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The Shoshone
Shoshone
or Shoshoni (/ʃoʊˈʃoʊniː/ ( listen) or /ʃəˈʃoʊniː/ ( listen)) are a Native American tribe with four large cultural/linguistic divisions:

Eastern Shoshone: Wyoming Northern Shoshone: southeastern Idaho Western Shoshone: Nevada, northern Utah Gosiute: western Utah, eastern Nevada

They traditionally speak the Shoshoni language, part of the Numic languages branch of the large Uto-Aztecan language family. The Shoshone
Shoshone
were sometimes called the Snake Indians
Snake Indians
by neighboring tribes and early American explorers.[2] Their peoples have become members of federally recognized tribes throughout their traditional areas of settlement, often colocated with the Paiute and Washoe peoples of the Great Basin.

Contents

1 Name origin 2 Language 3 History 4 Historical population 5 Bands 6 Reservations and Indian colonies 7 Notable Shoshone
Shoshone
people 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Name origin[edit] The name "Shoshone" comes from Sosoni, a Shoshone
Shoshone
word for high-growing grasses. Some neighboring tribes call the Shoshone
Shoshone
"Grass House People," based on their traditional homes made from soshoni. Shoshones call themselves Newe, meaning "People."[2] Meriwether Lewis
Meriwether Lewis
recorded the tribe as the "Sosonees or snake Indians" in 1805.[2] Language[edit] The Shoshoni language is spoken by approximately 1,000 people today.[1] It belongs to the Central Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Speakers are scattered from central Nevada
Nevada
to central Wyoming.[1] The largest numbers of Shoshoni speakers (including children) live on the federally recognized Duck Valley Indian Reservation, located on the border of Nevada
Nevada
and Idaho; and Goshute
Goshute
Reservation in Utah. Idaho State University also offers Shoshoni-language classes.[1] History[edit]

A Shoshone
Shoshone
encampment in the Wind River Mountains
Wind River Mountains
of Wyoming, photographed by W. H. Jackson, 1870

The Shoshone
Shoshone
are a Native American tribe, who originated in the western Great Basin
Great Basin
and spread north and east into present-day Idaho and Wyoming. By 1500, some Eastern Shoshone
Eastern Shoshone
had crossed the Rocky Mountains into the Great Plains. After 1750, warfare and pressure from the Blackfoot, Crow, Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho
Arapaho
pushed Eastern Shoshone
Shoshone
south and westward. Some of them moved as far south as Texas, emerging as the Comanche
Comanche
by 1700.[2] As more European-American settlers migrated west, tensions rose with the indigenous people over competition for territory and resources. Wars occurred throughout the second half of the 19th century. The Northern Shoshone, led by Chief Pocatello, fought during the 1860s with settlers in Idaho
Idaho
(where the city Pocatello
Pocatello
was named for him). As more settlers encroached on Shoshone
Shoshone
hunting territory, the natives raided farms and ranches for food, and attacked immigrants. The warfare resulted in the Bear River Massacre
Bear River Massacre
(1863), when US forces attacked and killed an estimated 410 Northwestern Shoshone, who were at their winter encampment. A large number of the dead were civilians, including women and children, deliberately killed by the soldiers. This was the highest number of deaths which the Shoshone
Shoshone
suffered at the hands of United States
United States
forces. Allied with the Bannock, to whom they were related, the Shoshone fought against the United States
United States
in the Snake War from 1864 to 1868. They fought US forces together in 1878 in the Bannock War. In 1876, by contrast, the Shoshone
Shoshone
fought alongside the U.S. Army in the Battle of the Rosebud against their traditional enemies, the Lakota and Cheyenne.

Rabbit-Tail

In 1879 a band of approximately 300 Eastern Shoshone
Eastern Shoshone
(known as "Sheepeaters") became involved in the Sheepeater Indian War. It was the last Indian war fought in the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
region of the present-day United States. In 1911 a small group of Bannock under a leader named Mike Daggett, also known as " Shoshone
Shoshone
Mike," killed four ranchers in Washoe County, Nevada.[3] The settlers formed a posse and went out after the Native Americans. They caught up with the Bannock band on February 26, 1911 and killed eight. They lost one man of the posse, Ed Hogle.[4] The posse captured three children and a woman. A rancher donated the partial remains of three adult males, two adult females, two adolescent males, and three children (believed to be Shoshone
Shoshone
Mike and his family, according to contemporary accounts) to the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
in Washington, DC for study. In 1994, the institution repatriated the remains to the Fort Hall Idaho Shoshone-Bannock Tribe.[5] In 2008 the Northwestern Shoshone acquired the site of the Bear River Massacre and some surrounding land. They wanted to protect the holy land and to build a memorial to the massacre, the largest their nation had suffered. "In partnership with the American West Heritage Center and state leaders in Idaho
Idaho
and Utah, the tribe has developed public/private partnerships to advance tribal cultural preservation and economic development goals." They have become a leader in developing tribal renewable energy.[6] Historical population[edit] In 1845 the estimated population of Northern and Western Shoshone
Western Shoshone
was 4,500, much reduced after they had suffered infectious disease epidemics and warfare. The completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869 was followed by European-American immigrants arriving in unprecedented numbers in the territory. In 1937 the Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
counted 3,650 Northern Shoshone and 1,201 Western Shoshone. As of the 2000 census, some 12,000 persons identified as Shoshone. Bands[edit] Shoshone
Shoshone
people are divided into traditional bands based both on their homelands and primary food sources. These include:

Tindoor, Lemhi Shoshone
Lemhi Shoshone
chief and his wife, ca. 1897, photographed by Benedicte Wrensted

Eastern Shoshone
Eastern Shoshone
people:

Guchundeka', Kuccuntikka, Buffalo Eaters[2][7] Tukkutikka, Tukudeka, Mountain Sheep Eaters, joined the Northern Shoshone[7] Boho'inee', Pohoini, Pohogwe, Sage Grass people, Sagebrush Butte People[2][7][8]

Northern Shoshone
Northern Shoshone
people:

Agaideka, Salmon Eaters, Lemhi, Snake River and Lemhi River Valley[8][8][9] Doyahinee', Mountain people[2] Kammedeka, Kammitikka, Jack Rabbit Eaters, Snake River, Great Salt Lake[8] Hukundüka, Porcupine Grass Seed Eaters, Wild Wheat Eaters, possibly synonymous with Kammitikka[8][10] Tukudeka, Dukundeka', Sheep Eaters
Sheep Eaters
(Mountain Sheep Eaters), Sawtooth Range, Idaho[8][9] Yahandeka, Yakandika, Groundhog Eaters, lower Boise, Payette, and Wiser Rivers[8][9]

Western Shoshone
Western Shoshone
people:

Kusiutta, Goshute
Goshute
(Gosiute), Great Salt Desert and Great Salt Lake, Utah[10]

Cedar Valley Goshute Deep Creek Goshute Rush Valley Goshute Skull Valley Goshute, Wipayutta, Weber Ute[10] Toole Valley Goshute Trout Creek Goshute[10]

Kuyatikka, Kuyudikka, Bitterroot Eaters, Halleck, Mary's River, Clover Valley, Smith Creek Valley, Nevada[10] Mahaguadüka, Mentzelia Seed Eaters, Ruby Valley, Nevada[10] Painkwitikka, Penkwitikka, Fish Eaters, Cache Valley, Idaho
Idaho
and Utah[10] Pasiatikka, Redtop Grass Eaters, Deep Creek Gosiute, Deep Creek Valley, Antelope Valley[10] Tipatikka, Pinenut Eaters, northernmost band[10] Tsaiduka, Tule Eaters, Railroad Valley, Nevada[10] Tsogwiyuyugi, Elko, Nevada[10] Waitikka, Ricegrass Eaters, Ione Valley, Nevada[10] Watatikka, Ryegrass Seed Eaters, Ruby Valley, Nevada[10] Wiyimpihtikka, Buffalo Berry Eaters[10]

Reservations and Indian colonies[edit]

" Shoshone
Shoshone
at Ft. Washakie, Wyoming
Wyoming
Native American reservation. Chief Washakie (at left) extends his right arm." Some of the Shoshones are dancing as the soldiers look on, 1892

Battle Mountain Reservation, Lander County, Nevada. Current reservation population is 165 and total tribal enrollment is 516. Big Pine Reservation, central Owens Valley, Inyo County, California; Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Paiute Shoshone Bishop Community of the Bishop Colony, northern Owens Valley, Inyo County, California; Death Valley Indian Community, Furnace Creek, Death Valley National Park, California; Timbisha
Timbisha
Shoshone Duck Valley Indian Reservation, southern Idaho/northern Nevada, (Western) Shoshone- Paiute Tribes Duckwater Indian Reservation, located in Duckwater, Nevada, approximately 75 miles (121 km) from Ely. Elko Indian Colony, Elko County, Nevada Ely Shoshone Indian Reservation in Ely, Nevada, 111 acres (0.45 km²), 500 members Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Reservation near Fallon, Nevada, 8,200 acres (33 km²), 991 members, Western Shoshone
Western Shoshone
and Paiute Fort Hall Indian Reservation, 544,000 acres (2,201 km²) in Idaho, Lemhi Shoshone
Lemhi Shoshone
with the Bannock Indians, a Paiute band with which they have merged Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation, Nevada
Nevada
and Oregon, Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone
Shoshone
Tribe Goshute
Goshute
Indian Reservation, 111,000 acres (449 km²) in Nevada and Utah, Western Shoshone Lemhi Indian Reservation
Lemhi Indian Reservation
(1875–1907) in Idaho, Lemhi Shoshone, removed to Fort Hall Reservation Lone Pine Community of the Lone Pine Reservation, lower Owens Valley, Inyo County, California; Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Paiute Shoshone Northwestern Shoshone Indian Reservation, Utah, Northwestern Band of Shoshone
Shoshone
Nation of Utah
Utah
(Washakie)[11] Reno-Sparks Indian Colony, Nevada, 1988 acres (8 km²), total 481 members of Shoshone, Paiute, and Washoe bands Skull Valley Indian Reservation, 18,000 acres (73 km²) in Utah, Western Shoshone South Fork Odgers Ranch Indian Colony, Elko County, Nevada Wells Indian Colony, Elko County, Nevada Wind River Reservation, population 2,650 Eastern Shoshone, 2,268,008 acres (9,178 km²) of reservation in Wyoming
Wyoming
are shared with the Northern Arapaho

Notable Shoshone
Shoshone
people[edit]

Sacagawea
Sacagawea
(1788–1812), Lemhi Shoshone
Lemhi Shoshone
guide of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Jean Baptiste Charbonneau
Jean Baptiste Charbonneau
(1805-1866) son of Sacagawea, explorer, guide, military scout Cameahwait, chief in the early 19th century Bear Hunter (d. 1863), war chief Old Toby Ned Blackhawk (b. ca. 1970), historian and professor at Yale Mary Dann and Carrie Dann Tina Manning
Tina Manning
(d. 1979), murdered water rights activist from Duck Valley Randy'L He-dow Teton Chief Washakie Chief Pocatello

See also[edit]

Battle of Kelley Creek United States
United States
v. Shoshone
Shoshone
Tribe of Indians Western Shoshone
Western Shoshone
traditional narratives

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d "Shoshoni." Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 Oct 2013. ^ a b c d e f g h Loether, Christopher. "Shoshones." Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. Retrieved 20 Oct 2013. ^ America's Last Indian Battle Archived August 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ed Hogle memorial ^ NMNH - Repatriation Office - Reports - Great Basin
Great Basin
- Nevada ^ "Tribe remembers nation's largest massacre", Indian Country Times, 10 Mar 2008, accessed 6 Mar 2010 ^ a b c Shimkin 335 ^ a b c d e f g Murphy and Murphy 306 ^ a b c Murphy and Murphy 287 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Thomas, Pendleton, and Cappannari 280–283 ^ "Northwestern Band of Shoshone
Shoshone
Tribal Profile." Utah
Utah
Division of Indian Affairs. Retrieved 23 Dec 2012.

References[edit]

Murphy, Robert A. and Yolanda Murphy. " Northern Shoshone
Northern Shoshone
and Bannock." Warren L. d'Azevedo, volume editor. Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986: 284–307. ISBN 978-0-16-004581-3. Shimkin, Demitri B. "Eastern Shoshone." Warren L. d'Azevedo, volume editor. Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986: 308–335. ISBN 978-0-16-004581-3. Thomas, David H., Lorann S.A. Pendleton, and Stephen C. Cappannari. "Western Shoshone." Warren L. d'Azevedo, volume editor. Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986: 262–283. ISBN 978-0-16-004581-3.

Further reading[edit]

Gould, Drusilla & Loether, Christopher (2002). An introduction to the Shoshoni language: dammen da̲igwape. University of Utah
Utah
Press. ISBN 9780874807295. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Bial Raymond (2002). The Shoshone. ISBN 9780761412113. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shoshoni.

Northern Shoshoni treaties Great Basin
Great Basin
Indian Archives Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Te-Moak Tribe of the Western Shoshone
Western Shoshone
Indians of Nevada Timbisha
Timbisha
Tribe of the Western Shoshone
Western Shoshone
Nation U.S. Treaty with the Western Shoshone
Western Shoshone
1863, Ruby Valley Western Shoshone
Western Shoshone
Defense Project The Sheepeaters

Authority control

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