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The HIGHLANDS (Scots : the Hielands; Scottish Gaelic : A' Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels ") are a historic region of Scotland
Scotland
. Culturally, the Highlands and the Lowlands diverged from the later Middle Ages into the modern period , when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands. The term is also used for the area north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault , although the exact boundaries are not clearly defined, particularly to the east. The Great Glen divides the Grampian Mountains
Grampian Mountains
to the southeast from the Northwest Highlands . The Scottish Gaelic name of A\' Ghàidhealtachd literally means "the place of the Gaels" and traditionally, from a Gaelic-speaking point of view, includes both the Western Isles
Western Isles
and the Highlands.

The area is very sparsely populated, with many mountain ranges dominating the region, and includes the highest mountain in the British Isles
British Isles
, Ben Nevis
Ben Nevis
. Before the 19th century the Highlands was home to a much larger population, but due to a combination of factors including the outlawing of the traditional Highland way of life following the Jacobite Rising of 1745
Jacobite Rising of 1745
, the infamous Highland Clearances , and mass migration to urban areas during the Industrial Revolution , the area is now one of the most sparsely populated in Europe
Europe
. At 9.1 per km2 in 2012, the population density in the Highlands and Islands is less than one seventh of Scotland's as a whole, comparable with that of Bolivia
Bolivia
, Chad
Chad
and Russia
Russia
.

The Highland Council
Highland Council
is the administrative body for much of the Highlands, with its administrative centre at Inverness
Inverness
. However, the Highlands also includes parts of the council areas of Aberdeenshire , Angus , Argyll and Bute , Moray
Moray
, North Ayrshire , Perth and Kinross , Stirling
Stirling
and West Dunbartonshire .

The Scottish highlands is the only area in the British Isles
British Isles
to have the taiga biome as it features concentrated populations of Scots pine forest: see Caledonian Forest
Caledonian Forest
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Culture * 1.2 Economy * 1.3 Religion

* 2 Historical geography

* 2.1 Highland Council
Highland Council
area * 2.2 Highlands and Islands * 2.3 Historical crossings * 2.4 Courier delivery

* 3 Geology * 4 Places of interest * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

HISTORY

CULTURE

The main geographical divisions of Scotland
Scotland
Battle of Alma , Sutherland
Sutherland
Highlanders

Between the 15th century and the 20th century, the area differed from most of the Lowlands in terms of language. In Scottish Gaelic, the region is known as the Gàidhealtachd , because it was traditionally the Gaelic-speaking part of Scotland, although the language is now largely confined to the Outer Hebrides . The terms are sometimes used interchangeably but have different meanings in their respective languages. Scottish English (in its Highland form ) is the predominant language of the area today, though Highland English has been influenced by Gaelic speech to a significant extent. Historically, the "Highland line" distinguished the two Scottish cultures. While the Highland line broadly followed the geography of the Grampians in the south, it continued in the north, cutting off the north-eastern areas, that is Caithness
Caithness
, Orkney and Shetland , from the more Gaelic Highlands and Hebrides.

In the aftermath of the Jacobite risings, the British government enacted a series of laws to try to speed up the destruction of the clan system , including bans on the bearing of arms and the wearing of tartan , and limitations on the activities of the Scottish Episcopal Church . Most of this legislation was repealed by the end of the 18th century as the Jacobite threat subsided. There was soon a rehabilitation of Highland culture. Tartan
Tartan
was adopted for Highland regiments in the British Army, which poor Highlanders joined in large numbers in the era of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars (1790–1815). Tartan
Tartan
had largely been abandoned by the ordinary people of the region, but in the 1820s, tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland, but across Europe. The international craze for tartan, and for idealising a romanticised Highlands, was set off by the Ossian
Ossian
cycle, and further popularised by the works of Walter Scott . His "staging" of the visit of King George IV to Scotland
Scotland
in 1822 and the king's wearing of tartan resulted in a massive upsurge in demand for kilts and tartans that could not be met by the Scottish woollen industry. Individual clan tartans were largely designated in this period and they became a major symbol of Scottish identity. This "Highlandism", by which all of Scotland
Scotland
was identified with the culture of the Highlands, was cemented by Queen Victoria's interest in the country, her adoption of Balmoral as a major royal retreat, and her interest in "tartenry".

ECONOMY

The Highlands before 1800 were very poor and traditional, and were not much affected by the uplift of the Scottish Enlightenment or the Industrial Revolution that was sweeping the Lowlands of Scotland. The period of the Napoleonic wars brought prosperity, optimism, and economic growth to the Highlands. The economy grew thanks to wages paid in industries such as kelping (in which kelp was burned for the useful chemicals obtained from the ashes), fisheries, and weaving, as well as large-scale infrastructure spending such as the Caledonian Canal project. On the East Coast, farmlands were improved, and high prices for cattle brought money to the area. Service in the Army was also attractive to young men from the Highlands, who sent pay home and retired there with their army pensions. This prosperity ended after 1815, and long-term negative factors began to undermine the economic position of the poor tenant farmers, who typically rented a few acres , and were known as crofters . Landowners were increasingly market-oriented in the century after 1750, and this tended to dissolve the traditional social and economic structure of the North-West Highlands and the Hebrides, causing great disruption for the crofters. The Highland Clearances and the end of the township system followed changes in land ownership and tenancy and the replacement of cattle by sheep. The Great Irish Famine of the 1840s was caused by a plant disease that reached the Highlands in 1846, causing great distress. Many Highlanders emigrated in a complex form of chain migration . Clan leaders would designate which young people should emigrate, where to, and in which order. The first arrivals would prepare the way for their kinsmen who continued to arrive in the chain migration.

The unequal concentration of land ownership remained an emotional and controversial subject, of enormous importance to the Highland economy, and eventually became a cornerstone of liberal radicalism. The poor crofters were politically powerless, and many of them turned to religion. They embraced the popularly oriented, fervently evangelical Presbyterian revival after 1800. Most joined the breakaway "Free Church" after 1843. This evangelical movement was led by lay preachers who themselves came from the lower strata, and whose preaching was implicitly critical of the established order. The religious change energised the crofters and separated them from the landlords; it helped prepare them for their successful and violent challenge to the landlords in the 1880s through the Highland Land League . Violence erupted, starting on the Isle of Skye
Isle of Skye
, when Highland landlords cleared their lands for sheep and deer parks. It was quietened when the government stepped in, passing the Crofters\' Holdings (Scotland) Act, 1886 to reduce rents, guarantee fixity of tenure, and break up large estates to provide crofts for the homeless. This contrasted with the Irish Land War
Irish Land War
under way at the same time, where the Irish were intensely politicised through roots in Irish nationalism, while political dimensions were limited. In 1885 three Independent Crofter candidates were elected to Parliament, which listened to their pleas. The results included explicit security for the Scottish smallholders; the legal right to bequeath tenancies to descendants; and the creation of a Crofting Commission. The Crofters as a political movement faded away by 1892, and the Liberal Party gained their votes.

RELIGION

Loch Long
Loch Long

The Scottish Reformation achieved partial success in the Highlands. Roman Catholicism remained strong in some areas, owing to remote locations and the efforts of Franciscan missionaries from Ireland, who regularly came to celebrate Mass . Although the presence of Roman Catholicism has faded, there remain significant Catholic strongholds within the Highlands and Islands such as Moidart and Morar
Morar
on the mainland and South Uist
South Uist
and Barra
Barra
in the southern Outer Hebrides. The remoteness of the region and the lack of a Gaelic-speaking clergy undermined the missionary efforts of the established church. The later 18th century saw somewhat greater success, owing to the efforts of the SSPCK missionaries and to the disruption of traditional society after the Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden
in 1746. In the 19th century, the evangelical Free Churches, which were more accepting of Gaelic language and culture, grew rapidly, appealing much more strongly than did the established church.

For the most part, however, the Highlands are considered predominantly Protestant, loyal to the Church of Scotland
Scotland
. In contrast to the Catholic southern islands, the northern Outer Hebrides islands (Lewis, Harris and North Uist) have an exceptionally high proportion of their population belonging to the Protestant Free Church of Scotland
Scotland
or the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland
Scotland
. The Outer Hebrides
Hebrides
have been described as the last bastion of Calvinism in Britain and the Sabbath remains widely observed. Inverness
Inverness
and the surrounding area has a majority Protestant population, with most locals belonging to either The Kirk or the Free Church of Scotland
Scotland
. The church maintains a noticeable presence within the area, with church attendance notably higher than in other Scottish cities. Religion continues to play an important role in Highland culture, with Sabbath observance still widely practised, particularly in the Hebrides.

HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY

Inverness
Inverness
, the administrative centre and traditional capital of the Highlands Ben Nevis
Ben Nevis
from the path to the CIC Hut alongside the Allt a' Mhuilinn

In traditional Scottish geography , the Highlands refers to that part of Scotland
Scotland
north-west of the Highland Boundary Fault , which crosses mainland Scotland
Scotland
in a near-straight line from Helensburgh
Helensburgh
to Stonehaven . However the flat coastal lands that occupy parts of the counties of Nairnshire , Morayshire , Banffshire and Aberdeenshire are often excluded as they do not share the distinctive geographical and cultural features of the rest of the Highlands. The north-east of Caithness
Caithness
, as well as Orkney and Shetland , are also often excluded from the Highlands, although the Hebrides
Hebrides
are usually included. The Highland area, as so defined, differed from the Lowlands in language and tradition, having preserved Gaelic speech and customs centuries after the anglicisation of the latter; this led to a growing perception of a divide, with the cultural distinction between Highlander and Lowlander first noted towards the end of the 14th century. In Aberdeenshire , the boundary between the Highlands and the Lowlands is not well defined. There is a stone beside the A93 road near the village of Dinnet on Royal Deeside which states 'You are now in the Highlands', although there are areas of Highland character to the east of this point.

A much wider definition of the Highlands is that used by the Scotch Whisky industry. Highland Single Malts are produced at distilleries north of an imaginary line between Dundee and Greenock
Greenock
, thus including all of Aberdeenshire and Angus .

Inverness
Inverness
is traditionally regarded as the capital of the Highlands, although less so in the Highland parts of Aberdeenshire , Angus , Perthshire and Stirlingshire
Stirlingshire
which look more to Aberdeen
Aberdeen
, Perth , Dundee and Stirling
Stirling
as their commercial centres. Under some of the wider definitions in use, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
could be considered the largest city in the Highlands, although it does not share the recent Gaelic cultural history typical of the Highlands proper.

HIGHLAND COUNCIL AREA

The Highland Council
Highland Council
area, created as one of the local government regions of Scotland
Scotland
, has been a unitary council area since 1996. The council area excludes a large area of the southern and eastern Highlands, and the Western Isles
Western Isles
, but includes Caithness
Caithness
. Highlands is sometimes used, however, as a name for the council area, as in Highlands and Islands Fire and Rescue Service . Northern , as in Northern Constabulary
Northern Constabulary
, is also used to refer to the area covered by the fire and rescue service. This area consists of the Highland council area and the island council areas of Orkney , Shetland and the Western Isles.

Highland Council
Highland Council
signs in the Pass of Drumochter , between Glen Garry and Dalwhinnie
Dalwhinnie
, say "Welcome to the Highlands".

HIGHLANDS AND ISLANDS

Isle of Skye
Isle of Skye

Much of the Highlands area overlaps the Highlands and Islands area. An electoral region called Highlands and Islands is used in elections to the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
: this area includes Orkney and Shetland , as well as the Highland Council
Highland Council
local government area, the Western Isles and most of the Argyll and Bute and Moray
Moray
local government areas. Highlands and Islands has, however, different meanings in different contexts. It means Highland (the local government area), Orkney, Shetland, and the Western Isles
Western Isles
in Highlands and Islands Fire and Rescue Service . Northern , as in Northern Constabulary
Northern Constabulary
, refers to the same area as that covered by the fire and rescue service.

HISTORICAL CROSSINGS

There have been trackways from the Lowlands to the Highlands since prehistoric times. Many traverse the Mounth , a spur of mountainous land that extends from the higher inland range to the North Sea slightly north of Stonehaven . The most well-known and historically important trackways are the Causey Mounth , Elsick Mounth , Cryne Corse Mounth and Cairnamounth .

COURIER DELIVERY

Although most of the Highlands is geographically on the British mainland, it is somewhat less accessible than the rest of Britain; thus most UK couriers categorise it separately, alongside Northern Ireland , the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
, and other offshore islands. They thus charge additional fees for delivery to the Highlands, or exclude the area entirely. Whilst the physical remoteness from the largest population centres inevitably leads to higher transit cost, there is confusion and consternation over the scale of the fees charged and the effectiveness of their communication, and the use of the word Mainland in their justification. Since the charges are often based on postcode areas, many far less remote areas, including some which are traditionally considered part of the lowlands, are also subject to these charges. Royal Mail
Royal Mail
is the only delivery network bound by a Universal Service Obligation to charge a uniform tariff across the UK. This, however, applies only to mail items and not larger packages which are dealt with by its Parcelforce
Parcelforce
division.

GEOLOGY

Liathach seen from Beinn Eighe
Beinn Eighe
. With the Munro "Top" of Stuc a' Choire Dhuibh Bhig 915 m (3,001 ft) in the foreground and the two Munro summits in the background. The main ridge of the Cuillin
Cuillin

The Highlands lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault , which runs from Arran to Stonehaven . This part of Scotland
Scotland
is largely composed of ancient rocks from the Cambrian
Cambrian
and Precambrian periods which were uplifted during the later Caledonian Orogeny . Smaller formations of Lewisian gneiss in the northwest are up to 3 billion years old. The overlying rocks of the Torridonian sandstone form mountains in the Torridon Hills such as Liathach and Beinn Eighe in Wester Ross
Wester Ross
.

These foundations are interspersed with many igneous intrusions of a more recent age, the remnants of which have formed mountain massifs such as the Cairngorms
Cairngorms
and the Cuillin
Cuillin
of Skye
Skye
. A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of Old Red Sandstones found principally along the Moray
Moray
Firth coast and partially down the Highland Boundary Fault . The Jurassic beds found in isolated locations on Skye
Skye
and Applecross
Applecross
reflect the complex underlying geology. They are the original source of much North Sea oil . The Great Glen is a transform fault which divides the Grampian Mountains to the southeast from the Northwest Highlands .

The entire region was covered by ice sheets during the Pleistocene ice ages, save perhaps for a few nunataks . The complex geomorphology includes incised valleys and lochs carved by the action of mountain streams and ice, and a topography of irregularly distributed mountains whose summits have similar heights above sea-level, but whose bases depend upon the amount of denudation to which the plateau has been subjected in various places.

PLACES OF INTEREST

* A83 road
A83 road
, Rest ">

The Glenfinnan
Glenfinnan
Viaduct from below. *

The Saddle *

Loch
Loch
Scavaig, Isle of Skye
Isle of Skye
*

Inverness
Inverness
*

The islands of Loch
Loch
Maree *

The interior of Smoo Cave
Smoo Cave
, Sutherland
Sutherland
*

Cape Wrath
Cape Wrath
Lighthouse in the far NW of the Highlands *

Blaven
Blaven
*

Gair Loch
Loch
*

The Kyle of Durness
Durness
*

The Quirang , Isle of Skye
Isle of Skye
*

Two hinds in the Highlands *

Loch
Loch
an Lòin

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to HIGHLANDS .

* Fauna of Scotland
Scotland
* Highland 2007
Highland 2007
* Highland Land League * Mountains and hills of Scotland
Scotland
* List of fauna of the Scottish Highlands * List of towns and villages in the Scottish Highlands * James Hunter (historian) wrote several books related to the Scottish Highlands.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Highlands region, Scotland, United Kingdom". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-05-10. * ^ A B "Highland profile — key facts and figures". The Highland Council . Retrieved 2 June 2014. * ^ List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density * ^ "Global Health Facts : Demography & Population : Population Density (Population Per Square Kilometer)". The Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved 2 June 2014. * ^ Martin Ball; James Fife (1993). The Celtic Languages. Routledge. p. 136. ISBN 9780415010351 . * ^ Charles Jones (1997). The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 566–567. ISBN 978-0748607549 . * ^ "The Highland Line". Sue & Marilyn. Retrieved 8 March 2013. * ^ "Historical Geography
Geography
of the Clans of Scotland". Electricscotland.com. Retrieved 8 March 2013. * ^ John Lenox Roberts (2002). The Jacobite Wars: Scotland
Scotland
and the Military Campaigns of 1715 and 1745. Polygon at Edinburgh. pp. 193–195. ISBN 9781902930299 . * ^ A B Marco Sievers (2007). The Highland Myth as an Invented Tradition of 18th and 19th Century and Its Significance for the Image of Scotland. GRIN Verlag. pp. 22–25. ISBN 9783638816519 . * ^ Deidre Dawson; Pierre Morère (2004). Scotland
Scotland
and France in the Enlightenment. Bucknell University Press. pp. 75–76. ISBN 0838755267 . * ^ William Ferguson (1998). The Identity of the Scottish Nation: An Historic Quest. Edinburgh University Press. p. 227. ISBN 0748610715 . * ^ Norman C Milne (2010). Scottish Culture and Traditions. Paragon Publishing. p. 138. ISBN 1899820795 . * ^ "Highlands Highlights in the Heart of Scotland
Scotland
by Rick Steves". www.ricksteves.com. Retrieved 2017-05-10. * ^ Malcolm Gray (1957). The Highland economy, 1750-1850. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780837185361 . * ^ "The Scottish Highlands". Scotland
Scotland
Info Guide. 2015-02-27. Retrieved 2017-05-10. * ^ Amanda Epperson (Oct 2009). "‘It would be my earnest desire that you all would come’: Networks, the Migration Process and Highland Emigration". Scottish Historical Review. 88 (2): 313–31. doi :10.3366/E0036924109000882 . * ^ Thomas Martin Devine (1999). "Chapter 18". The Scottish Nation. Penguin Books. ISBN 0670888117 . * ^ James Hunter (1974). "The Emergence of the Crofting Community: The Religious Contribution 1798–1843". Scottish Studies. 18: 95–116. * ^ Ian Bradley (Dec 1987). "\'Having and Holding\' - The Highland Land War of the 1880s". History Today. 37 (12): 23–28. Retrieved 8 March 2013. * ^ Ewen A. Cameron (June 2005). "Communication or Separation? Reactions to Irish Land Agitation and Legislation in the Highlands of Scotland, c. 1870–1910". English Historical Review. 120 (487): 633–66. doi :10.1093/ehr/cei124 . * ^ George Robb (1990). "Popular Religion and the Christianisation of the Highlands in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries". Journal of Religious History. 16 (1): 18–34. doi :10.1111/j.1467-9809.1990.tb00647.x . * ^ Gerard Seenan (10 April 2006). "Fury at ferry crossing on Sabbath". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 March 2013. * ^ Cook, James (29 March 2011). "Battle looms in Outer Hebrides over Sabbath opening". BBC News. Retrieved 3 June 2014. * ^ "Whisky Regions & Tours". Scotch Whisky
Scotch Whisky
Association. Retrieved 8 March 2013. * ^ "Inverness: Capital of the Scottish Highlands". Internet Guide to Scotland. Retrieved 8 March 2013. * ^ C Michael Hogan (22 November 2007). "Elsick Mounth - Ancient Trackway
Trackway
in Scotland
Scotland
in Aberdeenshire". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 8 March 2013. * ^ W. Douglas Simpson (10 December 1928). "The Early Castles of Mar" (PDF). Proceedings of the Society. Retrieved 8 March 2013. * ^ A B "3,000 angry Scots respond to CAB survey on rural delivery charges". 2012 The Scottish Association of Citizens Advice Bureaux - Citizens Advice Scotland
Scotland
(Scottish charity SC016637). 25 January 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2013. * ^ John Keay, Julia Keay (1994). Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. HarperCollins. ISBN 9780007103539 . * ^ William Hutchison Murray (1973). The islands of Western Scotland: the Inner and Outer Hebrides. Eyre Methuen.

FURTHER READING

* Baxter, Colin, and C. J. Tabraham. The Scottish Highlands (2008), heavily illustrated * Gray, Malcolm. The Highland Economy, 1750–1850 (Edinburgh, 1957) * Humphreys, Rob, and Donald Reid. The Rough Guide to Scottish Highlands and Islands (3rd ed. 2004) * Keay, J. and J. Keay. Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland
Scotland
(1994) * Kermack, William Ramsay. The Scottish Highlands: a short history, c. 300-1746 (1957) * Lister, John Anthony. The Scottish Highlands (1978)

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Am Baile –

.