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Part of a series on: Salafi movement

Sab'u Masajid, Saudi Arabia

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Abduh Rashid Rida Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz Ibn al Uthaymeen Nasiruddin Albani Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i List of Salafi scholars

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Salafi jihadism
Salafi jihadism
or jihadist- Salafism
Salafism
is a transnational religious-political ideology based on a belief in "physical" jihadism and the Salafi movement
Salafi movement
of returning to what adherents believe to be true Sunni
Sunni
Islam.[1][2] The terms "Salafist jihadist" and "jihadist-Salafism" were coined by scholar Gilles Kepel
Gilles Kepel
in 2002[3][4][5][6] to describe "a hybrid Islamist
Islamist
ideology" developed by international Islamist
Islamist
volunteers in the Afghan anti-Soviet jihad who had become isolated from their national and social class origins.[3] The concept was described by Martin Kramer as an academic term that "will inevitably be [simplified to] jihadism or the jihadist movement in popular usage." (emphasis supplied)[6] Practitioners are referred to as "Salafi jihadis" or "Salafi jihadists". They are sometimes described as a variety of Salafi,[7] and sometimes as separate from "good Salafis"[5] whose movement eschews any political and organisational allegiances as potentially divisive for the Muslim community and a distraction from the study of religion.[8] In the 1990s, extremist jihadists of the al-Jama'a al-Islamiyya were active in the attacks on police, government officials and tourists in Egypt, and Armed Islamic Group of Algeria
Armed Islamic Group of Algeria
was a principal group in the Algerian Civil War.[3] The most famous jihadist-Salafist attack is the September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States by al-Qaeda.[9] While Salafism
Salafism
had next to no presence in Europe in the 1980s, by the mid-2000s, Salafist jihadists had acquired "a burgeoning presence in Europe, having attempted more than 30 terrorist attacks among E.U. countries since 2001."[5] While many see the influence and activities of Salafi jihadists as in decline after 2000 (at least in the United States),[10][11] others see the movement as growing in the wake of the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
and breakdown of state control in Libya and Syria.[12]

Contents

1 History and definition 2 Leaders, groups and activities

2.1 Leaders and development 2.2 Groups

3 List of groups

3.1 Ruling strategy

4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

History and definition[edit]

(Data from A Persistent Threat, The Evolution of al Qa’ida and Other Salafi Jihadists, Seth G. Jones, 2014, Figure 3.1)

Gilles Kepel
Gilles Kepel
writes that the Salafis whom he encountered in Europe in the 1980s were "totally apolitical".[3][5] But by the mid-1990s he met some who felt jihad in the form of "violence and terrorism" was "justified to realize their political objectives". The combination of Salafi alienation from all things non-Muslim – including "mainstream European society" – and violent jihad created a "volatile mixture".[5] "When you're in the state of such alienation you become easy prey to the jihadi guys who will feed you more savory propaganda than the old propaganda of the Salafists who tell you to pray, fast and who are not taking action".[5] According to Kepel, Salafist jihadism combined "respect for the sacred texts in their most literal form, ... with an absolute commitment to jihad, whose number-one target had to be America, perceived as the greatest enemy of the faith."[13] Salafi jihadists distinguished themselves from salafis they term "sheikist", so named because – the jihadists believed – the "sheikists" had forsaken adoration of God for adoration of "the oil sheiks of the Arabian peninsula, with the Al Saud family at their head". Principal among the sheikist scholars was Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz – "the archetypal court ulema [ulama al-balat]". These allegedly "false" salafi "had to be striven against and eliminated", but even more infuriating was the Muslim Brotherhood, who were believed by Salafi jihadists to be excessively moderate and lacking in literal interpretation of holy texts.[13] Iyad El-Baghdadi describes Salafism as "deeply divided" into "mainstream (government-approved, or Islahi) Salafism", and jihadi Salafism.[7] Another definition of Salafi jihadism, offered by Mohammed M. Hafez, is an "extreme form of Sunni
Sunni
Islamism
Islamism
that rejects democracy and Shia rule". Hafez distinguished them from apolitical and conservative Salafi scholars (such as Muhammad
Muhammad
Nasiruddin al-Albani, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al Uthaymeen, Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz
Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz
and Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh), but also from the sahwa movement associated with Salman al-Ouda or Safar Al-Hawali.[14] According to Mohammed M. Hafez, contemporary jihadi Salafism
Salafism
is characterized by "five features":

immense emphasis on the concept of tawhid (unity of God); God's sovereignty (hakimiyyat Allah), which defines right and wrong, good and evil, and which supersedes human reasoning is applicable in all places on earth and at all times, and makes unnecessary and un-Islamic other ideologies such as liberalism or humanism; the rejection of all innovation (bid‘ah) in Islam; the permissibility and necessity of takfir (the declaring of a Muslim to be outside the creed, so that they may face execution); and on the centrality of jihad against infidel regimes.[14]

Another researcher, (Thomas Hegghammer), has outlined five objectives shared by jihadis:[15]

Changing the social and political organisation of the state, (an example, being the Armed Islamic Group
Armed Islamic Group
(GIA) and the former Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) which fought to overthrow the Algerian state and replace it with an Islamic state.)[15] Establishing sovereignty on a territory perceived as occupied or dominated by non-Muslims, (an example being the Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Taiba
Lashkar-e-Taiba
(Soldiers of the Pure) in Indian occupied Kashmir and the Caucasus Emirate
Caucasus Emirate
in the Russian Federation).[15] Defending the Muslim community (ummah) from external non-Muslim perceived threats, either the "near enemy" (al-adou al-qarib, this includes jihadists Arabs who travelled to Bosnia
Bosnia
and Chechnya to defend local Muslims against non-Muslim armies) or the "far enemy" (al-adou al-baid, often affiliates of Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
attacking the West).[15] Correcting other Muslims' moral behaviour. (In Indonesia, vigilantes first used sticks and stones to attack those they considered "deviant" in behavior before moving on to guns and bombs).[15] Intimidating and marginalising other Muslim sects, (an example being Lashkar-e-Jhangvi which has carried out violent attacks on Pakistani Shia
Shia
for decades, and killings in Iraq.[15])

Robin Wright notes the importance in Salafi jihadist groups of

the formal process of taking an oath of allegiance (Bay'ah) to a leader.[16] (This can be by individuals to an emir or by a local group to a transglobal group.) "marbling", i.e. pretending to cut ties to a less-than-popular global movement when "strategically or financially convenient". (An example is the cutting of ties to al-Qaeda by the Syrian group Al-Nusra Front with al-Qaeda's approval.[16]

According to Michael Horowitz, Salafi jihad is an ideology that identifies the "alleged source of the Muslims' conundrum" in the "persistent attacks and humiliation of Muslims on the part of an anti-Islamic alliance of what it terms 'Crusaders', 'Zionists', and 'apostates'."[17] Al Jazeera journalist Jamal Al Sharif describes Salafi jihadism
Salafi jihadism
as combining "the doctrinal content and approach of Salafism
Salafism
and organisational models from Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
organisations. Their motto emerged as ' Salafism
Salafism
in doctrine, modernity in confrontation'".[18] Antecedents of Salafism
Salafism
jihadism include Islamist
Islamist
author Sayyid Qutb, who developed "the intellectual underpinnings" of the ideology. Qutb argued that the world had reached a crisis point and that the Islamic world has been replaced by pagan ignorance of Jahiliyyah. The group Takfir
Takfir
wal-Hijra, who kidnapped and murdered an Egyptian ex-government minister in 1978, inspired some of "the tactics and methods" used by Al Qaeda.[5] In Afghanistan
Afghanistan
the Taliban
Taliban
were of the Deobandi, not Salafi, school of Islam
Islam
but "cross-fertilized" with bin Laden and other Salafist jihadis.[3] Seth Jones of the Rand Corporation
Rand Corporation
argues that Salafi-jihadist numbers and activity have increased not decreased from 2007 to 2013. According to his research:

the number of Salafi-jihadist groups increased by over 50% from 2010 to 2013, using Libya and parts of Syria as sanctuary. the number of Salafi jihadist fighters "more than doubled from 2010 to 2013" using both low and high estimates. The war in Syria was the single most important attraction for Salafi-jihadist fighters. attacks by al-Qaeda–affiliated groups (Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and al-Sham, al Shabaab, Jabhat al-Nusrah, and al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula) despite al-Qaeda's traditional focus on the "far enemy" (US and Europe), approximately 99% of the attacks by al-Qaeda and its affiliates in 2013 were against "near enemy" targets (in North Africa, the Middle East, and other regions outside of the West).[12]

Leaders, groups and activities[edit] Leaders and development[edit] "Theoreticians" of Salafist jihadism included Afghan jihad veterans such as the Palestinian Abu Qatada, the Syrian Mustafa Setmariam Nasar, the Egyptian Mustapha Kamel, known as Abu Hamza al-Masri.[19] Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
was its most well-known leader. The dissident Saudi preachers Salman al-Ouda
Salman al-Ouda
and Safar Al-Hawali, were held in high esteem by this school. Murad Al-shishani of The Jamestown Foundation states there have been three generations of Salafi-jihadists: those waging jihad in Afghanistan, Bosnia
Bosnia
and Iraq. As of the mid-2000s, Arab fighters in Iraq
Iraq
were "the latest and most important development of the global Salafi-jihadi movement".[20] These fighters were usually not Iraqis, but volunteers who had come to Iraq
Iraq
from other countries, mainly Saudi Arabia. Unlike in earlier Salafi jihadi actions, Egyptians "are no longer the chief ethnic group".[20] According to Bruce Livesey Salafist jihadists are currently a "burgeoning presence in Europe, having attempted more than 30 terrorist attacks among EU countries" from September 2001 to the beginning of 2005".[5] According to Mohammed M. Hafez, in Iraq
Iraq
jihadi salafi are pursuing a "system-collapse strategy" whose goal is to install an "Islamic emirate based on Sunni
Sunni
dominance, similar to the Taliban
Taliban
regime in Afghanistan." In addition to occupation/coalition personnel they target mainly Iraqi security forces and Shia
Shia
civilians, but also "foreign journalists, translators and transport drivers and the economic and physical infrastructure of Iraq."[14] Groups[edit] Salafist jihadists groups include Al Qaeda,[7] the now defunct Algerian Armed Islamic Group
Armed Islamic Group
(GIA),[13] and the Egyptian group Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya
Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya
which still exists. In the Algerian Civil War
Algerian Civil War
1992–1998, the GIA was one of the two major Islamist
Islamist
armed groups (the other being theArmee Islamique du Salut or AIS) fighting the Algerian army and security forces. The GIA included veterans of the Afghanistan
Afghanistan
jihad and unlike the more moderate AIS, fought to destabilize the Algerian government with terror attacks designed to "create an atmosphere of general insecurity".[21] It considered jihad in Algeria fard ayn or an obligation for all (adult male sane) Muslims,[21] and sought to "purge" Algeria of "the ungodly" and create an Islamic state. It pursued what some (Gilles Kepel) called a "wholesale massacres of civilians", targeting French-speaking intellectuals, foreigners,[21] and Islamists deemed too moderate, and took a campaign of bombing to France, which supported the Algerian government against the Islamists. Although over 150,000 were killed in the civil war,[22] the GIA eventually lost popular support and was crushed by the security forces.[23] Remnants of the GIA continued on as "Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat", which as of 2015 calls itself al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb.[24]

Logo of Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya

Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, (the Islamic Group) another Salafist-jihadi movement[25] fought an insurgency against the Egyptian government from 1992 to 1998 during which at least 800 Egyptian policemen and soldiers, jihadists, and civilians were killed. Outside of Egypt it is best known for a November 1997 attack at the Temple of Hatshepsut in Luxor
Luxor
where fifty-eight foreign tourists were hacked and shot to death. The group declared a ceasefire in March 1999,[26] although as of 2012 it is still active in jihad against the Bashar al-Assad
Bashar al-Assad
regime Syria.[25]

Flag of al-Qaeda

Perhaps the most famous and effective Salafist jihadist group was Al-Qaeda.[27] Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
evolved from the Maktab al-Khidamat (MAK), or the "Services Office", a Muslim organization founded in 1984 to raise and channel funds and recruit foreign mujahideen for the war against the Soviets in Afghanistan. It was established in Peshawar, Pakistan, by Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
and Abdullah Yusuf Azzam. As it became apparent that the jihad had compelled the Soviet military to abandon its mission in Afghanistan, some mujahideen called for the expansion of their operations to include Islamist
Islamist
struggles in other parts of the world, and Al Qaeda
Al Qaeda
was formed by bin Laden on August 11, 1988.[28][29] Members were to making a pledge (bayat) to follow one's superiors.[30] Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
emphasized jihad against the "far enemy", i.e. the United States. In 1996, it announced its jihad to expel foreign troops and interests from what they considered Islamic lands, and in 1998, it issued a fatwa calling on Muslims to kill Americans and their allies whenever and wherever they could. Among its most notable acts of violence were the 1998 bombings of US embassies in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi
Nairobi
that killed over 200 people;[31] and the 9/11 attacks of 2001 that killed almost 3000 people and caused many billions of dollars in damage. According to Mohammed M. Hafez, "as of 2006 the two major groups within the jihadi Salafi camp" in Iraq
Iraq
were the Mujahidin Shura Council and the Ansar al Sunna
Ansar al Sunna
Group.[14] There are also a number of small jihadist Salafist groups in Azerbaijan.[32] The group leading the Islamist
Islamist
insurgency in Southern Thailand in 2006 by carrying out most of the attacks and cross-border operations,[33] BRN-Koordinasi, favours Salafi ideology. It works in a loosely organized strictly clandestine cell system dependent on hard-line religious leaders for direction.[34][35] Jund Ansar Allah is, or was, an armed Salafist jihadist organization in the Gaza Strip. On August 14, 2009, the group's spiritual leader, Sheikh Abdel Latif Moussa, announced during Friday sermon the establishment of an Islamic emirate in the Palestinian territories attacking the ruling authority, the Islamist
Islamist
group Hamas, for failing to enforce Sharia
Sharia
law. Hamas
Hamas
forces responded to his sermon by surrounding his Ibn Taymiyyah
Ibn Taymiyyah
mosque complex and attacking it. In the fighting that ensued, 24 people (including Sheikh Abdel Latif Moussa himself), were killed and over 130 were wounded.[36] In 2011, Salafist jihadists were actively involved with protests against King Abdullah II of Jordan,[37] and the kidnapping and killing of Italian peace activist Vittorio Arrigoni
Vittorio Arrigoni
in Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip.[38][39] In the North Caucasus region of Russia, the Caucasus Emirate
Caucasus Emirate
replaced the nationalism of Muslim Chechnya and Dagestan with a hard-line Salafist-takfiri jihadist ideology. They are immensely focused on upholding the concept of tawhid (purist monotheism), and fiercely reject any practice of shirk, taqlid, ijtihad and bid‘ah. They also believe in the complete separation between the Muslim and the non-Muslim, by propagating Al Wala' Wal Bara' and declaring takfir against any Muslim who (they believe) is a mushrik (polytheist) and does not return to the observance of tawhid and the strict literal interpretation of the Quran and the Sunnah as followed by Muhammad
Muhammad
and his companions (Sahaba).[40]

Flag of the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant

In Syria and Iraq
Iraq
both Jabhat al-Nusra
Jabhat al-Nusra
and ISIS[41] have been described as Salafist-jihadist. Jabhat al-Nusra
Jabhat al-Nusra
has been described as possessing "a hard-line Salafi-Jihadist ideology" and being one of "the most effective" groups fighting the regime.[42] Writing after ISIS
ISIS
victories in Iraq, Hassan Hassan believes ISIS
ISIS
is a reflection of "ideological shakeup of Sunni
Sunni
Islam's traditional Salafism" since the Arab Spring, where salafism, "traditionally inward-looking and loyal to the political establishment", has "steadily, if slowly", been eroded by Salafism-jihadism.[41] List of groups[edit] According to Seth G. Jones of the Rand Corporation
Rand Corporation
as of 2014 there were around 50 Salafist-jihadist groups in existence or recently in existence ("present" in the list indicates a group's continued existence as of 2014). (Jones defines Salafi-jihadist groups as those emphasizing the importance of returning to a “pure” Islam, that of the Salaf, the pious ancestors; and those believing that violent jihad is fard ‘ayn (a personal religious duty)).[1]

Salafist-jihadist groups as of 2014[27]

Name of Group Base of Operations Years

Abdullah Azzam Brigades (Yusuf al-Uyayri Battalions) Saudi Arabia 2009–present

Abdullah Azzam Brigades (Ziyad al-Jarrah Battalions) Lebanon 2009–present

Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
Group (ASG) Philippines 1991–present

Aden-Abyan Islamic Army
Aden-Abyan Islamic Army
(AAIA) Yemen 1994–present

Al-Itihaad al-Islamiya
Al-Itihaad al-Islamiya
(AIAI) Somalia, Ethiopia 1994–2002

Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
(core) Pakistan 1988–present

Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
in Aceh (a.k.a. Tanzim al Qa’ida Indonesia for Serambi Makkah) Indonesia 2009–2011

Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
in the Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia) Saudi Arabia 2002–2008

Al Qaeda
Al Qaeda
in the Arabian Peninsula (Yemen) Yemen 2008–present

al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM, formerly Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat, GSPC) Algeria 1998–present

Al Takfir
Takfir
wal al-Hijrah, Egypt (Sinai Peninsula) 2011–present

Al-Mulathamun (Mokhtar Belmokhtar) Mali, Libya, Algeria 2012–2013

Al-Murabitun (Mokhtar Belmokhtar) Mali, Libya, Algeria 2013–2017

Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia- Union of Islamic Courts (ARS/UIC) Somalia, Eritrea 2006–2009

Ansar al-Islam Iraq 2001–present

Ansar al- Sharia
Sharia
(Egypt) Egypt 2012–present

Ansar al- Sharia
Sharia
(Libya) Libya 2012–present

Ansar al- Sharia
Sharia
(Mali) Mali 2012–present

Ansar al- Sharia
Sharia
(Tunisia) Tunisia 2011–present

Ansar Bait al-Maqdis (a.k.a. Ansar Jerusalem) Gaza Strip, Egypt (Sinai Peninsula) 2012–present

Ansaru Nigeria 2012–present

Osbat al-Ansar (AAA) Lebanon 1985–present

Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF, a.k.a. BIFM) Philippines 2010–present

Boko Haram Nigeria 2003–present

Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (Basayev faction) Russia (Chechnya) 1994–2007

East Turkestan Islamic Movement
East Turkestan Islamic Movement
(ETIM, a.k.a. Turkestan Islamic Party) China (Xinjang) 1989–present

Egyptian Islamic Jihad
Jihad
(EIJ) Egypt 1978–2001

Harakat Ahrar al-Sham al-Islamiyya Syria 2012–present

Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen Somalia 2002–present

Harakat al-Shuada’a al Islamiyah (a.k.a. Islamic Martyr’s Movement, IMM) Libya 1996–2007

Harakat Ansar al-Din Mali 2011–2017

Hizbul al Islam Somalia 2009–2010

Imarat Kavkaz (IK, or Caucasus Emirate) Russia (Chechnya) 2007–present

Indian Mujahedeen India 2005–present

Islamic Jihad
Jihad
Union (a.k.a. Islamic Jihad
Jihad
Group) Uzbekistan 2002–present

Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
(IMU) Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan 1997–present

Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and al-Sham (ISIS) Iraq, Syria 2004–present

Jabhat al-Nusrah Syria 2011–present

Jaish ul-Adl Iran 2013–present

Jaish al-Islam (a.k.a. Tawhid
Tawhid
and Jihad
Jihad
Brigades) Gaza Strip, Egypt (Sinai Peninsula) 2005–present

Jaish al- Ummah
Ummah
(JaU) Gaza Strip 2007–present

Jamaat Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis Egypt (Sinai Peninsula) 2011–present

Jamaat Ansarullah (JA) Tajikistan 2010–present

Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid
Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid
(JAT) Indonesia 2008–present

Jemaah Islamiyah
Jemaah Islamiyah
(JI) Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore 1993–present

Jondullah Pakistan 2003–present

Jund al-Sham Lebanon, Syria, Gaza Strip, Qatar, Afghanistan 1999–2008

Khalifa Islamiyah Mindanao
Khalifa Islamiyah Mindanao
(KIM) Philippines 2013–present

Lashkar-e-Taiba
Lashkar-e-Taiba
(LeT, a.k.a. Mansoorian) Pakistan (Kashmir) 1990–present

Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) Libya 1990–present

Liwa al-Islam Syria 2011–present

Liwa al-Tawhid Syria 2012–present

Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group (GICM) Morocco, Western Europe 1998–present

Movement for Tawhid
Tawhid
and Jihad
Jihad
in West Africa (MUJAO) Mali 2011–2013

Muhammad
Muhammad
Jamal Network (MJN) Egypt 2011–present

Mujahideen Shura
Shura
Council Gaza Strip, Egypt (Sinai Peninsula) 2011–present

Salafia Jihadia (As-Sirat al Moustaquim) Morocco 1995–present

Suqour al-Sham Brigade Syria 2011–2015

Tawhid
Tawhid
wal Jihad Iraq 1998–2004

Tunisian Combat Group (TCG) Tunisia, Western Europe 2000–2011

Ruling strategy[edit] In several places and times jihadis have taken control over an area and ruled it as an Islamic state, such as in the case of the Taliban takeover of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
or ISIL in Syria and Iraq. As Islamists, establishing uncompromised sharia law is a core value and goal of jihadists, but strategies differed on how quickly this should be done. Observers such as journalist Robert Worth have described jihadis as torn between wanting to build true Islamic order gradually from the bottom up to avoid alienating non-jihadi Muslims (the desire of bin Laden), and not wanting to wait for the Islamic state.[43] In Zinjibar, Yemen, AQAP established an "emirate" that lasted from May 2011 until the summer of 2012. It emphasized (and publicized with a media campaign) not strict sharia law, but "uncharacteristically gentle" good governance over its conquered territory—rebuilding infrastructure, quashing banditry, and resolving legal disputes.[44] One jihadi veteran of Yemen described its approach towards the local population:

You have to take a gradual approach with them when it comes to religious practices. You can't beat people for drinking alcohol when they don't even know the basics of how to pray. We have to first stop the great sins, and then move gradually to the lesser and lesser ones ... Try to avoid enforcing Islamic punishments as much as possible unless you are forced to do so.[44]

However AQAP's "clemency drained away under the pressure of war",[44] and the area was taken back by the government. The failure of this model (according to New York Times
New York Times
correspondent Robert Worth), may have "taught" jihadis a lesson on the need to instill fear.[44] The ISIS, is thought to have used for its model a manifesto entitled "The Management of Savagery", which emphasizes the need to create areas of "savagery", i.e. lawlessness, in enemy territory. Once the enemy was too exhausted and weakened from the lawlessness (particularly terrorism) to continue to try and govern, the nucleus of a new caliphate could be established in their absence.[45] The author of "The Management of Savagery", emphasized not so much winning the sympathy of the local Muslims but extreme violence, writing that: "One who previously engaged in jihad knows that it is naught but violence, crudeness, terrorism, frightening [others] and massacring -- I am talking about jihad and fighting, not about Islam
Islam
and one should not confuse them."[45] (Social-media posts from ISIS
ISIS
territory "suggest that individual executions happen more or less continually, and mass executions every few weeks", according journalist Graeme Wood.[46]) References[edit]

^ a b Jones, Seth G. (2014). A Persistent Threat: The Evolution of al Qa’ida and Other Salafi Jihadists (PDF). Rand Corporation. p. 2. Retrieved 28 May 2015.  ^ Moghadam, Assaf (2008). The Globalization of Martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of ... JHU Press. pp. 37–8. Retrieved 28 May 2015.  ^ a b c d e "Jihadist-Salafism" is introduced by Gilles Kepel, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam
Islam
(Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2002) ^ Deneoux, Guilain (June 2002). "The Forgotten Swamp: Navigating Political Islam". Middle East Policy. pp. 69–71." ^ a b c d e f g h "The Salafist movement by Bruce Livesey". PBS Frontline. 2005. Retrieved 24 October 2014.  ^ a b Kramer, Martin (Spring 2003). "Coming to Terms: Fundamentalists or Islamists?". Middle East Quarterly. X (2): 65–77. French academics have put the term into academic circulation as 'jihadist-Salafism.' The qualifier of Salafism
Salafism
– an historical reference to the precursor of these movements – will inevitably be stripped away in popular usage.  ^ a b c El-Baghdadi, Iyad. "Salafis, Jihadis, Takfiris: Demystifying Militant Islamism
Islamism
in Syria". 15 January 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2013.  ^ "Indonesia: Why Salafism
Salafism
and Terrorism Mostly Don't Mix". International Crisis Group. Retrieved 7 February 2015.  ^ "The Global Salafi Jihad". the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. July 9, 2003. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ Sageman, Marc (April 30, 2013). "The Stagnation of Research on Terrorism". The Chronicle of Higher Education. al Qaeda is no longer seen as an existential threat to the West ... the hysteria over a global conspiracy against the West has faded.  ^ Mearsheimer, John J. (January–February 2014). "America Unhinged" (PDF). National Interest: 9–30. Retrieved 30 May 2015. Terrorism – most of it arising from domestic groups – was a much bigger problem in the United States during the 1970s than it has been since the Twin Towers were toppled.  ^ a b Jones, Seth G. (2014). A Persistent Threat: The Evolution of al Qa’ida and Other Salafi Jihadists (PDF). Rand Corporation. pp. ix–xiii. Retrieved 28 May 2015.  ^ a b c Jihad
Jihad
By Gilles Kepel, Anthony F. Roberts. Retrieved 24 October 2014.  ^ a b c d Suicide Bombers in Iraq
Iraq
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Kepel, Gilles (2002). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Harvard University Press. 

Further reading[edit]

Oliver, Haneef James. "The Wahabi Myth, Trafford, 2003, ISBN 1553953975, ISBN 978-1553953975 (Free) Oliver, Haneef James. "Sacred Freedom: Western Liberalist Ideologies In The Light of Islam". TROID, 2006, ISBN 0-9776996-0-9 (Free) Global jihadism: theory and practice, Brachman, Jarret, Taylor & Francis, 2008, ISBN 0-415-45241-4, ISBN 978-0-415-45241-0

External links[edit]

Robert Manne, Sayyid Qutb: Father of Salafi Jihadism. ABC Religion and Ethics

v t e

Islamism

Outline

Islamism Qutbism Salafism

Salafi jihadism

Shia
Shia
Islamism

Concepts

Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists Islamic democracy Islamic socialism Islamic state

Islamic monarchy Islamic republic

Islamistan Islamization

of knowledge

Pan-Islamism Post-Islamism Sharia Shura Turkish model Two-nation theory Ummah

Movements

Socio- political

Deobandi Hizb ut-Tahrir

in Britain in Central Asia

Islamic Defenders Front Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Muslim Brotherhood

in Egypt in Syria

Political Party

Freedom and Justice Party Green Algeria Alliance Hadas Hezbollah Islamic Salvation Front Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Pakistan Jamiat-e Islami Justice and Construction Party Justice and Development Party (Morocco) National Congress National Iraqi Alliance Malaysian Islamic Party Prosperous Justice Party Al Wefaq Welfare Party

Related

Ennahda Movement Gülen movement Islamic Modernism Justice and Development Party (Turkey)

Theorists and political leaders

Muhammad
Muhammad
Abduh Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī Qazi Hussain Ahmad Muhammad
Muhammad
Asad Hasan al-Banna Necmettin Erbakan Muammar Gaddafi Rached Ghannouchi Safwat Hegazi Muhammad
Muhammad
Iqbal Alija Izetbegović Ali Khamenei Ruhollah Khomeini Abul Ala Maududi Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani Yusuf al-Qaradawi Sayyid Qutb Tariq Ramadan Ata Abu Rashta Rashid Rida Navvab Safavi Ali Shariati Haji Shariatullah Hassan al-Turabi Ahmad Yassin Zia-ul-Haq

Salafi movement

Movements

Scholastic

Ahl-i Hadith Madkhalism Sahwa movement Wahhabism

Political

Al Asalah Authenticity Party Al-Islah Al-Nour Party

Islamist
Islamist
Bloc

People Party Young Kashgar Party

Major figures

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abd al-Wahhab Nasiruddin Albani Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i Safar al-Hawali Rabee al-Madkhali Muhammad
Muhammad
Al-Munajjid Zakir Naik Salman al-Ouda Ali al-Tamimi Ibn al Uthaymeen

Related

International propagation of Salafism
Salafism
and Wahhabism Islamic religious police Petro-Islam Sufi-Salafi relations

Militant Islamism/Jihadism

Ideology

Qutbism Salafi jihadism

Movements

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Militant Islamism
Islamism
based in

MENA region

Egyptian Islamic Jihad Fatah al-Islam Hamas Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant

South Asia

Lashkar-e-Taiba Taliban

Southeast Asia

Abu Sayyaf

Sub-Saharan Africa

Boko Haram al-Shabaab

al-Qaeda

in the Arabian Peninsula in Iraq in North Africa

Major figures

Anwar al-Awlaki Abdullah Yusuf Azzam Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Osama bin Laden Mohammed Omar Juhayman al-Otaybi Omar Abdel-Rahman Ayman al-Zawahiri

Related

Islamic extremism Islamic terrorism Jihad Slavery Talibanization Worldwide Caliphate

Texts

Reconstruction (Iqbal, 1930s) Forty Hadith (Khomeini, 1940) Principles (Asad, 1961) Milestones (Qutb, 1964) Islamic Government (Khomeini, 1970) Islamic Declaration (Izetbegović, 1969-1970) The Green Book (Gaddafi, 1975)

Historical events

Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization Iranian Revolution Grand Mosque seizure Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam Popular Arab and Islamic Congress Algerian Civil War September 11 attacks War on Terror Arab Spring Arab Winter

Influences

Anti-imperialism Anti-Zionism Islamic response to modernity Islamic revival Modern Islamic philosophy

by region

Balkans Gaza Strip United Kingdom

Related topics

Criticism

Ed Husain

Political aspects of Islam Political Islam

Islamism
Islamism
in

South

.