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Sita
Sita
(pronounced [ˈsiː t̪aː]  listen (help·info), Sanskrit: सीता, IAST: Sītā) or Seeta, is the consort of Lord Rama
Rama
(incarnation of Vishnu) and an avatar of Sri Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess that denotes good sign, good fortune, prosperity, success, and happiness. She is esteemed as the paragon of spousal and feminine virtues for all women.[6] Sita
Sita
is the central female character and one of the central figures in the Hindu
Hindu
epic, the Ramayana. She is described as the daughter of the earth goddess, Bhūmi
Bhūmi
and the adopted daughter of King Janaka
Janaka
of Videha
Videha
and his wife, Queen Sunaina. She has a younger sister, Urmila, and the female cousins Mandavi
Mandavi
and Shrutakirti.[7][8] Sita
Sita
is known for her dedication, self-sacrifice, courage and purity. Sita, in her youth, marries Lord Rama, the prince of Ayodhya. After marriage, she goes to exile with her husband and brother-in-law Lakshmana. While in exile, the trio settle in the Dandaka forest from where she is abducted by Ravana, the Rakshasa
Rakshasa
king of Lanka. She is imprisoned in Ashoka Vatika
Ashoka Vatika
in Lanka
Lanka
until she is rescued by Rama, who slays her captor. After the war, Rama
Rama
asks Sita
Sita
to undergo Agni Pariksha (an ordeal of fire) by which she proves her purity before she is accepted by Rama, which for the first time makes his brother Lakshmana
Lakshmana
get angry at him. In some versions of the epic, the fire-god Agni creates Maya Sita, who takes Sita's place and is abducted by Ravana
Ravana
and suffers his captivity, while the real Sita
Sita
hides in the fire. During the Agni Pariksha, Maya Sita
Maya Sita
and the real Sita
Sita
exchange places again. While some texts say that Maya Sita
Maya Sita
is destroyed in the flames of Agni Pariksha, others narrate how she is blessed and reborn as the epic heroine Draupadi or the goddess Padmavati. Some scriptures also mention her previous birth being Vedavati, a woman Ravana
Ravana
tries to molest.[citation needed] After proving her purity, Rama
Rama
and Sita
Sita
return to Ayodhya, where they are crowned as king and queen. After few months, Sita
Sita
becomes pregnant, bringing doubt to the Kingdom. Rama
Rama
then sends Sita
Sita
away on exile. Lakshmana
Lakshmana
is the one who leaves Sita
Sita
in the forests near sage Valmiki's ashrama after Rama
Rama
banishes her from the kingdom. Years later, Sita returns to the womb of her mother, the Earth, for release from a cruel world as a testimony of her purity after she reunites her two sons Kusha and Lava with their father Rama.[9]

Contents

1 Etymology and other names 2 Legend

2.1 Birth 2.2 Marriage 2.3 Exile and abduction 2.4 Abandonment and later life

3 Speeches in the Ramayana 4 Jain version 5 Symbolism 6 Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
on Sita 7 Portrayal 8 Temples 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

Etymology and other names[edit]

Rama
Rama
and Sita
Sita
in the Forest by an Indian painter from 1780

The goddess is best known by the name "Sita", derived from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word sīta, furrow.[10] According to Ramayana, Janaka
Janaka
found her while ploughing as a part of a yagna and adopted her. The word Sīta was a poetic term, its imagery redolent of fecundity and the many blessings coming from settled agriculture. The Sita
Sita
of the Ramayana
Ramayana
may have been named after a more ancient Vedic goddess Sita, who is mentioned once in the Rigveda
Rigveda
as an earth goddess who blesses the land with good crops. In the Vedic period, she was one of the goddesses associated with fertility. A Vedic hymn (Rig Veda 4:57) recites:

“ Auspicious Sita, come thou near; We venerate and worship thee That thou mayst bless and prosper us And bring us fruits abundantly.

In Harivamsa, Sita
Sita
is invoked as one of the names of the goddess Arya:

“ O goddess, you are the altar's center in the sacrifice, The priest's fee Sita
Sita
to those who hold the plough And Earth to all living being.

The Kausik-sutra and the Paraskara-sutra associate her repeatedly as the wife of Parjanya (a god associated with rains) and Indra.[10] Sita
Sita
is known by many epithets. She is called Jānaki as the daughter of Janaka
Janaka
and Maithili as the princess of Mithila.[11] As the wife of Rama, she is called Ramā. Her father Janaka
Janaka
had earned the sobriquet Videha
Videha
due to his ability to transcend body consciousness; Sita
Sita
is therefore also known as Vaidehi.[11] Legend[edit] Birth[edit]

Rama, Sita
Sita
and Lakshmana

The birthplace of Sita
Sita
is disputed.[12]The Sita
Sita
Kund[13] pilgrimage site which is located in present-day Sitamarhi
Sitamarhi
district,[14][15]Bihar, India
India
is viewed as the birthplace of Sita. Apart from Sitamarhi, Janakpur
Janakpur
which is located in the present-day Province No. 2, Nepal,[16][17] is also described as Sita's birthplace.

Valmiki's Ramayana: In Valmiki's Ramayana
Ramayana
and Kamban's Tamil epic Ramavataram, Sita
Sita
is said to have been discovered in a furrow in a ploughed field, believed to be Sitamarhi
Sitamarhi
in Mithila region of present-day Bihar, and for that reason is regarded as a daughter of Bhūmi
Bhūmi
Devi[18] (the goddess earth). She was discovered, adopted and brought up by Janaka, king of Mithila and his wife Sunaina. Ramayana
Ramayana
Manjari: In Ramayana
Ramayana
Manjari (verses 344–366), North-western and Bengal recensions of Valmiki
Valmiki
Ramayana, it has been described as on hearing a voice from the sky and then seeing Menaka, Janaka
Janaka
expresses his wish to obtain a child and when he finds the child, he hears the same voice again telling him the infant is his spiritual child, born of Menaka.[19] Janka's real daughter: In Ramopkhyana of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and also in Paumachariya of Vimala Suri, Sita
Sita
has been depicted as Janaka's real daughter. According to Rev. Fr. Camille Bulcke, this motif that Sita was the real daughter of Janaka, as described in Ramopkhyana Mahabharata
Mahabharata
was based on the authentic version of Valmiki
Valmiki
Ramayana. Later the story of Sita
Sita
miraculously appearing in a furrow was inserted in Valmiki
Valmiki
Ramayana.[19] Reincarnation of Vedavati: Some versions of the Ramayana
Ramayana
suggest that Sita
Sita
was a reincarnation of Vedavati. Ravana
Ravana
tried to molest Vedavati and her chastity was sullied beyond Ravana's redemption when she was performing penance to become consort of Vishnu. Vedavati
Vedavati
immolated herself on a pyre to escape Ravana's lust, vowing to return in another age and be the cause of Ravana's destruction. She was duly reborn as Sita.[19] Reincarnation of Manivati: According to Gunabhadra's Uttara Purana
Uttara Purana
of the ninth century BCE, Ravana
Ravana
disturbs the asceticism of Manivati, daughter of Amitavega of Alkapuri and she pledges to take revenge on Ravana. Manivati is later reborn as the daughter of Ravana
Ravana
and Mandodari. But, astrologers predict ruin of Ravana
Ravana
because of this child. So, Ravana
Ravana
orders to kill the child. Manivati is placed in a casket and buried in the ground of Mithila where she is discovered by some of the farmers of the kingdom. Then Janka, king of that state adopts her.[19] Ravana's daughter: In Sanghadasa's Jaina version of Ramayana
Ramayana
and also in Adbhuta Ramayana, Sita, entitled Vasudevahindi, is born as daughter of Ravana. According to this version, astrologers predict that first child of Vidyadhara Maya (Ravana's wife) will destroy his lineage. Thus, Ravana
Ravana
abandons her and orders the infant to be buried in a distant land where she is later discovered and adopted by Janaka.[19]

Marriage[edit]

Rama
Rama
breaks the bow to win Sita
Sita
as wife.

When Sita
Sita
reaches adulthood, Janaka
Janaka
organizes a Swayamvara
Swayamvara
in Janakpurdham
Janakpurdham
with the condition that Sita
Sita
would marry only that person who would be able to string Pinaka, the bow of the god Shiva. Janaka knew that the bow of Shiva
Shiva
was not even liftable, let alone stringable for ordinary mortals, and for selfish people it was not even approachable. Thus, Janaka
Janaka
tries to find the best husband for Sita. At this time, Vishvamitra
Vishvamitra
had brought Rama
Rama
and his brother Lakshmana to the forest for the protection of sacrifice. Hearing about this swayamvara, Vishvamitra
Vishvamitra
asks Rama
Rama
to participate in it and takes Rama and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
to the palace of Janaka
Janaka
in Janakpur. Janaka
Janaka
is greatly pleased to learn that Rama
Rama
and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
are sons of Dasharatha. Next morning, in the middle of the hall, Rama
Rama
lifts up the bow of Shiva with his left hand, fastens the string tightly and finally breaks the bow. However, another avatar of Vishnu, Parashurama, became really angry as the bow of Shiva
Shiva
was broken. However, he does not realize that Rama
Rama
is also an avatar of Vishnu, therefore after being informed of this, he apologizes for getting angry. Thus, Rama
Rama
fulfills Janaka's condition to marry Sita. Later on Vivaha
Vivaha
Panchami, a marriage ceremony is conducted under the guidance of Satananda. Rama
Rama
marries Sita, Bharata marries Mandavi, Lakshmana
Lakshmana
marries Urmila
Urmila
and Shatrughna marries Shrutakirti.[8] Exile and abduction[edit]

Ravana
Ravana
cuts off Jatayu's wing while abducting Sita

Some time after the wedding, Kaikeyi, Rama's stepmother, compelled Dasharatha
Dasharatha
to make Bharata king, prompted by the coaxing of her maid Manthara, and forced Rama
Rama
to leave Ayodhya
Ayodhya
and spend a period of exile in the forests of Dandaka and later Panchavati. Sita
Sita
and Lakshmana willingly renounced the comforts of the palace and joined Rama
Rama
in exile. The Panchavati forest became the scene for Sita's abduction by Ravana, King of Lanka. Ravana
Ravana
kidnapped Sita, disguising himself as a mendicant, while Rama
Rama
was away fetching a golden deer to please her. Some versions of the Ramayana
Ramayana
describe Sita
Sita
taking refuge with the fire-god Agni, while Maya Sita, her illusionary double, is kidnapped by the demon-king. Jatayu, the vulture-king, tried to protect Sita
Sita
but Ravana
Ravana
chopped off his wings. Jatayu
Jatayu
survived long enough to inform Rama
Rama
of what had happened.[20]

Hanuman
Hanuman
finds Sita
Sita
in Ashokavana

Ravana
Ravana
took her back to his kingdom in Lanka
Lanka
and Sita
Sita
was held as a prisoner in one of his palaces. During her captivity for a year in Lanka, Ravana
Ravana
expressed his desire for her; however, Sita
Sita
refused his advances and struggled to maintain her chastity. Hanuman
Hanuman
was sent by Rama
Rama
to seek Sita
Sita
and eventually succeeded in discovering Sita's whereabouts. Sita
Sita
gave Hanuman
Hanuman
her jewellery and asked him to give it to her husband. Hanuman
Hanuman
returned across the sea to Rama.[20] Sita
Sita
was finally rescued by Rama, who waged a war to defeat Ravana. Upon rescue, Rama
Rama
makes Sita
Sita
undergo a trial by fire to prove her chastity. In some versions of Ramayana, during this test the fire-god Agni
Agni
appears in front of Rama
Rama
and attests to Sita's purity, or hands over to him the real Sita
Sita
and declares it was Maya Sita
Maya Sita
who was abducted by Ravana.[20] The Thai version of the Ramayana, however, tells of Sita
Sita
walking on the fire, of her own accord, to feel clean, as opposed to jumping in it. She is not burnt, and the coals turn to lotuses.

sita fire test made by Mughal artist MUKUND and BANWARI , a folio from razmnama

Abandonment and later life[edit]

Sita
Sita
returns to her mother, the Earth, as Sri Rama, her sons, and the sages watch in astonishment

The couple came back to Ayodhya, where Rama
Rama
was crowned king with Sita by his side.

Rama
Rama
and sita from Uttara-kanda

While Rama's trust and affection for Sita
Sita
never wavered, it soon became evident that some people in Ayodhya
Ayodhya
could not accept Sita's long captivity under Ravana. During Rama's period of rule, an intemperate washerman, while berating his wayward wife, declared that he was "no pusillanimous Rama
Rama
who would take his wife back after she had lived in the house of another man". This statement was reported back to Rama, who knew that the accusation against Sita
Sita
was baseless. Nevertheless, he would not let slander undermine his rule, so he sent Sita
Sita
away.

Lakshman taking leave of Sita
Sita
and valmiki help her.

Thus Sita
Sita
was forced into exile a second time. Sita, who was pregnant, was given refuge in the hermitage of Valmiki, where she delivered twin sons named Kusha and Lava.[8] In the hermitage, Sita
Sita
raised her sons alone, as a single mother.[21] They grew up to be valiant and intelligent and were eventually united with their father. Once she had witnessed the acceptance of her children by Rama, Sita
Sita
sought final refuge in the arms of her mother Bhūmi. Hearing her plea for release from an unjust world and from a life that had rarely been happy, the Earth dramatically split open; Bhūmi
Bhūmi
appeared and took Sita
Sita
away. Speeches in the Ramayana[edit]

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While the Ramayana
Ramayana
mostly concentrates on Rama's actions, Sita
Sita
also speaks many times during the exile. The first time is in the town of Chitrakuta where she narrates an ancient story to Rama, whereby Rama promises to Sita
Sita
that he will never kill anybody without provocation. The second time Sita
Sita
is shown talking prominently is when she speaks to Ravana. Ravana
Ravana
has come to her in the form of a mendicant and Sita tells him that he does not look like one. Some of her most prominent speeches are with Hanuman
Hanuman
when he reaches Lanka. Hanuman
Hanuman
wants an immediate union of Rama
Rama
and Sita
Sita
and thus he proposes to Sita
Sita
to ride on his back. Sita
Sita
refuses as she does not want to run away like a thief; instead she wants her husband Rama
Rama
to come and defeat Ravana
Ravana
to save her. Jain version[edit] Main article: Rama
Rama
in Jainism Sita
Sita
is said to be the daughter of Ravana's queen Mandodari. It was predicted that the first child of Mandodari
Mandodari
would bring annihilation to the family. Hence, Ravana
Ravana
deserted the child when she was born. The minister who was responsible for this took her in a pearl-box, placed her near a plough and told King Janaka
Janaka
of Mithila that the girl had been born from the furrow. Janaka's queen Sunaina became Sita's foster mother. There is also a narration about Sita's brother Bhamandala. He did not know that Sita
Sita
was his sister and wanted to marry her. He even wanted to abduct her. This story ends when Bhamandala, after learning that Sita
Sita
is his sister, becomes a Jain ascetic. Symbolism[edit]

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A female deity of agricultural fertility by the name Sita
Sita
was known before Valmiki's Ramayana, but was overshadowed by better-known goddesses associated with fertility. According to Ramayana, Sita
Sita
was discovered in a furrow when Janaka
Janaka
was ploughing. Since Janaka
Janaka
was a king, it is likely that ploughing was part of a royal ritual to ensure fertility of the land. Sita
Sita
is considered to be a child of Mother Earth, produced by union between the king and the land. Sita
Sita
is a personification of Earth's fertility, abundance and well-being. Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
on Sita[edit] Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
states that Rama
Rama
is considered the type of the Absolute and Sita
Sita
that of Power. Sita
Sita
is the ideal of a woman in India and worshiped as God incarnate.[22] According to Swami Vivekananda, Sita
Sita
is typical of India
India
– the idealized India. Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
assured that if world literature of the past and world literature of the future were thoroughly exhausted, yet, it would not be possible to find another Sita, because Sita
Sita
is unique; the character was depicted once for all. Swami Vivekananda felt there may have been several Ramas, perhaps, but never more than one Sita. Vivekananda said: "All our mythology may vanish, even our Vedas
Vedas
may depart and our Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language may vanish for ever, but so long as there will be five Hindus living here, even if only seeking the most vulgar patois, there will be the story of Sita
Sita
present." Sita
Sita
was a true Indian by nature, Vivekananda concluded, who never returned injury.[23] Portrayal[edit]

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Hindu
Hindu
tradition reveres Sita. She has been portrayed as an ideal daughter, an ideal wife and an ideal mother in various texts, stories, illustrations, movies and modern media. Sita
Sita
is often worshipped with Rama
Rama
as his consort. The occasion of her marriage to Rama
Rama
is celebrated as Vivaha
Vivaha
Panchami. The actions, reactions and instincts manifested by Sita
Sita
at every juncture in a long and arduous life are deemed exemplary. Her story has been portrayed in the book Sitayanam.[24] The values that she enshrined and adhered to at every point in the course of a demanding life are the values of womanly virtue held sacred by countless generations of Nepalese and Indians. Her portrayal as an ideal queen is ambiguous. Her sacrifices and actions are most often portrayed in her personal capacity and not as a governance figure. Sita
Sita
was abducted because she had to step out of the safety line to give alms to Ravana
Ravana
disguised as a Brahmin. The giving of alms to Brahmin
Brahmin
in those times was more of a duty to be performed, rather than an optional charitable act. This held true more so for the royals and they were to lead by example. Also, the incident of Sita's refusal to come back with Hanuman
Hanuman
like a common thief, her renunciation of queenhood and exile from Ayodhya
Ayodhya
after her return. All her key aspects are shown in a favourable light, not as a head of state, but as an ideal woman. In contrast, Sri Rama
Rama
is always portrayed as a fair and just king who gave highest priority to the good of his people, in addition to being depicted as an ideal husband and an ideal son. Temples[edit]

Janaki Mandir
Janaki Mandir
of Janakpur, Nepal
Nepal
a center of pilgrimage where the wedding of Sri Rama
Rama
and Sita
Sita
took place and is re-enacted yearly as Vivaha
Vivaha
Panchami

Seetha Amman Kovil, Nähe Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka

Although Sita's statue is always kept with Rama's statue in Rama temples, there are some temples dedicated to Sita:

Janaki Mandir, located at Janakpur, Nepal Sita
Sita
Mai Temple, situated in Sitamai village in the Karnal district of Haryana, India Sita
Sita
Kund, Punaura Dham, situated in Sitamarhi
Sitamarhi
District in Bihar, India Seetha Devi
Devi
Temple, Pulpally in the Waynad district, Kerala, India Seetha Amman Temple, Nähe Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka

See also[edit]

Hindu mythology
Hindu mythology
portal Indian religions portal

Amba Seetha kalyanam Sita
Sita
Sings the Blues

Notes[edit]

^ https://www.telegraphindia.com/1150206/jsp/bihar/story_1674.jsp ^ "Sitamarhi". Britannica. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ "History of Sitamarhi". Official site of Sitamarhi
Sitamarhi
district. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ "Narendra Modi Cancells his visit to Sita's birthplace Janakpur, Nepal".  ^ "Birthplace of Sita
Sita
in Janakpur, Asia Travels".  ^ "Sita, Hindu
Hindu
Deity and incarnation of Lakshmi". Michigan State University. Retrieved 1 August 2012.  ^ Sutherland, Sally J. " Sita
Sita
and Draupadi, Aggressive Behavior and Female Role-Models in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Epics" (PDF). University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 1 August 2012.  ^ a b c Swami Parmeshwaranand (2001-01-01). Encyclopaedic Dictionaries of Puranas. Sarup & Sons. pp. 1210–1220. ISBN 978-81-7625-226-3. Retrieved 31 July 2012.  ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India
India
through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 78.  ^ a b Suresh Chandra (1998). Encyclopaedia of Hindu
Hindu
Gods and Goddesses. Sarup & Sons. pp. 304–. ISBN 978-81-7625-039-9. Retrieved 1 August 2012.  ^ a b Heidi Rika Maria Pauwels (2007). Indian Literature and Popular Cinema: Recasting Classics. Routledge. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-0-415-44741-6. Retrieved 31 July 2012.  ^ " Bihar
Bihar
times". Archived from the original on 19 October 2014.  ^ https://www.telegraphindia.com/1150206/jsp/bihar/story_1674.jsp ^ "Sitamarhi". Britannica. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ "History of Sitamarhi". Official site of Sitamarhi
Sitamarhi
district. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ "Narendra Modi Cancells his visit to Sita's birthplace Janakpur, Nepal".  ^ "Birthplace of Sita
Sita
in Janakpur, Asia Travels".  ^ "The Story of Mother Sita
Sita
the consort of Rama". Salagram.net. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2012.  ^ a b c d e Singaravelu, S. "Sītā's Birth and Parentage in the Rāma Story". University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 235–240. Retrieved 31 July 2012.  ^ a b c Mani pp. 720-3; Mani, Vettam (1975). Puranic Encyclopaedia: a Comprehensive Dictionary with Special
Special
Reference to the Epic and Puranic Literature. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8426-0822-0.  ^ Bhargava, Anju P. "Contemporary Influence of Sita
Sita
by". The Infinity Foundation. Retrieved 31 July 2012.  ^ http://cwsv.belurmath.org/volume_9/lectures_and_discourses/the_women_of_india.htm ^ The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda/Volume 4/Lectures and Discourses/The Ramayana ^ "Sitayanam – A Woman's Journey of Strength" by Anju P. Bhargava Archived 1 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.

References[edit]

Jain, Pannalal (2000). Hiralal Jain, A.N. Upadhaye, ed. Ravishenacharya's Padmapurana (in Hindi) (8th ed.). New Delhi: Bhartiya Jnanpith. ISBN 81-263-0508-8.  Iyengar, Kodaganallur Ramaswami Srinivasa (2005). Asian Variations In Ramayana. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-1809-3.  Das, Sisir Kumar (2005). A History of Indian Literature, 500-1399: From the Courtly to the Popular. Sahitya Akademi. p. 124. ISBN 978-81-260-2171-0. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sita.

Sita
Sita
Kalyanam in the Valmiki
Valmiki
Ramayana  "Sītā". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

v t e

Ramayana
Ramayana
by Valmiki

Ikshvaku dynasty

Dasharatha Kausalya Sumitra Kaikeyi Shanta Rama Bharata Lakshmana Shatrughna Sita Urmila Mandavi Shrutakirti Lava Kusha (genealogy)

Vanara

Hanuman Sugriva Vali Tara Rumā Angada Nala Nila Kesari Anjana Makardhwaja

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Ravana Vibhishana Kumbhakarna Indrajit Akshayakumara Atikaya Kabandha Khara Dushan Mandodari Maricha Mayasura Narantaka-Devantaka Prahasta Sarama Subahu Sulochana Sumali Surpanakha Tataka Trijata Trishira Viradha

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Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Dāna Damah Dayā Akrodha

Schools

Astika: Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Dvaita Advaita Vishishtadvaita

Nastika: Charvaka

Texts

Classification

Śruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Aitareya Kaushitaki Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Maitri Shvetashvatara Chandogya Kena Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Vedanga

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Other

Bhagavad Gita Agamas Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Puranas Minor Upanishads Artha
Artha
Shastra Dharma
Dharma
Shastra

Manusmriti Nāradasmṛti Yājñavalkya Smṛti

Sutras Stotras Subhashita Tantras Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Ishvara Devi Deva Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Shakti Durga Kali Ganesha Kartikeya Rama Krishna Hanuman Prajapati Rudra Indra Agni Dyaus Bhumi Varuna Vayu

Practices

Worship

Temple Murti Puja Bhakti Japa Bhajana Naivedhya Yajna Homa Tapa Dhyana Tirthadana

Sanskaras

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Varnashrama

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Ashrama

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyassa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Raksha Bandhan Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Dasara)

Ganesh Chaturthi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

Other

Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

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History

Khasas Kiratas Shakya Siddhartha Gautama Maithali Sita Janaka Licchavi Arimalla Khasa kingdom Baise Rajya Chaubisi rajya Gorkha Kingdom Prithvi Narayan Shah Unification Kalu Pande Kingdom of Nepal Shah dynasty Sino-Nepalese War Bhimsen Thapa Anglo-Nepalese War Balbhadra Kunwar Treaty of Sugauli Rana dynasty Kot massacre Jung Bahadur Rana Nepalese–Tibetan War Tribhuvan Nepal–Britain Treaty of 1923 Nepali Congress Democracy movement

in 2006

Birendra Royal massacre Jana Andolan Ganesh Man Singh Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala Pushpa Kamal Dahal (Prachanda) Civil War 2015 Nepal
Nepal
Earthquake

Geography

Mountains

Himalayas

Dhaulagiri Annapurna Manaslu Mount Everest Makalu Kanchanjunga

Areas

Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Valley Siliguri Corridor
Siliguri Corridor
(Chicken's Neck) Madhesh

Inner Madhesh

Tibetan Plateau

Rivers

Arun Karnali (Ghaghara) Koshi (Kosi) Narayani (Gandaki) West Rapti

Subdivisions

Districts Regions Zones

Cities

Biratnagar Birgunj Bharatpur Hetauda Itahari Damak Janakpur Kathmandu
Kathmandu
(capital) Nepalgunj Patan Pokhara

Politics

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Intersex LGBT

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Vice President

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Economy

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Culture

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universities and colleges schools

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Religion

Hinduism Buddhism Pashupatinath Temple

Ceremonies and festivals

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Issues

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 20485

.