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The Highlands (Scots: the Hielands; Scottish Gaelic: A’ Ghàidhealtachd pronounced [ə ɣɛːəl̪ˠt̪ʰəxk], "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.[1] Culturally, the Highlands and the Lowlands diverged from the later Middle Ages into the modern period, when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands. The term is also used for the area north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, although the exact boundaries are not clearly defined, particularly to the east. The Great Glen divides the Grampian Mountains
Grampian Mountains
to the southeast from the Northwest Highlands. The Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
name of A' Ghàidhealtachd literally means "the place of the Gaels" and traditionally, from a Gaelic-speaking point of view, includes both the Western Isles
Western Isles
and the Highlands. The area is very sparsely populated, with many mountain ranges dominating the region, and includes the highest mountain in the British Isles, Ben Nevis. Before the 19th century the Highlands was home to a much larger population, but due to a combination of factors including the outlawing of the traditional Highland way of life following the Jacobite Rising of 1745, the infamous Highland Clearances, and mass migration to urban areas during the Industrial Revolution, the area is now one of the most sparsely populated in Europe. At 9.1 per km2 in 2012,[2] the population density in the Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands
is less than one seventh of Scotland's as a whole,[2] comparable with that of Bolivia, Chad
Chad
and Russia.[3][4] The Highland Council
Highland Council
is the administrative body for much of the Highlands, with its administrative centre at Inverness. However, the Highlands also includes parts of the council areas of Aberdeenshire, Angus, Argyll and Bute, Moray, North Ayrshire, Perth and Kinross, Stirling
Stirling
and West Dunbartonshire. The Scottish highlands is the only area in the British Isles
British Isles
to have the taiga biome as it features concentrated populations of Scots pine forest: see Caledonian Forest.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Culture 1.2 Economy 1.3 Religion

2 Historical geography

2.1 Highland Council
Highland Council
area 2.2 Highlands and Islands 2.3 Historical crossings 2.4 Courier delivery

3 Geology 4 Places of interest 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] Culture[edit]

The main geographical divisions of Scotland

Battle of Alma, Sutherland
Sutherland
Highlanders

Between the 15th century and the 20th century, the area differed from most of the Lowlands in terms of language. In Scottish Gaelic, the region is known as the Gàidhealtachd,[5] because it was traditionally the Gaelic-speaking part of Scotland, although the language is now largely confined to The Hebrides. The terms are sometimes used interchangeably but have different meanings in their respective languages. Scottish English
Scottish English
(in its Highland form) is the predominant language of the area today, though Highland English has been influenced by Gaelic speech to a significant extent.[6] Historically, the "Highland line" distinguished the two Scottish cultures. While the Highland line broadly followed the geography of the Grampians in the south, it continued in the north, cutting off the north-eastern areas, that is Caithness, Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland, from the more Gaelic Highlands and Hebrides.[7][8] In the aftermath of the Jacobite risings, the British government enacted a series of laws to try to speed up the destruction of the clan system, including bans on the bearing of arms and the wearing of tartan, and limitations on the activities of the Scottish Episcopal Church. Most of this legislation was repealed by the end of the 18th century as the Jacobite threat subsided. There was soon a rehabilitation of Highland culture. Tartan
Tartan
was adopted for Highland regiments in the British Army, which poor Highlanders joined in large numbers in the era of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars (1790–1815). Tartan
Tartan
had largely been abandoned by the ordinary people of the region, but in the 1820s, tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland, but across Europe.[9][10] The international craze for tartan, and for idealising a romanticised Highlands, was set off by the Ossian cycle,[11][12] and further popularised by the works of Walter Scott. His "staging" of the visit of King George IV to Scotland
Scotland
in 1822 and the king's wearing of tartan resulted in a massive upsurge in demand for kilts and tartans that could not be met by the Scottish woollen industry. Individual clan tartans were largely designated in this period and they became a major symbol of Scottish identity.[13] This "Highlandism", by which all of Scotland
Scotland
was identified with the culture of the Highlands, was cemented by Queen Victoria's interest in the country, her adoption of Balmoral as a major royal retreat, and her interest in "tartenry".[10] Economy[edit] The Highlands before 1800 were very poor and traditional, and were not much affected by the uplift of the Scottish Enlightenment
Scottish Enlightenment
or the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
that was sweeping the Lowlands of Scotland. The period of the Napoleonic wars brought prosperity, optimism, and economic growth to the Highlands. The economy grew thanks to wages paid in industries such as kelping (in which kelp was burned for the useful chemicals obtained from the ashes), fisheries, and weaving, as well as large-scale infrastructure spending such as the Caledonian Canal project.[14] On the East Coast, farmlands were improved, and high prices for cattle brought money to the area. Service in the Army was also attractive to young men from the Highlands, who sent pay home and retired there with their army pensions.[15] This prosperity ended after 1815, and long-term negative factors began to undermine the economic position of the poor tenant farmers, who typically rented a few acres, and were known as crofters. Landowners were increasingly market-oriented in the century after 1750, and this tended to dissolve the traditional social and economic structure of the North-West Highlands and the Hebrides, causing great disruption for the crofters. The Highland Clearances
Highland Clearances
and the end of the township system followed changes in land ownership and tenancy and the replacement of cattle by sheep.[16] The Great Irish Famine of the 1840s was caused by a plant disease that reached the Highlands in 1846, causing great distress. Many Highlanders emigrated in a complex form of chain migration. Clan leaders would designate which young people should emigrate, where to, and in which order. The first arrivals would prepare the way for their kinsmen who continued to arrive in the chain migration.[17] The unequal concentration of land ownership remained an emotional and controversial subject, of enormous importance to the Highland economy, and eventually became a cornerstone of liberal radicalism. The poor crofters were politically powerless, and many of them turned to religion. They embraced the popularly oriented, fervently evangelical Presbyterian revival after 1800.[18] Most joined the breakaway "Free Church" after 1843. This evangelical movement was led by lay preachers who themselves came from the lower strata, and whose preaching was implicitly critical of the established order. The religious change energised the crofters and separated them from the landlords; it helped prepare them for their successful and violent challenge to the landlords in the 1880s through the Highland Land League.[19] Violence erupted, starting on the Isle of Skye, when Highland landlords cleared their lands for sheep and deer parks. It was quietened when the government stepped in, passing the Crofters' Holdings (Scotland) Act, 1886 to reduce rents, guarantee fixity of tenure, and break up large estates to provide crofts for the homeless.[20] This contrasted with the Irish Land War
Irish Land War
under way at the same time, where the Irish were intensely politicised through roots in Irish nationalism, while political dimensions were limited. In 1885 three Independent Crofter candidates were elected to Parliament, which listened to their pleas. The results included explicit security for the Scottish smallholders; the legal right to bequeath tenancies to descendants; and the creation of a Crofting Commission. The Crofters as a political movement faded away by 1892, and the Liberal Party gained their votes.[21] Religion[edit]

Loch
Loch
Long

The Scottish Reformation
Scottish Reformation
achieved partial success in the Highlands. Roman Catholicism remained strong in some areas, owing to remote locations and the efforts of Franciscan
Franciscan
missionaries from Ireland, who regularly came to celebrate Mass. Although the presence of Roman Catholicism has faded, there remain significant Catholic strongholds within the Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands
such as Moidart
Moidart
and Morar
Morar
on the mainland and South Uist
South Uist
and Barra
Barra
in the southern Outer Hebrides. The remoteness of the region and the lack of a Gaelic-speaking clergy undermined the missionary efforts of the established church. The later 18th century saw somewhat greater success, owing to the efforts of the SSPCK missionaries and to the disruption of traditional society after the Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden
in 1746. In the 19th century, the evangelical Free Churches, which were more accepting of Gaelic language and culture, grew rapidly, appealing much more strongly than did the established church.[22] For the most part, however, the Highlands are considered predominantly Protestant, loyal to the Church of Scotland. In contrast to the Catholic southern islands, the northern Outer Hebrides
Outer Hebrides
islands (Lewis, Harris and North Uist) have an exceptionally high proportion of their population belonging to the Protestant Free Church of Scotland
Scotland
or the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland. The Outer Hebrides
Outer Hebrides
have been described as the last bastion of Calvinism
Calvinism
in Britain[23] and the Sabbath remains widely observed. Inverness
Inverness
and the surrounding area has a majority Protestant population, with most locals belonging to either The Kirk or the Free Church of Scotland. The church maintains a noticeable presence within the area, with church attendance notably higher than in other Scottish cities. Religion continues to play an important role in Highland culture, with Sabbath observance still widely practised, particularly in the Hebrides.[24] Historical geography[edit]

Inverness, the administrative centre and traditional capital of the Highlands

Ben Nevis
Ben Nevis
from the path to the CIC Hut alongside the Allt a' Mhuilinn

In traditional Scottish geography, the Highlands refers to that part of Scotland
Scotland
north-west of the Highland Boundary Fault, which crosses mainland Scotland
Scotland
in a near-straight line from Helensburgh
Helensburgh
to Stonehaven. However the flat coastal lands that occupy parts of the counties of Nairnshire, Morayshire, Banffshire
Banffshire
and Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
are often excluded as they do not share the distinctive geographical and cultural features of the rest of the Highlands. The north-east of Caithness, as well as Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland, are also often excluded from the Highlands, although the Hebrides
Hebrides
are usually included. The Highland area, as so defined, differed from the Lowlands in language and tradition, having preserved Gaelic speech and customs centuries after the anglicisation of the latter; this led to a growing perception of a divide, with the cultural distinction between Highlander and Lowlander first noted towards the end of the 14th century. In Aberdeenshire, the boundary between the Highlands and the Lowlands is not well defined. There is a stone beside the A93 road near the village of Dinnet
Dinnet
on Royal Deeside which states 'You are now in the Highlands', although there are areas of Highland character to the east of this point. A much wider definition of the Highlands is that used by the Scotch Whisky industry. Highland Single Malts
Highland Single Malts
are produced at distilleries north of an imaginary line between Dundee
Dundee
and Greenock,[25] thus including all of Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
and Angus. Inverness
Inverness
is traditionally regarded as the capital of the Highlands,[26] although less so in the Highland parts of Aberdeenshire, Angus, Perthshire
Perthshire
and Stirlingshire
Stirlingshire
which look more to Aberdeen, Perth, Dundee
Dundee
and Stirling
Stirling
as their commercial centres. Under some of the wider definitions in use, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
could be considered the largest city in the Highlands, although it does not share the recent Gaelic cultural history typical of the Highlands proper. Highland Council
Highland Council
area[edit] The Highland Council
Highland Council
area, created as one of the local government regions of Scotland, has been a unitary council area since 1996. The council area excludes a large area of the southern and eastern Highlands, and the Western Isles, but includes Caithness. Highlands is sometimes used, however, as a name for the council area, as in Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands
Fire and Rescue Service. Northern, as in Northern Constabulary, is also used to refer to the area covered by the fire and rescue service. This area consists of the Highland council area and the island council areas of Orkney, Shetland
Shetland
and the Western Isles. Highland Council
Highland Council
signs in the Pass of Drumochter, between Glen Garry and Dalwhinnie, say "Welcome to the Highlands". Highlands and Islands[edit]

Isle of Skye

Much of the Highlands area overlaps the Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands
area. An electoral region called Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands
is used in elections to the Scottish Parliament: this area includes Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland, as well as the Highland Council
Highland Council
local government area, the Western Isles and most of the Argyll and Bute
Argyll and Bute
and Moray
Moray
local government areas. Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands
has, however, different meanings in different contexts. It means Highland (the local government area), Orkney, Shetland, and the Western Isles
Western Isles
in Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands
Fire and Rescue Service. Northern, as in Northern Constabulary, refers to the same area as that covered by the fire and rescue service. Historical crossings[edit] There have been trackways from the Lowlands to the Highlands since prehistoric times. Many traverse the Mounth, a spur of mountainous land that extends from the higher inland range to the North Sea slightly north of Stonehaven. The most well-known and historically important trackways are the Causey Mounth, Elsick Mounth,[27] Cryne Corse Mounth
Mounth
and Cairnamounth.[28] Courier delivery[edit] Although most of the Highlands is geographically on the British mainland, it is somewhat less accessible than the rest of Britain; thus most UK couriers categorise it separately, alongside Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man, and other offshore islands. They thus charge additional fees for delivery to the Highlands, or exclude the area entirely. Whilst the physical remoteness from the largest population centres inevitably leads to higher transit cost, there is confusion and consternation over the scale of the fees charged and the effectiveness of their communication,[29] and the use of the word Mainland in their justification. Since the charges are often based on postcode areas, many far less remote areas, including some which are traditionally considered part of the lowlands, are also subject to these charges.[29] Royal Mail
Royal Mail
is the only delivery network bound by a Universal Service Obligation to charge a uniform tariff across the UK. This, however, applies only to mail items and not larger packages which are dealt with by its Parcelforce
Parcelforce
division. Geology[edit]

Liathach
Liathach
seen from Beinn Eighe. With the Munro "Top" of Stuc a' Choire Dhuibh Bhig 915 m (3,001 ft) in the foreground and the two Munro summits in the background.

The main ridge of the Cuillin

The Highlands lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, which runs from Arran to Stonehaven. This part of Scotland
Scotland
is largely composed of ancient rocks from the Cambrian
Cambrian
and Precambrian periods which were uplifted during the later Caledonian Orogeny. Smaller formations of Lewisian gneiss in the northwest are up to 3 billion years old. The overlying rocks of the Torridon Sandstone form mountains in the Torridon Hills
Torridon Hills
such as Liathach
Liathach
and Beinn Eighe
Beinn Eighe
in Wester Ross. These foundations are interspersed with many igneous intrusions of a more recent age, the remnants of which have formed mountain massifs such as the Cairngorms
Cairngorms
and the Cuillin
Cuillin
of Skye. A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of Old Red Sandstone found principally along the Moray
Moray
Firth coast and partially down the Highland Boundary Fault. The Jurassic
Jurassic
beds found in isolated locations on Skye
Skye
and Applecross
Applecross
reflect the complex underlying geology. They are the original source of much North Sea
North Sea
oil. The Great Glen is formed along a transform fault which divides the Grampian Mountains to the southeast from the Northwest Highlands.[30][31] The entire region was covered by ice sheets during the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
ice ages, save perhaps for a few nunataks. The complex geomorphology includes incised valleys and lochs carved by the action of mountain streams and ice, and a topography of irregularly distributed mountains whose summits have similar heights above sea-level, but whose bases depend upon the amount of denudation to which the plateau has been subjected in various places. Places of interest[edit]

A83 road, Rest and Be Thankful stretch An Teallach Aonach Mòr
Aonach Mòr
(Nevis Range ski centre) Arrochar Alps Balmoral Castle Balquhidder Battlefield of Culloden Beinn Alligin Beinn Eighe Ben Cruachan hydro-electric power station Ben Lomond Ben Macdui
Ben Macdui
(Scotland's (and the United Kingdom's) second highest mountain) Ben Nevis
Ben Nevis
(Scotland's (and the United Kingdom's) highest mountain) Cairngorm National Park Cairngorm Ski centre near Aviemore Cairngorm Mountains Caledonian Canal Cape Wrath Carrick Castle Castle Stalker Castle Tioram Chanonry Point Conic Hill Dunadd Duart Castle Durness Eilean Donan Fingal's Cave
Fingal's Cave
(Staffa) Fort George Glen Coe Glen Etive Glen Kinglas Glen Lyon Glen Orchy Glenshee Ski Centre Glen Shiel Glen Spean Glenfinnan
Glenfinnan
(and its railway station and viaduct) Grampian Mountains Hebrides Highland Folk Museum- The first open-air museum in the UK. Highland Wildlife Park Inveraray Castle Inveraray Jail Inverewe Garden Iona Abbey Isle of Staffa Kilchurn Castle Kilmartin Glen Liathach Lecht Ski Centre Loch
Loch
Alsh Loch
Loch
Ard Loch
Loch
Awe Loch
Loch
Earn Loch
Loch
Etive Loch
Loch
Fyne Loch
Loch
Goil Loch
Loch
Katrine Loch
Loch
Leven Loch
Loch
Linnhe Loch
Loch
Lochy Loch
Loch
Lomond Loch
Loch
Lomond and the Trossachs National Park Loch
Loch
Lubnaig Loch
Loch
Maree Loch
Loch
Morar Loch
Loch
Morlich Loch
Loch
Ness Loch
Loch
Nevis Loch
Loch
Rannoch Loch
Loch
Tay Lochranza Luss Meall a' Bhuiridh
Meall a' Bhuiridh
(Glencoe Ski Centre) Scottish Sea Life Sanctuary at Loch
Loch
Creran Rannoch Moor Red Cuillin Carron River River Spey River Tay Ross and Cromarty Smoo Cave Stob Coire a' Chàirn Stac Polly Strathspey Railway Sutherland Tor Castle Torridon Hills Urquhart Castle West Highland Line
West Highland Line
(The most scenic railway in Britain) West Highland Way
West Highland Way
(Long distance footpath) Wester Ross Western Isles

Gallery[edit]

The Glenfinnan
Glenfinnan
Viaduct from below.

The Saddle

Loch
Loch
Scavaig, Isle of Skye

Inverness

The islands of Loch
Loch
Maree

The interior of Smoo Cave, Sutherland

Cape Wrath
Cape Wrath
Lighthouse in the far NW of the Highlands

Blaven

Gair Loch

The Kyle of Durness

The Quirang, Isle of Skye

Two hinds in the Highlands

Loch
Loch
an Lòin

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Highlands.

Fauna of Scotland Highland 2007 Highland Land League James Hunter (historian), an historian who wrote several books related to the Scottish Highlands List of fauna of the Scottish Highlands List of towns and villages in the Scottish Highlands Mountains and hills of Scotland

References[edit]

^ "Highlands region, Scotland, United Kingdom". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-05-10.  ^ a b "Highland profile — key facts and figures". The Highland Council. Retrieved 2 June 2014.  ^ List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density ^ "Global Health Facts : Demography & Population : Population Density (Population Per Square Kilometer)". The Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved 2 June 2014.  ^ Martin Ball; James Fife (1993). The Celtic Languages. Routledge. p. 136. ISBN 9780415010351.  ^ Charles Jones (1997). The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 566–567. ISBN 978-0748607549.  ^ "The Highland Line". Sue & Marilyn. Retrieved 8 March 2013.  ^ "Historical Geography
Geography
of the Clans of Scotland". Electricscotland.com. Retrieved 8 March 2013.  ^ John Lenox Roberts (2002). The Jacobite Wars: Scotland
Scotland
and the Military Campaigns of 1715 and 1745. Polygon at Edinburgh. pp. 193–195. ISBN 9781902930299.  ^ a b Marco Sievers (2007). The Highland Myth as an Invented Tradition of 18th and 19th Century and Its Significance for the Image of Scotland. GRIN Verlag. pp. 22–25. ISBN 9783638816519.  ^ Deidre Dawson; Pierre Morère (2004). Scotland
Scotland
and France in the Enlightenment. Bucknell University Press. pp. 75–76. ISBN 0838755267.  ^ William Ferguson (1998). The Identity of the Scottish Nation: An Historic Quest. Edinburgh University Press. p. 227. ISBN 0748610715.  ^ Norman C Milne (2010). Scottish Culture and Traditions. Paragon Publishing. p. 138. ISBN 1899820795.  ^ "Highlands Highlights in the Heart of Scotland
Scotland
by Rick Steves". www.ricksteves.com. Retrieved 2017-05-10.  ^ Malcolm Gray (1957). The Highland economy, 1750-1850. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780837185361.  ^ "The Scottish Highlands". Scotland
Scotland
Info Guide. 2015-02-27. Retrieved 2017-05-10.  ^ Amanda Epperson (Oct 2009). "'It would be my earnest desire that you all would come': Networks, the Migration Process and Highland Emigration". Scottish Historical Review. 88 (2): 313–31. doi:10.3366/E0036924109000882.  ^ Thomas Martin Devine (1999). "Chapter 18". The Scottish Nation. Penguin Books. ISBN 0670888117.  ^ James Hunter (1974). "The Emergence of the Crofting Community: The Religious Contribution 1798–1843". Scottish Studies. 18: 95–116.  ^ Ian Bradley (Dec 1987). "'Having and Holding' - The Highland Land War of the 1880s". History Today. 37 (12): 23–28. Retrieved 8 March 2013.  ^ Ewen A. Cameron (June 2005). "Communication or Separation? Reactions to Irish Land Agitation and Legislation in the Highlands of Scotland, c. 1870–1910". English Historical Review. 120 (487): 633–66. doi:10.1093/ehr/cei124.  ^ George Robb (1990). "Popular Religion and the Christianisation of the Highlands in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries". Journal of Religious History. 16 (1): 18–34. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9809.1990.tb00647.x.  ^ Gerard Seenan (10 April 2006). "Fury at ferry crossing on Sabbath". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 March 2013.  ^ Cook, James (29 March 2011). "Battle looms in Outer Hebrides
Outer Hebrides
over Sabbath opening". BBC News. Retrieved 3 June 2014.  ^ "Whisky Regions & Tours". Scotch Whisky
Scotch Whisky
Association. Retrieved 8 March 2013.  ^ "Inverness: Capital of the Scottish Highlands". Internet Guide to Scotland. Retrieved 8 March 2013.  ^ C Michael Hogan (22 November 2007). "Elsick Mounth
Mounth
- Ancient Trackway
Trackway
in Scotland
Scotland
in Aberdeenshire". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 8 March 2013.  ^ W. Douglas Simpson (10 December 1928). "The Early Castles of Mar" (PDF). Proceedings of the Society. Retrieved 8 March 2013. [dead link] ^ a b "3,000 angry Scots respond to CAB survey on rural delivery charges". 2012 The Scottish Association of Citizens Advice Bureaux
The Scottish Association of Citizens Advice Bureaux
- Citizens Advice Scotland
Scotland
(Scottish charity SC016637). 25 January 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ John Keay, Julia Keay (1994). Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. HarperCollins. ISBN 9780007103539.  ^ William Hutchison Murray (1973). The islands of Western Scotland: the Inner and Outer Hebrides. Eyre Methuen. 

Further reading[edit]

Baxter, Colin, and C. J. Tabraham. The Scottish Highlands
Scottish Highlands
(2008), heavily illustrated Gray, Malcolm. The Highland Economy, 1750–1850 (Edinburgh, 1957) Humphreys, Rob, and Donald Reid. The Rough Guide to Scottish Highlands and Islands (3rd ed. 2004) Keay, J. and J. Keay. Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland
Scotland
(1994) Kermack, William Ramsay. The Scottish Highlands: a short history, c. 300-1746 (1957) Lister, John Anthony. The Scottish Highlands
Scottish Highlands
(1978)

External links[edit]

Am Baile – Highland History & Culture in English and Gaelic Community portal site – EU and local authority supported Walking guide National Library of Scotland: SCOTTISH SCREEN ARCHIVE (selection of archive films relating to the Scottish Highlands) Lairds of Battle - Warfare in the Highlands in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Garnett, Thomas (1800) Observations on a tour through the Highlands and part of the western isles and Scotland, particularly Staffa
Staffa
and Icolmkill, in two volumes - from the Linda Hall Library

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Scottish clans

List of tartans

Clans with chiefs

Agnew Anstruther Arbuthnott Arthur Bannerman Barclay Borthwick Boyd Boyle Brodie Broun Bruce Buchan Burnett Cameron Campbell Carmichael Carnegie Cathcart Charteris Chattan Chisholm Cochrane Colquhoun Colville Cranstoun Crichton Cumming (Comyn) Cunningham Darroch Davidson Dewar Drummond Dunbar Dundas Durie Elliot Elphinstone Erskine Farquharson Fergusson Forbes Forsyth Fraser Fraser of Lovat Gordon Graham Grant Gregor Grierson Gunn Guthrie Haig Haldane Hamilton Hannay Hay Henderson Home Hope Hunter Irvine Jardine Johnstone Keith Kennedy Kerr Kincaid Lamont Leask Lennox Leslie Lindsay Lockhart Lumsden Lyon MacAlister MacBean MacDonald Macdonald of Clanranald MacDonald of Keppoch Macdonald of Sleat MacDonell of Glengarry MacDougall Macdowall MacIntyre Mackay Mackenzie Mackinnon Mackintosh Maclachlan Maclaine of Lochbuie MacLaren MacLea (Livingstone) Maclean MacLennan MacLeod MacLeod of Lewis MacMillan Macnab Macnaghten MacNeacail MacNeil Macpherson MacTavish MacThomas Maitland Makgill Malcolm (MacCallum) Mar Marjoribanks Matheson Menzies Moffat Moncreiffe Montgomery Morrison Munro Murray Napier Nesbitt Nicolson Ogilvy Oliphant Primrose Ramsay Rattray Riddell Robertson Rollo Rose Ross Ruthven Sandilands Scott Scrymgeour Sempill Shaw Sinclair Skene Stirling Strange Stuart of Bute Sutherland Swinton Trotter Urquhart Wallace Wedderburn Wemyss Wood

Armigerous clans

Abercromby Abernethy Adair Adam Aikenhead Ainslie Aiton Allardice Anderson Armstrong Arnott Auchinleck Baillie Baird Balfour Bannatyne Baxter Bell Belshes Bethune Beveridge Binning Bissett Blackadder Blackstock Blair Blane Blyth Boswell Brisbane Buchanan Butter Byres Cairns Calder Caldwell Callender Campbell of Breadalbane Campbell of Cawdor Carruthers Cheyne Chalmers Clelland Clephane Cockburn Congilton Craig Crawford Crosbie Dalmahoy Dalrymple Dalzell Dennistoun Don Douglas Duncan Dunlop Edmonstone Fairlie Falconer Fenton Fleming Fletcher Forrester Fotheringham Fullarton Galbraith Galloway Gardyne Gartshore Gayre Ged Gibsone Gladstains Glas Glen Glendinning Gray Haliburton Halkerston Halket Hepburn Heron Herries Hogg Hopkirk Horsburgh Houston Hutton Inglis Innes Kelly Kinloch Kinnaird Kinnear Kinninmont Kirkcaldy Kirkpatrick Laing Lammie Langlands Learmonth Little Logan Logie Lundin Lyle MacAlpin(e) MacAulay Macbrayne MacDuff MacEwen MacFarlane Macfie MacGillivray MacInnes MacIver Mackie MacLellan Macquarrie Macqueen Macrae Masterton Maule Maxton Maxwell McCorquodale McCulloch McKerrell Meldrum Melville Mercer Middleton Moncur Monteith Monypenny Mouat Moubray Mow Muir Nairn Nevoy Newlands Newton Norvel Ochterlony Orrock Paisley Paterson Pennycook Pentland Peter Pitblado Pitcairn Pollock Polwarth Porterfield Preston Pringle Purves Rait Ralston Renton Roberton Rossie Russell Rutherford Schaw Seton Skirving Somerville Spalding Spens Spottiswood Stewart Stewart of Appin Stirling Strachan Straiton Sydserf Symmers Tailyour Tait Tennant Troup Turnbull Tweedie Udny Vans Walkinshaw Wardlaw Watson Wauchope Weir Whitefoord Whitelaw Wishart Young

Culture and society

Scotland Lord Lyon Court of the Lord Lyon Clan chief Septs Clan badge Clan crest Clan battles Tartan Bagpipes Clearances Kilt Manrent The Highlands Battle of Culloden Highland games Border Reivers Lowland Scots language Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
language Scottish heraldry Scottish surnames Shennachie Independent Highland Companies Sgian-dubh

Coordinates: 57°07′N 4°43′W / 57.12°N 4.71°W / 57.12; -4.71

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 236365448 GND: 4072495-5

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