pronunciation: [ˈsmoːland] ( listen)) is a historical
province (landskap) in southern Sweden.
Småland borders Blekinge,
Scania (Swedish: Skåne), Halland, Västergötland,
Öland in the Baltic Sea. The name
Småland literally means
Small Lands. The Latinized form Smolandia has been used in other
languages. The highest point in
Småland is Tomtabacken, at 377 metres
5.1 Historical cities
5.2 National parks
7.1 Small lands
7.3 Towns in Småland
9 See also
12 External links
The traditional provinces of
Sweden serve no administrative or
political purposes, but are historical and cultural entities. The
province is divided into the three administrative counties:
Kalmar County and Kronoberg County, which roughly
cover the entire
Småland province. Smaller areas of Småland,
however, are situated in
Halland County and
Main article: Heraldry of Småland
The current coat of arms, granted in 1569, features a rampant red lion
on a golden shield carrying a crossbow. The arms may appear with a
ducal coronet. Blazon: "Or a lion rampant Gules langued and armed
Azure holding in front paws a Crossbow of the second bowed and
stringed Sable with a bolt Argent."
The population of
Småland was 754,535 as of 31 December 2016,
distributed over five counties as follows:
Jönköping County, largely
Kalmar County, largely
Kronoberg County, entirely
Halland County, peripherally
Östergötland County, peripherally
An image from a canyon in the forested Småland.
The geography is dominated by a forested high plain where the soil is
mixed with sand and small boulders, making it barren in all except the
coastal areas, and unsuited for agriculture except in certain
locations, notably the
Kalmar Plains. The province is rich in lakes
and bogs. The coast consists of an archipelago of islands and bays in
the north and cultivated flatlands in the south. In total, cultivated
land covers 14%, meadows 7% and forest 50%. Except for a lack of
deep valleys the landscape is similar to the
Norrland terrain found
further north in Sweden.
Largest towns are
Jönköping in the north-west,
Växjö in the south,
Kalmar on the east coast near
Småland constitutes the central, eastern and southern parts of the
South Swedish highlands. In detail the topography of
Småland is that
of a series of flat surfaces built-upon or deformed-by a geological
dome. The elevated terrain thought to be a buckle formed as
result of far-away forces transmitted to Sweden. The main surfaces
are the Sub-Cambrian peneplain, the
South Småland peneplain
South Småland peneplain and the
"200 m peneplain". These surfaces and others are arranged in a
stepped sequence called a piedmonttreppen. In eastern
Sub-Cambrian peneplain forms a gently east-dipping surface that
reaches the sea.[A] To the west this part of the Sub-Cambrian
peneplain terminates along a north-south escarpment (runs slightly
east of Växjö) that separates it from other flat surfaces.
Central and northwestern
Småland contains strings of isolated
The lakes and rivers of
Småland are associated to zones of weak rock,
be it either fractures, weathered rock or both. The great number of
Småland is indebted to the creation of basins due to the
stripping of an irregular mantle of weathered rock by glacier
erosion. Lagan and Nissan drains western
Småland following for
most of their course zones of weak rock associated to the Protogine
Zone. The lakes Rusken, Rymmen and Möckeln are aligned with a
more eastern branch of the Protogine Zone. Canyons cut into the
bedrock are common in central and northern Småland, with the area
Mörlunda containing various particularly narrow (<50 m)
The climate of
Småland is divided between the oceanic climate of
coastal areas such as Kalmar and the humid continental climate of
the interior higher areas such as Jönköping. Southern interior
areas such as
Växjö have similar oceanic climates such as the
coastline. However, temperature average differences between areas
are relatively small, since
Småland lies in the continental/oceanic
transition zone. Summer daytime averages are similar throughout the
province, since according to Weatherbase all three major urban areas
are on average around 21 °C (70 °F) with daytime winter
temperatures hovering around the freezing point. The slightly colder
nights averaging −5 °C (23 °F) in
rendering its continental classification. The locality of Målilla
has the Swedish and Scandinavian all-time highest-measured temperature
with 38 °C (100 °F) on June 1, 1947.
The area was probably populated in the
Stone Age from the south, by
people moving along the coast up to Kalmar.
Småland was populated by
Stone Age peoples by at least 6000 BC, since the
Alby People are known
to have crossed the ice bridge across the
Kalmar Strait at that time.
Småland ("small lands") comes from the fact that it was a
combination of several independent lands, Kinda (today a part of
Östergötland), Tveta, Vista, Vedbo, Tjust, Sevede, Aspeland,
Handbörd, Möre, Värend,
Finnveden and Njudung. Every small land had
its own law in the Viking age and early middle age and could declare
themselves neutral in wars
Sweden was involved in, at least if the
King had no army present at the parliamentary debate. Around 1350, in
the reign of king Magnus Eriksson, the first national law code was
introduced in Sweden, and the historic provinces lost much of their
The city of
Kalmar is one of the oldest cities of Sweden, and in the
medieval age it was the southernmost and the third largest city in
Sweden, when it was a center for export of iron, which, in many cases,
was handled by German merchants. At the time,
not parts of Sweden.
Småland was the center of several peasant rebellions. The one closest
to being successful was Dackefejden led by
Nils Dacke in 1542–1543.
When officials of king Gustav Vasa were assaulted and murdered, the
king sent small expeditions to pacify the area, but all failed. Dacke
was in reality the ruler of large parts of
Småland during the winter,
though heavily troubled by a blockade of supplies, before finally
being defeated by larger forces attacking from both Västergötland
and Östergötland. Dacke held a famous battle defence at the (now
ruined) Kronoberg Castle, and was shot while trying to escape to then
A geographical part of
Kingdom of Crystal
Kingdom of Crystal is known for
its many glassworks and can be historically traced back to the 18th
Traditional Windsor chairs perhaps made in Småland
In the 19th century,
Småland was characterized by poverty, and had a
substantial emigration to North America, which additionally hampered
its development. The majority of emigrants ended up in Minnesota, with
a geography resembling Sweden, combining arable land with forest and
lakes. Many then moved to Stamford, Texas, recruited by the state's
first Swedish immigrant, Swante M. Swenson, who had become a wealthy
Texas magnate and friend of Sam Houston.
The well known furniture company
IKEA was founded in the
Overnight between 8 and 9 January 2005 the province suffered serious
damage from the storm Gudrun.
Towns with former city status were:
Eksjö (chartered around 1400),
Jönköping (1284), Kalmar
Vimmerby (approximately 1400),
Värnamo (1920), Västervik
Småland has three national parks:
Ingatorp Old Church, Småland, Sweden, ca. 1895
Compared to much of Sweden,
Småland has a higher level of religious
intensity and church participation.
In terms of Lutheran ecclesiastical boundaries, most of the province
encompasses the diocese of Växjö. Parts of northern
Småland are in
the diocese of Linköping.
Småland is also known for its free churches, although the free church
congregations are concentrated in
Jönköping County. Most of Kalmar
Kronoberg County have few or no free church congregations.
Småland is the strongest province for Kristdemokraterna
(the Swedish Christian Democratic Party), and both of the last two
leaders of the party -
Göran Hägglund and
Alf Svensson live in
Jönköping Municipality in northern Småland.
Småland are typically red with white corners.
The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus, sw. Carl von Linné (1707–1778),
often called the father of taxonomy or "The flower-king", was born in
Älmhult in Småland. He gave the twinflower its
Latin name based on
his own (Latin: Linnaea borealis), because of his particular fondness
of it. The flower has become Småland's provincial flower.
Another notable person from
Älmhult is Ingvar Kamprad, the founder of
the global company IKEA. The name "Småland" is used as the name of
the children's play areas at some
Småland is home to the Linnaeus University, located in
Kalmar, and the
Swedish emigration to North America
Swedish emigration to North America during the 19th century, is
best depicted in a suite of novels by author Vilhelm Moberg, which is
also the basis for the musical Kristina from Duvemåla created by
Benny Andersson and
Björn Ulvaeus of
In her writing, children's book author
Astrid Lindgren often portrayed
scenes from her own childhood, growing up on a farm in Småland.
In the 20th century,
Småland has been known for its high level of
entrepreneurship and low unemployment, especially in the Gnosjö
Old Swedish encyclopedia
Nordisk familjebok describes the inhabitants
Småland as follows:
the Smålandian is by nature awake and smart, diligent and
hard-working, yet compliant, cunning and crafty, which gives him the
advantage of being able to move through life with little means. 
A running joke local to Sweden, is that Smålandians are very
economical, ranging from modestly frugal to utterly cheap. Ingvar
Kamprad said that the Smålandian are seen as the Scotsmen of
The local language is a Swedish dialect known as Småländska
(Smalandian). This may in turn be separated in two main branches, with
the northern related to the
Götaland dialects and the southern to the
Scanian dialects.
For details, see: Districts of Småland
The small lands of Småland. The black and red spots indicate
runestones. The red spots indicate runestones telling of long voyages.
Kinda (today a part of Östergötland)
Vedbo Southern Hundred (sv)
After the unification of Sweden, around 800–1200 AD,
for consistency divided into chartered cities and into hundreds.
The historical sub-divisions of all Sweden's provinces were through
hundreds (Swedish: härad). These were Småland's hundreds:
Möre Northern Hundred
Möre Southern Hundred
Tjust Northern Hundred
Tjust Southern Hundred
Vedbo Northern Hundred
Vedbo Southern Hundred
Towns in Småland
List of towns in Småland, Sweden
Football in the province is administered by Smålands Fotbollförbund.
Småland and the islands
^ Then the surface has a continuation as unconformity beneath
^ During deglaciation meltwater from the Weichsel ice flowed through
the canyons contributing to their formation.
^ a b "Folkmängd i landskapen den 31 december 2016" (in Swedish).
Statistics Sweden. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica; Micropaedia Volume IX (1974) p. 278
^ This figure is from
Nordisk familjebok (see details and link below).
A guess would be that meadows have decreased since.
^ Lundqvist, Jan (1969). "Landskapet". In Lundqvist, Magnus. Det
Moderna Sverige (in Swedish). Bonniers. pp. 64–67.
^ a b c d e f g Lidmar-Bergström (1988). "Denudation surfaces of a
shield area in southern Sweden". Geografiska Annaler. 70 A (4):
337–350. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ a b c Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Olvmo, Mats; Bonow, Johan M. (2017).
"The South Swedish Dome: a key structure for identification of
peneplains and conclusions on Phanerozoic tectonics of an ancient
shield". GFF. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ Japsen, Peter; Chalmers, James A.; Green, Paul F.; Bonow, Johan M.
(2012). "Elevated, passive continental margins: Not rift shoulders,
but expressions of episodic, post-rift burial and exhumation". Global
and Planetary Change. 90–91: 73–86.
^ Lidmar-Bergström, K.; Olsson, S.; Roaldset, E. (1999). "Relief
features and palaeoweathering remnants in formerly glaciated
Scandinavian basement areas". In Thiry, Médard; Simon-Coinçon,
Régine. Palaeoweathering, Palaeosurfaces and Related Continental
Special publication of the International Association of
Sedimentologists. 27. Blackwell Science Ltd. pp. 275–301.
ISBN 0-632 -05311-9.
^ a b Andréasson, Per-Gunnar; Rodhe, Agnes (1992). The Protogine
Zone. Geology and mobility during the last 1.5 Ga (PDF) (Report). SKB
^ Persson, Torsten (1977). "Erosion channels and canyons in the
central South Swedish Highlands — a short survey" (PDF). Bulletin of
the Geological Society of Finland. 49: 11–18. Retrieved February 18,
^ a b Olvmo, M. (1992). "Glaciofluvial canyons and their relation to
the Late Weiochselian deglaciation in Fennoscandia". Zeitschrift für
Geomorphologie. 36 (3): 343–363. access-date= requires url=
Sweden Climate summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 12
Sweden Climate summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 12
Sweden Köppen Climate Classification". Weatherbase.
Retrieved 12 December 2014.
Sweden temperature averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved 12
^ "Hur var vädret?". Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological
Institute. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
^ TSHA "Swenson, Swante Magnus, 1816-1896, Handbook of Texas), Texas
State Historical Society.
^ Smålänningen är till sin natur vaken och intelligent, flitig och
sträfsam, rask och hurtig, men likväl foglig till lynnet, händig
och slug, hvilket allt medför åt honom den förmånen, att han
äfven med små medel kan taga sig fram i lifvet. . p.62; source as
^ SSR TSR March 24, 2006
Nordisk Familjebok (1917). In Swedish.
Småland - Official tourist site (Kronoberg and Jönköping
Öland - Official tourist site (
Sweden - Sweden's official website for tourism and travel
information (in English)
Lands and Provinces of Sweden
Coordinates: 57°06′04″N 14°53′53″E / 57.101°N
14.898°E / 57