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Småland
Småland
(Swedish pronunciation: [ˈsmoːland] ( listen)) is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden. Småland
Småland
borders Blekinge, Scania
Scania
(Swedish: Skåne), Halland, Västergötland, Östergötland
Östergötland
and the island Öland
Öland
in the Baltic Sea. The name Småland
Småland
literally means Small Lands.[2] The Latinized form Smolandia has been used in other languages. The highest point in Småland
Småland
is Tomtabacken, at 377 metres (1,237 ft).

Contents

1 Administration 2 Heraldry 3 Population 4 Geography

4.1 Terrain 4.2 Climate

5 History

5.1 Historical cities 5.2 National parks 5.3 Religion 5.4 Culture

6 Education

6.1 Literature 6.2 Smålandians 6.3 Language

7 Sub-divisions

7.1 Small lands 7.2 Hundreds 7.3 Towns in Småland

8 Sports 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

Administration[edit] The traditional provinces of Sweden
Sweden
serve no administrative or political purposes, but are historical and cultural entities. The province is divided into the three administrative counties: Jönköping
Jönköping
County, Kalmar County
Kalmar County
and Kronoberg County, which roughly cover the entire Småland
Småland
province. Smaller areas of Småland, however, are situated in Halland County
Halland County
and Östergötland
Östergötland
County. Heraldry[edit] Main article: Heraldry of Småland The current coat of arms, granted in 1569, features a rampant red lion on a golden shield carrying a crossbow. The arms may appear with a ducal coronet. Blazon: "Or a lion rampant Gules langued and armed Azure holding in front paws a Crossbow of the second bowed and stringed Sable with a bolt Argent." Population[edit] The population of Småland
Småland
was 754,535 as of 31 December 2016, distributed over five counties as follows:[1]

County Population

Jönköping
Jönköping
County, largely 333,923

Kalmar
Kalmar
County, largely 216,455

Kronoberg County, entirely 194,628

Halland
Halland
County, peripherally 7,574

Östergötland
Östergötland
County, peripherally 1,955

Locality Population

Jönköping 89,396

Växjö 65,387

Kalmar 36,392

Västervik 21,140

Värnamo 18,696

Oskarshamn 17,258

Nässjö 16,678

Ljungby 15,205

Tranås 14,197

Vetlanda 13,050

Nybro 12,810

Geography[edit]

An image from a canyon in the forested Småland.

The geography is dominated by a forested high plain where the soil is mixed with sand and small boulders, making it barren in all except the coastal areas, and unsuited for agriculture except in certain locations, notably the Kalmar
Kalmar
Plains. The province is rich in lakes and bogs. The coast consists of an archipelago of islands and bays in the north and cultivated flatlands in the south. In total, cultivated land covers 14%, meadows 7% and forest 50%.[3] Except for a lack of deep valleys the landscape is similar to the Norrland terrain
Norrland terrain
found further north in Sweden.[4] Largest towns are Jönköping
Jönköping
in the north-west, Växjö
Växjö
in the south, and Kalmar
Kalmar
on the east coast near Öland
Öland
Island. Terrain[edit] Småland
Småland
constitutes the central, eastern and southern parts of the South Swedish highlands. In detail the topography of Småland
Småland
is that of a series of flat surfaces built-upon or deformed-by a geological dome.[5][6] The elevated terrain thought to be a buckle formed as result of far-away forces transmitted to Sweden.[7] The main surfaces are the Sub-Cambrian peneplain, the South Småland peneplain
South Småland peneplain
and the "200 m peneplain".[5][6] These surfaces and others are arranged in a stepped sequence called a piedmonttreppen.[6] In eastern Småland
Småland
the Sub-Cambrian peneplain
Sub-Cambrian peneplain
forms a gently east-dipping surface that reaches the sea.[5][A] To the west this part of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain terminates along a north-south escarpment (runs slightly east of Växjö) that separates it from other flat surfaces.[5] Central and northwestern Småland
Småland
contains strings of isolated hills.[5] The lakes and rivers of Småland
Småland
are associated to zones of weak rock, be it either fractures, weathered rock or both. The great number of lakes in Småland
Småland
is indebted to the creation of basins due to the stripping of an irregular mantle of weathered rock by glacier erosion.[8] Lagan and Nissan drains western Småland
Småland
following for most of their course zones of weak rock associated to the Protogine Zone.[5][9] The lakes Rusken, Rymmen and Möckeln are aligned with a more eastern branch of the Protogine Zone.[9] Canyons cut into the bedrock are common in central and northern Småland, with the area near Mörlunda
Mörlunda
containing various particularly narrow (<50 m) canyons.[10][11][B] Climate[edit] The climate of Småland
Småland
is divided between the oceanic climate of coastal areas such as Kalmar[12] and the humid continental climate of the interior higher areas such as Jönköping.[13] Southern interior areas such as Växjö
Växjö
have similar oceanic climates such as the coastline.[14] However, temperature average differences between areas are relatively small, since Småland
Småland
lies in the continental/oceanic transition zone. Summer daytime averages are similar throughout the province, since according to Weatherbase all three major urban areas are on average around 21 °C (70 °F) with daytime winter temperatures hovering around the freezing point. The slightly colder nights averaging −5 °C (23 °F) in Jönköping
Jönköping
are rendering its continental classification.[15] The locality of Målilla has the Swedish and Scandinavian all-time highest-measured temperature with 38 °C (100 °F) on June 1, 1947.[16] History[edit] The area was probably populated in the Stone Age
Stone Age
from the south, by people moving along the coast up to Kalmar. Småland
Småland
was populated by Stone Age
Stone Age
peoples by at least 6000 BC, since the Alby People
Alby People
are known to have crossed the ice bridge across the Kalmar
Kalmar
Strait at that time. The name Småland
Småland
("small lands") comes from the fact that it was a combination of several independent lands, Kinda (today a part of Östergötland), Tveta, Vista, Vedbo, Tjust, Sevede, Aspeland, Handbörd, Möre, Värend, Finnveden
Finnveden
and Njudung. Every small land had its own law in the Viking age and early middle age and could declare themselves neutral in wars Sweden
Sweden
was involved in, at least if the King had no army present at the parliamentary debate. Around 1350, in the reign of king Magnus Eriksson, the first national law code was introduced in Sweden, and the historic provinces lost much of their old autonomy. The city of Kalmar
Kalmar
is one of the oldest cities of Sweden, and in the medieval age it was the southernmost and the third largest city in Sweden, when it was a center for export of iron, which, in many cases, was handled by German merchants. At the time, Scania
Scania
and Blekinge
Blekinge
were not parts of Sweden. Småland
Småland
was the center of several peasant rebellions. The one closest to being successful was Dackefejden led by Nils Dacke
Nils Dacke
in 1542–1543. When officials of king Gustav Vasa were assaulted and murdered, the king sent small expeditions to pacify the area, but all failed. Dacke was in reality the ruler of large parts of Småland
Småland
during the winter, though heavily troubled by a blockade of supplies, before finally being defeated by larger forces attacking from both Västergötland and Östergötland. Dacke held a famous battle defence at the (now ruined) Kronoberg Castle, and was shot while trying to escape to then Danish-ruled Blekinge. A geographical part of Småland
Småland
called Kingdom of Crystal
Kingdom of Crystal
is known for its many glassworks and can be historically traced back to the 18th century.

Traditional Windsor chairs perhaps made in Småland

In the 19th century, Småland
Småland
was characterized by poverty, and had a substantial emigration to North America, which additionally hampered its development. The majority of emigrants ended up in Minnesota, with a geography resembling Sweden, combining arable land with forest and lakes. Many then moved to Stamford, Texas, recruited by the state's first Swedish immigrant, Swante M. Swenson, who had become a wealthy Texas magnate[17] and friend of Sam Houston. The well known furniture company IKEA
IKEA
was founded in the Småland
Småland
town of Älmhult. Overnight between 8 and 9 January 2005 the province suffered serious damage from the storm Gudrun. Historical cities[edit] Towns with former city status were: Eksjö
Eksjö
(chartered around 1400), Gränna
Gränna
(1652), Huskvarna
Huskvarna
(1911), Jönköping
Jönköping
(1284), Kalmar (approximately 1100), Ljungby
Ljungby
(1936), Nybro
Nybro
(1932), Nässjö
Nässjö
(1914), Oskarshamn
Oskarshamn
(1856), Sävsjö
Sävsjö
(1947), Tranås
Tranås
(1919), Vetlanda
Vetlanda
(1920), Vimmerby
Vimmerby
(approximately 1400), Värnamo
Värnamo
(1920), Västervik (approximately 1200), Växjö
Växjö
(1342) National parks[edit] Småland
Småland
has three national parks:

Store Mosse Norra Kvill Blå Jungfrun

Religion[edit]

Ingatorp Old Church, Småland, Sweden, ca. 1895

Compared to much of Sweden, Småland
Småland
has a higher level of religious intensity and church participation. In terms of Lutheran ecclesiastical boundaries, most of the province encompasses the diocese of Växjö. Parts of northern Småland
Småland
are in the diocese of Linköping. Småland
Småland
is also known for its free churches, although the free church congregations are concentrated in Jönköping
Jönköping
County. Most of Kalmar County and Kronoberg County
Kronoberg County
have few or no free church congregations. Politically Småland
Småland
is the strongest province for Kristdemokraterna (the Swedish Christian Democratic Party), and both of the last two leaders of the party - Göran Hägglund
Göran Hägglund
and Alf Svensson
Alf Svensson
live in Jönköping
Jönköping
Municipality in northern Småland. Culture[edit]

Farmhouses in Småland
Småland
are typically red with white corners.

The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus, sw. Carl von Linné (1707–1778), often called the father of taxonomy or "The flower-king", was born in Älmhult
Älmhult
in Småland. He gave the twinflower its Latin
Latin
name based on his own (Latin: Linnaea borealis), because of his particular fondness of it. The flower has become Småland's provincial flower. Another notable person from Älmhult
Älmhult
is Ingvar Kamprad, the founder of the global company IKEA. The name "Småland" is used as the name of the children's play areas at some IKEA
IKEA
stores. Education[edit] Småland
Småland
is home to the Linnaeus University, located in Växjö
Växjö
and Kalmar, and the Jönköping
Jönköping
University. Literature[edit] The Swedish emigration to North America
Swedish emigration to North America
during the 19th century, is best depicted in a suite of novels by author Vilhelm Moberg, which is also the basis for the musical Kristina from Duvemåla created by Benny Andersson
Benny Andersson
and Björn Ulvaeus
Björn Ulvaeus
of ABBA
ABBA
fame. In her writing, children's book author Astrid Lindgren
Astrid Lindgren
often portrayed scenes from her own childhood, growing up on a farm in Småland. Smålandians[edit] In the 20th century, Småland
Småland
has been known for its high level of entrepreneurship and low unemployment, especially in the Gnosjö region. Old Swedish encyclopedia Nordisk familjebok
Nordisk familjebok
describes the inhabitants of Småland
Småland
as follows:

the Smålandian is by nature awake and smart, diligent and hard-working, yet compliant, cunning and crafty, which gives him the advantage of being able to move through life with little means. [18]

A running joke local to Sweden, is that Smålandians are very economical, ranging from modestly frugal to utterly cheap. Ingvar Kamprad said that the Smålandian are seen as the Scotsmen of Sweden.[19] Language[edit] The local language is a Swedish dialect known as Småländska (Smalandian). This may in turn be separated in two main branches, with the northern related to the Götaland
Götaland
dialects and the southern to the Scanian dialects[citation needed]. Sub-divisions[edit] For details, see: Districts of Småland Small lands[edit]

The small lands of Småland. The black and red spots indicate runestones. The red spots indicate runestones telling of long voyages.

Aspeland Finnveden Handbörd Kinda (today a part of Östergötland) Möre Njudung (sv) Sevede Tjust Tveta Vedbo Southern Hundred (sv) Vista Värend

After the unification of Sweden, around 800–1200 AD, Småland
Småland
was for consistency divided into chartered cities and into hundreds. Hundreds[edit] The historical sub-divisions of all Sweden's provinces were through hundreds (Swedish: härad). These were Småland's hundreds:

Allbo Hundred Aspeland Hundred Handbörd Hundred Kinda Hundred Kinnevald Hundred Konga Hundred Mo Hundred Möre
Möre
Northern Hundred Möre
Möre
Southern Hundred Norrvidinge Hundred Sevede Hundred Stranda Hundred Sunnerbo Hundred Tjust
Tjust
Northern Hundred Tjust
Tjust
Southern Hundred Tunalän Hundred Tveta Hundred Uppvidinge Hundred Vedbo Northern Hundred Vedbo Southern Hundred Vista Hundred Västbo Hundred Västra Hundred Ydre Hundred Östbo Hundred Östra Hundred

Towns in Småland[edit] List of towns in Småland, Sweden Sports[edit] Football in the province is administered by Smålands Fotbollförbund. See also[edit]

Småland
Småland
and the islands Årsgång Jönköping
Jönköping
University

Notes[edit]

^ Then the surface has a continuation as unconformity beneath Öland.[5] ^ During deglaciation meltwater from the Weichsel ice flowed through the canyons contributing to their formation.[11]

References[edit]

^ a b "Folkmängd i landskapen den 31 december 2016" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica; Micropaedia Volume IX (1974) p. 278 ^ This figure is from Nordisk familjebok
Nordisk familjebok
(see details and link below). A guess would be that meadows have decreased since. ^ Lundqvist, Jan (1969). "Landskapet". In Lundqvist, Magnus. Det Moderna Sverige (in Swedish). Bonniers. pp. 64–67.  ^ a b c d e f g Lidmar-Bergström (1988). "Denudation surfaces of a shield area in southern Sweden". Geografiska Annaler. 70 A (4): 337–350.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b c Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Olvmo, Mats; Bonow, Johan M. (2017). "The South Swedish Dome: a key structure for identification of peneplains and conclusions on Phanerozoic tectonics of an ancient shield". GFF.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Japsen, Peter; Chalmers, James A.; Green, Paul F.; Bonow, Johan M. (2012). "Elevated, passive continental margins: Not rift shoulders, but expressions of episodic, post-rift burial and exhumation". Global and Planetary Change. 90–91: 73–86.  ^ Lidmar-Bergström, K.; Olsson, S.; Roaldset, E. (1999). "Relief features and palaeoweathering remnants in formerly glaciated Scandinavian basement areas". In Thiry, Médard; Simon-Coinçon, Régine. Palaeoweathering, Palaeosurfaces and Related Continental Deposits. Special
Special
publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists. 27. Blackwell Science Ltd. pp. 275–301. ISBN 0-632 -05311-9.  ^ a b Andréasson, Per-Gunnar; Rodhe, Agnes (1992). The Protogine Zone. Geology and mobility during the last 1.5 Ga (PDF) (Report). SKB technical report.  ^ Persson, Torsten (1977). "Erosion channels and canyons in the central South Swedish Highlands — a short survey" (PDF). Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland. 49: 11–18. Retrieved February 18, 2018.  ^ a b Olvmo, M. (1992). "Glaciofluvial canyons and their relation to the Late Weiochselian deglaciation in Fennoscandia". Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie. 36 (3): 343–363.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Karlmar, Sweden
Sweden
Climate summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 12 December 2014.  ^ "Jonkoping, Sweden
Sweden
Climate summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 12 December 2014.  ^ "Vaxjo, Sweden
Sweden
Köppen Climate Classification". Weatherbase. Retrieved 12 December 2014.  ^ "Jonkoping, Sweden
Sweden
temperature averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved 12 December 2014.  ^ "Hur var vädret?". Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. Retrieved 12 December 2014.  ^ TSHA "Swenson, Swante Magnus, 1816-1896, Handbook of Texas), Texas State Historical Society. ^ Smålänningen är till sin natur vaken och intelligent, flitig och sträfsam, rask och hurtig, men likväl foglig till lynnet, händig och slug, hvilket allt medför åt honom den förmånen, att han äfven med små medel kan taga sig fram i lifvet. . p.62; source as above. ^ SSR TSR March 24, 2006

article Småland
Småland
from Nordisk Familjebok
Nordisk Familjebok
(1917). In Swedish.

External links[edit]

Visit Småland
Småland
- Official tourist site (Kronoberg and Jönköping counties) Eastern Småland
Småland
and Öland
Öland
- Official tourist site ( Kalmar
Kalmar
County) Visit Sweden
Sweden
- Sweden's official website for tourism and travel information (in English) Travel Smaland

v t e

Lands and Provinces of Sweden

Götaland

Blekinge Bohuslän Dalsland Gotland Halland Öland Östergötland Scania Småland Västergötland

Svealand

Dalarna Närke Södermanland Uppland Värmland Västmanland

Norrland

Ångermanland Gästrikland Hälsingland Härjedalen Jämtland Lappland Medelpad Norrbotten Västerbotten

Coordinates: 57°06′04″N 14°53′53″E / 57.101°N 14.898°E / 57

.