Sarpsborg
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Sarpsborg ( or ), historically Borg, is a
city A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be def ...
and
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit,Article 3(1). country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, constituent state, as well as many similar terms, are ge ...
in Viken
county A county is a geographic region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
,
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The remote Arctic island of ...
. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Sarpsborg. Sarpsborg is part of the fifth largest urban area in Norway when paired with neighbouring
Fredrikstad Fredrikstad (; previously ''Frederiksstad''; literally "Fredrik's Town") is a List of cities in Norway, city and Municipalities of Norway, municipality in Viken (county), Viken Counties of Norway, county, Norway. The administrative centre of the ...
. As of 1 January 2018, according to
Statistics Norway Statistics Norway ( no, Statistisk sentralbyrå, abbreviated to ''SSB'') is the Norway, Norwegian statistics bureau. It was established in 1876. Relying on a staff of about 1,000, Statistics Norway publish about 1,000 new statistical releases e ...
these two municipalities have a total population of 136,127 with 55,840 in Sarpsborg and 81,278 in Fredrikstad.
Borregaard Borregaard is a Norwegian company, established in 1889 in the southeastern town of Sarpsborg Sarpsborg ( or ), historically Borg, is a List of cities in Norway, city and Municipalities of Norway, municipality in Viken (county), Viken Counties ...
Industries is, and always has been, the most important industry in the city. The city is also the home of Borg Bryggerier, part of the Hansa Borg Bryggerier, which is Norway's second largest
brewery A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is commercially made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse, where distinct sets of brewing equipment are called plant. The commercial brewing of beer ...
-group.


General information


Name

In Norse times the city was just called ''Borg'' (from ''borg'' which means "
castle A castle is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the late 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the Post-classical, ...
"). The background for this was the
fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from Latin ''fortis'' ("strong") and ''facere'' ...
built by Olav Haraldsson (see History section). Later the
genitive case In grammar, the genitive case (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun—thus indicating an attributive noun, attributive relationshi ...
of the name of the
waterfall A waterfall is a point in a river or stream where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops. Waterfalls also occur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg or ice shelf. Waterfalls can be formed in several wa ...
''Sarpr'' ( Sarp Falls) was added, it's unclear how Sarpsborg received this part of its name, two interpretations are the most prevalent. The first coming from the Icelandic word ''Sarpr'' which means
birdcage A birdcage (or bird cage) is a cage (enclosure), cage designed to house birds as pets. Antique (or antique-style) birdcages are often popular as collectors' items or as household decor but most are not suitable for housing live birds, being too ...
in English. The other interpretation is that ''Sarpr'' means "the one who swallows", probably referring to the local waterfall. In Norse times Østfold county was called ''Borgarsýsla'' which means "the county (sýsla) of Borg" and the law district of southeast Norway was called ''Borgarþing'' meaning "the thing/court of Borg". The old name has been revived in the diocese of Borg (1968) and Borgarting Court of Appeal (1995).


Coat of arms

The
coat-of-arms A coat of arms is a heraldic Heraldry is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, Imperial, royal ...
is from modern times and was granted on 13 November 1991. It is based on a coat of arms dating from 1556 and shows a bear above a castle. The bear was introduced as early as some time in the 13th century, by the
earl Earl () is a rank of the nobility in the United Kingdom. The title originates in the Old English word ''eorl'', meaning "a man of noble birth or rank". The word is cognate with the Old Norse, Scandinavian form ''jarl'', and meant "Germanic ch ...
of Sarpsborg ''(Comes de Saresburgh)'', Alv Erlingsson. He used the bear to symbolise his strength. The castle symbolises the fortress (borg) that gave the city its original name.


History

The city was founded as ''Borg'' by the Viking King Olav Haraldsson (Saint Olaf) in 1016. It was burned to the ground by Swedish invaders in 1567 during the
Northern Seven Years' War The Northern Seven Years' War (also known as the ''Nordic Seven Years' War'', the ''First Northern War'' or the ''Seven Years War in Scandinavia'') was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden (1523–1611), Kingdom of Sweden and a coalition of Denm ...
. Half the population was evacuated down the river to what is today known as Fredrikstad, about downstream. Much of the rebuilt town disappeared into the river
Glomma The Glomma, or Glåma, is Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Pen ...
during a 1702
mudslide A mudflow or mud flow is a form of mass wasting involving fast-moving flow of debris that has become liquified by the addition of water. Such flows can move at speeds ranging from 3 meters/minute to 5 meters/second. Mudflows contain a significa ...
. Again Borg was rebuilt, and it was recreated as a city in 1839, and separated from Tune as a municipality of its own. The rural municipalities of Tune, Skjeberg, and Varteig were merged with the city on 1 January 1992. The population is steadily growing, and during the summer of 2005 it reached 50,000 inhabitants. In 2016 the town celebrated its 1,000th anniversary, and the entire year was commemorated by a special programme that encouraged historic preservation within the town. Historically, the sawmill and timber shipping industry has been Sarpsborg's most important sources of income, however since the
industrialisation Industrialisation (American and British English spelling differences, alternatively spelled industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society. This ...
in Norway, more specifically Sarpsborg and the establishment of local manufacturing businesses during the late 1800s, the biggest being
Borregaard Borregaard is a Norwegian company, established in 1889 in the southeastern town of Sarpsborg Sarpsborg ( or ), historically Borg, is a List of cities in Norway, city and Municipalities of Norway, municipality in Viken (county), Viken Counties ...
, Sarpsborg has changed from its traditional timber-based economy and
pre-industrial society Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forums of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from 1750 to 1850. ''Pre-industrial'' refers to a time before ...
to a more manufacturing and refining-based economy and
industrial society In sociology, industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology and machinery to enable mass production, supporting a population growth, large population with a high capacity for division of labour. Such a structure developed in the ...
. In modern times Sarpsborg has moved away from being a city based on the local manufacturing and refining industry, with only around ten percent employed within the local manufacturing industry, coinciding with Norway's general shift towards a
post-industrial society In sociology Sociology is a social science that focuses on society, human social behavior, patterns of Interpersonal ties, social relationships, social interaction, and aspects of culture associated with everyday life. It uses various me ...
. Despite this, the city is still widely regarded by Norwegians both unofficially and officially, to be an industrial city.


City districts


Sport

During the 1950s and 1960s, Sarpsborg was famous for its
football (soccer) Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of 11 Football player, players who primarily use their feet to propel the Ball (association football), ball around a rectangular field ca ...
team, Sarpsborg FK, but is now more known for its
ice hockey Ice hockey (or simply hockey) is a team sport played on ice skates, usually on an Ice rink, ice skating rink with Ice hockey rink, lines and markings specific to the sport. It belongs to a family of sports called hockey. In ice hockey, two o ...
team, Sparta Warriors. In football, Sarpsborg 08 FF has taken over the local throne, currently playing at the highest national level. On 6 November 2009, they sent arch-rival FFK down from the top division in a play-off game in Fredrikstad stadion. Sarpsborg 08 has a women's football team that was promoted to the women's Division 1 at the end of 2011, at the same time as the club's under-19 girls reached the Junior Cup Final. Sarpsborg BK plays in the highest
bandy Bandy is a winter sport and ball sport played by two teams wearing ice skates on a large ice surface (either indoors or outdoors) while using sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal. The international governing body for bandy i ...
division. Sarpsborg is famous for its two elite leagues teams in floorball, Sarpsborg IBK and Greåker IBK.


Climate

Sarpsborg has a
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climate, climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and ...
(Dfb) or temperate
oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a marine climate, is the humid temperate climate sub-type in Köppen climate classification, Köppen classification ''Cfb'', typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, generally featuring ...
(Cfb), depending on winter threshold used ( as in USA or as in Europe). The all-time high was recorded in July 2018. The all-time low was set in December 2002. Since the weather station was incepted in 1991, the records may not be representative of a longer time frame. The average date for the last overnight freeze (low below ) in spring is 20 April and average date for first freeze in autumn is 22 October giving a frost-free season of 184 days (1981-2010 average).


Musical artists and bands


Notable residents


Public service

* Zacharias Mellebye (1781 in Skjeberg – 1854) farmer, military officer and rep. at the
Norwegian Constituent Assembly The Norwegian Constituent Assembly (in Norwegian ''Grunnlovsforsamlingen'', also known as ''Riksforsamlingen'') is the name given to the 1814 Constituent assembly, constitutional assembly at Eidsvoll in Norway, that adopted the Norwegian Constitu ...
* Harald Dahl (1863–1920), father of the British writer
Roald Dahl Roald Dahl (13 September 1916 – 23 November 1990) was a British novelist, short-story writer, poet, screenwriter, and wartime Flying ace, fighter ace of Norwegian descent. His books have sold more than 250 million copies worldwide. ...
came from Sarpsborg *
Roald Amundsen Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (, ; ; 16 July 1872 – ) was a Norwegians, Norwegian explorer of polar regions. He was a key figure of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. Born in Borge, Østfold, Norway, Amu ...
(1872-1928) explorer, first person to reach the South Pole, came from Borge * Oscar Torp (1893 in Skjeberg – 1958) former
Prime Minister of Norway The prime minister of Norway ( no, statsminister, which directly translates to "minister of state") is the head of government and chief executive of Norway. The prime minister and Cabinet of Norway, Cabinet (consisting of all the most senior gov ...
, 1951-1955 * Carl Fredrik Wisløff (1908–2004) theologian and Christian preacher, grew up in Sarpsborg * Øistein Strømnæs (1914 in Sarpsborg – 1980) head of XU, the WWII intelligence organization * Torbjørn Sikkeland (1923 in Varteig – 2014) chemist, nuclear physicist and radiation biophysicist * Thorvald Gressum (1932–2008) a politician and Mayor of Sarpsborg 1984 to 1995 * Kai Eide (born 1949 in Sarpsborg) a diplomat and writer; roles with the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization whose stated purposes are to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be ...
* Erik Varden (born 1974), a Roman Catholic spiritual writer and Bishop-Prelate of
Trondheim Trondheim ( , , ; sma, Tråante), historically Kaupangen, Nidaros and Trondhjem (), is a city and List of municipalities of Norway, municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. As of 2020, it had a population of 205,332, was the third most pop ...


The Arts

* Julius Fritzner (1828 in Skjeberg – 1882) a restaurateur and hotelier in Christiania * Bjarne Bø (1907 in Skjeberg – 1998) a Norwegian actor * Arne Arnardo, (1912 in Sarpsborg – 1995) circus performer and owner, ''"Circus King of Norway"'' * Walther Aas, (Norwegian Wiki) (1928–1990), neo-romantic artist; lived in Sarpsborg from 1954 * Kjell Karlsen (1931 in Sarpsborg – 2020) band leader, composer, jazz pianist and organist * Nils Ole Oftebro (born 1944 in Sarpsborg) a Norwegian actor and illustrator * Jan Groth (born 1946 in Greåker) vocalist, songwriter, artist with Aunt Mary and other bands * Ketil Gudim (born 1956 in Sarpsborg) a Norwegian dancer and actor * Einstein Kristiansen (born 1965 in Greåker) a cartoonist, designer and TV-host * Kåre Christoffer Vestrheim (born 1969 in Sarpsborg) record producer, musician and composer * Stian Johansen (born 1971 in Sarpsborg) stage name ''Occultus'',
black metal Black metal is an extreme metal, extreme subgenre of heavy metal music. Common traits include Tempo#Beats per minute, fast tempos, a Screaming (music)#Black metal, shrieking vocal style, heavily distorted Electric guitar, guitars played with t ...
musician * Stephan Groth (born 1971) musician with Apoptygma Berzerk; lived in Sarpsborg since 1986 * Jasmin Haugstuen Please (born 1988) actress * Ulrikke Brandstorp (born 1995 in Sarpsborg) singer, songwriter and musical actress


Sport

* Therese Bertheau (1861 in Skjeberg – 1936) a pioneering female Norwegian mountaineer * John Anderson (1873 in Sarpsborg – 1949) US
Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization and the oldest major professional sports league in the world. MLB is composed of 30 total teams, divided equally between the National League (NL) and the American League (AL), ...
player for 15 seasons * Bjørn Spydevold (1918 in Sarpsborg – 2002) a footballer with 37 caps for
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The remote Arctic island of ...
* Bent Skammelsrud (born 1966 in Sarpsborg) footballer, with 366 club caps, mainly for
Rosenborg BK Rosenborg Ballklub, commonly referred to simply as Rosenborg () or RBK, is a Norwegian professional association football, football club from Trondheim that plays in Eliteserien (football), Eliteserien. The club has won a record 26 league titles ...
and 38 for
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The remote Arctic island of ...
* Thomas Myhre (born 1973 in Sarpsborg) goalkeeper with 346 club caps and 56 for
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The remote Arctic island of ...
* Raymond Kvisvik (born 1974 in Sarpsborg) footballer, with 425 club caps and 11 for
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The remote Arctic island of ...
* Jens Arne Svartedal (born 1976 in Sarpsborg), cross-country skier, team silver medallist at the
2006 Winter Olympics The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially the XX Olympic Winter Games ( it, XX Giochi olimpici invernali) and also known as Torino 2006, were a winter multi-sport event held from 10 to 26 February 2006 in Turin, Italy. This marked the second t ...
* Per-Åge Skrøder (born 1978 in Sarpsborg),
ice hockey Ice hockey (or simply hockey) is a team sport played on ice skates, usually on an Ice rink, ice skating rink with Ice hockey rink, lines and markings specific to the sport. It belongs to a family of sports called hockey. In ice hockey, two o ...
player with men's national team * Marianne Skarpnord (born 1986 in Sarpsborg) pro. golfer, plays on Ladies European Tour * Jonas Holøs (born 1987 in Sarpsborg),
ice hockey Ice hockey (or simply hockey) is a team sport played on ice skates, usually on an Ice rink, ice skating rink with Ice hockey rink, lines and markings specific to the sport. It belongs to a family of sports called hockey. In ice hockey, two o ...
player with men's national team * Marie Solberg (born 1988 in Sarpsborg) a sailor, bronze medallist at the
2012 Summer Paralympics The 2012 Summer Paralympics, branded as the London 2012 Paralympic Games, were an international Multi-sport event, multi-sport parasports event held from 29 August to 9 September 2012 in London, England, United Kingdom. They were the 14th Sum ...
* Sander Skogli (born 1993 in Sarpsborg), ice hockey player


Twin towns - Sister cities

Sarpsborg has several
sister cities A sister city or a twin town relationship is International relations, a form of legal or social agreement between two geographically and politically distinct localities for the purpose of promoting cultural and commercial ties. While there are ...
:


References


External links

* * {{Authority control Cities and towns in Norway Municipalities of Østfold Municipalities of Viken (county) Populated places on the Glomma River