SAWAD was the name used in early Islamic times (7th–12th centuries)
As a generic term, it was used to denote the irrigated and cultivated areas in any district.
* Schaeder, H.H. (1997). "Sawād". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume IX: San–Sze. Leiden and New York: BRILL. p. 87. ISBN 90-04-09419-9 . * Michele Campopiano, “Land Tax Alā l-misāḥa and muqāsama: Legal Theory and Balance of Social Forces in Early Medieval Iraq (Sixth to Eighth Centuries)”, in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 54/2, 201