SIR AHMED SALMAN RUSHDIE FRSL (born 19 June 1947) is a British
Indian novelist and essayist. His second novel, Midnight\'s Children
(1981), won the
Booker Prize in 1981 and was deemed to be "the best
novel of all winners" on two separate occasions, marking the 25th and
the 40th anniversary of the prize . Much of his fiction is set on the
Indian subcontinent . He combines magical realism with historical
fiction ; his work is concerned with the many connections,
disruptions, and migrations between Eastern and Western civilizations
His epic fourth novel,
The Satanic Verses
The Satanic Verses (1988), was the subject of
a major controversy , provoking protests from Muslims in several
countries. Death threats were made against him, including a fatwā
calling for his assassination issued by
Ruhollah Khomeini ,
Supreme Leader of Iran
Supreme Leader of Iran , on 14 February 1989. The British
government put Rushdie under police protection.
In 1983 Rushdie was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of
Literature , the UK's senior literary organisation. He was appointed
Commandeur de l'
Ordre des Arts et des Lettres
Ordre des Arts et des Lettres of France in January
1999. In June 2007, Queen
Elizabeth II knighted him for his services
to literature. In 2008,
The Times ranked him thirteenth on its list
of the 50 greatest British writers since 1945.
Since 2000, Rushdie has lived in the United States. He was named
Distinguished Writer in Residence at the Arthur L. Carter Journalism
New York University
New York University in 2015. Earlier, he taught at Emory
University . He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and
Letters . In 2012, he published Joseph Anton: A Memoir , an account of
his life in the wake of the controversy over The Satanic Verses.
* 1 Early life and family background
* 2 Career
* 2.1 Copywriter
* 2.2 Major literary work
* 2.3 Other activities
The Satanic Verses
The Satanic Verses and the fatwā
* 3.1 Failed assassination attempt and Hezbollah\'s comments
* 3.2 International Guerillas
* 3.3 2012
Jaipur Literature Festival events
Al-Qaeda hit list
* 4 Knighthood
* 5 Religious and political beliefs
* 5.1 Political background
* 6 Personal life
* 7 Bibliography
* 7.1 Novels
* 7.2 Collections
* 7.3 Children\'s books
* 7.4 Essays and non-fiction
* 8 Awards
* 9 See also
* 10 Notes
* 11 References
* 12 External links
EARLY LIFE AND FAMILY BACKGROUND
Salman Rushdie was born on 19 June 1947 in
Bombay , then
British India, into a
Muslim family of Kashmiri descent. He is the
son of Anis Ahmed Rushdie, a Cambridge -educated
lawyer-turned-businessman, and Negin Bhatt, a teacher. Rushdie has
three sisters. He wrote in his 2012 memoir that his father adopted
the name Rushdie in honour of
Averroes (Ibn Rushd).
He was educated at
Cathedral and John Connon School in Bombay, Rugby
Warwickshire , and King\'s College , University of Cambridge
, where he read history. His father Anis Rushdie was rusticated from
Indian Civil Service
Indian Civil Service after the British government found out that
he had changed his date of birth.
Rushdie worked as a copywriter for the advertising agency Ogilvy
hence Rushdie is credited as the lyricist. He also wrote Haroun and
the Sea of Stories in 1990.
Salman Rushdie presenting his book
Shalimar the Clown
Rushdie has had a string of commercially successful and critically
acclaimed novels. His 2005 novel
Shalimar the Clown received, in
India, the prestigious
Hutch Crossword Book Award , and was, in the
UK, a finalist for the
Whitbread Book Awards . It was shortlisted for
International Dublin Literary Award .
In his 2002 non-fiction collection Step Across This Line, he
professes his admiration for the Italian writer
Italo Calvino and the
Thomas Pynchon , among others. His early influences
Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges ,
Mikhail Bulgakov ,
Lewis Carroll ,
Günter Grass , and
James Joyce . Rushdie was a personal friend of
Angela Carter 's and praised her highly in the foreword of her
collection Burning your Boats.
Luka and the Fire of Life was published in November 2010.
Earlier that year, he announced that he was writing his memoirs,
entitled Joseph Anton: A Memoir , which was published in September
Salman Rushdie became one of the first major authors to
Booktrack (a company that synchronises ebooks with customised
soundtracks), when he published his short story "In the South " on the
Rushdie has quietly mentored younger Indian (and ethnic-Indian)
writers, influenced an entire generation of
Indo-Anglian writers, and
is an influential writer in postcolonial literature in general. He
has received many plaudits for his writings, including the European
Aristeion Prize for Literature, the Premio Grinzane Cavour
(Italy), and the Writer of the Year Award in Germany and many of
literature's highest honours. Rushdie was the President of PEN
American Center from 2004 to 2006 and founder of the PEN World Voices
He opposed the British government's introduction of the Racial and
Religious Hatred Act , something he writes about in his contribution
to Free Expression Is No Offence, a collection of essays by several
writers, published by Penguin in November 2005. Salman Rushdie
having a discussion with
Emory University students
In 2007 he began a five-year term as Distinguished Writer in
Emory University in
Atlanta , Georgia, where he has also
deposited his archives.
In May 2008 he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American
Academy of Arts and Letters .
In September 2015, he joined the
New York University
New York University Journalism
Faculty as a Distinguished Writer in Residence.
Though he enjoys writing,
Salman Rushdie says that he would have
become an actor if his writing career had not been successful. Even
from early childhood, he dreamed of appearing in Hollywood movies
(which he later realised in his frequent cameo appearances).
Rushdie includes fictional television and movie characters in some of
his writings. He had a cameo appearance in the film Bridget Jones\'s
Diary based on the book of the same name , which is itself full of
literary in-jokes. On 12 May 2006, Rushdie was a guest host on The
Charlie Rose Show , where he interviewed
Indo-Canadian filmmaker Deepa
Mehta , whose 2005 film, Water , faced violent protests. He appears in
the role of
Helen Hunt 's obstetrician-gynecologist in the film
adaptation (Hunt's directorial debut) of
Elinor Lipman 's novel Then
She Found Me . In September 2008, and again in March 2009, he appeared
as a panellist on the HBO program "Real Time with Bill Maher". Rushdie
has said that he was approached for a cameo in
Talladega Nights :
"They had this idea, just one shot in which three very, very unlikely
people were seen as
NASCAR drivers. And I think they approached Julian
Lou Reed , and me. We were all supposed to be wearing the
uniforms and the helmet, walking in slow motion with the heat haze."
In the end their schedules didn't allow for it.
Rushdie collaborated on the screenplay for the cinematic adaptation
of his novel
Midnight's Children with director
Deepa Mehta . The film
was also called Midnight\'s Children .
Seema Biswas ,
Shabana Azmi ,
Nandita Das , and
Irrfan Khan participated in the film. Production
began in September 2010; the film was released in 2012.
Rushdie, right, with writers Catherine Lacey and
Siri Hustvedt at the
Brooklyn Book Festival
Brooklyn Book Festival
Rushdie announced in June 2011 that he had written the first draft of
a script for a new television series for the US cable network Showtime
, a project on which he will also serve as an executive producer. The
new series, to be called The Next People, will be, according to
Rushdie, "a sort of paranoid science-fiction series, people
disappearing and being replaced by other people." The idea of a
television series was suggested by his US agents, said Rushdie, who
felt that television would allow him more creative control than
feature film. The Next People is being made by the British film
Working Title , the firm behind such projects as
Four Weddings and a Funeral
Four Weddings and a Funeral and
Shaun of the Dead .
Rushdie is a member of the advisory board of
The Lunchbox Fund , a
non-profit organisation which provides daily meals to students of
township schools in
Soweto of South Africa. He is also a member of the
advisory board of the
Secular Coalition for America
Secular Coalition for America , an advocacy
group representing the interests of atheistic and humanistic Americans
in Washington, D.C., and a patron of
Humanists UK (formerly the
British Humanist Association). He is also a Laureate of the
International Academy of Humanism . In November 2010 he became a
founding patron of
Ralston College , a new liberal arts college that
has adopted as its motto a Latin translation of a phrase ("free speech
is life itself") from an address he gave at Columbia University in
1991 to mark the two-hundredth anniversary of the first amendment to
the US Constitution.
Salman Rushdie appeared as himself in Episode 3 of Season 9
Curb Your Enthusiasm
Curb Your Enthusiasm , sharing scenes with
Larry David to offer
advice on how Larry should deal with the fatwa that has been ordered
THE SATANIC VERSES AND THE FATWā
The Satanic Verses
The Satanic Verses controversy
The publication of
The Satanic Verses
The Satanic Verses in September 1988 caused
immediate controversy in the
Islamic world because of what was seen by
some to be an irreverent depiction of
Muhammad . The title refers to a
Muslim tradition that is related in the book. According to
Mahound in the book) added verses (
Ayah ) to
the Qur\'an accepting three goddesses who used to be worshipped in
Mecca as divine beings. According to the legend,
revoked the verses, saying the devil tempted him to utter these lines
to appease the Meccans (hence the "Satanic" verses). However, the
narrator reveals to the reader that these disputed verses were
actually from the mouth of the Archangel
Gabriel . The book was banned
in many countries with large
Muslim communities (13 in total: Iran,
India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Thailand,
Tanzania, Indonesia, Singapore, Venezuela, and Pakistan).
In response to the protests, on 22 January 1989 Rushdie published a
The Observer that called
Muhammad "one of the great geniuses
of world history," but noted that Islamic doctrine holds
be human, and in no way perfect. He held that the novel is not "an
anti-religious novel. It is, however, an attempt to write about
migration, its stresses and transformations."
On 14 February 1989—Valentine's Day, and also the day of his close
Bruce Chatwin 's funeral—a fatwā ordering Rushdie's
execution was proclaimed on Radio Tehran by
Ayatollah Khomeini , the
spiritual leader of
Iran at the time, calling the book "blasphemous
against Islam". (Chapter IV of the book depicts the character of an
Imam in exile who returns to incite revolt from the people of his
country with no regard for their safety.) A bounty was offered for
Rushdie's death, and he was thus forced to live under police
protection for several years. On 7 March 1989, the United Kingdom and
Iran broke diplomatic relations over the Rushdie controversy.
When asked by a reporter for a response to the threat, Rushdie said,
"I wish I had written a more critical book." Later, he wrote that he
was "proud, then and always", of that statement; while he did not feel
his book was especially critical of Islam, "a religion whose leaders
behaved in this way could probably use a little criticism."
The publication of the book and the fatwā sparked violence around
the world, with bookstores firebombed.
Muslim communities in several
nations in the West held public rallies, burning copies of the book.
Several people associated with translating or publishing the book were
attacked, seriously injured, and even killed. Many more people died
in riots in some countries. Despite the danger posed by the fatwā,
Rushdie made a public appearance at London's Wembley Stadium on 11
August 1993 during a concert by U2 . In 2010, U2 bassist Adam Clayton
recalled that " Bono had been calling
Salman Rushdie from the stage
every night on the Zoo TV tour. When we played Wembley, Salman showed
up in person and the stadium erupted. You tell from Larry Mullen,
Jr.'s face that we weren't expecting it. Salman was a regular visitor
after that. He had a backstage pass and he used it as often as
possible. For a man who was supposed to be in hiding, it was
remarkably easy to see him around the place."
On 24 September 1998, as a precondition to the restoration of
diplomatic relations with the UK, the Iranian government, then headed
Mohammad Khatami , gave a public commitment that it would "neither
support nor hinder assassination operations on Rushdie."
Iran have continued to reaffirm the death sentence. In
early 2005, Khomeini's fatwā was reaffirmed by Iran's current
Ayatollah Ali Khamenei , in a message to Muslim
pilgrims making the annual pilgrimage to
Mecca . Additionally, the
Revolutionary Guards declared that the death sentence on him is still
Rushdie has reported that he still receives a "sort of Valentine 's
Iran each year on 14 February letting him know the country
has not forgotten the vow to kill him and has jokingly referred it as
"my unfunny Valentine" in a sly reference to the song "My Funny
Valentine". He said, "It's reached the point where it's a piece of
rhetoric rather than a real threat." Despite the threats on Rushdie
personally, he said that his family has never been threatened, and
that his mother, who lived in
Pakistan during the later years of her
life, even received outpourings of support. Rushdie himself has been
prevented from entering Pakistan, however.
A former bodyguard to Rushdie, Ron Evans, planned to publish a book
recounting the behaviour of the author during the time he was in
hiding. Evans claimed that Rushdie tried to profit financially from
the fatwa and was suicidal, but Rushdie dismissed the book as a "bunch
of lies" and took legal action against Evans, his co-author and their
publisher. On 26 August 2008, Rushdie received an apology at the High
Court in London from all three parties. A memoir of his years of
hiding, Joseph Anton, was released on 18 September 2012. Joseph Anton
was Rushdie's secret alias.
In February 1997,
Ayatollah Hasan Sane\'i , leader of the bonyad
panzdah-e khordad (Fifteenth of Khordad Foundation), reported that the
blood money offered by the foundation for the assassination of Rushdie
would be increased from $2 million to $2.5 million. Then a
semi-official religious foundation in
Iran increased the reward it had
offered for the killing of Rushdie from $2.8 million to $3.3 million.
In November 2015, former Indian minister P. Chidambaram acknowledged
The Satanic Verses
The Satanic Verses was wrong. In 1998, Iran’s former
Mohammad Khatami proclaimed the fatwa “finished”; but it
has never been officially lifted, and in fact has been reiterated
several times by Ali Khamenei and other religious officials. Yet more
money was added to the bounty in February 2016.
FAILED ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT AND HEZBOLLAH\'S COMMENTS
On 3 August 1989, while Mustafa Mahmoud Mazeh was priming a book bomb
RDX explosive in a hotel in
Paddington , Central London,
the bomb exploded prematurely, destroying two floors of the hotel and
killing Mazeh. A previously unknown Lebanese group, the Organization
of the Mujahidin of Islam, said he died preparing an attack "on the
apostate Rushdie". There is a shrine in Tehran's Behesht-e Zahra
cemetery for Mustafa Mahmoud Mazeh that says he was "Martyred in
London, 3 August 1989. The first martyr to die on a mission to kill
Salman Rushdie." Mazeh's mother was invited to relocate to Iran, and
the Islamic World Movement of Martyrs' Commemoration built his shrine
in the cemetery that holds thousands of Iranian soldiers slain in the
Iran–Iraq War . During the 2006 Jyllands-Posten
controversy , Hezbollah leader
Hassan Nasrallah declared that "If
there had been a
Muslim to carry out Imam Khomeini's fatwā against
the renegade Salman Rushdie, this rabble who insult our Prophet
Mohammed in Denmark, Norway and France would not have dared to do so.
I am sure there are millions of Muslims who are ready to give their
lives to defend our prophet's honour and we have to be ready to do
anything for that."
In 1990, soon after the publication of The Satanic Verses, a
Pakistani film entitled International Gorillay (International
Guerillas) was released that depicted Rushdie as a villain plotting to
cause the downfall of
Pakistan by opening a chain of casinos and
discos in the country; he is ultimately killed at the end of the
movie. The film was popular with Pakistani audiences, and it "presents
Rushdie as a Rambo -like figure pursued by four Pakistani guerrillas".
British Board of Film Classification
British Board of Film Classification refused to allow it a
certificate, as "it was felt that the portrayal of Rushdie might
qualify as criminal libel, causing a breach of the peace as opposed to
merely tarnishing his reputation." This effectively prevented the
release of the film in the UK. Two months later, however, Rushdie
himself wrote to the board, saying that while he thought the film "a
distorted, incompetent piece of trash", he would not sue if it were
released. He later said, "If that film had been banned, it would have
become the hottest video in town: everyone would have seen it". While
the film was a great hit in Pakistan, it went virtually unnoticed
2012 JAIPUR LITERATURE FESTIVAL EVENTS
Jaipur Literature Festival
Rushdie was due to appear at the
Jaipur Literature Festival in
January 2012. However, he later cancelled his event appearance, and a
further tour of India at the time citing a possible threat to his life
as the primary reason. Several days after, he indicated that state
police agencies had lied, in order to keep him away, when they
informed that paid assassins were being sent to Jaipur to kill him.
Police contended that they were afraid Rushdie would read from the
banned The Satanic Verses, and that the threat was real, considering
imminent protests by
Meanwhile, Indian authors
Ruchir Joshi ,
Jeet Thayil , Hari Kunzru
Amitava Kumar abruptly left the festival, and Jaipur, after
reading excerpts from Rushdie's banned novel at the festival. The four
were urged to leave by organizers as there was a real possibility they
would be arrested. In India the import of the book is banned via
A proposed video link session between Rushdie and the Jaipur
Literature Festival was also cancelled at the last minute after the
government pressured the festival to stop it. Rushdie returned to
India to address a conference in Delhi on 16 March 2012.
AL-QAEDA HIT LIST
Anwar al-Awlaki published an
Al-Qaeda hit list in Inspire
magazine , including Rushdie along with other figures claimed to have
insulted Islam, including
Ayaan Hirsi Ali , cartoonist
Lars Vilks and
three Jyllands-Posten staff members:
Kurt Westergaard , Carsten Juste
Flemming Rose . The list was later expanded to include
Stéphane "Charb" Charbonnier , who was murdered in a terror attack on
Charlie Hebdo in Paris, along with 11 other people. After the attack,
Al-Qaeda called for more killings.
Rushdie expressed his support for Charlie Hebdo. He said, "I stand
with Charlie Hebdo, as we all must, to defend the art of satire, which
has always been a force for liberty and against tyranny, dishonesty
and stupidity ... religious totalitarianism has caused a deadly
mutation in the heart of Islam and we see the tragic consequences in
Paris today." In response to the attack, Rushdie commented on what he
perceived as victim-blaming in the media, stating "You can dislike
Charlie Hebdo. ... But the fact that you dislike them has nothing to
do with their right to speak. The fact you dislike them certainly
doesn't in any way excuse their murder".
Knighthood of Salman Rushdie
Rushdie was knighted for services to literature in the Queen\'s
Birthday Honours on 16 June 2007. He remarked, "I am thrilled and
humbled to receive this great honour, and am very grateful that my
work has been recognised in this way." In response to his knighthood,
many nations with
Muslim majorities protested. Parliamentarians of
several of these countries condemned the action, and
Iran and Pakistan
called in their British envoys to protest formally. Controversial
condemnation issued by Pakistan's Religious Affairs Minister Muhammad
Ijaz-ul-Haq was in turn rebuffed by former Prime Minister Benazir
Bhutto . Ironically, their respective fathers Zia-ul-Haq and Zulfikar
Ali Bhutto had been earlier portrayed in Rushdie's novel Shame. Mass
demonstrations against Rushdie's knighthood took place in
Malaysia . Several called publicly for his death. Some non-Muslims
expressed disappointment at Rushdie's knighthood, claiming that the
writer did not merit such an honour and there were several other
writers who deserved the knighthood more than Rushdie.
Al-Qaeda condemned the Rushdie honour. The
Al-Qaeda leader Ayman
al-Zawahiri is quoted as saying in an audio recording that UK's award
for Kashmiri-born Rushdie was "an insult to Islam", and it was
planning "a very precise response."
RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL BELIEFS
Rushdie came from a liberal
Muslim family although he now identifies
as an atheist . In a 2006 interview with
PBS , Rushdie called himself
a "hardline atheist".
In 1989, in an interview following the fatwa, Rushdie said that he
was in a sense a lapsed Muslim, though "shaped by
Muslim culture more
than any other", and a student of Islam. In another interview the
same year, he said, "My point of view is that of a secular human
being. I do not believe in supernatural entities, whether Christian,
Muslim or Hindu."
In 1990, in the "hope that it would reduce the threat of Muslims
acting on the fatwa to kill him," he issued a statement claiming he
had renewed his
Muslim faith, had repudiated the attacks on Islam made
by characters in his novel and was committed to working for better
understanding of the religion across the world. However, Rushdie later
said that he was only "pretending".
His books often focus on the role of religion in society and
conflicts between faiths and between the religious and those of no
Rushdie advocates the application of higher criticism , pioneered
during the late 19th century. Rushdie called for a reform in Islam in
a guest opinion piece printed in
The Washington Post
The Washington Post and
The Times in
What is needed is a move beyond tradition, nothing less than a reform
movement to bring the core concepts of Islam into the modern age, a
Muslim Reformation to combat not only the jihadist ideologues but also
the dusty, stifling seminaries of the traditionalists, throwing open
the windows to let in much-needed fresh air. (…) It is high time,
for starters, that Muslims were able to study the revelation of their
religion as an event inside history, not supernaturally above it.
(…) Broad-mindedness is related to tolerance; open-mindedness is the
sibling of peace.
Rushdie is a critic of cultural relativism . He favours calling
things by their true names and constantly argues about what is wrong
and what is right. In an interview with
Point of Inquiry
Point of Inquiry in 2006 he
described his view as follows:
We need all of us, whatever our background, to constantly examine the
stories inside which and with which we live. We all live in stories,
so called grand narratives. Nation is a story. Family is a story.
Religion is a story. Community is a story. We all live within and with
these narratives. And it seems to me that a definition of any living
vibrant society is that you constantly question those stories. That
you constantly argue about the stories. In fact the arguing never
stops. The argument itself is freedom. It's not that you come to a
conclusion about it. And through that argument you change your mind
sometimes. … And that's how societies grow. When you can't retell
for yourself the stories of your life then you live in a prison. …
Somebody else controls the story. … Now it seems to me that we have
to say that a problem in contemporary Islam is the inability to
re-examine the ground narrative of the religion. … The fact that in
Islam it is very difficult to do this, makes it difficult to think new
Rushdie is an advocate of religious satire. He condemned the Charlie
Hebdo shooting and defended comedic criticism of religions in a
comment originally posted on
English PEN where he called religions a
medieval form of unreason. Rushdie called the attack a consequence of
"religious totalitarianism" which according to him had caused "a
deadly mutation in the heart of Islam".:
Religion, a medieval form of unreason, when combined with modern
weaponry becomes a real threat to our freedoms. This religious
totalitarianism has caused a deadly mutation in the heart of Islam and
we see the tragic consequences in Paris today. I stand with Charlie
Hebdo, as we all must, to defend the art of satire, which has always
been a force for liberty and against tyranny, dishonesty and
stupidity. ‘Respect for religion’ has become a code phrase meaning
‘fear of religion.’ Religions, like all other ideas, deserve
criticism, satire, and, yes, our fearless disrespect.
He strongly supports feminism.
In the 1980s in the United Kingdom, he was a supporter of the Labour
Party and championed measures to end racial discrimination and
alienation of immigrant youth and racial minorities.
Rushdie supported the 1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia , leading the leftist
Tariq Ali to label Rushdie and other
"warrior writers" as "the belligerati'". He was supportive of the
US-led campaign to remove the
Taliban in Afghanistan, which began in
2001, but was a vocal critic of the 2003 war in Iraq . He has stated
that while there was a "case to be made for the removal of Saddam
Hussein ", US unilateral military intervention was unjustifiable.
Paul Auster and Rushdie greeting Israeli President
Shimon Peres with
Caro Llewelyn in 2008.
In the wake of the Jyllands-Posten
Muhammad cartoons controversy in
March 2006—which many considered an echo of the death threats and
fatwā that followed publication of
The Satanic Verses
The Satanic Verses in
1989—Rushdie signed the manifesto Together Facing the New
Totalitarianism, a statement warning of the dangers of religious
extremism . The Manifesto was published in the left-leaning French
Charlie Hebdo in March 2006. Rushdie and Bernie Sanders
In 2006, Rushdie stated that he supported comments by the then-Leader
of the House of Commons
Jack Straw , who criticised the wearing of the
niqab (a veil that covers all of the face except the eyes). Rushdie
stated that his three sisters would never wear the veil. He said, "I
think the battle against the veil has been a long and continuing
battle against the limitation of women, so in that sense I'm
completely on Straw\'s side."
Terry Eagleton , a former admirer of Rushdie's work,
attacked him, saying he "cheered on the Pentagon 's criminal ventures
in Iraq and Afghanistan". Eagleton subsequently apologised for having
misrepresented Rushdie's views. At an appearance at
92nd Street Y ,
Rushdie expressed his view on copyright when answering a question
whether he had considered copyright law a barrier (or impediment) to
No. But that's because I write for a living, and I have no other
source of income, and I naïvely believe that stuff that I create
belongs to me, and that if you want it you might have to give me some
cash. ... My view is I do this for a living. The thing wouldn't exist
if I didn't make it and so it belongs to me and don't steal it. You
know. It's my stuff.
Amnesty International suspended human rights activist Gita
Sahgal for saying to the press that she thought Amnesty International
should distance itself from
Moazzam Begg and his organisation, Rushdie
Amnesty … has done its reputation incalculable damage by allying
Moazzam Begg and his group Cageprisoners, and holding them
up as human rights advocates. It looks very much as if Amnesty's
leadership is suffering from a kind of moral bankruptcy , and has lost
the ability to distinguish right from wrong. It has greatly compounded
its error by suspending the redoubtable
Gita Sahgal for the crime of
going public with her concerns.
Gita Sahgal is a woman of immense
integrity and distinction.... It is people like
Gita Sahgal who are
the true voices of the human rights movement; Amnesty and Begg have
revealed, by their statements and actions, that they deserve our
Rushdie supported the election of Democrat
Barack Obama for the
American presidency and has often criticized the Republican party. In
Indian politics, Rushdie has criticised the
Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party and
its Prime Minister
Narendra Modi .
Rushdie was involved in the
Occupy Movement , both as a presence at
Occupy Boston and as a founding member of Occupy Writers.
Rushdie is a supporter of gun control , blaming a shooting at a
Colorado cinema in July 2012 on the American right to keep and bear
Rushdie supported the vote to remain in the EU during the United
Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016 .
Rushdie has been married four times. He was married to his first wife
Clarissa Luard from 1976 to 1987 and fathered a son, Zafar (born
1979). He left her in the mid-'80s for the Australian writer Robyn
Davidson , to whom he was introduced by their mutual friend Bruce
Chatwin . His second wife was the American novelist Marianne Wiggins
; they were married in 1988 and divorced in 1993. His third wife, from
1997 to 2004, was Elizabeth West; they have a son, Milan (born 1997).
In 2004, he married the Indian American
Padma Lakshmi , an actress,
model, and host of the American reality-television show
Top Chef . The
marriage ended on 2 July 2007. In 2008, Rushdie was linked to Indian
Riya Sen .
In 1999, Rushdie had an operation to correct ptosis , a tendon
condition that causes drooping eyelids and that, according to him, was
making it increasingly difficult for him to open his eyes. "If I
hadn't had an operation, in a couple of years from now I wouldn't have
been able to open my eyes at all," he said.
Since 2000, Rushdie has "lived mostly near Union Square " in New York
City. He is a fan of the English football club Tottenham Hotspur .
* Midnight\'s Children (1981)
* Shame (1983)
The Satanic Verses
The Satanic Verses (1988)
Haroun and the Sea of Stories (1990)
* The Moor\'s Last Sigh (1995)
The Ground Beneath Her Feet (1999)
* Fury (2001)
Shalimar the Clown (2005)
The Enchantress of Florence (2008)
Two Years Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights (2015)
* The Golden House (2017)
* Homeless by Choice (1992, with R. Jhabvala and
V. S. Naipaul
V. S. Naipaul )
East, West (1994)
The Best American Short Stories (2008, as Guest Editor)
Haroun and the Sea of Stories (1990)
Luka and the Fire of Life (2010)
ESSAYS AND NON-FICTION
* The Jaguar Smile: A Nicaraguan Journey (1987)
* "In Good Faith", Granta, 1990
* Imaginary Homelands: Essays and Criticism, 1981–1991 (1992)
* "The Wizard of Oz: BFI Film Classics", BFI, 1992.
* "Mohandas Gandhi." Time, 13 April 1998.
* "Imagine There Is No Heaven.", extracted contribution from Letters
to the Six Billionth World Citizen, a UN sponsored publication in
English by Uitgeverij Podium, Amsterdam.
The Guardian , 16 October
* Step Across This Line: Collected Nonfiction 1992–2002 (2002)
The East is Blue " (2004)
* "A fine pickle."
The Guardian , 28 February 2009.
* "In the South."
Booktrack , 7 February 2012
* Joseph Anton: A Memoir (2012)
Aristeion Prize (European Union)
Arts Council Writers' Award
* Author of the Year (
British Book Awards )
* Author of the Year (Germany)
Booker Prize for Fiction
Booker of Bookers for the best novel among the Booker Prize
winners for Fiction awarded at its 25th anniversary (in 1993)
The Best of the Booker awarded to commemorate the
Booker Prize 's
40th anniversary (in 2008), winner by public vote
* Commandeur de l'
Ordre des Arts et des Lettres
Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (France)
English-Speaking Union Award
Golden PEN Award
Hans Christian Andersen Literature Award (2014)
* Honorary Patron,
University Philosophical Society , Trinity
College, Dublin .
Hutch Crossword Book Award (India)
* India Abroad Lifetime Achievement Award (US)
James Tait Black Memorial Prize (Fiction)
* Kurt Tucholsky Prize (Sweden)
* Mantua Prize (Italy)
Norman Mailer Prize (US)
James Joyce Award –
University College Dublin
University College Dublin
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Honorary Professorship
Chapman University Honorary Doctorate – Doctor of Humane Letters
* Outstanding Lifetime Achievement in Cultural Humanism (Harvard
PEN Pinter Prize (UK)
Premio Grinzane Cavour (Italy)
* Prix Colette (Switzerland)
Prix du Meilleur Livre Étranger
St. Louis Literary Award from the
Saint Louis University Library
* State Prize for Literature (Austria)
Whitbread Novel Award (twice)
* Writers\' Guild of Great Britain Award for Children's Fiction
University of Liège Doctor honoris causa
Knight Bachelor Kt. 2007
* Biography portal
Criticism of Islam
Censorship in South Asia
List of fatwas
The Butterfly Hunter
* ^ Pronounced /sælˈmɑːn ˈrʊʃdi/ ; Kashmiri : अहमद
सलमान रुशदी, احمد سلمان رشدی.
* ^ See
Hitoshi Igarashi ,
Ettore Capriolo ,
William Nygaard .
* ^ Tuttle, Kate (14 September 2017). "
Salman Rushdie on the
opulent realism of his new novel, \'The Golden House\'". Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
* ^ A B
Shalimar the Clown by Salman Rushdie.
The Independent .
Retrieved 2 December 2010.
Salman Rushdie the Kashmiri writes from the
heart as he describes this dark incandescence.
* ^ Cristina Emanuela Dascalu (2007) Imaginary homelands of writers
in exile: Salman Rushdie, Bharati Mukherjee, and V.S. Naipaul p.131
* ^ Pointon, Graham (ed.): BBC Pronouncing Dictionary of British
Names, 2nd edition. Oxford Paperbacks, 1990.
* ^ "Rushdie to Receive Top Literary Award", Chicago Tribune, 7
January 1999. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
* ^ "Birthday Honours List—United Kingdom", Archived 16 January
2013 at the
Wayback Machine . The London Gazette, Issue 58358,
Supplement No. 1, 16 June 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
* ^ "The 50 Greatest British Writers Since 1945". The Times, 5
January 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2010. Subscription required.
* ^ "
Salman Rushdie claims victory in Facebook name battle". BBC
News. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
* ^ A B
British Council profile
* ^ Literary Encyclopedia: "Salman Rushdie". Retrieved 20 January
* ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Salman Rushdie". Books and Writers
Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from
the original on 13 January 2008.
Salman Rushdie Discusses Creativity and Digital Scholarship
with Erika Farr on
* ^ Ravikrishnan, Ashutosh. Salman Rushdie\'s Midnight Child
Archived 15 April 2013 at
Archive.is . South Asian Diaspora. 25 July
* ^ After the Satanic Verses, the romantic lyrics
* ^ "
Salman Rushdie biography Archived 1 May 2007 at the Wayback
Machine .", 2004, British Counsel. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
* ^ Negative because there is little positive to say, The Herald
(Glasgow), George Birrell, 18 January 1997
* ^ "The birth pangs of Midnight’s Children", 1 April 2006
* ^ "Readers across the world agree that Salman Rushdie\'s
Midnight\'s Children is the Best of the Booker". Man Booker Prizes.
2008. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 10 July
* ^ Saleem (Sinai) is not Salman (Rushdie)(although he marries a
Padma) and Saleem's grandfather Dr Aadam Aziz is not him either, but
there is a touching prescience at work here. In the opening pages of
Midnight's Children, Dr Aziz while bending down on his prayer mat,
bumps his nose on a hard tussock of earth. His nose bleeds and his
eyes water and he decides then and there that never again will he bow
before God or man. 'This decision, however, made a hole in him, a
vacancy in a vital inner chamber, leaving him vulnerable to women and
history.' Battered by a fatwa and one femme fatale too many, Salman
would have some understanding of this. One more bouquet for Saleem
Sinai 20 July 2008 by Nina Martyris, TNN.
The Times of India
* ^ A B Meer, Ameena (1989). "Interview: Salman Rushdie". Bomb . 27
(Spring). Retrieved 22 March 2015.
* ^ "Haroun and the sea of stories". WorldCat. OCLC. Retrieved 24
* ^ "The 2007 Shortlist". Dublin City Public
Libraries/International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award. 2007. Archived
from the original on 29 April 2007. Retrieved 5 April 2007.
* ^ "
Salman Rushdie at work on fatwa memoir", The Guardian, 12
October 2010. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
* ^ "
Salman Rushdie Collaborates With
Booktrack and the New Zealand
Booktrack Launches A New E-reader Platform".
Booktrack. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 2
* ^ Demonizing Discourse in Salman Rushdie\'s
The Satanic Verses
The Satanic Verses at
Wayback Machine (archived 1 July 2000)
* ^ Times of India Story on Rushdie's influence and awards
* ^ Rohter, Larry (7 May 2012). "PEN New York Times Rushdie,
PEN World Voices Festival". The New York Times.
* ^ "
Salman Rushdie to Teach and Place His Archive at Emory
Emory University Office of Media Relations. 6 October
2006. Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 26
* ^ Academicians Database Archived 4 May 2012 at the Wayback
Machine ., American Academy of Arts and Letters. Retrieved 26 March
* ^ "Interview with Salman Rushdie". The Talks.
* ^ "Rushdie visits
Mumbai for \'Midnight\'s Children\' film". The
Times of India. 11 January 2010. Archived from the original on 14
January 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
* ^ SUBHASH K JHA, 13 January 2010, 12.00 am IST (13 January 2010).
"I\'m a film buff: Rushdie".
The Times of India. Retrieved 13 March
2010. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )
* ^ "Dreaming of Midnight\'s Children". The Indian Express. 5
January 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
* ^ "Irrfan moves from Mira Nair to Deepa Mehta". Hindustan Times.
20 January 2010. Archived from the original on 4 March 2010. Retrieved
13 March 2010.
* ^ "Tête-à-tête with Deepa Mehta". Hindustan Times. 4 January
2010. Archived from the original on 12 March 2010. Retrieved 13 March
* ^ "Midnight\'s Children". Internet Movie Database. 19 December
2011. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
* ^ Thorpe, Vanessa (12 June 2011). "
Salman Rushdie says TV drama
series have taken the place of novels". The Guardian. London.
Retrieved 11 June 2011.
* ^ "The Lunchbox Fund".
* ^ "Salman Rushdie".
* ^ "
Salman Rushdie Author and Patron of the BHA". British Humanist
Association. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
* ^ "Collegium Ralstonianum apud Savannenses – Home". Ralston.ac.
Retrieved 11 November 2012.
* ^ "Curb Your Enthusiasm".
* ^ "
Larry David - IMDb".
* ^ Rushdie, Salman (22 January 1989). "Choice between light and
The Observer . access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ Rushdie, Salman. "The Disappeared".
The New Yorker
The New Yorker (17
September 2012), p. 50. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
* ^ U2 (July 2010). "Stairway to Devon − OK, Somerset!". Q. p.
* ^ A B Anthony Loyd (8 June 2005). "Tomb of the unknown assassin
reveals mission to kill Rushdie". The Times. London. Archived from the
original on 1 June 2010.
* ^ "26 December 1990: Iranian leader upholds Rushdie fatwa". BBC
News: On This Day. 26 December 1990. Retrieved 10 October 2006.
* ^ Rubin, Michael (1 September 2006). "Can
Iran Be Trusted?". The
Middle East Forum: Promoting American Interests. Retrieved 10 October
* ^ Webster, Philip, Ben Hoyle and Ramita Navai (20 January 2005).
Ayatollah revives the death fatwa on Salman Rushdie". The Times.
London. Archived from the original on 3 March 2007. Retrieved 10
October 2006. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )
* ^ "
Iran adamant over Rushdie fatwa". BBC News. 12 February 2005.
Archived from the original on 6 February 2006. Retrieved 10 October
* ^ Rushdie, Salman (15 February 1999). "My Unfunny Valentine". The
New Yorker . Retrieved 7 November 2017.
* ^ "Rushdie\'s term". Retrieved 15 February 2007.
* ^ "Cronenberg meets Rushdie".
* ^ "Rushdie anger at policeman\'s book". BBC. 2 August 2008.
Retrieved 4 January 2010.
* ^ "Bodyguard apologises to Rushdie". BBC. 26 August 2008.
Retrieved 4 January 2010.
* ^ Alison Flood (12 April 2012). "
Salman Rushdie reveals details
of fatwa memoir". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
* ^ Buchta, Wilfried (2000). Who rules Iran? (PDF). The Washington
Institute and The Konrad Adenauer. p. 6.
* ^ "
Iran adds to reward for Salman Rushdie\'s death". The New York
Post. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
* ^ "Govt\'s decision to ban Salman Rushdie\'s \'The Satanic
Verses\' was wrong, says P Chidambaram". Firstpost. Retrieved 17
* ^ "Rajiv Gandhi govt\'s ban on Salman Rushdie\'s \'Satanic
Verses\' wrong: Chidambaram". The Indian Express. 29 November 2015.
Retrieved 25 October 2016.
* ^ Sian Cain. "Salman Rushdie: Iranian media raise more money for
fatwa". the Guardian.
* ^ "Hezbollah: Rushdie death would stop Prophet insults". Agence
France-Presse. 2 February 2006. Archived from the original on 7 August
2007. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
* ^ Joseph Bernard Tamney (2002). The Resilience of Conservative
Religion: The Case of Popular, Conservative Protestant Congregations.
Cambridge, UK: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
* ^ "International Guerrillas and Criminal Libel". Screenonline.
Retrieved 7 February 2008.
* ^ 2012 Speakers Archived 25 January 2012 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Singh, Akhilesh Kumar (20 January 2012). "
Salman Rushdie not to
attend Jaipur Literature Festival".
The Times of India. Retrieved 20
* ^ "
Salman Rushdie pulls out of Jaipur literature festival". BBC
News. 20 January 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
* ^ A B Singh, Akhilesh Kumar (24 January 2012). "Jaipur Literature
Festival: Even a virtual Rushdie is unwelcome for Rajasthan govt". The
Times of India. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
* ^ Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Chowdhury, Shreya Roy (23 January 2012).
Salman Rushdie shadow on Jaipur Literature Festival: 4 authors who
read from \'The Satanic Verses\' sent packing".
The Times of India.
Retrieved 23 January 2012.
* ^ Gill, Nikhila (24 January 2012). "Rushdie\'s Video
Canceled at India Literature Festival". The New York Times. Retrieved
6 December 2014.
* ^ "
Salman Rushdie to be a \'presence\' at India conference". BBC
News. 13 March 2012.
* ^ Scott Stewart (22 July 2010). "Fanning the Flames of Jihad".
Security Weekly. Stratfor. Archived from the original on 6 July 2013.
Inspire also features a "hit list" that includes the names of people
like Westergaard who were involved in the cartoon controversy as well
as other targets such as Dutch politician Geert Wilders, who produced
the controversial film Fitna in 2008
* ^ Dashiell Bennet (1 March 2013). "Look Who\'s on Al Qaeda\'s
Most-Wanted List". The Wire.
* ^ Conal Urquhart. "Paris Police Say 12 Dead After Shooting at
Charlie Hebdo". Time.
* ^ Victoria Ward. "Murdered
Charlie Hebdo cartoonist was on al
Qaeda wanted list". The Telegraph.
* ^ Lucy Cormack (8 January 2015). "
Charlie Hebdo editor Stephane
Charbonnier crossed off chilling al-Qaeda hitlist". The Age.
* ^ Time . 7 January 2015. salman rushdie response
* ^ Wilson Ring (15 January 2015). "Salman Rushdie, threatened over
book, defends free speech". Associated Press.
* ^ Jack Thurston (15 January 2015). "After Paris Attacks, Salman
Rushdie Defends Absolute Right of Free Speech While in Vermont". NECN.
* ^ "15 June 2007 Rushdie knighted in honours list". BBC News. 15
June 2007. Retrieved 16 June 2007.
* ^ Pierce, By Andrew. "
Salman Rushdie is knighted by the Queen".
Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
* ^ '
Sir Rubbish: Does Rushdie Deserve a Knighthood', Times Higher
Educational Supplement, 20 June 2007
* ^ "Protests spread to
Malaysia over knighthood for Salman
Rushdie". The New York Times. 20 June 2007. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved
23 May 2017.
* ^ "10 July 2007
Al-Qaeda condemns Rushdie honour". BBC News. 10
July 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
* ^ "Salman Rushdie". Biography.com. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
* ^ "Bill Moyers on Faith & Reason . Bill Moyers and Salman Rushdie
. June 23, 2006 - PBS".
* ^ "Fact, faith and fiction".
Far Eastern Economic Review
Far Eastern Economic Review . 2
March 1989. p. 11. access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ "Rushdie: I was deranged when I embraced Islam", Daily News and
Analysis , 6 April 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
* ^ "Muslims unite! A new Reformation will bring your faith into
the modern era", The Times, 11 August 2005
* ^ "
Salman Rushdie – Secular Values, Human Rights and Islamism".
Point of Inquiry. Retrieved 11 October 2006.
* ^ Maddie Crum (7 January 2015). "
Salman Rushdie Responds To
Charlie Hebdo Attack, Says Religion Must Be Subject To Satire".
Huffington Post . Retrieved 20 June 2015.
* ^ The Cut. "15 Male Celebrities Answer \'Are You a Feminist?\' --
The Cut". The Cut.
* ^ Michael Mandel , How America Gets Away With Murder, Pluto
Press, 2004, p. 60
* ^ "Letters, Salman Rushdie: No fondness for the Pentagon\'s
politics World news". The Guardian. London. 9 July 2007. Retrieved
13 March 2010.
* ^ "Writers issue cartoon row warning". BBC News. 1 March 2006.
Retrieved 19 February 2014.
* ^ Wagner, Thomas (10 October 2006). "Blair, Rushdie support
former British foreign secretary who ignited veil debate".
SignOnSanDiego.com. Retrieved 10 October 2006.
* ^ "The ageing punk of lit crit still knows how to spit – Times
Online". Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 30 July
2008. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link )
* ^ Terry Eagleton; Michael Kustow; Matthew Wright; Neil Morris (12
July 2007). "Letters: Writers challenging so-called civilisation". The
Scott Trust Limited . Retrieved 20 June 2015.
* ^ Radio show Medierna broadcast on
Sveriges Radio P1 on 31
* ^ Salman Rushdie\'s statement on Amnesty International, The
Sunday Times, 21 February 2010
* ^ Burke, Jason (10 April 2014). "A
Narendra Modi victory would
bode ill for India, say Rushdie and Kapoor". The Guardian. Delhi.
Retrieved 23 June 2014.
* ^ "
Salman Rushdie stirs up frenzy with tweets in response to
Colorado multiplex shooting New York Daily News". Daily News. New
York. 21 July 2012. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
* ^ Cheney, Alexandra (20 July 2012). "
Salman Rushdie Sparks Furor
With Colorado Theater Shooting Tweets – Speakeasy". The Wall Street
Journal. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
* ^ Descended from the gentry family LUARD formerly of Byborough.
See Burke's Landed Gentry 18th edn vol 1 (pub 1965) page 465 col 2
* ^ Free BMD website. Birth registered Q3 1979 Camden
* ^ Bruce Chatwin, letter to Ninette Dutton, 1 November 1984, in
Under the Sun: The Letters of Bruce Chatwin, ed. Elizabeth Chatwin and
Nicholas Shakespeare , p. 395
* ^ "Most men flirt with me: Riya Sen".
* ^ "Rushdie: New book out from under shadow of fatwa", CNN, 15
April 1999. Retrieved 21 April 2007.
* ^ Laura M. Holson, "From
Exile to Everywhere", The New York
Times, 23 March 2012 (online), 25 March 2012 (print). Retrieved 26
* ^ Collie, Ashley. "Shakespeare\'s Hotspur Would Be Proud to See
His Namesake Tottenham Hotspur Leading Another British Invasion of
America". HuffingtonPost.com. HPMG News. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
* ^ "The Golden House" by Salman Rushdie, Random House
* ^ "Golden Pen Award, official website".
English PEN . Retrieved 3
* ^ "
Salman Rushdie får dansk litteraturpris på halv million".
Politiken (in Danish). 12 June 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
Greg Epstein (20 April 2007). "HNN #18:
Salman Rushdie &
American Humanist Association
American Humanist Association and the Humanist
Chaplaincy of Harvard University. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
* ^ Julia (20 June 2014). "
Salman Rushdie awarded the 2014 PEN/
Pinter Prize". English PEN. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
* ^ Website of St. Louis Literary Award
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