The SEVEN-STRING GUITAR adds one additional string, commonly used to extend the bass range (usually a low B) but it can also be used to extend the treble range of the 6 string guitar.
The additional string is added in one of two different ways: by increasing the width of the fingerboard such that the additional string may be fretted by the left hand; or, by leaving the fingerboard unchanged and adding a "floating" bass string. In the latter case, the extra bass string lies next to the existing bass strings, but free of the fingerboard in similar fashion as the archlute and theorbo . Such unfrettable bass strings were historically known as diapasons or bourdons.
Some types of seven-string guitars are specific to certain cultures such as the Russian and Brazilian guitars.
* 1 History
* 2 Acoustic designs
* 2.1 Russian * 2.2 Brazilian * 2.3 Classical * 2.4 Mexican (guitarra séptima)
* 3 Electric guitar designs
* 3.1 Semi-hollow and hollow body electric guitars * 3.2 Solid body electric guitars
* 4 Hybrid designs * 5 Tuning * 6 Uses
* 7 Notable players
* 7.4 Metal
* 7.4.1 Black * 7.4.2 Blackened Death * 7.4.3 Death * 7.4.4 Djent * 7.4.5 Doom * 7.4.6 Folk * 7.4.7 Gothic * 7.4.8 Industrial * 7.4.9 Metalcore/Deathcore * 7.4.10 Nu * 7.4.11 Power * 7.4.12 Progressive * 7.4.13 Thrash
* 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References
The history of the seven-string guitar stretches back more than 230 years. During the Renaissance period (ca. 1400-1600 CE), the European guitar generally had four courses , each strung with two gut strings, and the pair of strings within each course tuned in unison . By the mid- Baroque period (ca. 1600-1750) it more commonly had five courses (still double-strung) and used a variety of tunings, some of them re-entrant . By the early eighteenth century six double-strung courses had become common.
Up to this point most stringed instruments were strung with gut strings. Around 1800 quality metal-wire strings became widely available. These new strings were more durable, remained in tune better, and—most importantly—produced a louder sound than the traditional gut strings. As use of metal strings became more widely adopted, their greater volume output impelled luthiers to experiment more with single-strung courses on their instruments, and in a relatively short time the modern practice of using six single strings became first common, and then standard.
The changing number of courses in these early guitars may also
illustrate an ongoing desire on behalf of players to increase the
range of the instrument, a development similar to that gone through by
the lute in earlier days. It is likely that all of these factors
contributed to the development of the seven-string guitar, which has
been around ever since. The seven-string guitar never became as widely
accepted in Europe as the six-string instrument, but a number of
composers did produce a significant body of work for the seven string.
Napoleon Coste (1805–1883) composed works with a
seven-string guitar specifically in mind. The Italian guitarist Mario
Maccaferri (1899-1993) was a celebrated advocate of bass strings
(diapasons or bourdons) and also composed for the instrument. By
The RUSSIAN GUITAR (or gypsy guitar), is a seven-string acoustic
guitar tuned to the
Open G tuning , (DGBDGBD), which arrived or was
developed early in the 19th century in
Its invention was popularized by
Andrei Sychra , who also wrote a
method for the guitar, as well as over one thousand compositions,
seventy-five of which were republished in the 1840s by Stellovsky ,
and then again in the 1880s by
Gutheil . Some of these were published
again in the
Early instruments used gut, and latter silk strings; rarely wire. In the 20th century these instruments commonly used nylon strings, like western classical guitars, though by the last third of the century both nylon-strung "classical" and metal-strung "gypsy" versions of the instrument were both plentiful. Whatever material was used for stringing, the Russian guitar is traditionally played without a pick, using fingers for either strumming or picking. The origins of the 7 string most likely came from the English “guittar” popular in the late 18th century. The added string created an extra dimension for bass notes as well as opening up chord possibilities. The seventh string is also likely to have been influenced by the harp as it is meant to played arpeggiated. It also happens that the open D tuning was a perfect fourth lower than the six string tuning. The open D string tuning of this guitar was convenient for many Russian folk songs and dances that were typically within the major key. Along with the added interval possibilities came new techniques not previously seen with 6th string guitars.
The Russian version of the seven-string guitar has been used by
professionals, because of its great flexibility and its sound, but has
also been popular with amateurs for accompaniment (especially Russian
bards ) due to the relative simplicity of some basic chords and the
ease of playing alternating bass lines. While greatly popular in
Tuning of the Russian guitar *
An F# major chord *
A B minor chord
The earliest music published for a seven-string guitar was in St.
Petersburg, Russia, on 15 December 1798. The school was owned by
Ignác František Held (1766,
Třebechovice pod Orebem
Standard tuning for the Russian guitar is: D2 G2 B2 D3 G3 B3 D4 with a very common "classical" variant being C2 G2 B2 D3 G3 B3 D4
Other alternate tunings include:
* G-C-E-G-C-E-G ("Big guitar") * F-Bb-D-F-Bb-D-F (1/3rd guitar) * E-A-B-D-G-B-D * E-G-B-D-G-B-D * D-G-C-D-G-A#-D * B-F#-B-E-A-D-F# * A-E-A-D-G-B-E
Sofres porque queres Example of seven-string guitar "baixaria" in the choro "Sofres porque queres" (Pixinguinha) recorded in 1919.
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The Brazilian seven-string guitar (Portuguese : violão de sete cordas) is an acoustic guitar used primarily in choro and samba . It was introduced to Brazil in the late 19th century as a steel string guitar. The style of "baixaria" counterpoint and accompaniment technique was developed throughout the 20th century, especially by Dino 7 Cordas and Raphael Rabello . In the early 1980s, guitarist Luiz Otavio Braga had a nylon string version made, and this has become the norm for most contemporary choro musicians such as Yamandu Costa .
The Brazilian seven-string guitar is typically tuned like a classical guitar, but with an additional C below the low E as follows: C2 E2 A2 D3 G3 B3 E4; although some musicians tune the C down to a B resulting in: B1 E2 A2 D3 G3 B3 E4.
Seven-string guitarists are utilized in playing traditional and contemporary "classical" repertoire. These instruments are essentially nylon-strung classical guitars with one extra (usually) bass string, and the tuning is most commonly: B1 E2 A2 D3 G3 B3 E4. Aficionados of the instrument have produced many new arrangements traditionally six-string classical guitar pieces, and the seventh string may be retuned—to C or D, for example—to accommodate these arrangements. The use of this instrument in the classical world, along with other extended range instruments having 8-, 9- 10-, 11- or more strings, has become common enough that several noted string manufacturers now produce and marked string sets specifically for seven-string classical guitars (La Bella; Pyramid; d'Aquisto; etc.) For example, Napolean Coste arranged one of Franz Schubert’s pieces with vocal accompaniment despite guitars being typically for solo performance at the time.
MEXICAN (GUITARRA SéPTIMA)
There is a guitar of seven courses with double string guitar, totaling 14 strings, known as Guitarra séptima . The instrument is still played in Mexico, though it has become uncommon.
ELECTRIC GUITAR DESIGNS
Seven-string electric guitar
SEMI-HOLLOW AND HOLLOW BODY ELECTRIC GUITARS
Several others began using seven-string guitars after Van Eps,
Bucky Pizzarelli ,
Seven-string semi-acoustic archtop guitars were used by
The first seven-string electric guitars were built in the "hollowbody" or "semi-hollow" archtop styles, where the guitar has a central resonating chamber, or a central block with resonant chambers on the sides. This gave the guitar the dark woodiness, breath, and richness that is associated with traditional "jazz" tone, but also made prone to feedback at high volumes, making it problematic for rock guitar playing.
SOLID BODY ELECTRIC GUITARS
In the early thirties the National String Instrument Corporation offered seven-string versions of their solid-body lap-steel guitars.
A solid body seven-string electric guitar was conceived by guitarist
The first mass-produced seven-string was the
In the early 2000s,
Roger McGuinn (renowned for his skills on the
twelve-string guitar and for his long association with
Main article: Classical Music
* Adam Rafferty * Anastasia Bardina * Andrei Krylov * Bulat Okudzhava * Chris Buzzelli * Matthew Grasso * Oleg Timofeyev * Raphael Rabello * Ron Murray -webkit-column-width: 20em; column-width: 20em;">
Jaxon Benge -
Main article: Metal
* Abgott - German Wiki
* Hupogrammos -
Blackened Death Metal
* Alastor - Temple Of Baal
* Aphotic Mote -
* Josh McMorran - Bloodshot Dawn
* Brody Uttley and Jon Topore - Rivers of Nihil
* Joel Guernsey and Cameron Porras - Inanimate Existence.
Main article: Djent
* Acle Kahney -
Main article: Doom Metal
* Aaron Aedy - Paradise Lost * Greg Mackintosh - Paradise Lost
Main article: Folk Metal
Main article: Gothic Metal
* Cinthya Blackcat (Mystica Girls) * Lacuna Coil
Main article: Industrial Metal
Christian Olde Wolbers -
Dave Felton -
Main article: Metalcore
* Akshay Rajpurohit - Scribe
* Alex Wade - Whitechapel
Andrew Mikhail - Serpents/Oceano
Andrew Whiting -
Main article: Nu metal
Brian Welch -
Main article: Power metal
* Angel Vivaldi - I Legion
* Benjamin Baret and Matt Klavins - Ne Obliviscaris
Chris Letchford -
Scale the Summit
Davide Tiso - Ephel Duath
Dir En Grey
Main article: Thrash Metal
* Berit Hagen -
* ^ http://www.luth.org/memoriams/mem_mario-maccaferri.html
* ^ Smith, Gerald Stanton (1984). Songs to seven strings: Russian
guitar poetry and Soviet "mass song". Soviet history, politics,
society, and thought. Indiana University Press. pp. 1–271. ISBN
0253353912 . ISBN 9780253353917 .
* ^ INAH (1988). Atlas Cultural de México. Música. México: Grupo
Editorial Planeta. ISBN 968-406-121-8 .
* ^ The Seven String
* Casey, Fred (2003). "From Russia, with strings attached". American
Lutherie: The Quarterly Journal of the Guild of American Luthiers.
8222 South Park Avenue, Tacoma WA 98408: USA.: The Guild of American
Luthiers. NUMBER 75 (Fall). ISSN 1041-7176 . Plan number 48, Russian
7-string Guitar. Drawn by Fred Casey and Guild staff. One sheet 24 x
42 inches. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
* Griewank, Andreas (1 January 2010), Tuning guitars and reading
music in major thirds, Matheon preprints, 695, Rosestr. 3a, 12524
Berlin, Germany: DFG research center "MATHEON, Mathematics for key
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