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SMåLAND (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )) is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden
Sweden
. Småland
Småland
borders Blekinge
Blekinge
, Scania
Scania
(Swedish: Skåne), Halland
Halland
, Västergötland , Östergötland and the island Öland
Öland
in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. The name Småland
Småland
literally means Small Lands. The Latinized form Smolandia has been used in other languages. The highest point in Småland
Småland
is Tomtabacken
Tomtabacken
, at 377 metres (1,237 ft).

CONTENTS

* 1 Administration * 2 Heraldry * 3 Population

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Climate

* 5 History

* 5.1 Historical cities * 5.2 National parks * 5.3 Religion * 5.4 Culture

* 6 Education

* 6.1 Literature * 6.2 Smålandians * 6.3 Language

* 7 Sub-divisions

* 7.1 Small lands * 7.2 Hundreds * 7.3 Towns in Småland
Småland

* 8 Sports * 9 See also * 10 Notes and references * 11 External links

ADMINISTRATION

The traditional provinces of Sweden
Sweden
serve no administrative or political purposes, but are historical and cultural entities. The province is divided into the three administrative counties : Jönköping County
Jönköping County
, Kalmar County
Kalmar County
and Kronoberg County , which roughly cover the entire Småland
Småland
province. Smaller areas of Småland, however, are situated in Halland County
Halland County
and Östergötland County
Östergötland County
.

HERALDRY

Main article: Heraldry of Småland

The current coat of arms, granted in 1569, features a rampant red lion on a golden shield carrying a crossbow. The arms may appear with a ducal coronet. Blazon: "Or a lion rampant Gules langued and armed Azure holding in front paws a Crossbow of the second bowed and stringed Sable with a bolt Argent."

POPULATION

The population of Småland
Småland
was 720,358 as of December 31, 2009, distributed over five counties as follows:

COUNTY POPULATION

Jönköping County
Jönköping County
, largely 318,343

Kalmar County
Kalmar County
, largely 208,999

Kronoberg County , entirely 183,162

Halland County
Halland County
, peripherally 7,081

Östergötland County
Östergötland County
, peripherally 2,773

LOCALITY POPULATION

Jönköping
Jönköping
89,396

Växjö
Växjö
65,387

Kalmar 36,392

Västervik 21,140

Värnamo 18,696

Oskarshamn 17,258

Nässjö 16,678

Ljungby 15,205

Tranås 14,197

Vetlanda 13,050

Nybro 12,810

GEOGRAPHY

See also: South Swedish highlands , Sub-Cambrian peneplain
Sub-Cambrian peneplain
, and South Småland peneplain An image from a canyon in the forested Småland.

The geography is dominated by a forested high plain where the soil is mixed with sand and small boulders, making it barren in all except the coastal areas, and unsuited for agriculture except in certain locations, notably the Kalmar Plains. The province is rich in lakes and bogs. The coast consists of an archipelago of islands and bays in the north and cultivated flatlands in the south. In total, cultivated land covers 14%, meadows 7% and forest 50%.

Largest towns are Jönköping
Jönköping
in the north-west, Växjö
Växjö
in the south, and Kalmar on the east coast near Öland
Öland
Island.

CLIMATE

The climate of Småland
Småland
is divided between the oceanic climate of coastal areas such as Kalmar and the humid continental climate of the interior higher areas such as Jönköping. Southern interior areas such as Växjö
Växjö
have similar oceanic climates such as the coastline. However, temperature average differences between areas are relatively small, since Småland
Småland
lies in the continental/oceanic transition zone. Summer daytime averages are similar throughout the province, since according to Weatherbase all three major urban areas are on average around 21 °C (70 °F) with daytime winter temperatures hovering around the freezing point. The slightly colder nights averaging −5 °C (23 °F) in Jönköping
Jönköping
are rendering its continental classification. The locality of Målilla has the Swedish and Scandinavian all-time highest-measured temperature with 38 °C (100 °F) on June 1, 1947.

HISTORY

The area was probably populated in the Stone Age
Stone Age
from the south, by people moving along the coast up to Kalmar . Småland
Småland
was populated by Stone Age
Stone Age
peoples by at least 6000 BC, since the Alby People are known to have crossed the ice bridge across the Kalmar Strait at that time.

The name Småland
Småland
("small lands") comes from the fact that it was a combination of several independent lands, Kinda (today a part of Östergötland ), Tveta, Vista, Vedbo, Tjust , Sevede, Aspeland, Handbörd, Möre , Värend , Finnveden and Njudung. Every small land had its own law in the Viking age and early middle age and could declare themselves neutral in wars Sweden
Sweden
was involved in, at least if the King had no army present at the parliamentary debate. Around 1350, in the reign of king Magnus Eriksson , the first national law code was introduced in Sweden, and the historic provinces lost much of their old autonomy.

The city of Kalmar is one of the oldest cities of Sweden
Sweden
, and in the medieval age it was the southernmost and the third largest city in Sweden, when it was a center for export of iron, which, in many cases, was handled by German merchants. At the time, Scania
Scania
and Blekinge
Blekinge
were not parts of Sweden.

Småland
Småland
was the center of several peasant rebellions. The one closest to being successful was Dackefejden led by Nils Dacke in 1542–1543. When officials of king Gustav Vasa were assaulted and murdered, the king sent small expeditions to pacify the area, but all failed. Dacke was in reality the ruler of large parts of Småland during the winter, though heavily troubled by a blockade of supplies, before finally being defeated by larger forces attacking from both Västergötland and Östergötland. Dacke held a famous battle defence at the (now ruined) Kronoberg Castle , and was shot while trying to escape to then Danish-ruled Blekinge.

A geographical part of Småland
Småland
called Kingdom of Crystal is known for its many glassworks and can be historically traced back to the 18th century. Traditional Windsor chairs perhaps made in Småland

In the 19th century, Småland
Småland
was characterized by poverty, and had a substantial emigration to North America , which additionally hampered its development. The majority of emigrants ended up in Minnesota
Minnesota
, with a geography resembling Sweden, combining arable land with forest and lakes. Many came to Texas, recruited by Swante M. Swenson , a wealthy Texas magnate and friend of Sam Houston .

The well known furniture company IKEA
IKEA
was founded in the Småland town of Älmhult .

Overnight between 8 and 9 January 2005 the province suffered serious damage from the storm Gudrun .

HISTORICAL CITIES

Towns with former city status were: Eksjö (chartered around 1400), Gränna (1652), Huskvarna (1911), Jönköping
Jönköping
(1284), Kalmar (approximately 1100), Ljungby (1936), Nybro (1932), Nässjö (1914), Oskarshamn (1856), Sävsjö (1947), Tranås (1919), Vetlanda (1920), Vimmerby (approximately 1400), Värnamo (1920), Västervik (approximately 1200), Växjö
Växjö
(1342)

NATIONAL PARKS

Småland
Småland
has three national parks:

* Store Mosse * Norra Kvill * Blå Jungfrun

RELIGION

Ingatorp Old Church, Småland, Sweden, ca. 1895

Compared to much of Sweden, Småland
Småland
has a higher level of religious intensity and church participation.

In terms of Lutheran ecclesiastical boundaries, most of the province encompasses the diocese of Växjö
Växjö
. Parts of northern Småland
Småland
are in the diocese of Linköping .

Småland
Småland
is also known for its free churches , although the free church congregations are concentrated in Jönköping
Jönköping
County. Most of Kalmar County
Kalmar County
and Kronoberg County have few or no free church congregations.

Politically Småland
Småland
is the strongest province for Kristdemokraterna (the Swedish Christian Democratic Party) , and both of the last two leaders of the party - Göran Hägglund and Alf Svensson live in Jönköping
Jönköping
Municipality in northern Småland.

CULTURE

Farmhouses in Småland
Småland
are typically red with white corners.

The Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus
Carolus Linnaeus
, sw. Carl von Linné (1707–1778), often called the father of taxonomy or "The flower-king", was born in Älmhult in Småland. He gave the twinflower its Latin
Latin
name based on his own (Latin: Linnaea borealis), because of his particular fondness of it. The flower has become Småland's provincial flower.

Another notable person from Älmhult is Ingvar Kamprad , the founder of the global company IKEA
IKEA
. The name "Småland" is used as the name of the children's play areas at some IKEA
IKEA
stores.

EDUCATION

Småland
Småland
is home to the Linnaeus University
Linnaeus University
, located in Växjö
Växjö
and Kalmar, and the Jönköping
Jönköping
University .

LITERATURE

The Swedish emigration to North America during the 19th century, is best depicted in a suite of novels by author Vilhelm Moberg
Vilhelm Moberg
, which is also the basis for the musical Kristina from Duvemåla created by Benny Andersson
Benny Andersson
and Björn Ulvaeus
Björn Ulvaeus
of ABBA
ABBA
fame.

In her writing, children's book author Astrid Lindgren often portrayed scenes from her own childhood, growing up on a farm in Småland.

SMåLANDIANS

In the 20th century, Småland
Småland
has been known for its high level of entrepreneurship and low unemployment, especially in the Gnosjö region .

Old Swedish encyclopedia Nordisk familjebok
Nordisk familjebok
describes the inhabitants of Småland
Småland
as follows: the Smålandian is by nature awake and smart, diligent and hard-working, yet compliant, cunning and crafty, which gives him the advantage of being able to move through life with little means.

A running joke local to Sweden, is that Smålandians are very economical, ranging from modestly frugal to utterly cheap. Ingvar Kamprad said that the Smålandian are seen as the Scotsmen of Sweden.

LANGUAGE

The local language is a Swedish dialect known as Småländska (Smalandian). This may in turn be separated in two main branches, with the northern related to the Götaland dialects and the southern to the Scanian dialects .

SUB-DIVISIONS

For details, see: Districts of Småland

SMALL LANDS

The small lands of Småland. The black and red spots indicate runestones . The red spots indicate runestones telling of long voyages.

* Aspeland * Finnveden * Handbörd * Kinda (today a part of Östergötland ) * Möre * Njudung (sv) * Sevede * Tjust * Tveta * Vedbo Southern Hundred (sv) * Vista * Värend

After the unification of Sweden
Sweden
, around 800–1200 AD, Småland
Småland
was for consistency divided into chartered cities and into hundreds .

HUNDREDS

The historical sub-divisions of all Sweden's provinces were through hundreds (Swedish: härad). These were Småland's hundreds:

* Allbo Hundred * Aspeland Hundred * Handbörd Hundred * Kinda Hundred * Kinnevald Hundred * Konga Hundred * Mo Hundred * Möre Northern Hundred * Möre Southern Hundred * Norrvidinge Hundred * Sevede Hundred * Stranda Hundred * Sunnerbo Hundred * Tjust Northern Hundred * Tjust Southern Hundred * Tunalän Hundred * Tveta Hundred * Uppvidinge Hundred * Vedbo Northern Hundred * Vedbo Southern Hundred * Vista Hundred * Västbo Hundred * Västra Hundred * Ydre Hundred * Östbo Hundred * Östra Hundred

TOWNS IN SMåLAND

List of towns in Småland, Sweden
Sweden

SPORTS

Football in the province is administered by Smålands Fotbollförbund .

SEE ALSO

* Småland and the islands * Årsgång * Jönköping
Jönköping
University

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ A B Statistics Sweden
Sweden
Archived 2010-08-20 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica; Micropaedia Volume IX (1974) p. 278 * ^ This figure is from Nordisk familjebok
Nordisk familjebok
(see details and link below). A guess would be that meadows have decreased since. * ^ "Karlmar, Sweden
Sweden
Climate summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 12 December 2014. * ^ "Jonkoping, Sweden
Sweden
Climate summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 12 December 2014. * ^ "Vaxjo, Sweden
Sweden
Köppen Climate Classification". Weatherbase. Retrieved 12 December 2014. * ^ "Jonkoping, Sweden
Sweden
temperature averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved 12 December 2014. * ^ "Hur var vädret?". Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. Retrieved 12 December 2014. * ^ Smålänningen är till sin natur vaken och intelligent, flitig och sträfsam, rask och hurtig, men likväl foglig till lynnet, händig och slug, hvilket allt medför åt honom den förmånen, att han äfven med små medel kan taga sig fram i lifvet. . p.62; source as above. * ^ SSR TSR March 24, 2006

* article Småland
Småland
from Nordisk Familjebok
Nordisk Familjebok
(1917). In Swedish.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Visit Småland
Småland
- Official tourist site (Kronoberg and Jönköping counties) * Eastern Småland
Småland
and Öland
Öland
- Official tourist site (Kalmar County) * VisitSweden