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Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
(IAST: Śiva Sēnā) (translation; Army of Shivaji), is an Indian far-right regional political party. Its ideology is based on pro-Marathi ideology and Hindu nationalism
Hindu nationalism
(Hindutva), founded on 19 June 1966 by political cartoonist Bal Thackeray.[11] The party originally emerged from a movement in Mumbai
Mumbai
demanding preferential treatment for Maharashtrians over migrants to the city. It is currently headed by Thackeray's son, Uddhav Thackeray. Members of Shiv Sena are referred to as Shivsainiks. Although the party's primary base is still in Maharashtra, it has tried to expand to a pan-Indian base. In the 1970s, it gradually moved from advocating a pro-Marathi ideology to one supporting a broader Hindu nationalist agenda,[12] as it aligned itself with the Bharatiya Janata Party. The party started taking part in Mumbai
Mumbai
(BMC) Municipal elections since its inception. In 1989, it entered an alliance with BJP for Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
as well as Maharashtra
Maharashtra
assembly elections, the latter of which was temporarily broken in October 2014 Assembly elections but it was undone soon and Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
became part of the BJP government in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
in December 2014. It has been a coalition partner in the National Democratic Alliance since 1998, including the Vajpayee Government during 1998–2004 and the present Narendra Modi Government. The party has a powerful hold over the Bollywood
Bollywood
film industry.[13] It has been referred to as an "extremist",[14][15] "chauvinist",[16][17] as well as a "fascist party".[18][19] Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
has been blamed for the 1970 communal violence in Bhiwandi, the 1984 Bhiwandi
Bhiwandi
riot and violence in the 1992-1993 Bombay riots.[20][21]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 Alliance with the Bharatiya Janata Party 1.3 Formation of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Navnirman Sena 1.4 Leadership change

2 Party structure and caste composition

2.1 Structure 2.2 Caste Composition

3 Chief Ministers 4 Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
ministers in central Government 5 Electoral performance 6 Ideology 7 Activities and criticism 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit]

Part of a series on

Hindu politics

Concepts

Gandhism Gandhian socialism Hindu environmentalism Hindu nationalism Hindutva Hindu revivalism Integral humanism Litigation-Free Model Pseudo-secularism Shuddhi Swadeshi Ram Janmabhoomi Uniform Civil Code Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam

Early figures

Dattopant Thengadi Lala Lajpat Rai Sri Aurobindo Bal Gangadhar Tilak Bipin Chandra Pal Madan Mohan Malaviya Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Vallabhbhai Patel Purushottam Das Tandon Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Keshava Baliram Hedgewar Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar

Political leaders

Syama Prasad Mukherjee Deendayal Upadhyaya Nanaji Deshmukh Atal Bihari Vajpayee Lal Krishna Advani Subramanian Swamy Murli Manohar Joshi Bal Thackeray Narendra Modi Uma Bharti Yogi Adityanath

Political parties

Bharatiya Janata Party Shiv Sena Hindu Mahasabha Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party Rastriya Prajatantra Party

Defunct parties Bharatiya Jana Sangh Akhil Bharatiya Ram Rajya Parishad Bharatiya Janshakti Party Janata Party Jammu Praja Parishad

Organisations Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh Vishwa Hindu Parishad Sri Ram Sena Bajrang Dal Hindu Sena

Independent authors

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay Swapan Dasgupta Dharampal Koenraad Elst David Frawley François Gautier Ram Gopal Sita Ram Goel Girilal Jain Meenakshi Jain Rama Jois Christophe Jaffrelot Bojil Kolarov K. S. Lal Rajiv Malhotra K. R. Malkani Harsh Narain Ramesh Nagaraj Rao Yvette Rosser Ram Swarup K. D. Sethna H. V. Sheshadri Arun Shourie Dattopant Thengadi

Hinduism

v t e

A poster from Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
campaign against Valentine's Day in Kolkata.

Origins[edit] After the Independence of India
Independence of India
in 1947, regional administrative divisions from the colonial era were gradually changed and states following linguistic borders were created. Within the Bombay Presidency, a massive popular struggle was launched for the creation of a state for the Marathi-speaking people. In 1960, the presidency was divided into two linguistic states - Gujarat
Gujarat
and Maharashtra. Moreover, Marathi-speaking areas of the erstwhile Hyderabad state
Hyderabad state
were joined with Maharashtra. Mumbai, in many ways the economic capital of India, became the state capital of Maharashtra. On one hand, people belonging to the Gujarati community owned the majority of the industry and trade enterprises in the city.[22] On the other hand, there was a steady flow of South Indian migrants to the city who came to take many white-collar jobs. In 1960 Bal Thackeray, a Mumbai-based cartoonist, began publishing the satirical cartoon weekly Marmik. Through this publication, he started disseminating anti-migrant sentiments. On 19 June 1966, Thackeray founded the Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
as a political organisation. The Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
especially attracted a large number of unemployed Marathi youth, who were attracted by Thackeray's charged anti-migrant oratory. Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
cadres became involved in various attacks against the South Indian communities, vandalizing South Indian restaurants and pressuring employers to hire Marathis.[12] Alliance with the Bharatiya Janata Party[edit] The Sena started placing more weight on the Hindutva
Hindutva
ideology in the 1970s as the 'sons of the soil' cause was weakening.[12] The party has been in coalition with the Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
(BJP) for Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
as well as Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Assembly since 1989. The two formed a government in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
between 1995-1999.[23] The Sena was the opposition party in the state along with the BJP from 1999 to 2014. However, 25 years old alliance of Sena and BJP was broken in 2014 Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Assembly elections over seat sharing issue and both contested elections independently.[23] After the BJP became largest party in the 2014 Assembly elections, Sena declared that it would play the role of opposition but, after further negotiations, agreed to join the government in Maharashtra.[24] The Shiv Sena-BJP combine governs the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation. Traditionally the main strongholds of Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
have been Mumbai
Mumbai
and the Konkan
Konkan
coastal areas. However, in the 2004 Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
elections the result was reversed. The Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
made inroads in the interior parts of the state, while suffering losses in Mumbai.[citation needed] On 23 January 2018, Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
officially cut ties with the BJP and their NDA coalition ahead of the 2019 Indian general election after nearly 30 years of campaigning alongside the BJP.[25] Formation of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Navnirman Sena[edit] In July 2005, Former Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Chief Minister and Sena leader Narayan Rane
Narayan Rane
was expelled from the party, which sparked internal conflict in the party. In December the same year Raj Thackeray, Bal Thackeray's nephew, left the party.[26] Raj Thackeray
Raj Thackeray
later founded a new party, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Navnirman Sena (MNS). After the split, clashes have occurred between followers of the two Senas.[citation needed] Although the MNS is a break-away group from the Shiv Sena, the party is still based in Bhumiputra ideology. When unveiling the party in an assembly at Shivaji
Shivaji
Park he said, everyone is anxious to see what will happen to Hindutva
Hindutva
and, "I shall elaborate on the party's stance on issues like Hindutva, its agenda for development of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and the significance of the party flag colours at the 19 March public meeting."[27] Leadership change[edit] Bal Thackeray's son Uddhav Thackeray
Uddhav Thackeray
became the party's leader in 2004, although Bal Thackeray
Bal Thackeray
continued to be an important figurehead. After the death of Bal Thackeray
Bal Thackeray
on 17 November 2012, Uddhav became the leader of party but refused to take the title " Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
Pramukh" ( Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
Supremo).[28] Party structure and caste composition[edit] Structure[edit] As the Pramukh (Chief) of the party, Bal Thackeray
Bal Thackeray
took all major decisions while the activists and members of the Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
Shiv Sainiks carried out most of the party's grassroots work. During his last days, the day-to-day activities of the party were handled by his youngest son Uddhav Thackeray. Aditya Thackeray, son of Uddhav Thackeray, became the leader of the Yuva Sena, the Youth Wing of the party. After Bal Thackerey's death in 2012, the party was de facto led by Uddhav Thackeray.[citation needed] The Sena Bhavan located in the Dadar
Dadar
locality in Mumbai
Mumbai
has served as the Headquarters of the Sena since 1976.[29] The Sena's shakhas (Branches) spread throughout the state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
as well as in selected locations in other states, which decide on most of the local issues in their localities.[12] The Sthaniya Lokadhikar Samiti[clarification needed] is affiliated with the Shiv Sena. It advocates the preservation of rights of employment for Maharashtrians in Maharashtra.[30] Caste Composition[edit] People of various Maharashtrian castes worked together in the Sena. The party's leaders mostly came from the so called "high castes" i.e. Brahmins, CKPs and Pathare Prabhus - Thackerey, Manohar Joshi, Sudhir Joshi, Balwant Mantri, Dr Hemchandra Gupte, Shyam Deshmukh, Madhav Deshpande, Datta Pradhan, Vijay Parvatkar, Madhukar Sarpotdar and Pramod Navalkar.[31] One of the above mentioned leaders, Dr.Hemchandra Gupte, Mayor
Mayor
of Bombay in the early 70s and the former family physician and confidante of Thackeray, quit Shivsena in "disgust" citing importance given to money, violence committed by the Shivsainiks and Thackeray's support for Mrs.Gandhi during the 1975 emergency.[32] There were also leaders from other castes such as Dattaji Salvi, Dattaji Nalawade and Wamanrao Mahadik, and those from the so called lower castes such as Chaggan Bhujbal, Leeladhar Dake, Bhai Shingre and Vijay Gaonkar.[31] Over the years, other than the Sena Chief , there have been twelve senior leaders in the party, called 'Netas'. Out of these, eight have been upper caste (four Brahmins, two CKPs and two Pathare Prabhus). Others have been either Maratha(Dattaji Salvi), Shimpi(Wamanrao Mahadik), Agri(Leeladhar Dake) or Mali(Chaggan Bhujbal). In fact, Bhujbal quit the party accusing the Sena of upper-caste bias in the leadership.[31] 70% of the Shiv sainiks belonged to the OBC community. The number of dalits were also not insignificant. And even after the Sena opposed the reservations proposed by the Mandal commission, there was no dent in the percentage of OBCs in the Sena. In this way, the Sena was successful in uniting all Maharashtrians irrespective of caste under the common "Marathi umbrella". The agenda of preferential treatment for the "sons of the soil" i.e Maharashtrians brought them all together.[31] Chief Ministers[edit] See also: List of Chief Ministers of Maharashtra

Manohar Joshi - 14 March 1995 to 31 January 1999, was also Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament of India. Narayan Rane
Narayan Rane
- 1 February 1999 to October 1999

Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
ministers in central Government[edit]

Manohar Joshi: Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises, 13th Speaker of the Lok Sabha Anandrao Adsul: Ministry of Finance and Company Affairs Anant Geete: Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises, Minister of Power

Electoral performance[edit]

Election Candidates Elected Votes Source

1971 Lok Sabha 5

227,468 [33]

1980 Lok Sabha 2

129,351 [34]

1989 Lok Sabha 3 1 339,426 [35]

1989 Goa
Goa
Assembly 6   4,960 [36]

1991 Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Assembly 14 1 45,426 [37]

1991 Lok Sabha 22 4 2,208,712 [38]

1993 Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Assembly 88

75,783 [39]

1996 Lok Sabha 132 15 4,989,994 [40]

1996 Haryana
Haryana
Assembly 17

6,700 [41]

1997 Punjab Assembly 3

719 [42]

1998 Lok Sabha 79 6 6,528,566 [43]

1998 Delhi
Delhi
Assembly 32

9,395 [44]

1998 Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
Assembly 6

2,827 [45]

1999 Lok Sabha 63 15 5,672,412 [46]

1999 Goa
Goa
Assembly 14   5,987 [47]

2000 Orissa Assembly 16   18,794 [48]

2001 Kerala
Kerala
Assembly 1   279 [49]

2002 Goa
Goa
Assembly 15  

[50]

2004 Lok Sabha 56 12 7,056,255 [51]

2009 Lok Sabha 22 11 6,828,382 [52]

2014 Lok Sabha 20 18 10,262,981 [51]

1990 Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Assembly 183 52 47,33,834(16.39%)

1995 Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Assembly 169 73 6315493(16.39%)

1999 Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Assembly 169 69 (17.33%)

2004 Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Assembly 163 62 8351654 (19,97%)

2009 Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Assembly 160 45

2014 Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Assembly 286 63 10,235,972

2015 Bihar Assembly 80 0 2,11,131 [53][54]

2017 Goa
Goa
Assembly 3 0 792 [55][56]

Ideology[edit] As per the official stand of Shiv Sena, they are "committed to 80% social service and 20% politics".[57] Activities and criticism[edit] The Sena says it has played a central role in the emancipation of 500,000 slum dwellers in the Dharavi
Dharavi
area of Mumbai, the largest slum in Asia. However, the policy of giving free houses to slum dwellers has been controversial since it was introduced by the then Shiv Sena-BJP government.[58][59][60] Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
was anti-dalit in 1970s when they opposed Namantar Andolan and supported views of conservative Marathas.[61] In 1996, Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
organised the first and only live concert of American pop icon Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
in India
India
to raise the funds for its business wing and to help create over two-hundred seventy thousand jobs for people of Maharashtra.[62][63] In December 2003, Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
activists damaged the cricket pitch of the Agra Sport Stadium which was supposed to host the cricket match between Pakistan and India.[64] In April 2005, Bharatiya Vidyarthi Sena, the student wing of Shiv Sena, attempted to prevent the India-Pakistan One-day international
One-day international
match being held in New Delhi. The protester's spokesman demanded:

India
India
should not play cricket with Pakistan till it hands over to India
India
20 terrorists, including Dawood Ibrahim, and closes down militant training camps running there.[65]

On 20 November 2009, Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
activists attacked and vandalised the offices of Hindi
Hindi
and Marathi TV news channels IBN7
IBN7
and IBN-Lokmat, located in Mumbai
Mumbai
and Pune
Pune
respectively. The Shivsainik slapped IBN7's senior editor Ravindra Ambekar and then attacked IBN-Lokmat's editor Nikhil Wagle. Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
attributed the attacks to the criticisms of Bal Thackeray
Bal Thackeray
by the news channel over his remarks on Sachin Tendulkar. Shiv Sena's Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
MP Sanjay Raut described the attacks as "spontaneous". Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
spokespersons tried to justify the attacks and refused to apologize for their acts of violence.[66][67][68] Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
got an entry in Guinness Book of World Records
Guinness Book of World Records
in 2010 for "collecting maximum blood in a day". Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
organized a blood donation camp which collected over 24,000 bottles of blood in a single day.[69][70] Later this world record was broken by a blood donation camp of HDFC Bank
HDFC Bank
in 2014.[71] In October 2015, Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
issued threats which enforced a ban on a scheduled concert by Pakistani classic singer Ghulam Ali. The move was adopted to appease anti-Pakistan constituents to vote for Sena in coming elections.[72] However, in 2015 Pakistan urged the international community to take note of the activities of Shiv Sena,[73] while Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
claimed that criticism of Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
by Pakistan vindicates "our patriotism".[74] On 19 October 2015, Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
activists attacked and vandalised the office of BCCI to stop a meeting between PCB and BCCI officials. The activists shouted anti-Pakistan slogans and held posters that read 'Shahryar Khan go back', determined to stop Manohar from meeting his Pakistani counterpart. Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
has also threatened to stop Pakistan's Aleem Dar from officiating in the fifth and final ODI between India and South Africa.[75] In 2015 Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
announced 10,000 rupees help to each drought-affected farmer of Marathwada
Marathwada
region,[76] while they also announced 2 lakh rupees "reward" to Hindus family who had 5 children between 2010 and 2015 in Uttar Pradesh. As per Shiv Sena, the reason behind the "reward" was "decline in growth rate of Hindu population compared to Muslim population as per recent census".[77][78] See also[edit]

Hindu nationalist parties

References[edit]

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and the Third World. London: Anthem Press. p. 344.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Kaminsky, Arnold (2011). India
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Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 628.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Chandavarkar, Rajnayaran (3 September 2009). History, Culture and the Indian City (1st ed.). Cambridge University
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Maharashtra
elections: BJP ends 25-year-old alliance with Shiv Sena as seat sharing talks fail". ibnlive.in.com. Retrieved 2014-10-26.  ^ Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
to join Fadnavis govt; gives up claim to home minister, deputy CM post, Indian Express, 4 December 2014 ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.in/2018/01/23/shiv-sena-breaks-ties-with-bjp-in-maharashtra_a_23341772/ ^ "Senior Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
leader quits". BBC. 18 December 2005. Retrieved 2014-10-25.  ^ " Raj Thackeray
Raj Thackeray
launches new party". Press Trust of India. 9 March 2006. Retrieved 2014-10-25.  ^ "Uddhav takes father's powers, but not Shiv Sena
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'pramukh' title". Times of India. 2 December 2012.  ^ "Thackeray inaugurates new Sena bhavan". NDTV
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news. Retrieved 2006-07-29.  ^ Business India. A.H. Advani. 1996. Retrieved 24 February 2012.  ^ a b c d Vaibhav Purandare (2012). Bal Thackeray
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and the rise of Shiv Sena. Roli Books. p. 106. Its(Senas) thrust on the economic upliftment of Maharashtrians and demand for preferential treatment of the sons of soil in employment drew the working class towards it.They wanted someone to focus on the issue that mattered to them most:Jobs. Besides, people of various castes worked together in the Sena. Though, from among the party's leaders, Thackerey, Manohar Joshi, Sudhir Joshi, Balwant Mantri, Dr Hemchandra Gupte, Shyam Deshmukh, Madhav Deshpande, Datta Pradhan, Vijay Parvatkar, Madhukar sarpotdar and Pramod Navalkar came from the so called high castes(they were either Brahmins, Pathare Prabhus or Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus) and middle class localities like Dadar
Dadar
and Girgaum, rubbing shoulders with them were leaders from the working class areas of Lalbaug-Parel such as Dattaji Salvi, Dattaji Nalavade and Wamanrao Mahadik, and those from the so called lower castes such as Chaggan bhujbal, Leeladhar Dake, Bhai Shingre and Vijay Gaonkar.  ^ Thomas Blom Hansen (2001). Wages of Violence : Naming and identity in postcolonial Bombay. Princeton University Press. p. 238. 18: According to Hemchandra Gupte, a former confidante of Thackeray, his major reason for leaving the party for his growing disgust with the prominence of money and the "goonda'ization" of the party(interview , 5th october 1992). 21.Interview, 3 october 1992, with Hemchandra Gupte, physician, formerly Bal Thackeray's family doctor, and Shiv Sena's mayor of Bombay from 1971 to 1972. Dr. Gupte left Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
in 1976 because of Thackerey's support for Mrs.Gandhi and the emergency.  ^ (PDF) http://www.eci.gov.in/StatisticalReports/LS_1971/Vol_I_LS_71.pdf. Retrieved 29 June 2008.  Missing or empty title= (help)[dead link] ^ TitlePage-VolI_LS99.PDF Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ TitlePage-VolI_LS99.PDF Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ List Of Political Parties Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/StatisticalReports/SE_1991/Stat_Rep_UP_91.pdf ^ (PDF) http://www.eci.gov.in/StatisticalReports/LS_1991/Vol_I_LS_91.pdf. Retrieved 29 June 2008.  Missing or empty title= (help)[dead link] ^ rptDetailedResults Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [1] Archived 4 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ TitlePage_HR-96.PDF Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ TitlePage_PU-96.PDF Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [2] Archived 4 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ rptProgrammeOFElections Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ rptProgrammeOFElections Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [3] Archived 4 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ TitlePageGA99.PDF Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ TitlePage_OR_LA_2000.PDF Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2008.  ^ [] ^ a b [4] Archived 4 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [5][dead link] ^ http://eciresults.nic.in/ ^ "After Bihar 'win', Shiv Sena
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eyes Uttar Pradesh
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- News". Mid-day.com. Retrieved 2015-12-02.  ^ http://www.firstpost.com/politics/goa-assembly-election-2017-mgp-shiv-sena-gsm-form-grand-alliance-to-contest-polls-3197056.html ^ "Election Commission of India- State Election, 2017 to the Legislative Assembly Of Goa" (PDF). Retrieved 5 February 2018.  ^ "' Shiv Sena
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Committed to Its Belief of 80% Social Service, 20% Politics' Sep 07,2014". Outlookindia.com. Retrieved 2015-12-02.  ^ "Rediff News".  ^ "'Highrises don't suit Dharavi
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workers' attack ibn offices in Mum". IBNLive.  ^ Kiran Tare (2010-04-26). "24,200 donors help Sena set record Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". Dnaindia.com. Retrieved 2015-12-02.  ^ " Shiv Sena
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sets Guinness record in blood collection". The Hindu. 2014-04-14. Retrieved 2015-12-02.  ^ "BJP- Shiv Sena
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- The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2015-12-02.  ^ "Every Hindu family with five children will get Rs 2 lakh: Shiv Sena". The Indian Express. 2015-08-29. Retrieved 2015-12-02.  ^ The author has posted comments on this article (2015-08-30). "Shiv Sena to give Rs 2 lakh to every Hindu family with 5 kids - The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 

Further reading[edit]

Ethnicity and Equality: The Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
Party and Preferential Policies in Bombay, MF Katzenstein – 1979 – Cornell University Press Warriors in Politics: Hindu Nationalism, Violence, and the Shiv Sena in India, S Banerjee – 2000 – Westview Press The Charisma of Direct Action: Power, Politics, and the Shiv Sena, JM Eckert – 2003 – Oxford University Press Shiv Sena: An Assessment, Palshikar, Suhas, Department of Politics and Public Administration, University of Pune, Pune
Pune
(1999) Maximum City: Bombay Lost and Found, 'Power', chapter 3, Mumbai, Mehta, Suketu, Penguin Books (2005)

External links[edit]

Official website

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Political parties in India
India

Current national coalitions

National Democratic Alliance United Progressive Alliance Third Front Janata Parivar

Former national coalitions

Janata Party National Front United Front

Recognised national parties

All India
India
Trinamool Congress Bahujan Samaj Party Bharatiya Janata Party Communist Party of India Communist Party of India
India
(Marxist) Indian National Congress Nationalist Congress Party

Recognised state parties

Aam Aadmi Party All India
India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam All India
India
Forward Bloc All India
India
Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen All India
India
United Democratic Front Asom Gana Parishad Biju Janata Dal Bodoland People's Front Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Indian National Lok Dal Jammu & Kashmir National Conference Jammu & Kashmir National Panthers Party Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party Janata Dal
Janata Dal
(Secular) Janata Dal
Janata Dal
(United) Jharkhand Mukti Morcha Jharkhand Vikas Morcha (Prajatantrik) Karnataka Pragnyavantha Janatha Party Kerala
Kerala
Congress Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Mani) Lok Jan Shakti Party Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Navnirman Sena Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party Manipur Peoples Party Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Meghalaya Democratic Party Mizo National Front Mizoram People's Conference Muslim League Kerala
Kerala
State Committee Naga People's Front National People's Party N.R. Congress Pattali Makkal Katchi People's Party of Punjab Rashtriya Janata Dal Rashtriya Lok Dal Rashtriya Lok Samta Party Revolutionary Socialist Party Samajwadi Party Shiromani Akali Dal Shiv Sena Sikkim Democratic Front Telangana Rashtra Samithi Telugu Desam Party United Democratic Party Uttarakhand Kranti Dal YSR Congress Party Mahan Dal Zoram Nationalist Party

Other parties in parliament

Apna Dal
Apna Dal
(Sonelal) Bahujan Vikas Aaghadi Jan Adhikar Party Socialist Unity Centre of India
India
(Communist) Swabhimani Paksha Swatantra Bharat Paksh

Unrecognised parties or parties with limited presence

Apna Dal All India
India
Muslim Forum Arunachal Congress Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh Bharatiya Awam Party Chhattisgarh Janata Congress Communist Marxist Party Communist Party of India
India
(Marxist–Leninist) Liberation Democratic Socialist Party (Prabodh Chandra) Gorkha Janmukti Morcha Hindu Sena Hindustani Awam Morcha Indian Federal Democratic Party Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
(Socialist) Indian National League Indigenous Nationalist Party of Twipra Jana Sena Party Janathipathiya Samrakshana Samithy Jharkhand Party Karnataka Janata Paksha Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Balakrishna Pillai) Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Jacob) Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Secular) Kerala
Kerala
People's Party Kongunadu Munnetra Peravai Lok Satta Party Naam Tamilar Katchi People's Guardian Peoples Republican Party Peoples’ Resurgence and Justice Alliance Perunthalaivar Makkal Katchi Pragatisheel Indira Congress Professionals Party of India Puthiya Tamilagam Puducherry Munnetra Congress Republican Party of India
India
(Gavai) Republican Party of India
India
(Athvale) Republican Party of India
India
(Kamble) Republican Party of India
India
(Democratic) Republican Party of India
India
(Khobragade) Revolutionary Socialist Party (Baby John) Revolutionary Socialist Party (Bolshevik) Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya) Sikkim Krantikari Morcha Tamizhaga Vazhvurimai Katchi United Goans Democratic Party Welfare Party of India

Former political parties

Janata Dal Justice Party Praja Socialist Party Swatantra Party

Portal:Politics List of political parties Politics of India

v t e

National Democratic Alliance

Members

National Party

Bharatiya Janata Party

State Parties

All India
India
N.R. Congress All Jharkhand Students Union Asom Gana Parishad Bodoland People's Front Gorkha Janmukti Morcha Janata Dal
Janata Dal
(United) Lok Janshakti Party Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party Naga People's Front National People's Party Pattali Makkal Katchi People's Party of Arunachal Rashtriya Lok Samta Party Shiromani Akali Dal Shiv Sena Sikkim Democratic Front Telugu Desam Party United Democratic Party

Registered Unrecognised Parties

Apna Dal
Apna Dal
(Sonelal) Bahujan Republican Ekta Manch Bharath Dharma Jana Sena Goa
Goa
Vikas Party Hill State People's Democratic Party Hindustani Awam Morcha Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi Indigenous People's Front of Tripura Jana Sena Party Janadhipathya Rashtriya Sabha Janathipathiya Samrakshana Samithy Kamtapur People's Party Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Nationalist) Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Thomas) Kerala
Kerala
Vikas Congress Kongunadu Makkal Desia Katchi Manipur Democratic Peoples Front Manipur Peoples Party Mizo National Front New Justice Party Praja Socialist Party Pravasi Nivasi Party Puthiya Needhi Katchi Rashtriya Samaj Paksha Republican Party of India
India
(Athavale) Revolutionary Socialist Party (Bolshevik) Swabhimani Paksha

Member fronts

North-East Regional Political Front United Democratic Front North-East Democratic Alliance

Member Organisation(s)

Shiv Sangram

Leaders

Atal Bihari Vajpayee Lal Krishna Advani Murli Manohar Joshi Narendra Modi Amit Shah Rajnath Singh Arun Jaitley Sushma Swaraj Manohar Parrikar Uddhav Thackeray Prakash Singh Badal Shivraj Singh Chouhan Raman Singh N. Chandrababu Naidu Nitish Kumar Mehbooba Mufti Bimal Gurung N. Rangaswamy Ramdas Athawale Pawan Kumar Ch

.