have not kept my covenant and my statutes that I have commanded you, I will surely tear the kingdom from you and will give it to your servant. Yet for the sake of David
David
your father I will not do it in your days, but I will tear it out of the hand of your son. However, I will not tear away all the kingdom, but I will give one tribe to your son, for the sake of David
David
my servant and for the sake of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
that I have chosen.

ENEMIES

Near the end of his life, Solomon
Solomon
was forced to contend with several enemies, including Hadad of Edom
Edom
, Rezon of Zobah , and one of his officials named Jeroboam
Jeroboam
who was from the tribe of Ephraim
Ephraim
.

DEATH, SUCCESSION OF REHOBOAM, AND KINGDOM DIVISION

The United Monarchy
United Monarchy
breaks up, with Jeroboam
Jeroboam
ruling over the northern Kingdom of Israel (blue on the map) and Rehoboam ruling the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
to the south.

According to the Hebrew Bible
Bible
, Solomon
Solomon
is the last ruler of a united Kingdom of Israel. He dies of natural causes at around 80 years of age. Upon Solomon's death, his son, Rehoboam , succeeds him. However, ten of the Tribes of Israel refuse to accept him as king, splitting the United Monarchy
United Monarchy
in the northern Kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam
Jeroboam
, while Rehoboam continues to reign over the much smaller southern Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
. Henceforth the two kingdoms are never again united.

JEWISH SCRIPTURES

King Solomon
Solomon
is one of the central Biblical figures in Jewish heritage that have lasting religious, national and political aspects. As the builder of the First Temple
First Temple
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and last ruler of the united Kingdom of Israel before its division into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
, Solomon
Solomon
is associated with the peak "golden age" of the independent Kingdom of Israel as well as a source of judicial and religious wisdom. According to Jewish tradition, King Solomon
Solomon
wrote three books of the Bible
Bible
:

* Mishlei ( Book of Proverbs ), a collection of fables and wisdom of life * Kohelet ( Ecclesiastes ), a book of contemplation and his self-reflection. * Shir ha-Shirim ( Song of Songs ), an unusual collection of poetry interspersed with verse, whose interpretation is either literal (i.e., a romantic and sexual relationship between a man and a woman) or metaphorical (a relationship between God
God
and his people).

The Hebrew word "To Solomon" (which can also be translated as "by Solomon") appears in the title of two hymns in the book of Psalms (Tehillim), suggesting to some that Solomon
Solomon
wrote them.

APOCRYPHAL TEXTS

Rabbinical tradition attributes the Wisdom
Wisdom
of Solomon
Solomon
to Solomon, although this book was probably written in the 2nd century BCE. In this work, Solomon
Solomon
is portrayed as an astronomer . Other books of wisdom poetry such as the Odes of Solomon and the Psalms
Psalms
of Solomon also bear his name. The Jewish historian Eupolemus , who wrote about 157 BCE, included copies of apocryphal letters exchanged between Solomon
Solomon
and the kings of Egypt
Egypt
and Tyre .

The Gnostic Apocalypse of Adam , which may date to the 1st or 2nd century, refers to a legend in which Solomon
Solomon
sends out an army of demons to seek a virgin who had fled from him, perhaps the earliest surviving mention of the later common tale that Solomon
Solomon
controlled demons and made them his slaves. This tradition of Solomon's control over demons appears fully elaborated in the early pseudographical work called the Testament of Solomon with its elaborate and grotesque demonology .

HISTORICITY

See also: David: Historicity An engraving, Judgment of Solomon, by Gustave Doré
Gustave Doré
(19th century)

Historical evidence of King Solomon
Solomon
other than the biblical accounts has been so minimal that some scholars have understood the period of his reign as a 'Dark Age' (Muhly 1998). Josephus
Josephus
in Against Apion , citing Tyrian court records and Menander
Menander
, gives a specific year during which King Hiram I of Tyre sent materials to Solomon
Solomon
for the construction of the Solomon\'s Temple . However, no material evidence indisputably of Solomon's reign has been found. Yigael Yadin
Yigael Yadin
's excavations at Hazor , Megiddo , Beit Shean
Beit Shean
and Gezer uncovered structures that he and others have argued date from Solomon's reign, but others, such as Israel Finkelstein
Israel Finkelstein
and Neil Silberman , argue that they should be dated to the Omride period, more than a century after Solomon. Solomon's Wealth and Wisdom, as in 1 Kings 3:12–13, illustration from a Bible
Bible
card published 1896 by the Providence Lithograph Company.

According to Finkelstein and Silberman, authors of The Bible Unearthed : Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, at the time of the kingdoms of David
David
and Solomon, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was populated by only a few hundred residents or less, which is insufficient for an empire stretching from the Euphrates to Eilath . According to The Bible
Bible
Unearthed, archaeological evidence suggests that the kingdom of Israel at the time of Solomon was little more than a small city state, and so it is implausible that Solomon
Solomon
received tribute as large as 666 talents of gold per year. Although both Finkelstein and Silberman accept that David
David
and Solomon were real inhabitants of Judah about the 10th century BC, they claim that the earliest independent reference to the Kingdom of Israel is about 890 BCE, and for Judah about 750 BCE. They suggest that because of religious prejudice, the authors of the Bible
Bible
suppressed the achievements of the Omrides (whom the Hebrew Bible
Bible
describes as being polytheist ), and instead pushed them back to a supposed golden age of Judaism and monotheists, and devotees of Yahweh . Some Biblical minimalists like Thomas L. Thompson go further, arguing that Jerusalem became a city and capable of being a state capital only in the mid-7th century. Likewise, Finkelstein and others consider the claimed size of Solomon's temple
Solomon's temple
implausible.

These views are criticized by William G. Dever , and André Lemaire , among others. Lemaire states in Ancient Israel: From Abraham
Abraham
to the Roman Destruction of the Temple that the principal points of the biblical tradition of Solomon
Solomon
are generally trustworthy, although elsewhere he writes that he could find no substantiating archaeological evidence that supports the Queen of Sheba's visit to king Solomon, saying that the earliest records of trans-Arabian caravan voyages from Tayma and Sheba unto the Middle- Euphrates there is a distinct lack of magnificent empire, or cultural development – indeed comparing pottery from areas traditionally assigned to Israel with that of the Philistines points to the Philistines having been significantly more sophisticated. However, there is a lack of physical evidence of its existence, despite some archaeological work in the area. This is not unexpected because the area was devastated by the Babylonians
Babylonians
, then rebuilt and destroyed several times. Little archaeological excavation has been done around the area known as the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
, in what is thought to be the foundation of Solomon's Temple, because attempts to do so are met with protest by Muslims.

From a critical point of view, Solomon's building of a temple for Yahweh should not be considered an act of particular devotion to Yahweh because Solomon
Solomon
is also described as building places of worship for a number of other deities. Some scholars and historians argue that Solomon's apparent initial devotion to Yahweh, described in passages such as his dedication prayer (1 Kings 8:14–66), were written much later, after Jerusalem
Jerusalem
had become the religious centre of the kingdom, replacing locations such as Shiloh and Bethel
Bethel
. Some scholars believe that passages such as these in the Books of Kings were not written by the same authors who wrote the rest of the text, instead probably by the Deuteronomist . Such views have been challenged by other historians who maintain that there is evidence that these passages in Kings are derived from official court records at the time of Solomon
Solomon
and from other writings of that time that were incorporated into the canonical books of Kings.

The biblical passages that understand Tarshish as a source of King Solomon's great wealth in metals – especially silver, but also gold, tin and iron (Ezekiel 27) – were linked to archaeological evidence from silver-hoards found in Phoenicia in 2013. The metals from Tarshish were reportedly obtained by Solomon
Solomon
in partnership with King Hiram of Phoenician Tyre (Isaiah 23), and the fleets of Tarshish-ships that sailed in their service, and the silver-hoards provide the first recognized material evidence that agrees with the ancient texts concerning Solomon's kingdom and his wealth (see 'wealth' below).

Possible evidence for the described wealth of Solomon
Solomon
and his kingdom was discovered in ancient silver-hoards, which were found in Israel and Phoenicia and recognized for their importance in 2003. The evidence from the hoards shows that the Levant was a center of wealth in precious metals during the reign of Solomon
Solomon
and Hiram, and matches the texts that say the trade extended from Asia to the Atlantic Ocean.

CHRONOLOGY

The conventional dates of Solomon's reign derived from biblical chronology are from c. 970 to 931 BCE. Regarding the Davidic dynasty to which King Solomon
Solomon
belongs, its chronology can be checked against datable Babylonian and Assyrian records at a few points, and these correspondences have allowed archeologists to date its kings in a modern framework. According to the most widely used chronology, based on that by Edwin R. Thiele , the death of Solomon
Solomon
and the division of his kingdom would have occurred in the spring of 931 BCE.

WEALTH

Solomon
Solomon
and the plan for the First Temple
First Temple
, illustration from a Bible
Bible
card published by the Providence Lithograph Co. A sketch of Solomon\'s Temple , based on descriptions in the Scriptures. See also: Solomon\'s Temple Artist's depiction of Solomon's court (Ingobertus, c. 880)

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Israelite monarchy gained its highest splendour and wealth during Solomon's reign of 40 years. In a single year, according to 1 Kings 10:14, Solomon
Solomon
collected tribute amounting to 666 talents (39,960 pounds) of gold. Solomon
Solomon
is described as surrounding himself with all the luxuries and the grandeur of an Eastern monarch, and his government prospered. He entered into an alliance with Hiram I , king of Tyre , who in many ways greatly assisted him in his numerous undertakings.

For some years before his death, David
David
was engaged in collecting materials for building a temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as a permanent home for Yahweh and the Ark of the Covenant
Ark of the Covenant
. Solomon
Solomon
is described as completing its construction, with the help of an architect, also named Hiram , and other materials, sent from King Hiram of Tyre.

After the completion of the temple, Solomon
Solomon
is described as erecting many other buildings of importance in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. For 13 years, he was engaged in the building of a royal palace on Ophel (a hilly promontory in central Jerusalem). Solomon
Solomon
also constructed great works for the purpose of securing a plentiful supply of water for the city, and the Millo
Millo
( Septuagint , Acra) for the defense of the city. However, excavations of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
have shown a distinct lack of monumental architecture from the era, and remains of neither the Temple nor Solomon's palace have been found.

Solomon
Solomon
is also described as rebuilding cities elsewhere in Israel, creating the port of Ezion-Geber , and constructing Palmyra
Palmyra
in the wilderness as a commercial depot and military outpost. Although the location of the port of Ezion-Geber is known, no remains have ever been found. More archaeological success has been achieved with the major cities Solomon
Solomon
is said to have strengthened or rebuilt, for example, Hazor , Megiddo and Gezer . These all have substantial ancient remains, including impressive six-chambered gates, and ashlar palaces, however it is no longer the scholarly consensus that these structures date to the time, according to the Bible, when Solomon ruled.

According to the Bible, during Solomon's reign, Israel enjoyed great commercial prosperity, with extensive traffic being carried on by land with Tyre , Egypt
Egypt
, and Arabia
Arabia
, and by sea with Tarshish , Ophir , and South India
South India
.

RELIGIOUS VIEWS

JUDAISM

King Solomon
Solomon
sinned by acquiring many foreign wives and horses because he thought he knew the reason for the Biblical prohibition and thought it did not apply to him. When King Solomon
Solomon
married the daughter of the Egyptian Pharaoh, a sandbank formed which eventually formed the "great nation of Rome" – the nation that destroyed the Second Temple (Herod's Temple). Solomon
Solomon
gradually lost more and more prestige until he became like a commoner. Some say he regained his status while others say he did not. In the end however, he is regarded as a righteous king and is especially praised for his diligence in building the Temple.

The Seder Olam Rabba holds that Solomon's reign was not in 1000 BCE, but rather in the 9th century BCE, during which time he built the First Temple
First Temple
in 832 BCE. However, the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
gives the more common date of "971 to 931 B.C.".

CHRISTIANITY

Russian icon of King Solomon. He is depicted holding a model of the Temple (18th century, iconostasis of Kizhi
Kizhi
monastery , Russia
Russia
).

Christianity has traditionally accepted the historical existence of Solomon, though some modern Christian scholars have also questioned at least his authorship of those biblical texts ascribed to him. Such disputes tend to divide Christians into traditionalist and modernist camps.

Of the two genealogies of Jesus
Jesus
given in the Gospels , Matthew mentions Solomon, but Luke does not. Some commentators see this as an issue that can be reconciled while others disagree. For instance, it has been suggested that Luke is using Joseph's genealogy and Matthew is using Mary's, but Darrell Bock states that this would be unprecedented, "especially when no other single woman appears in the line". Other suggestions include the use by one of the royal and the other of the natural line, one using the legal line and the other the physical line, or that Joseph was adopted.

Jesus
Jesus
makes reference to Solomon, using him for comparison purposes in his admonition against worrying about your life. This account is recorded in Matthew 6:29 and the parallel passage in Luke 12:27

In the Eastern Orthodox Church , Solomon
Solomon
is commemorated as a saint , with the title of "Righteous Prophet and King". His feast day is celebrated on the Sunday of the Holy Forefathers (two Sundays before the Great Feast of the Nativity of the Lord ).

The staunchly Catholic King Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
sought to model himself after King Solomon. Statues of King David
David
and Solomon
Solomon
stand on either side of the entrance to the basilica of El Escorial
El Escorial
, Philip's palace, and Solomon
Solomon
is also depicted in a great fresco at the center of El Escorial's library. Philip identified the warrior-king David with his own father Charles V , and himself sought to emulate the thoughtful and logical character which he perceived in Solomon. Moreover, the structure of the Escorial was inspired by that of Solomon's Temple.

ISLAM

Mausoleum of Solomon, Aqsa Mosque compound, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Main article: Solomon in Islam

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In Islamic tradition, Solomon
Solomon
is venerated as a Prophet and a Messenger of God
God
, as well as a divinely appointed monarch, who ruled over the Kingdom of Israel . As in Judaism , Islam
Islam
recognizes Solomon as the son of King David
David
, who is also considered a Prophet and a King but, refuses the claim that Solomon
Solomon
turned to idolatry. One of the enslaved Jinn escaped his enslavment, instead, and took over his kingdom and pose as Solomon, while others thought indeed he become a ruthless king.

"And they followed what the devils taught during the reign of Solomon. It was not Solomon
Solomon
who disbelieved, but it was the devils who disbelieved. They taught the people witchcraft and what was revealed in Babil (Arabic : بَـابِـل‎‎, Babylon
Babylon
) to the two angels Harut and Marut
Harut and Marut
. They did not teach anybody until they had said "We are a test, so do not lose faith." But they learned from them the means to cause separation between man and his wife. But they cannot harm anyone except with God's permission. And they learned what would harm them and not benefit them. Yet they knew that whoever deals in it will have no share in the Hereafter. Miserable is what they sold their souls for, if they only knew."

The Qur’an
Qur’an
ascribes to Solomon
Solomon
a great level of wisdom, knowledge and power. He knew the Mantiq al-tayr (Arabic : مـنـطـق الـطـيـر‎‎, language of the birds ). Solomon
Solomon
was also known in the Islam
Islam
to have other supernatural abilities bestowed upon him by Allah
Allah
, after a special request by Solomon
Solomon
himself, such as controlling the wind, ruling over the Jinn , including demons , and the hearing of distant speeches by ants :

"And to Solomon
Solomon
(We made) the wind (obedient): its early morning (stride) was a month's (journey), and its evening (stride) was a month's (journey); and We made a font of molten brass to flow for him; and there were Jinns that worked in front of him, by the leave of his Lord, and if any of them turned aside from Our command, We made him taste of the Penalty of the Blazing Fire." (34: 12) and "At length, when they came to a (lowly) valley of ants, one of the ants said: "O ye ants, get into your habitations, lest Solomon
Solomon
and his hosts crush you (under foot) without knowing it." – So he smiled, amused at her speech; and he said: "O my Rabb (Arabic : رَبّ‎‎, Lord)! So order me that I may be grateful for Thy favors, which Thou hast bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may work the righteousness that will please Thee: and admit me, by Thy Grace, to the ranks of Thy righteous Servants."" (27: 18–19)

The Qur’an
Qur’an
mentions Solomon
Solomon
17 times, and Islamic tradition attributes to Solomon
Solomon
the saying: "ra's al-hikmah makhafat Allah" (Arabic : رأس الـحـكـمـة مـخـافـة الله‎‎, "The beginning of wisdom is the fear of God").

BAHá\'í

In the Bahá\'í Faith , Solomon
Solomon
is regarded as one of the lesser prophets along with David, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, along with others. Baha'is see Solomon
Solomon
as a prophet who was sent by God
God
to address the issues of his time. Baha'ullah wrote about Solomon
Solomon
in the Hidden Words. He also mentions Solomon
Solomon
in the Tablet of Wisdom, where he is depicted as a contemporary of Pythagoras
Pythagoras
.

LEGENDS

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ONE THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS

A well-known story in the collection One Thousand and One Nights describes a genie who had displeased King Solomon
Solomon
and was punished by being locked in a bottle and thrown into the sea. Since the bottle was sealed with Solomon's seal, the genie was helpless to free himself, until freed many centuries later by a fisherman who discovered the bottle. In other stories from the One Thousand and One Nights, protagonists who had to leave their homeland and travel to the unknown places of the world saw signs which proved that Solomon
Solomon
had already been there. Sometimes, protagonists discovered words of Solomon
Solomon
that were intended to help those who were lost and had unluckily reached those forbidden and deserted places.

ANGELS AND MAGIC

According to the Rabbinical literature , on account of his modest request for wisdom only, Solomon
Solomon
was rewarded with riches and an unprecedented glorious realm, which extended over the upper world inhabited by the angels and over the whole of the terrestrial globe with all its inhabitants, including all the beasts, fowl, and reptiles, as well as the demons and spirits. His control over the demons, spirits, and animals augmented his splendor, the demons bringing him precious stones, besides water from distant countries to irrigate his exotic plants. The beasts and fowl of their own accord entered the kitchen of Solomon's palace, so that they might be used as food for him, and extravagant meals for him were prepared daily by each of his 700 wives and 300 concubines, with the thought that perhaps the king would feast that day in her house.

Seal Of Solomon

A magic ring called the " Seal of Solomon " was supposedly given to Solomon
Solomon
and gave him power over demons or Jinn . The magical symbol said to have been on the Seal of Solomon which made it efficacious is often considered to be the Star of David
David
though this emblem (also known as the Shield of David) is known to have been associated with Judaism only as recently as the 11th century CE while the five pointed star (pentagram) can be found on jars and other artifacts from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
dating back to at least the 2nd and 4th centuries BC and is more likely to have been the emblem found on the ring purportedly used by King Solomn to control the Jinn or demons. Asmodeus
Asmodeus
, king of demons, was one day, according to the classical Rabbis, captured by Benaiah using the ring, and was forced to remain in Solomon's service. In one tale, Asmodeus
Asmodeus
brought a man with two heads from under the earth to show Solomon; the man, unable to return, married a woman from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and had seven sons, six of whom resembled the mother, while one resembled the father in having two heads. After their father's death, the son with two heads claimed two shares of the inheritance, arguing that he was two men; Solomon
Solomon
decided that the son with two heads was only one man. The Seal of Solomon, in some legends known as the Ring of Aandaleeb, was a highly sought after symbol of power. In several legends, different groups or individuals attempted to steal it or attain it in some manner.

Solomon
Solomon
And Asmodeus

One legend concerning Asmodeus
Asmodeus
goes on to state that Solomon
Solomon
one day asked Asmodeus
Asmodeus
what could make demons powerful over man, and Asmodeus asked to be freed and given the ring so that he could demonstrate; Solomon
Solomon
agreed but Asmodeus
Asmodeus
threw the ring into the sea and it was swallowed by a fish. Asmodeus
Asmodeus
then swallowed the king, stood up fully with one wing touching heaven and the other earth, and spat out Solomon
Solomon
to a distance of 400 miles. The Rabbis claim this was a divine punishment for Solomon's having failed to follow three divine commands, and Solomon
Solomon
was forced to wander from city to city, until he eventually arrived in an Ammonite city where he was forced to work in the king's kitchens. Solomon
Solomon
gained a chance to prepare a meal for the Ammonite king, which the king found so impressive that the previous cook was sacked and Solomon
Solomon
put in his place; the king's daughter, Naamah , subsequently fell in love with Solomon, but the family (thinking Solomon
Solomon
a commoner) disapproved, so the king decided to kill them both by sending them into the desert. Solomon
Solomon
and the king's daughter wandered the desert until they reached a coastal city, where they bought a fish to eat, which just happened to be the one which had swallowed the magic ring. Solomon
Solomon
was then able to regain his throne and expel Asmodeus. The element of a ring thrown into the sea and found back in a fish's belly also appeared in Herodotus ' account of Polycrates
Polycrates
, the tyrant of Samos
Samos
from c. 538 BC to 522 BC.

In another familiar version of the legend of the Seal of Solomon, Asmodeus
Asmodeus
disguises himself. In some myths, he's disguised as King Solomon
Solomon
himself, while in more frequently heard versions he's disguised as a falcon, calling himself Gavyn (Gavinn or Gavin), one of King Solomon's trusted friends. The concealed Asmodeus
Asmodeus
tells travelers who have ventured up to King Solomon's grand lofty palace that the Seal of Solomon was thrown into the sea. He then convinces them to plunge in and attempt to retrieve it, for if they do they would take the throne as king.

Artifacts

Other magical items attributed to Solomon
Solomon
are his key and his Table. The latter was said to be held in Toledo, Spain
Toledo, Spain
during Visigoth rule and was part of the loot taken by Tarik ibn Ziyad
Tarik ibn Ziyad
during the Umayyad Conquest of Iberia , according to Ibn Abd-el-Hakem 's History of the Conquest of Spain. The former appears in the title of the Lesser Key of Solomon
Solomon
, a grimoire whose framing story is Solomon
Solomon
capturing demons using his ring, and forcing them to explain themselves to him. In The Book of Deadly Names, purportedly translated from Arabic manuscripts found hidden in a building in Spain, the "King of the Jinn" Fiqitush brings 72 Jinn before King Solomon
Solomon
to confess their corruptions and places of residence. Fiqitush tells King Solomon
Solomon
the recipes for curing such corruptions as each evil Jinn confesses.

Angels

Angels also helped Solomon
Solomon
in building the Temple; though not by choice. The edifice was, according to rabbinical legend, miraculously constructed throughout, the large heavy stones rising and settling in their respective places of themselves. The general opinion of the Rabbis is that Solomon
Solomon
hewed the stones by means of a shamir , a mythical worm whose mere touch cleft rocks. According to Midrash Tehillim , the shamir was brought from paradise by Solomon's eagle; but most of the rabbis state that Solomon
Solomon
was informed of the worm's haunts by Asmodeus. The shamir had been entrusted by the prince of the sea to the mountain rooster alone, and the rooster had sworn to guard it well, but Solomon's men found the bird's nest, and covered it with glass. When the bird returned, it used the shamir to break the glass, whereupon the men scared the bird, causing it to drop the worm, which the men could then bring to Solomon.

In The Kabbalah

Early adherents of the Kabbalah portray Solomon
Solomon
as having sailed through the air on a throne of light placed on an eagle, which brought him near the heavenly gates as well as to the dark mountains behind which the fallen angels Uzza and Azzazel were chained; the eagle would rest on the chains, and Solomon, using the magic ring, would compel the two angels to reveal every mystery he desired to know.

The Palace Without Entrance

According to one legend, while traveling magically, Solomon
Solomon
noticed a magnificent palace to which there appeared to be no entrance. He ordered the demons to climb to the roof and see if they could discover any living being within the building but they found only an eagle, which said that it was 700 years old, but that it had never seen an entrance. An elder brother of the eagle, 900 years old, was then found, but it also did not know the entrance. The eldest brother of these two birds, which was 1,300 years old, then declared it had been informed by its father that the door was on the west side, but that it had become hidden by sand drifted by the wind. Having discovered the entrance, Solomon
Solomon
found an idol inside that had in its mouth a silver tablet saying in Greek (a language not thought by modern scholars to have existed 1000 years before the time of Solomon) that the statue was of Shaddad, the son of 'Ad, and that it had reigned over a million cities, rode on a million horses, had under it a million vassals and slew a million warriors, yet it could not resist the angel of death .

THRONE

Solomon
Solomon
at his throne, painting by Andreas Brugger, 1777

Solomon's throne is described at length in Targum Sheni
Targum Sheni
, which is compiled from three different sources, and in two later Midrash
Midrash
. According to these, there were on the steps of the throne twelve golden lions, each facing a golden eagle. There were six steps to the throne, on which animals, all of gold, were arranged in the following order: on the first step a lion opposite an ox; on the second, a wolf opposite a sheep; on the third, a tiger opposite a camel; on the fourth, an eagle opposite a peacock, on the fifth, a cat opposite a cock; on the sixth, a sparrow-hawk opposite a dove. On the top of the throne was a dove holding a sparrow-hawk in its claws, symbolizing the dominion of Israel over the Gentiles. The first midrash claims that six steps were constructed because Solomon
Solomon
foresaw that six kings would sit on the throne, namely, Solomon, Rehoboam , Hezekiah
Hezekiah
, Manasseh , Amon , and Josiah . There was also on the top of the throne a golden candelabrum , on the seven branches of the one side of which were engraved the names of the seven patriarchs Adam, Noah, Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Job, and on the seven of the other the names of Levi, Kohath, Amram, Moses, Aaron, Eldad, Medad, and, in addition, Hur (another version has Haggai). Above the candelabrum was a golden jar filled with olive-oil and beneath it a golden basin which supplied the jar with oil and on which the names of Nadab, Abihu, and Eli and his two sons were engraved. Over the throne, twenty-four vines were fixed to cast a shadow on the king's head.

By a mechanical contrivance the throne followed Solomon
Solomon
wherever he wished to go. Supposedly, due to another mechanical trick, when the king reached the first step, the ox stretched forth its leg, on which Solomon
Solomon
leaned, a similar action taking place in the case of the animals on each of the six steps. From the sixth step the eagles raised the king and placed him in his seat, near which a golden serpent lay coiled. When the king was seated the large eagle placed the crown on his head, the serpent uncoiled itself, and the lions and eagles moved upward to form a shade over him. The dove then descended, took the scroll of the Law from the Ark, and placed it on Solomon's knees. When the king sat, surrounded by the Sanhedrin , to judge the people, the wheels began to turn, and the beasts and fowls began to utter their respective cries, which frightened those who had intended to bear false testimony. Moreover, while Solomon
Solomon
was ascending the throne, the lions scattered all kinds of fragrant spices. After Solomon's death, Pharaoh Shishak , when taking away the treasures of the Temple (I Kings xiv. 26), carried off the throne, which remained in Egypt
Egypt
until Sennacherib
Sennacherib
conquered that country. After Sennacherib's fall Hezekiah
Hezekiah
gained possession of it, but when Josiah was slain by Pharaoh Necho , the latter took it away. However, according to rabbinical accounts, Necho did not know how the mechanism worked and so accidentally struck himself with one of the lions causing him to become lame; Nebuchadnezzar, into whose possession the throne subsequently came, shared a similar fate. The throne then passed to the Persians, whose king Darius was the first to sit successfully on Solomon's throne after his death; subsequently the throne came into the possession of the Greeks and Ahasuerus
Ahasuerus
.

FREEMASONRY

Masonic rituals refer to King Solomon
Solomon
and the building of his Temple. Masonic Temples , where a Masonic Lodge
Masonic Lodge
meets, are an allegorical reference to King Solomon's Temple.

IN LITERATURE, ART AND MUSIC

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LITERATURE

* In H. Rider Haggard
H. Rider Haggard
's King Solomon\'s Mines the protagonists discover multiple settings said to belong to, or having been built at the request of King Solomon, such as 'Solomon's Great Road' and the mines themselves. Also, the two mountains which form the entrance to Kukuana Land (where the mines are located in the novel) are referred to as 'Sheba's Breasts' which could well be an allusion to the Queen of Sheba, with whom King Solomon
Solomon
had a relationship; or alternatively Solomon's mother, who was named Bathsheba. When in the mines the characters also contemplate what must have occurred to prevent King Solomon
Solomon
from ever returning to retrieve the massive amounts of diamonds, gold and ivory tusks that were found buried in his great 'Treasure Chamber'. * In The Divine Comedy the spirit of Solomon
Solomon
appears to Dante Alighieri in the Heaven of the Sun with other exemplars of inspired wisdom. * In Friedrich Dürrenmatt 's Die Physiker , the physicist Möbius claims that Solomon
Solomon
appears to him and dictates the "theory of all possible inventions" (based on Unified Field Theory
Unified Field Theory
). * Solomon
Solomon
appears in Kipling's Just So Stories
Just So Stories
. * In Neal Stephenson
Neal Stephenson
's three-volume The Baroque Cycle
The Baroque Cycle
, 17th-century alchemists like Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
believe that Solomon
Solomon
created a kind of "heavier" gold with mystical properties and that it was cached in the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
where it was accidentally discovered by the crew of a wayward Spanish galleon. In the third volume of The Baroque Cycle, The System of the World, a mysterious member of the entourage of Czar Peter I of Russia
Russia
, named " Solomon
Solomon
Kohan " appears in early 18th-century London. The czar, traveling incognito to purchase English-made ships for his navy , explains that he added him to his court after the Sack of Azov , where Kohan had been a guest of the Pasha
Pasha
. Solomon
Solomon
Kohan is later revealed as one of the extremely long-lived "Wise" Enoch Root , and compares a courtyard full of inventors' workstations to "an operation I used to have in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
a long time ago," denominating either facility as "a temple." * In Bartimaeus: The Ring of Solomon , both King Solomon
Solomon
and the Queen of Sheba are featured prominently. * Solomon, King of Urushalim, is a significant character in The Shadow Prince , the first novel of Philip Armstrong 's epic historical fantasy , The Chronicles of Tupiluliuma . His Ring is an Atalantaën Relic, by which is he able to command daemons. He uses it to summon a daemon army, thereafter called the Cohort of Free Daemons, to oppose the forces of the Chaos God, Sutekh , thus allowing the young Hittite musician, Lisarwa, to repair the Veil that separates the physical world from the dangerous wild energies of the Netherworld, using another of the relics, the Harp of Daud, once owned by his father (King David). Solomon's son, Rehoboam also appears in a minor capacity. * In the Japanese manga series Magi: The Labyrinth of Magic , Solomon
Solomon
was a powerful magician which united all of the world under his peaceful rule. However, when this world was destroyed by a calamity, he created the world Magi
Magi
is set in and saved mankind by sending them there. A special power originated from him, the "Wisdom of Solomon", allows the main character Aladdin to talk directly with the soul of a person, alive or dead. * In Makai Ouji: Devils and Realist , Solomon
Solomon
is a friend of Lucifer and is the "Elector" – the one who can choose the interim ruler over Hell as its emperor rests to regain his strength and had powers over demons known as his seventy-two pillars. He's also known who can control Hell or Heaven with the power of his ring. * Chapter 14 of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn ends with Huck and Jim debating over how wise Solomon
Solomon
really was. * In Francis Bacon's Essay 'Of Revenge', Solomon
Solomon
is paraphrased: "And Solomon, I am sure, saith, It is the glory of a man, to pass by an offence." * In a subject called in art the Idolatry
Idolatry
of Solomon, the foreign wives are depicted as leading Solomon
Solomon
away from Yahweh toward idolatry because they worshiped gods other than Yahweh (1 Kings 11:1–3). This forms part of the Power of Women
Power of Women
topos in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, showing the dangers women posed to even the most virtuous men.

FILM

* Solomon
Solomon
and Sheba (1959) – Epic film directed by King Vidor
King Vidor
, starring Yul Brynner
Yul Brynner
and Gina Lollobrigida * Solomon
Solomon
">

* ^ Recent History Channel promotional production about Indiana Jones's positive impact on archaeology (released Mid-May 2008, the week before the 22 May 2008 US release of Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull ); History Channel producers were shown interviewing the guardian priest, and expert discussions about the Ark were part of the fare.

REFERENCES

* ^ "In Our Time With Melvyn Bragg: King Solomon". UK : BBC Radio 4. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-10. * ^ Holy Bible. 1 Kings 11:1-3. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Williamson, H. G. M. (1976). "The Accession of Solomon
Solomon
in the Books of Chronicles". Vetus Testamentum. 26 (3): 351–361. JSTOR 10.2307/1517303 . doi :10.1163/156853376X00510 . * ^ A B Barton, George A. (1967). "Temple of Solomon". Jewish Encyclopedia. 215. New York, NY: Funk & Wagnalls. pp. 98–101. doi :10.1038/2151043a0 . Retrieved 2007-05-15. * ^ Rashi , to Megillah, 14a * ^ A B Leithart, Peter J (2000). A House for My Name. Canon Press . p. 157. ISBN 978-1-885767-69-1 . * ^ "Archaeology, Culture, and other Religions". FMC terra santa. Retrieved 2013-06-21. * ^ 1 Chronicles 14:4 * ^ 1 Chronicles 3:5 * ^ 1 Chronicles 3:1–4 * ^ A B "1 Kings 1 (ESV)". Bible
Bible
gateway. Retrieved 2010-03-03. * ^ Coogan 2009 , p. 375. * ^ A B 1 Kings 11:4 * ^ "NIV 1 Kings 11 (Solomon\'s Wives)". Bible
Bible
Gateway. Retrieved 2013-06-21. * ^ "The Kingdom of Israel". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2010-03-03. * ^ "Solomon, Testament of". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2010-03-03. * ^ Against Apion i:17, 18. * ^ Dever 2001 . * ^ A B C Finkelstein & Silberman 2001 , pp. 186–195 * ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2001 , p. 133. * ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2006 , p. 20. * ^ Thompson, Thomas L., 1999, The Bible
Bible
in History: How Writers Create a Past, Jonathan Cape, London, ISBN 978-0-224-03977-2 p. 207 * ^ Dever 2001 , p. 160. * ^ A B Shanks, Hershel, Ancient Israel: From Abraham
Abraham
to the Roman Destruction of the Temple, p. 113 * ^ See: Lemaire, South Arabia. In André Lemaire 's own words: "The first mention of Sheba in Neo-Assyrian texts is to be dated mid-8th c. BCE with the story of a caravan of 200 camels coming from Tayma and Sheba to Hindanu (Middle-Euphrates) (Cavigneaux – Ismaïl 1990: 339–357; Frame 1995: 300; Younger 2003: 279–282; Holladay 2006: 319–321)." * ^ André Lemaire , The Queen of Sheba and the Trade Between South Arabia
Arabia
and Judah, pub. in Bayn ʻEver LaʻArav: Contacts between Arabic Literature and Jewish Literature in the Middle Ages and Modern Times, volume 6; A Collection of Studies Dedicated to Prof. Yosef Tobi on the Occasion of his Retirement, ed. Ali A. Hussein and Ayelet Oettinger (Haifa: University of Haifa Press, 2013), xi–xxxiv * ^ Kitchen 2003 , p. 135. * ^ A B Kitchen 2003 , p. 123 * ^ A B Dever 2001 , p. 145 * ^ "Temple Mount: Excavation Controversy". Sacred destinations. Retrieved 2010-03-03. * ^ Harrison, RK (1969), Introduction to the Old Testament, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, pp. 722–724 * ^ Archer, GL (1964), A Survey of Old Testament Introduction, Chicago: Moody Press, pp. 276–277 * ^ Thiele 1983 , p. 193–204. * ^ Thompson, Christine; Skaggs, Sheldon. "King Solomon\'s Silver? Southern Phoenician Hacksilber Hoards and the Location of Tarshish". Internet Archaeology (35). doi :10.11141/ia.35.6 . * ^ E. Clarity, 2012, p. 305. * ^ Thiele 1983 , p. 78. * ^ 1 Kings 9:15) * ^ "tractate Sanhendrin", Talmud Bavli, p. 21b * ^ Seder Olam Rabba, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1971 (Hebrew) * ^ "SOLOMON - JewishEncyclopedia.com". Retrieved 16 April 2016. * ^ Bock, Darell (1996). Luke. The NIV Application Commentary. Zondervan. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-310-49330-3 . * ^ Taylor, René, Arquitectura y Magia. Consideraciones sobre la Idea de El Escorial
El Escorial
(in Spanish), Madrid: Siruela , enhanced from monograph in Rudolph Wittkower's 1968 festschrift. * ^ Wittkower, Rudolf; Jaffe, Irma, "Hermetism and the Mystical Architecture of the Society of Jesus", Baroque Art: The Jesuit Contribution * ^ A B Quran
Quran
%3Averse%3D102 2 :102 * ^ Robert Lebling Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia
Arabia
to Zanzibar I.B.Tauris 2010 ISBN 978-0-857-73063-3 * ^ "Qur’an, 21: 79–82". * ^ A B "Qur’an, 27: 15–19". * ^ Quran
Quran
%3Averse%3D12 34 :12 * ^ "Qur’an, 35: 35–38". * ^ Smith, Peter (2008), An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith, p. 108 * ^ Steier, E Joseph, III; Timmering, Dianne H (2008), My God! Our God?, p. 176 * ^ Ryba, Thomas; Bond, George D; Tull, Herman (2004), The Comity and Grace of Method: Essays in Honor of Edmund F. Perry, p. 399 * ^ Garlington, William (2005), The Baha'i Faith in America, p. 160

* ^ "The Story of the Fisherman", Stories from the Thousand and One Nights, The Harvard Classics, 1909–14 * ^ "Index of /". lodgechelmsford.com. Retrieved 2014-08-29. * ^ "Freemasons NSW & ACT – Home". masons.org.au. Retrieved 2014-08-29. * ^ ISBN 978-1533673503 * ^ H Diane Russell (ed), Eva/Ave; Women in Renaissance and Baroque Prints, pp. 162–164, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1990, ISBN 1558610391 * ^ http://www.thesongmovie.com/ * ^ "\'The Song\' is a modern story of love, faith". www.catholicsentinel.org. Catholic Sentinel. * ^ Antony, James R. (March 1, 2003). French Baroque Music from Beaujoyeulx to Rameau: (2nd ed.). Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 278. ISBN 978-0393009675 . * ^ "G. F. Handel\'s Compositions". The Handel Institute. Archived from the original on 2013-09-24. Retrieved 2013-09-28.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Coogan, Michael D (2009). A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. Oxford University Press. * Dever, William G. (2001). What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?: What Archaeology Can Tell Us about the Reality of Ancient Israel. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Pub. ISBN 978-0-8028-4794-2 . OCLC
OCLC
45487499 . * ——— (2003). Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From?. William B Eermans . ISBN 0-8028-0975-8 . * Finkelstein, Israel ; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology\'s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2338-1 . * ———; Silberman, Neil Asher (2002) . The Bible
Bible
Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision. Simon & Schuster
Simon & Schuster
. ISBN 978-0-684-86913-1 . * ———; Silberman, Neil Asher (2006). David
David
and Solomon: In Search of the Bible's Sacred Kings and the Roots of the Western Tradition. Free Press . ISBN 0-7432-4362-5 . * Levy, Thomas E; Higham, Thomas, eds. (2005). The Bible
Bible
and Radiocarbon Dating: Archaeology, Text and Science. London; Oakville, CT : Equinox. ISBN 978-1-84553-056-3 . OCLC
OCLC
60453952 . * Kitchen, Kenneth A. (2003). On the reliability of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans . ISBN 0-8028-4960-1 . * Thiele, ER (1983). The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (3rd ed.). Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to SOLOMON .

Wikiquote has quotations related to: SOLOMON

* A collection of King Solomon
Solomon
links on the Web, LT : VDU, archived from the original on 2008-01-15 . * Oussani, Gabriel