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SADDAM HUSSEIN ABD AL-MAJID AL-TIKRITI (/hʊˈseɪn/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي _Ṣaddām Ḥusayn ʿAbd al-Maǧīd al-Tikrītī_; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq , serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003. A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba\'ath Party , and later, the Baghdad-based Ba\'ath Party and its regional organization the Iraqi Ba\'ath Party —which espoused Ba\'athism , a mix of Arab nationalism and socialism — Saddam
Saddam
played a key role in the 1968 coup (later referred to as the 17 July Revolution ) that brought the party to power in Iraq.

As vice president under the ailing General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
, and at a time when many groups were considered capable of overthrowing the government, Saddam
Saddam
created security forces through which he tightly controlled conflicts between the government and the armed forces. In the early 1970s, Saddam
Saddam
nationalized oil and other industries. The state-owned banks were put under his control, leaving the system eventually insolvent mostly due to the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War , the Gulf War , and UN sanctions . Through the 1970s, Saddam
Saddam
cemented his authority over the apparatus of government as oil money helped Iraq's economy to grow at a rapid pace. Positions of power in the country were mostly filled with Sunni Arabs, a minority that made up only a fifth of the population.

Saddam
Saddam
formally rose to power in 1979, although he had already been the _de facto_ head of Iraq
Iraq
for several years. He suppressed several movements, particularly Shi\'a and Kurdish movements, which sought to overthrow the government or gain independence, and maintained power during the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War and the Gulf War. Whereas some in the Arab world lauded Saddam
Saddam
for opposing the United States
United States
and attacking Israel
Israel
—he was widely condemned for the brutality of his dictatorship . The total number of Iraqis
Iraqis
killed by the security services of Saddam\'s government in various purges and genocides is conservatively estimated to be 250,000. Saddam's invasions of Iran and Kuwait
Kuwait
also resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths.

In 2003, a coalition led by the U.S. invaded Iraq
Iraq
to depose Saddam, in which U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair incorrectly accused him of possessing weapons of mass destruction and having ties to al-Qaeda . Saddam's Ba'ath party was disbanded and elections were held. Following his capture on 13 December 2003, the trial of Saddam
Saddam
took place under the Iraqi Interim Government . On 5 November 2006, Saddam
Saddam
was convicted of crimes against humanity related to the 1982 killing of 148 Iraqi Shi\'ites , and sentenced to death by hanging . His execution was carried out on 30 December 2006.

CONTENTS

* 1 Youth

* 2 Rise to power

* 2.1 Political program

* 2.2 Succession

* 2.2.1 1979 Ba\'ath Party Purge

* 3 Paramilitary and police organizations * 4 Political and cultural image

* 5 Foreign affairs

* 5.1 Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War * 5.2 Al-Anfal Campaign * 5.3 Tensions with Kuwait
Kuwait

* 6 Gulf War
Gulf War

* 7 Postwar period

* 7.1 International relations and sanctions on Iraq
Iraq

* 8 Invasion of Iraq
Iraq
in 2003

* 9 Incarceration and trial

* 9.1 Capture and incarceration * 9.2 Trial

* 10 Execution * 11 Marriage and family relationships * 12 Philanthropic connection to the city of Detroit, Michigan * 13 List of government and party positions held * 14 See also * 15 Notes * 16 References * 17 Further reading * 18 External links

YOUTH

Main article: Tulfah family

Saddam
Saddam
Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti was born in the town of Al-Awja , 13 km (8 mi) from the Iraqi town of Tikrit , to a family of shepherds from the al-Begat clan group, a sub-group of the Al-Bu Nasir (البو ناصر) tribe. His mother, Subha Tulfah al-Mussallat, named her newborn son _ Saddam
Saddam
_, which in Arabic
Arabic
means "One who confronts". He is always referred to by this personal name , which may be followed by the patronymic and other elements. He never knew his father, Hussein 'Abd al-Majid, who disappeared six months before Saddam
Saddam
was born. Shortly afterward, Saddam's 13-year-old brother died of cancer. The infant Saddam
Saddam
was sent to the family of his maternal uncle Khairallah Talfah
Khairallah Talfah
until he was three.

His mother remarried, and Saddam
Saddam
gained three half-brothers through this marriage. His stepfather, Ibrahim al-Hassan, treated Saddam harshly after his return. At about age 10, Saddam
Saddam
fled the family and returned to live in Baghdad
Baghdad
with his uncle Kharaillah Talfah. Talfah, the father of Saddam's future wife, was a devout Sunni Muslim and a veteran of the 1941 Anglo-Iraqi War between Iraqi nationalists and the United Kingdom, which remained a major colonial power in the region.

Later in his life relatives from his native Tikrit became some of his closest advisors and supporters. Under the guidance of his uncle he attended a nationalistic high school in Baghdad. After secondary school Saddam
Saddam
studied at an Iraqi law school for three years, dropping out in 1957 at the age of 20 to join the revolutionary pan-Arab Ba'ath Party, of which his uncle was a supporter. During this time, Saddam apparently supported himself as a secondary school teacher. Saddam
Saddam
Hussein and the Ba\'ath Party student cell, Cairo
Cairo
, in the period 1959–1963

Revolutionary sentiment was characteristic of the era in Iraq
Iraq
and throughout the Middle East. In Iraq
Iraq
progressives and socialists assailed traditional political elites (colonial era bureaucrats and landowners, wealthy merchants and tribal chiefs, and monarchists). Moreover, the pan- Arab nationalism of Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt profoundly influenced young Ba'athists like Saddam. The rise of Nasser foreshadowed a wave of revolutions throughout the Middle East in the 1950s and 1960s, with the collapse of the monarchies of Iraq, Egypt, and Libya
Libya
. Nasser inspired nationalists throughout the Middle East by fighting the British and the French during the Suez Crisis of 1956 , modernizing Egypt, and uniting the Arab world politically.

In 1958, a year after Saddam
Saddam
had joined the Ba'ath party, army officers led by General Abd al-Karim Qasim
Abd al-Karim Qasim
overthrew Faisal II of Iraq in the 14 July Revolution .

RISE TO POWER

Further information: Ba\'athist Iraq
Iraq

Part of a series on

BA\\'ATHISM

Organisations

ARAB BA\\'ATH 1940–1947

ARAB BA\\'ATH MOVEMENT 1940–1947

BA\\'ATH PARTY 1947–1966

BA\\'ATH PARTY (PRO-IRAQI) 1968–2003

BA\\'ATH PARTY (PRO-SYRIAN) 1966–present

People

* Zaki al-Arsuzi * Michel Aflaq
Michel Aflaq
* Salah al-Din al-Bitar * Abdullah Rimawi * Wahib al-Ghanim * Fuad al-Rikabi * Salah Jadid * Hafez al-Assad * Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
* Saddam
Saddam
Hussein * Bashar al-Assad * Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri

Literature

* On the Way of Resurrection * The Battle for One Destiny * The Genius of Arabic
Arabic
in Its Tongue

History

* BA\\'ATHIST IRAQ Ramadan Revolution
Ramadan Revolution
* November 1963 coup d\'état * 17 July Revolution * Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War * Gulf War
Gulf War
* UN sanctions * Iraq
Iraq
War * De-Ba\'athification

* BA\\'ATHIST SYRIA Syrian Committee to Help
Help
Iraq
Iraq
* 1963 / 1966 coup d\'états

* Corrective Revolution * Civil War

Regional organisations

ALGERIA

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

BAHRAIN

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

EGYPT

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

IRAQ

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

JORDAN

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

KUWAIT

* pro- Iraq
Iraq

LEBANON

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

LIBYA

* pro- Iraq
Iraq

MAURITANIA

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

PALESTINE

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

SUDAN

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

SYRIA

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

TUNISIA

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

YEMEN

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

Splinter groups

ARAB SOCIALIST REVOLUTIONARY BA\\'ATH PARTY 1960–1962/63

SOCIALIST LEBANON 1965–1970

ARAB REVOLUTIONARY WORKERS PARTY 1966–present

DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST ARAB BA\\'ATH PARTY 1970–present

SUDANESE BA\\'ATH PARTY 2002–present

Related topics

* Arab nationalism * Arab socialism
Arab socialism
* Nasserism * Pan-Arabism * Strasserism

* Politics portal * Socialism portal

* v * t * e

Of the 16 members of Qasim's cabinet, 12 were Ba'ath Party members; however, the party turned against Qasim due to his refusal to join Gamal Abdel Nasser's United Arab Republic. To strengthen his own position within the government, Qasim created an alliance with the Iraqi Communist Party , which was opposed to any notion of pan-Arabism. Later that year, the Ba'ath Party leadership was planning to assassinate Qasim. Saddam
Saddam
was a leading member of the operation. At the time, the Ba'ath Party was more of an ideological experiment than a strong anti-government fighting machine. The majority of its members were either educated professionals or students, and Saddam
Saddam
fit the bill. The choice of Saddam
Saddam
was, according to historian Con Coughlin , "hardly surprising". The idea of assassinating Qasim may have been Nasser's, and there is speculation that some of those who participated in the operation received training in Damascus
Damascus
, which was then part of the UAR. However, "no evidence has ever been produced to implicate Nasser directly in the plot."

The assassins planned to ambush Qasim at Al-Rashid Street on 7 October 1959: one man was to kill those sitting at the back of the car, the rest killing those in front. During the ambush it is claimed that Saddam
Saddam
began shooting prematurely, which disorganised the whole operation. Qasim's chauffeur was killed, and Qasim was hit in the arm and shoulder. The assassins believed they had killed him and quickly retreated to their headquarters, but Qasim survived. At the time of the attack the Ba'ath Party had fewer than 1,000 members. Saddam's role in the failed assassination became a crucial part of his public image for decades. Kanan Makiya recounts:

The man and the myth merge in this episode. His biography—and Iraqi television, which stages the story ad nasuem—tells of his familiarity with guns from the age of ten; his fearlessness and loyalty to the party during the 1959 operation; his bravery in saving his comrades by commandeering a car at gunpoint; the bullet that was gouged out of his flesh under his direction in hiding; the iron discipline that led him to draw a gun on weaker comrades who would have dropped off a seriously wounded member of the hit team at a hospital; the calculating shrewdness that helped him save himself minutes before the police broke in leaving his wounded comrades behind; and finally the long trek of a wounded man from house to house, city to town, across the desert to refuge in Syria
Syria
.

Some of the plotters quickly managed to leave the country for Syria, the spiritual home of Ba'athist ideology. There Saddam
Saddam
was given full-membership in the party by Michel Aflaq
Michel Aflaq
. Some members of the operation were arrested and taken into custody by the Iraqi government. At the show trial , six of the defendants were given death sentences ; for unknown reasons the sentences were not carried out. Aflaq, the leader of the Ba'athist movement, organised the expulsion of leading Iraqi Ba'athist members, such as Fuad al-Rikabi , on the grounds that the party should not have initiated the attempt on Qasim's life. At the same time, Aflaq secured seats in the Iraqi Ba'ath leadership for his supporters, one of them being Saddam. Saddam
Saddam
fled to Egypt in 1959, and he continued to live there until 1963.

Army officers with ties to the Ba'ath Party overthrew Qasim in the Ramadan Revolution
Ramadan Revolution
coup of 1963. Ba'athist leaders were appointed to the cabinet and Abdul Salam Arif became president. Arif dismissed and arrested the Ba'athist leaders later that year in the November 1963 Iraqi coup d\'état .

Arif died in a plane crash in 1966, in what may have been an act of sabotage by Ba'athist elements in the Iraqi military. Abd ar-Rahman al-Bazzaz became acting president for three days, and a power struggle for the presidency occurred. In the first meeting of the Defense Council and cabinet to elect a president, Al-Bazzaz needed a two-thirds majority to win the presidency. Al-Bazzaz was unsuccessful, and Abdul Rahman Arif was elected president. He was viewed by army officers as weaker and easier to manipulate than his brother.

Saddam
Saddam
returned to Iraq, but was imprisoned in 1964. In 1966, Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr appointed him Deputy Secretary of the Regional Command. Saddam
Saddam
escaped from prison in 1967. Saddam, who would prove to be a skilled organiser, revitalised the party. He was elected to the Regional Command, as the story goes, with help from Michel Aflaq—the founder of Ba'athist thought.

In 1968, Saddam
Saddam
participated in a bloodless coup led by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr that overthrew Abdul Rahman Arif. Saddam
Saddam
and Salah Omar al-Ali contacted Ba'athists in the military and helped lead them on the ground. Arif was given refuge in London and then Istanbul
Istanbul
. Al-Bakr was named president and Saddam
Saddam
was named his deputy, and deputy chairman of the Ba'athist Revolutionary Command Council . According to biographers, Saddam
Saddam
never forgot the tensions within the first Ba'athist government, which formed the basis for his measures to promote Ba'ath party unity as well as his resolve to maintain power and programs to ensure social stability. Although Saddam
Saddam
was al-Bakr's deputy, he was a strong behind-the-scenes party politician. Al-Bakr was the older and more prestigious of the two, but by 1969 Saddam clearly had become the moving force behind the party.

POLITICAL PROGRAM

Promoting women's literacy and education in the 1970s

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, as vice chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council, formally al-Bakr's second-in-command, Saddam
Saddam
built a reputation as a progressive, effective politician. At this time, Saddam
Saddam
moved up the ranks in the new government by aiding attempts to strengthen and unify the Ba'ath party and taking a leading role in addressing the country's major domestic problems and expanding the party's following.

After the Ba'athists took power in 1968, Saddam
Saddam
focused on attaining stability in a nation riddled with profound tensions. Long before Saddam, Iraq
Iraq
had been split along social, ethnic, religious, and economic fault lines: Sunni versus Shi\'ite , Arab versus Kurd , tribal chief versus urban merchant, nomad versus peasant. The desire for stable rule in a country rife with factionalism led Saddam
Saddam
to pursue both massive repression and the improvement of living standards.

Saddam
Saddam
actively fostered the modernization of the Iraqi economy along with the creation of a strong security apparatus to prevent coups within the power structure and insurrections apart from it. Ever concerned with broadening his base of support among the diverse elements of Iraqi society and mobilizing mass support, he closely followed the administration of state welfare and development programs.

At the center of this strategy was Iraq's oil. On 1 June 1972, Saddam oversaw the seizure of international oil interests, which, at the time, dominated the country's oil sector. A year later, world oil prices rose dramatically as a result of the 1973 energy crisis , and skyrocketing revenues enabled Saddam
Saddam
to expand his agenda. Saddam seen talking to Michel Aflaq
Michel Aflaq
, the founder of ba\'athist thought , in 1988.

Within just a few years, Iraq
Iraq
was providing social services that were unprecedented among Middle Eastern countries. Saddam
Saddam
established and controlled the "National Campaign for the Eradication of Illiteracy" and the campaign for "Compulsory Free Education in Iraq," and largely under his auspices, the government established universal free schooling up to the highest education levels; hundreds of thousands learned to read in the years following the initiation of the program. The government also supported families of soldiers, granted free hospitalization to everyone, and gave subsidies to farmers. Iraq created one of the most modernized public-health systems in the Middle East, earning Saddam
Saddam
an award from the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

With the help of increasing oil revenues, Saddam
Saddam
diversified the largely oil-based Iraqi economy . Saddam
Saddam
implemented a national infrastructure campaign that made great progress in building roads, promoting mining, and developing other industries. The campaign helped Iraq's energy industries. Electricity was brought to nearly every city in Iraq, and many outlying areas. Before the 1970s, most of Iraq's people lived in the countryside and roughly two-thirds were peasants. This number would decrease quickly during the 1970s as global oil prices helped revenues to rise from less than a half billion dollars to tens of billions of dollars and the country invested into industrial expansion.

The oil revenue benefited Saddam
Saddam
politically. According to _The Economist _, "Much as Adolf Hitler won early praise for galvanising German industry, ending mass unemployment and building autobahns, Saddam
Saddam
earned admiration abroad for his deeds. He had a good instinct for what the " Arab street " demanded, following the decline in Egyptian leadership brought about by the trauma of Israel's six-day victory in the 1967 war, the death of the pan-Arabist hero, Gamal Abdul Nasser, in 1970, and the "traitorous" drive by his successor, Anwar Sadat, to sue for peace with the Jewish state. Saddam's self-aggrandising propaganda, with himself posing as the defender of Arabism against Jewish or Persian intruders, was heavy-handed, but consistent as a drumbeat. It helped, of course, that his mukhabarat (secret police) put dozens of Arab news editors, writers and artists on the payroll." Alexei Kosygin (left) and Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr signing the Iraqi–Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Co-Operation in 1972

In 1972, Saddam
Saddam
signed a 15-year Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. According to historian Charles R. H. Tripp , the treaty upset "the U.S.-sponsored security system established as part of the Cold War in the Middle East. It appeared that any enemy of the Baghdad
Baghdad
regime was a potential ally of the United States." In response, the U.S. covertly financed Kurdish rebels led by Mustafa Barzani during the Second Iraqi–Kurdish War ; the Kurds were defeated in 1975, leading to the forcible relocation of hundreds of thousands of Kurdish civilians.

Saddam
Saddam
focused on fostering loyalty to the Ba'athists in the rural areas. After nationalizing foreign oil interests, Saddam
Saddam
supervised the modernization of the countryside, mechanizing agriculture on a large scale, and distributing land to peasant farmers. The Ba'athists established farm cooperatives and the government also doubled expenditures for agricultural development in 1974–1975. Saddam's welfare programs were part of a combination of "carrot and stick" tactics to enhance support for Saddam. The state-owned banks were put under his thumb. Lending was based on cronyism. Development went forward at such a fevered pitch that two million people from other Arab countries and even Yugoslavia worked in Iraq
Iraq
to meet the growing demand for labor.

SUCCESSION

In 1976, Saddam
Saddam
rose to the position of general in the Iraqi armed forces, and rapidly became the strongman of the government. As the ailing, elderly al-Bakr became unable to execute his duties, Saddam took on an increasingly prominent role as the face of the government both internally and externally. He soon became the architect of Iraq's foreign policy and represented the nation in all diplomatic situations. He was the _de facto_ leader of Iraq
Iraq
some years before he formally came to power in 1979. He slowly began to consolidate his power over Iraq's government and the Ba'ath party. Relationships with fellow party members were carefully cultivated, and Saddam
Saddam
soon accumulated a powerful circle of support within the party.

In 1979 al-Bakr started to make treaties with Syria, also under Ba'athist leadership, that would lead to unification between the two countries. Syrian President Hafez al-Assad would become deputy leader in a union, and this would drive Saddam
Saddam
to obscurity. Saddam
Saddam
acted to secure his grip on power. He forced the ailing al-Bakr to resign on 16 July 1979, and formally assumed the presidency.

1979 Ba\'ath Party Purge

Main article: 1979 Ba\'ath Party Purge

Saddam
Saddam
convened an assembly of Ba'ath party leaders on 22 July 1979. During the assembly, which he ordered videotaped, Saddam
Saddam
claimed to have found a fifth column within the Ba'ath Party and directed Muhyi Abdel-Hussein to read out a confession and the names of 68 alleged co-conspirators. These members were labelled "disloyal" and were removed from the room one by one and taken into custody. After the list was read, Saddam
Saddam
congratulated those still seated in the room for their past and future loyalty. The 68 people arrested at the meeting were subsequently tried together and found guilty of treason . 22 were sentenced to execution. Other high-ranking members of the party formed the firing squad. By 1 August 1979, hundreds of high-ranking Ba'ath party members had been executed.

PARAMILITARY AND POLICE ORGANIZATIONS

Main article: Human rights in Saddam
Saddam
Hussein\'s Iraq
Iraq
"Fifty-seven boxes were recently returned to the Kurdish city of Sulaimaniya in Zeit trucks—large Russian military vehicles—by the Iraqi government authorities. Each box contained a dead child, eyes gouged out and ashen white, apparently drained of blood. The families were not given their children, were forced to accept a communal grave, and then had to pay 150 dinars for the burial."

Iraqi society fissures along lines of language, religion and ethnicity. The Ba'ath Party, secular by nature, adopted Pan-Arab ideologies which in turn were problematic for significant parts of the population. Following the Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
of 1979, Iraq
Iraq
faced the prospect of régime change from two Shi'ite factions (Dawa and SCIRI ) which aspired to model Iraq
Iraq
on its neighbour Iran
Iran
as a Shia theocracy. A separate threat to Iraq
Iraq
came from parts of the ethnic Kurdish population of northern Iraq
Iraq
which opposed being part of an Iraqi state and favoured independence (an ongoing ideology which had preceded Ba'ath Party rule). To alleviate the threat of revolution, Saddam afforded certain benefits to the potentially hostile population. Membership in the Ba'ath Party remained open to all Iraqi citizens regardless of background. However, repressive measures were taken against its opponents. "There is a feeling that at least three million Iraqis
Iraqis
are watching the eleven million others." —"A European diplomat," quoted in _ The New York Times _, April 3, 1984.

The major instruments for accomplishing this control were the paramilitary and police organizations. Beginning in 1974, Taha Yassin Ramadan (himself a Kurdish Ba'athist), a close associate of Saddam, commanded the People\'s Army , which had responsibility for internal security. As the Ba'ath Party's paramilitary, the People's Army acted as a counterweight against any coup attempts by the regular armed forces. In addition to the People's Army, the Department of General Intelligence was the most notorious arm of the state-security system, feared for its use of torture and assassination. Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti , Saddam's younger half-brother , commanded Mukhabarat. Foreign observers believed that from 1982 this department operated both at home and abroad in its mission to seek out and eliminate Saddam's perceived opponents.

Saddam
Saddam
was notable for using terror against his own people. _The Economist_ described Saddam
Saddam
as "one of the last of the 20th century's great dictators, but not the least in terms of egotism, or cruelty, or morbid will to power". Saddam's regime brought about the deaths of at least 250,000 Iraqis
Iraqis
and committed war crimes in Iran, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International issued regular reports of widespread imprisonment and torture.

POLITICAL AND CULTURAL IMAGE

Propagandistic art to glorify Saddam
Saddam
after victory over Iran, 1988.

As a sign of his consolidation of power, Saddam's personality cult pervaded Iraqi society. He had thousands of portraits, posters, statues and murals erected in his honor all over Iraq. His face could be seen on the sides of office buildings, schools, airports, and shops, as well as on Iraqi currency. Saddam's personality cult reflected his efforts to appeal to the various elements in Iraqi society. This was seen in his variety of apparel: he appeared in the costumes of the Bedouin , the traditional clothes of the Iraqi peasant (which he essentially wore during his childhood), and even Kurdish clothing , but also appeared in Western suits fitted by his favorite tailor, projecting the image of an urbane and modern leader. Sometimes he would also be portrayed as a devout Muslim, wearing full headdress and robe, praying toward Mecca
Mecca
.

He also conducted two show elections , in 1995 and 2002. In the 1995 referendum , conducted on 15 October, he reportedly received 99.96% of the votes in a 99.47% turnout, getting only 3052 negative votes among an electorate of 8.4 million. In the October 15, 2002 referendum he officially achieved 100% of approval votes and 100% turnout, as the electoral commission reported the next day that every one of the 11,445,638 eligible voters cast a "Yes" vote for the president.

He erected statues around the country, which Iraqis
Iraqis
toppled after his fall.

FOREIGN AFFAIRS

See also: Cuba- Iraq
Iraq
relations , France– Iraq
Iraq
relations , Iraq-Lebanon relations , Iraq–Russia relations , Iraq
Iraq
– Saudi Arabia relations , Iraqi-Israeli relations , Iraq-United States relations , Iraq- Syria
Syria
relations , and Iraq–Palestine relations

Iraq's relations with the Arab world have been extremely varied. Relations between Iraq
Iraq
and Egypt violently ruptured in 1977, when the two nations broke relations with each other following Iraq's criticism of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
's peace initiatives with Israel
Israel
. In 1978, Baghdad
Baghdad
hosted an Arab League summit that condemned and ostracized Egypt for accepting the Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords
. However, Egypt's strong material and diplomatic support for Iraq
Iraq
in the war with Iran
Iran
led to warmer relations and numerous contacts between senior officials, despite the continued absence of ambassadorial-level representation. Since 1983, Iraq
Iraq
has repeatedly called for restoration of Egypt's "natural role" among Arab countries. Saddam
Saddam
Hussein and Hafez al-Assad of Syria
Syria
at an Arab Summit in Baghdad
Baghdad
in November 1978.

Saddam
Saddam
developed a reputation for liking expensive goods, such as his diamond-coated Rolex
Rolex
wristwatch, and sent copies of them to his friends around the world. To his ally Kenneth Kaunda Saddam
Saddam
once sent a Boeing 747 full of presents – rugs, televisions, ornaments. Kaunda sent back his own personal magician .

Saddam
Saddam
enjoyed a close relationship with Russian intelligence agent Yevgeny Primakov that dated back to the 1960s; Primakov may have helped Saddam
Saddam
to stay in power in 1991.

Saddam
Saddam
visited only two Western countries. The first visit took place in December 1974, when the dictator of Spain
Spain
, Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
, invited him to Madrid
Madrid
and he visited Granada
Granada
, Córdoba and Toledo . In September 1975 he met with Prime Minister Jacques Chirac in Paris, France.

Several Iraqi leaders, Lebanese arms merchant Sarkis Soghanalian and others have claimed that Saddam
Saddam
financed Chirac's party. In 1991 Saddam
Saddam
threatened to expose those who had taken largesse from him: "From Mr. Chirac to Mr. Chevènement, politicians and economic leaders were in open competition to spend time with us and flatter us. We have now grasped the reality of the situation. If the trickery continues, we will be forced to unmask them, all of them, before the French public." France armed Saddam
Saddam
and it was Iraq's largest trade partner throughout Saddam's rule. Seized documents show how French officials and businessmen close to Chirac, including Charles Pasqua , his former interior minister, personally benefitted from the deals with Saddam.

Because Saddam
Saddam
Hussein rarely left Iraq, Tariq Aziz , one of Saddam's aides, traveled abroad extensively and represented Iraq
Iraq
at many diplomatic meetings. In foreign affairs, Saddam
Saddam
sought to have Iraq play a leading role in the Middle East. Iraq
Iraq
signed an aid pact with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1972, and arms were sent along with several thousand advisers. However, the 1978 crackdown on Iraqi Communists and a shift of trade toward the West strained Iraqi relations with the Soviet Union; Iraq
Iraq
then took on a more Western orientation until the Gulf War
Gulf War
in 1991.

After the oil crisis of 1973, France had changed to a more pro-Arab policy and was accordingly rewarded by Saddam
Saddam
with closer ties. He made a state visit to France in 1975, cementing close ties with some French business and ruling political circles. In 1975 Saddam negotiated an accord with Iran
Iran
that contained Iraqi concessions on border disputes. In return, Iran
Iran
agreed to stop supporting opposition Kurds in Iraq. Saddam
Saddam
led Arab opposition to the Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel
Israel
(1979).

Saddam
Saddam
initiated Iraq's nuclear enrichment project in the 1980s, with French assistance. The first Iraqi nuclear reactor was named by the French " Osirak
Osirak
". Osirak
Osirak
was destroyed on 7 June 1981 by an Israeli air strike ( Operation Opera ).

Nearly from its founding as a modern state in 1920, Iraq
Iraq
has had to deal with Kurdish separatists in the northern part of the country. Saddam
Saddam
did negotiate an agreement in 1970 with separatist Kurdish leaders, giving them autonomy, but the agreement broke down. The result was brutal fighting between the government and Kurdish groups and even Iraqi bombing of Kurdish villages in Iran, which caused Iraqi relations with Iran
Iran
to deteriorate. However, after Saddam
Saddam
had negotiated the 1975 treaty with Iran, the Shah withdrew support for the Kurds, who suffered a total defeat.

IRAN–IRAQ WAR

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Main article: Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War See also: United States
United States
support for Iraq
Iraq
during the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
war Saddam
Saddam
greeting Carlos Cardoen , a Chilean businessman who provided Iraq
Iraq
with weapons during the war in the 1980s

In early 1979, Iran's Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown by the Islamic Revolution , thus giving way to an Islamic republic led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Ruhollah Khomeini
. The influence of revolutionary Shi'ite Islam grew apace in the region, particularly in countries with large Shi'ite populations, especially Iraq. Saddam
Saddam
feared that radical Islamic ideas—hostile to his secular rule—were rapidly spreading inside his country among the majority Shi'ite population.

There had also been bitter enmity between Saddam
Saddam
and Khomeini since the 1970s. Khomeini, having been exiled from Iran
Iran
in 1964, took up residence in Iraq, at the Shi'ite holy city of An Najaf . There he involved himself with Iraqi Shi'ites and developed a strong, worldwide religious and political following against the Iranian Government, which Saddam
Saddam
tolerated. However, when Khomeini began to urge the Shi'ites there to overthrow Saddam
Saddam
and under pressure from the Shah, who had agreed to a rapprochement between Iraq
Iraq
and Iran
Iran
in 1975, Saddam
Saddam
agreed to expel Khomeini in 1978 to France. However this turned out to be an imminent failure and a political catalyst, for Khomeini had access to more media connections and also collaborated with a much larger Iranian community under his support which he used to his advantage.

After Khomeini gained power, skirmishes between Iraq
Iraq
and revolutionary Iran
Iran
occurred for ten months over the sovereignty of the disputed Shatt al-Arab waterway, which divides the two countries. During this period, Saddam
Saddam
Hussein publicly maintained that it was in Iraq's interest not to engage with Iran, and that it was in the interests of both nations to maintain peaceful relations. However, in a private meeting with Salah Omar al-Ali, Iraq's permanent ambassador to the United Nations
United Nations
, he revealed that he intended to invade and occupy a large part of Iran
Iran
within months. Later (probably to appeal for support from the United States
United States
and most Western nations), he would make toppling the Islamic government one of his intentions as well. Play media Middle East special envoy Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld
meeting Saddam
Saddam
Hussein on 19–20 December 1983. Rumsfeld, who became U.S. Secretary of Defense during the Presidency of George W. Bush , led the coalition forces during the Iraq
Iraq
War

Iraq
Iraq
invaded Iran, first attacking Mehrabad Airport
Mehrabad Airport
of Tehran
Tehran
and then entering the oil-rich Iranian land of Khuzestan , which also has a sizable Arab minority, on 22 September 1980 and declared it a new province of Iraq. With the support of the Arab states, the United States, and Europe, and heavily financed by the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Saddam
Saddam
Hussein had become "the defender of the Arab world" against a revolutionary Iran. The only exception was the Soviet Union, who initially refused to supply Iraq
Iraq
on the basis of neutrality in the conflict, although in his memoirs, Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
claimed that Leonid Brezhnev refused to aid Saddam
Saddam
over infuriation of Saddam's treatment of Iraqi communists. Consequently, many viewed Iraq as "an agent of the civilized world". The blatant disregard of international law and violations of international borders were ignored. Instead Iraq
Iraq
received economic and military support from its allies, who conveniently overlooked Saddam's use of chemical warfare against the Kurds and the Iranians and Iraq's efforts to develop nuclear weapons.

In the first days of the war, there was heavy ground fighting around strategic ports as Iraq
Iraq
launched an attack on Khuzestan. After making some initial gains, Iraq's troops began to suffer losses from human wave attacks by Iran. By 1982, Iraq
Iraq
was on the defensive and looking for ways to end the war.

At this point, Saddam
Saddam
asked his ministers for candid advice. Health Minister Dr. Riyadh Ibrahim suggested that Saddam
Saddam
temporarily step down to promote peace negotiations. Initially, Saddam
Saddam
Hussein appeared to take in this opinion as part of his cabinet democracy. A few weeks later, Dr. Ibrahim was sacked when held responsible for a fatal incident in an Iraqi hospital where a patient died from intravenous administration of the wrong concentration of potassium supplement.

Dr. Ibrahim was arrested a few days after he started his new life as a sacked minister. He was known to have publicly declared before that arrest that he was "glad that he got away alive." Pieces of Ibrahim's dismembered body were delivered to his wife the next day.

Iraq
Iraq
quickly found itself bogged down in one of the longest and most destructive wars of attrition of the 20th century. During the war, Iraq
Iraq
used chemical weapons against Iranian forces fighting on the southern front and Kurdish separatists who were attempting to open up a northern front in Iraq
Iraq
with the help of Iran. These chemical weapons were developed by Iraq
Iraq
from materials and technology supplied primarily by West German companies as well as using dual-use technology imported following the Reagan administration 's lifting of export restrictions. The United States
United States
also supplied Iraq
Iraq
with "satellite photos showing Iranian deployments". In a US bid to open full diplomatic relations with Iraq, the country was removed from the US list of State Sponsors of Terrorism . Ostensibly, this was because of improvement in the regime's record, although former United States Assistant Secretary of Defense Noel Koch later stated, "No one had any doubts about continued involvement in terrorism ... The real reason was to help them succeed in the war against Iran." The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, France, and China together accounted for over 90% of the value of Iraq's arms imports between 1980 and 1988.

Saddam
Saddam
reached out to other Arab governments for cash and political support during the war, particularly after Iraq's oil industry severely suffered at the hands of the Iranian navy in the Persian Gulf . Iraq
Iraq
successfully gained some military and financial aid, as well as diplomatic and moral support, from the Soviet Union, China, France, and the United States, which together feared the prospects of the expansion of revolutionary Iran's influence in the region. The Iranians, demanding that the international community should force Iraq to pay war reparations to Iran, refused any suggestions for a cease-fire. Despite several calls for a ceasefire by the United Nations Security Council , hostilities continued until 20 August 1988.

On 16 March 1988, the Kurdish town of Halabja was attacked with a mix of mustard gas and nerve agents , killing 5,000 civilians, and maiming, disfiguring, or seriously debilitating 10,000 more. (_see Halabja poison gas attack _) The attack occurred in conjunction with the 1988 al-Anfal Campaign designed to reassert central control of the mostly Kurdish population of areas of northern Iraq
Iraq
and defeat the Kurdish peshmerga rebel forces. The United States
United States
now maintains that Saddam
Saddam
ordered the attack to terrorize the Kurdish population in northern Iraq, but Saddam's regime claimed at the time that Iran
Iran
was responsible for the attack which some including the U.S. supported until several years later.

The bloody eight-year war ended in a stalemate. There were hundreds of thousands of casualties with estimates of up to one million dead. Neither side had achieved what they had originally desired and at the borders were left nearly unchanged. The southern, oil rich and prosperous Khuzestan and Basra area (the main focus of the war, and the primary source of their economies) were almost completely destroyed and were left at the pre-1979 border, while Iran
Iran
managed to make some small gains on its borders in the Northern Kurdish area. Both economies, previously healthy and expanding, were left in ruins.

Saddam
Saddam
borrowed tens of billions of dollars from other Arab states and a few billions from elsewhere during the 1980s to fight Iran, mainly to prevent the expansion of Shiite radicalism. However, this had proven to completely backfire both on Iraq
Iraq
and on the part of the Arab states, for Khomeini was widely perceived as a hero for managing to defend Iran
Iran
and maintain the war with little foreign support against the heavily backed Iraq
Iraq
and only managed to boost Islamic radicalism not only within the Arab states, but within Iraq
Iraq
itself, creating new tensions between the Sunni Ba'ath Party and the majority Shiite population. Faced with rebuilding Iraq's infrastructure and internal resistance, Saddam
Saddam
desperately re-sought cash, this time for postwar reconstruction.

AL-ANFAL CAMPAIGN

Main article: Al-Anfal Campaign

The Al-Anfal Campaign was a genocidal campaign against the Kurdish people (and many others) in Kurdish regions of Iraq
Iraq
led by the government of Saddam
Saddam
Hussein and headed by Ali Hassan al-Majid . The campaign takes its name from Surat al-Anfal in the Qur\'an , which was used as a code name by the former Iraqi Ba\'athist administration for a series of attacks against the _peshmerga_ rebels and the mostly Kurdish civilian population of rural Northern Iraq, conducted between 1986 and 1989 culminating in 1988. This campaign also targeted Shabaks and Yazidis , Assyrians , Turkoman people and Mandeans and many villages belonging to these ethnic groups were also destroyed. Human Rights Watch estimates that between 50,000 and 100,000 people were killed. Some Kurdish sources put the number higher, estimating that 182,000 Kurds were killed.

TENSIONS WITH KUWAIT

The end of the war with Iran
Iran
served to deepen latent tensions between Iraq
Iraq
and its wealthy neighbor Kuwait. Saddam
Saddam
urged the Kuwaitis to waive the Iraqi debt accumulated in the war, some $30 billion, but they refused.

Saddam
Saddam
pushed oil-exporting countries to raise oil prices by cutting back production; Kuwait
Kuwait
refused, however. In addition to refusing the request, Kuwait
Kuwait
spearheaded the opposition in OPEC to the cuts that Saddam
Saddam
had requested. Kuwait
Kuwait
was pumping large amounts of oil, and thus keeping prices low, when Iraq
Iraq
needed to sell high-priced oil from its wells to pay off a huge debt.

Saddam
Saddam
had always argued that Kuwait
Kuwait
was historically an integral part of Iraq, and that Kuwait
Kuwait
had only come into being through the maneuverings of British imperialism; this echoed a belief that Iraqi nationalists had voiced for the past 50 years. This belief was one of the few articles of faith uniting the political scene in a nation rife with sharp social, ethnic, religious, and ideological divides.

The extent of Kuwaiti oil reserves also intensified tensions in the region. The oil reserves of Kuwait
Kuwait
(with a population of 2 million next to Iraq's 25) were roughly equal to those of Iraq. Taken together, Iraq
Iraq
and Kuwait
Kuwait
sat on top of some 20 percent of the world's known oil reserves; as an article of comparison, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
holds 25 percent.

Saddam
Saddam
complained to the U.S. State Department that Kuwait
Kuwait
had slant drilled oil out of wells that Iraq
Iraq
considered to be within its disputed border with Kuwait. Saddam
Saddam
still had an experienced and well-equipped army, which he used to influence regional affairs. He later ordered troops to the Iraq– Kuwait
Kuwait
border. U.S. Ambassador to Iraq
Iraq
April Glaspie meets Saddam
Saddam
for an emergency meeting.

As Iraq- Kuwait
Kuwait
relations rapidly deteriorated, Saddam
Saddam
was receiving conflicting information about how the U.S. would respond to the prospects of an invasion. For one, Washington had been taking measures to cultivate a constructive relationship with Iraq
Iraq
for roughly a decade. The Reagan administration gave Iraq
Iraq
roughly $4 billion in agricultural credits to bolster it against Iran. Saddam's Iraq
Iraq
became "the third-largest recipient of U.S. assistance".

Reacting to Western criticism in April 1990 Saddam
Saddam
threatened to destroy half of Israel
Israel
with chemical weapons if it moved against Iraq. In May 1990 he criticized U.S. support for Israel
Israel
warning that "the United States
United States
cannot maintain such a policy while professing friendship towards the Arabs." In July 1990 he threatened force against Kuwait
Kuwait
and the UAE saying "The policies of some Arab rulers are American ... They are inspired by America to undermine Arab interests and security." The U.S. sent aerial planes and combat ships to the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
in response to these threats.

U.S. ambassador to Iraq
Iraq
April Glaspie met with Saddam
Saddam
in an emergency meeting on 25 July 1990, where the Iraqi leader attacked American policy with regards to Kuwait
Kuwait
and the United Arab Emirates: So what can it mean when America says it will now protect its friends? It can only mean prejudice against Iraq. This stance plus maneuvers and statements which have been made has encouraged the UAE and Kuwait
Kuwait
to disregard Iraqi rights. ... If you use pressure, we will deploy pressure and force. We know that you can harm us although we do not threaten you. But we too can harm you. Everyone can cause harm according to their ability and their size. We cannot come all the way to you in the United States, but individual Arabs may reach you. ... We do not place America among the enemies. We place it where we want our friends to be and we try to be friends. But repeated American statements last year made it apparent that America did not regard us as friends. Iraqi stamp about the Arab Cooperation Council (ACC), founded 1989 by Saleh of (North) Yemen, king Hussein of Jordan, Saddam
Saddam
Hussein and Hosni Mubarak of Egypt

Glaspie replied: I know you need funds. We understand that and our opinion is that you should have the opportunity to rebuild your country. But we have no opinion on the Arab-Arab conflicts, like your border disagreement with Kuwait. ... Frankly, we can only see that you have deployed massive troops in the south. Normally that would not be any of our business. But when this happens in the context of what you said on your national day, then when we read the details in the two letters of the Foreign Minister, then when we see the Iraqi point of view that the measures taken by the U.A.E. and Kuwait
Kuwait
is, in the final analysis, parallel to military aggression against Iraq, then it would be reasonable for me to be concerned.

Saddam
Saddam
stated that he would attempt last-ditch negotiations with the Kuwaitis but Iraq
Iraq
"would not accept death".

U.S. officials attempted to maintain a conciliatory line with Iraq, indicating that while George H. W. Bush and James Baker did not want force used, they would not take any position on the Iraq–Kuwait boundary dispute and did not want to become involved.

Later, Iraq
Iraq
and Kuwait
Kuwait
met for a final negotiation session, which failed. Saddam
Saddam
then sent his troops into Kuwait. As tensions between Washington and Saddam
Saddam
began to escalate, the Soviet Union, under Mikhail Gorbachev, strengthened its military relationship with the Iraqi leader, providing him military advisers, arms and aid.

GULF WAR

Main articles: Invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait
and Gulf War
Gulf War

On 2 August 1990, Saddam
Saddam
invaded Kuwait, initially claiming assistance to "Kuwaiti revolutionaries," thus sparking an international crisis. On 4 August an Iraqi-backed "Provisional Government of Free Kuwait
Kuwait
" was proclaimed, but a total lack of legitimacy and support for it led to an 8 August announcement of a "merger" of the two countries. On 28 August Kuwait
Kuwait
formally became the 19th Governorate of Iraq. Just two years after the 1988 Iraq
Iraq
and Iran truce, " Saddam
Saddam
Hussein did what his Gulf patrons had earlier paid him to prevent." Having removed the threat of Iranian fundamentalism he "overran Kuwait
Kuwait
and confronted his Gulf neighbors in the name of Arab nationalism and Islam."

When later asked why he invaded Kuwait, Saddam
Saddam
first claimed that it was because Kuwait
Kuwait
was rightfully Iraq's 19th province and then said "When I get something into my head I act. That's just the way I am." After Saddam's seizure of Kuwait
Kuwait
in August 1990, a UN coalition led by the United States
United States
drove Iraq's troops from Kuwait
Kuwait
in February 1991. The ability for Saddam
Saddam
Hussein to pursue such military aggression was from a "military machine paid for in large part by the tens of billions of dollars Kuwait
Kuwait
and the Gulf states had poured into Iraq and the weapons and technology provided by the Soviet Union, Germany, and France."

Shortly before he invaded Kuwait, he shipped 100 new Mercedes 200 Series cars to top editors in Egypt and Jordan. Two days before the first attacks, Saddam
Saddam
reportedly offered Egypt's Hosni Mubarak 50 million dollars in cash, "ostensibly for grain". Saddam
Saddam
detained several Westerners, with video footage shown on Iraqi state television.

U.S. President George H. W. Bush responded cautiously for the first several days. On one hand, Kuwait, prior to this point, had been a virulent enemy of Israel
Israel
and was the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
monarchy that had the most friendly relations with the Soviets. On the other hand, Washington foreign policymakers, along with Middle East experts, military critics, and firms heavily invested in the region, were extremely concerned with stability in this region. The invasion immediately triggered fears that the world's price of oil , and therefore control of the world economy, was at stake. Britain profited heavily from billions of dollars of Kuwaiti investments and bank deposits. Bush was perhaps swayed while meeting with British prime minister Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
, who happened to be in the U.S. at the time.

Cooperation between the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
made possible the passage of resolutions in the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council giving Iraq
Iraq
a deadline to leave Kuwait
Kuwait
and approving the use of force if Saddam
Saddam
did not comply with the timetable. U.S. officials feared Iraqi retaliation against oil-rich Saudi Arabia, since the 1940s a close ally of Washington, for the Saudis' opposition to the invasion of Kuwait. Accordingly, the U.S. and a group of allies, including countries as diverse as Egypt, Syria
Syria
and Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
, deployed a massive amount of troops along the Saudi border with Kuwait and Iraq
Iraq
in order to encircle the Iraqi army, the largest in the Middle East.

Saddam's officers looted Kuwait, stripping even the marble from its palaces to move it to Saddam's own palace.

During the period of negotiations and threats following the invasion, Saddam
Saddam
focused renewed attention on the Palestinian problem by promising to withdraw his forces from Kuwait
Kuwait
if Israel
Israel
would relinquish the occupied territories in the West Bank
West Bank
, the Golan Heights , and the Gaza Strip . Saddam's proposal further split the Arab world, pitting U.S.- and Western-supported Arab states against the Palestinians. The allies ultimately rejected any linkage between the Kuwait
Kuwait
crisis and Palestinian issues.

Saddam
Saddam
ignored the Security Council deadline. Backed by the Security Council, a U.S.-led coalition launched round-the-clock missile and aerial attacks on Iraq, beginning 16 January 1991. Israel, though subjected to attack by Iraqi missiles, refrained from retaliating in order not to provoke Arab states into leaving the coalition. A ground force consisting largely of U.S. and British armoured and infantry divisions ejected Saddam's army from Kuwait
Kuwait
in February 1991 and occupied the southern portion of Iraq
Iraq
as far as the Euphrates
Euphrates
.

On 6 March 1991, Bush announced "What is at stake is more than one small country, it is a big idea—a new world order , where diverse nations are drawn together in common cause to achieve the universal aspirations of mankind: peace and security, freedom, and the rule of law."

In the end, the out-numbered and under-equipped Iraqi army proved unable to compete on the battlefield with the highly mobile coalition land forces and their overpowering air support. Some 175,000 Iraqis were taken prisoner and casualties were estimated at over 85,000. As part of the cease-fire agreement, Iraq
Iraq
agreed to scrap all poison gas and germ weapons and allow UN observers to inspect the sites. UN trade sanctions would remain in effect until Iraq
Iraq
complied with all terms. Saddam
Saddam
publicly claimed victory at the end of the war.

POSTWAR PERIOD

Main article: 1991 uprisings in Iraq
Iraq
Saddam
Saddam
addresses state television, c. 2002

Iraq's ethnic and religious divisions, together with the brutality of the conflict that this had engendered, laid the groundwork for postwar rebellions. In the aftermath of the fighting, social and ethnic unrest among Shi'ite Muslims, Kurds, and dissident military units threatened the stability of Saddam's government. Uprisings erupted in the Kurdish north and Shi'a southern and central parts of Iraq, but were ruthlessly repressed.

The United States, which had urged Iraqis
Iraqis
to rise up against Saddam, did nothing to assist the rebellions. The Iranians, despite the widespread Shi'ite rebellions, had no interest in provoking another war, while Turkey
Turkey
opposed any prospect of Kurdish independence, and the Saudis and other conservative Arab states feared an Iran-style Shi'ite revolution. Saddam, having survived the immediate crisis in the wake of defeat, was left firmly in control of Iraq, although the country never recovered either economically or militarily from the Gulf War.

Saddam
Saddam
routinely cited his survival as "proof" that Iraq
Iraq
had in fact won the war against the U.S. This message earned Saddam
Saddam
a great deal of popularity in many sectors of the Arab world. John Esposito, however, claims that "Arabs and Muslims were pulled in two directions. That they rallied not so much to Saddam
Saddam
Hussein as to the bipolar nature of the confrontation (the West versus the Arab Muslim world) and the issues that Saddam
Saddam
proclaimed: Arab unity, self-sufficiency, and social justice." As a result, Saddam
Saddam
Hussein appealed to many people for the same reasons that attracted more and more followers to Islamic revivalism and also for the same reasons that fueled anti-Western feelings.

As one U.S. Muslim observer noted: "People forgot about Saddam's record and concentrated on America ... Saddam
Saddam
Hussein might be wrong, but it is not America who should correct him." A shift was, therefore, clearly visible among many Islamic movements in the post war period "from an initial Islamic ideological rejection of Saddam
Saddam
Hussein, the secular persecutor of Islamic movements, and his invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait
to a more populist Arab nationalist, anti-imperialist support for Saddam (or more precisely those issues he represented or championed) and the condemnation of foreign intervention and occupation."

Saddam, therefore, increasingly portrayed himself as a devout Muslim, in an effort to co-opt the conservative religious segments of society. Some elements of Sharia
Sharia
law were re-introduced, and the ritual phrase " Allahu Akbar " ("God is great"), in Saddam's handwriting, was added to the national flag. Saddam
Saddam
also commissioned the production of a "Blood Qur\'an ", written using 27 litres of his own blood, to thank God for saving him from various dangers and conspiracies.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND SANCTIONS ON IRAQ

The United Nations
United Nations
sanctions placed upon Iraq
Iraq
when it invaded Kuwait were not lifted, blocking Iraqi oil exports. During the late 1990s, the UN considered relaxing the sanctions imposed because of the hardships suffered by ordinary Iraqis. Studies dispute the number of people who died in south and central Iraq
Iraq
during the years of the sanctions. On 9 December 1996, Saddam's government accepted the Oil-for-Food Programme that the UN had first offered in 1992. Saddam
Saddam
Hussein in 1996

Relations between the United States
United States
and Iraq
Iraq
remained tense following the Gulf War. The U.S. launched a missile attack aimed at Iraq's intelligence headquarters in Baghdad
Baghdad
26 June 1993, citing evidence of repeated Iraqi violations of the "no fly zones" imposed after the Gulf War and for incursions into Kuwait. U.S. officials continued to accuse Saddam
Saddam
of violating the terms of the Gulf War's cease fire, by developing weapons of mass destruction and other banned weaponry, and violating the UN-imposed sanctions. Also during the 1990s, President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
maintained sanctions and ordered air strikes in the "Iraqi no-fly zones" (Operation Desert Fox ), in the hope that Saddam would be overthrown by political enemies inside Iraq. Western charges of Iraqi resistance to UN access to suspected weapons were the pretext for crises between 1997 and 1998, culminating in intensive U.S. and British missile strikes on Iraq, 16–19 December 1998. After two years of intermittent activity, U.S. and British warplanes struck harder at sites near Baghdad
Baghdad
in February 2001. Former CIA
CIA
case officer Robert Baer reports that he "tried to assassinate" Saddam
Saddam
in 1995, amid "a decade-long effort to encourage a military coup in Iraq."

Saddam
Saddam
continued involvement in politics abroad. Video tapes retrieved after show his intelligence chiefs meeting with Arab journalists, including a meeting with the former managing director of Al-Jazeera, Mohammed Jassem al-Ali, in 2000. In the video Saddam's son Uday advised al-Ali about hires in Al-Jazeera: "During your last visit here along with your colleagues we talked about a number of issues, and it does appear that you indeed were listening to what I was saying since changes took place and new faces came on board such as that lad, Mansour." He was later sacked by Al-Jazeera.

In 2002, Austrian prosecutors investigated Saddam
Saddam
government's transactions with Fritz Edlinger that possibly violated Austrian money laundering and embargo regulations. Fritz Edlinger, president of the _General Secretary of the Society for Austro-Arab relations_ (GÖAB) and a former member of Socialist International 's Middle East Committee, was an outspoken supporter of Saddam
Saddam
Hussein. In 2005, an Austrian journalist revealed that Fritz Edlinger's GÖAB had received $100,000 from an Iraqi front company as well as donations from Austrian companies soliciting business in Iraq.

In 2002, a resolution sponsored by the European Union
European Union
was adopted by the Commission for Human Rights, which stated that there had been no improvement in the human rights crisis in Iraq. The statement condemned President Saddam
Saddam
Hussein's government for its "systematic, widespread and extremely grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law ". The resolution demanded that Iraq immediately put an end to its "summary and arbitrary executions ... the use of rape as a political tool and all enforced and involuntary disappearances".

INVASION OF IRAQ IN 2003

Main article: 2003 invasion of Iraq
Iraq
Statue of Saddam
Saddam
being toppled in Firdos Square after the invasion

The international community, especially the U.S., continued to view Saddam
Saddam
as a bellicose tyrant who was a threat to the stability of the region. After the September 11 attacks , Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
began to tell the United States
United States
that Iraq
Iraq
was preparing terrorist attacks against the United States. In his January 2002 state of the union address to Congress, President George W. Bush spoke of an "axis of evil " consisting of Iran, North Korea, and Iraq. Moreover, Bush announced that he would possibly take action to topple the Iraqi government, because of the threat of its weapons of mass destruction. Bush stated that "The Iraqi regime has plotted to develop anthrax , and nerve gas , and nuclear weapons for over a decade ... Iraq
Iraq
continues to flaunt its hostility toward America and to support terror."

After the passing of United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 1441 , which demanded that Iraq
Iraq
give "immediate, unconditional and active cooperation" with UN and IAEA inspections, Saddam
Saddam
allowed U.N. weapons inspectors led by Hans Blix to return to Iraq. During the renewed inspections beginning in November 2002, Blix found no stockpiles of WMD and noted the "proactive" but not always "immediate" Iraqi cooperation as called for by UN Security Council Resolution 1441 .

With war still looming on 24 February 2003, Saddam
Saddam
Hussein took part in an interview with CBS News reporter Dan Rather . Talking for more than three hours, he denied possessing any weapons of mass destruction, or any other weapons prohibited by UN guidelines. He also expressed a wish to have a live televised debate with George W. Bush , which was declined. It was his first interview with a U.S. reporter in over a decade. CBS aired the taped interview later that week. Saddam Hussein later told an FBI interviewer that he once left open the possibility that Iraq
Iraq
possessed weapons of mass destruction in order to appear strong against Iran.

The Iraqi government and military collapsed within three weeks of the beginning of the U.S.-led 2003 invasion of Iraq
Iraq
on 20 March. By the beginning of April, U.S.-led forces occupied much of Iraq. The resistance of the much-weakened Iraqi Army either crumbled or shifted to guerrilla tactics, and it appeared that Saddam
Saddam
had lost control of Iraq. He was last seen in a video which purported to show him in the Baghdad
Baghdad
suburbs surrounded by supporters. When Baghdad
Baghdad
fell to U.S.-led forces on 9 April, marked symbolically by the toppling of his statue by iconoclasts , Saddam
Saddam
was nowhere to be found.

INCARCERATION AND TRIAL

CAPTURE AND INCARCERATION

Main articles: Operation Red Dawn and Interrogation of Saddam
Saddam
Hussein Saddam
Saddam
is discovered and interrogated by American soldiers, December 2003 Saddam
Saddam
Hussein shortly after capture Hussein after being told to shave to confirm identity

In April 2003, Saddam's whereabouts remained in question during the weeks following the fall of Baghdad
Baghdad
and the conclusion of the major fighting of the war. Various sightings of Saddam
Saddam
were reported in the weeks following the war, but none were authenticated. At various times Saddam
Saddam
released audio tapes promoting popular resistance to his ousting.

Saddam
Saddam
was placed at the top of the "U.S. list of most-wanted Iraqis ". In July 2003, his sons Uday and Qusay and 14-year-old grandson Mustapha were killed in a three-hour gunfight with U.S. forces.

On 13 December 2003, in Operation Red Dawn , Saddam
Saddam
Hussein was captured by American forces after being found hiding in a hole in the ground near a farmhouse in ad-Dawr , near Tikrit. Following his capture, Saddam
Saddam
was transported to a U.S. base near Tikrit, and later taken to the American base near Baghdad. On 14 December, U.S. administrator in Iraq
Iraq
L. Paul Bremer confirmed that Saddam
Saddam
Hussein had indeed been captured at a farmhouse in ad-Dawr near Tikrit. Bremer presented video footage of Saddam
Saddam
in custody.

Saddam
Saddam
was shown with a full beard and hair longer than his familiar appearance. He was described by U.S. officials as being in good health. Bremer reported plans to put Saddam
Saddam
on trial, but claimed that the details of such a trial had not yet been determined. Iraqis
Iraqis
and Americans who spoke with Saddam
Saddam
after his capture generally reported that he remained self-assured, describing himself as a "firm, but just leader."

British tabloid newspaper _The Sun _ posted a picture of Saddam wearing white briefs on the front cover of a newspaper. Other photographs inside the paper show Saddam
Saddam
washing his trousers, shuffling, and sleeping. The United States
United States
government stated that it considered the release of the pictures a violation of the Geneva Convention , and that it would investigate the photographs. During this period Saddam
Saddam
was interrogated by FBI agent George Piro .

The guards at the Baghdad
Baghdad
detention facility called their prisoner "Vic," and let him plant a small garden near his cell. The nickname and the garden are among the details about the former Iraqi leader that emerged during a 27 March 2008 tour of prison of the Baghdad
Baghdad
cell where Saddam
Saddam
slept, bathed, and kept a journal in the final days before his execution.

TRIAL

Main article: Trial of Saddam Hussein

On 30 June 2004, Saddam
Saddam
Hussein, held in custody by U.S. forces at the U.S. base " Camp Cropper ", along with 11 other senior Ba'athist leaders, were handed over legally (though not physically) to the interim Iraqi government to stand trial for crimes against humanity and other offences.

A few weeks later, he was charged by the Iraqi Special Tribunal with crimes committed against residents of Dujail in 1982, following a failed assassination attempt against him. Specific charges included the murder of 148 people, torture of women and children and the illegal arrest of 399 others. Among the many challenges of the trial were:

* Saddam
Saddam
and his lawyers' contesting the court's authority and maintaining that he was still the President of Iraq . * The assassinations and attempts on the lives of several of Saddam's lawyers. * The replacement of the chief presiding judge, midway through the trial.

On 5 November 2006, Saddam
Saddam
Hussein was found guilty of crimes against humanity and sentenced to death by hanging. Saddam's half brother, Barzan Ibrahim , and Awad Hamed al-Bandar , head of Iraq's Revolutionary Court in 1982, were convicted of similar charges. The verdict and sentencing were both appealed, but subsequently affirmed by Iraq's Supreme Court of Appeals. On 30 December 2006, Saddam
Saddam
was hanged .

EXECUTION

Main article: Execution of Saddam Hussein

Saddam
Saddam
was hanged on the first day of Eid ul-Adha , 30 December 2006, despite his wish to be shot (which he felt would be more dignified). The execution was carried out at Camp Justice , an Iraqi army base in Kadhimiya , a neighborhood of northeast Baghdad.

Video of the execution was recorded on a mobile phone and his captors could be heard insulting Saddam. The video was leaked to electronic media and posted on the Internet within hours, becoming the subject of global controversy. It was later claimed by the head guard at the tomb where his remains lay that Saddam's body had been stabbed six times after the execution.

Not long before the execution, Saddam's lawyers released his last letter. The following includes several excerpts:

To the great nation, to the people of our country, and humanity,

Many of you have known the writer of this letter to be faithful, honest, caring for others, wise, of sound judgment, just, decisive, careful with the wealth of the people and the state ... and that his heart is big enough to embrace all without discrimination.

You have known your brother and leader very well and he never bowed to the despots and, in accordance with the wishes of those who loved him, remained a sword and a banner.

This is how you want your brother, son or leader to be ... and those who will lead you (in the future) should have the same qualifications.

Here, I offer my soul to God as a sacrifice, and if He wants, He will send it to heaven with the martyrs, or, He will postpone that ... so let us be patient and depend on Him against the unjust nations.

Remember that God has enabled you to become an example of love, forgiveness and brotherly coexistence ... I call on you not to hate, because hate does not leave a space for a person to be fair and it makes you blind and closes all doors of thinking and keeps away one from balanced thinking and making the right choice.

I also call on you not to hate the peoples of the other countries that attacked us and differentiate between the decision-makers and peoples. Anyone who repents – whether in Iraq
Iraq
or abroad – you must forgive him.

You should know that among the aggressors, there are people who support your struggle against the invaders, and some of them volunteered for the legal defence of prisoners, including Saddam Hussein ... some of these people wept profusely when they said goodbye to me.

Dear faithful people, I say goodbye to you, but I will be with the merciful God who helps those who take refuge in him and who will never disappoint any faithful, honest believer ... God is Great ... God is great ... Long live our nation ... Long live our great struggling people ... Long live Iraq, long live Iraq
Iraq
... Long live Palestine ... Long live jihad and the mujahedeen.

Saddam
Saddam
Hussein President and Commander in Chief of the Iraqi Mujahed Armed Forces

Additional clarification note: I have written this letter, because the lawyers told me that the so-called criminal court — established and named by the invaders — will allow the so-called defendants the chance for a last word. But that court and its chief judge did not give us the chance to say a word, and issued its verdict without explanation and read out the sentence — dictated by the invaders — without presenting the evidence. I wanted the people to know this.

A second unofficial video, apparently showing Saddam's body on a trolley, emerged several days later. It sparked speculation that the execution was carried out incorrectly as Saddam
Saddam
Hussein had a gaping hole in his neck.

Saddam
Saddam
was buried at his birthplace of Al-Awja in Tikrit, Iraq, 3 km (2 mi) from his sons Uday and Qusay Hussein, on 31 December 2006. His tomb was reported to have been destroyed in March 2015. Before it was destroyed, a Sunni tribal group reportedly removed his body to a secret location, fearful of what may happen.

MARRIAGE AND FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS

Main article: Tulfah family _ Saddam
Saddam
Hussein's family, mid-late 1980s

* Saddam
Saddam
married his first wife and cousin Sajida Talfah (or Tulfah/Tilfah) in 1958 in an arranged marriage. Sajida is the daughter of Khairallah Talfah, Saddam's uncle and mentor. Their marriage was arranged for Saddam
Saddam
at age five when Sajida was seven. They were married in Egypt during his exile. The couple had five children.

* Uday Hussein
Uday Hussein
(18 June 1964 – 22 July 2003), was Saddam's oldest son, who ran the Iraqi Football Association , Fedayeen Saddam , and several media corporations in Iraq
Iraq
including Iraqi TV and the newspaper Babel _. Uday, while originally Saddam's favorite son and raised to succeed him he eventually fell out of favour with his father due to his erratic behavior; he was responsible for many car crashes and rapes around Baghdad, constant feuds with other members of his family, and killing his father's favorite valet and food taster Kamel Hana Gegeo at a party in Egypt honoring Egyptian first lady Suzanne Mubarak . He became well known in the west for his involvement in looting Kuwait
Kuwait
during the Gulf War, allegedly taking millions of dollars worth of gold, cars, and medical supplies (which were in short supply at the time) for himself and close supporters. He was widely known for his paranoia and his obsession with torturing people who disappointed him in any way, which included tardy girlfriends, friends who disagreed with him and, most notoriously, Iraqi athletes who performed poorly. He was briefly married to Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri
Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri
's daughter, but later divorced her. The couple had no children. * Qusay Hussein
Qusay Hussein
(17 May 1966 – 22 July 2003), was Saddam's second – and, after the mid-1990s, his favorite – son. Qusay was believed to have been Saddam's later intended successor, as he was less erratic than his older brother and kept a low profile. He was second in command of the military (behind his father) and ran the elite Iraqi Republican Guard and the SSO . He was believed to have ordered the army to kill thousands of rebelling Marsh Arabs and was instrumental in suppressing Shi'ite rebellions in the mid-1990s. He was married once and had three children. * Raghad Hussein (born 2 September 1968) is Saddam's oldest daughter. After the war, Raghad fled to Amman
Amman
, Jordan
Jordan
where she received sanctuary from the royal family. She is currently wanted by the Iraqi Government for allegedly financing and supporting the insurgency and the now banned Iraqi Ba'ath Party. The Jordanian royal family refused to hand her over. * Rana Hussein (born c. 1969), is Saddam's second daughter. She, like her sister, fled to Jordan
Jordan
and has stood up for her father's rights. She was married to Saddam Kamel and has had four children from this marriage. * Hala Hussein (born c. 1972), is Saddam's third and youngest daughter. Very little information is known about her. Her father arranged for her to marry General Kamal Mustafa Abdallah Sultan al-Tikriti in 1998. She fled with her children and sisters to Jordan
Jordan
.

* Saddam
Saddam
married his second wife, Samira Shahbandar
Samira Shahbandar
, in 1986. She was originally the wife of an Iraqi Airways
Iraqi Airways
executive, but later became the mistress of Saddam. Eventually, Saddam
Saddam
forced Samira's husband to divorce her so he could marry her. After the war, Samira fled to Beirut
Beirut
, Lebanon. She is believed to have mothered Saddam's sixth child. Members of Saddam's family have denied this. Saddam Hussein's sons Qusay and Uday were killed in a gun battle in Mosul
Mosul
on 22 July 2003 * Saddam
Saddam
had allegedly married a third wife, Nidal al-Hamdani , the general manager of the Solar Energy Research Center in the Council of Scientific Research. * Wafa el-Mullah al-Howeish is rumoured to have married Saddam
Saddam
as his fourth wife in 2002. There is no firm evidence for this marriage. Wafa is the daughter of Abdul Tawab el-Mullah Howeish, a former minister of military industry in Iraq
Iraq
and Saddam's last deputy Prime Minister.

In August 1995, Raghad and her husband Hussein Kamel al-Majid and Rana and her husband, Saddam Kamel al-Majid , defected to Jordan
Jordan
, taking their children with them. They returned to Iraq
Iraq
when they received assurances that Saddam
Saddam
would pardon them. Within three days of their return in February 1996, both of the Kamel brothers were attacked and killed in a gunfight with other clan members who considered them traitors.

In August 2003, Saddam's daughters Raghad and Rana received sanctuary in Amman
Amman
, Jordan, where they are currently staying with their nine children. That month, they spoke with CNN
CNN
and the Arab satellite station Al-Arabiya
Al-Arabiya
in Amman. When asked about her father, Raghad told CNN, "He was a very good father, loving, has a big heart." Asked if she wanted to give a message to her father, she said: "I love you and I miss you." Her sister Rana also remarked, "He had so many feelings and he was very tender with all of us."

With the intention of discrediting Saddam
Saddam
Hussein with his supporters, CIA
CIA
was considering making a video in which he would be seen having sex with a teenager.

PHILANTHROPIC CONNECTION TO THE CITY OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN

In 1979, Rev. Jacob Yasso of Chaldean Sacred Heart Church congratulated Saddam
Saddam
Hussein on his presidency. In return, Rev. Yasso said that Saddam
Saddam
Hussein donated US$250,000 to his church, which is made up of at least 1,200 families of Middle Eastern descent. In 1980, Detroit Mayor Coleman Young allowed Rev. Yasso to present the key to the city of Detroit to Saddam
Saddam
Hussein. At the time, Saddam
Saddam
then asked Rev. Yasso, "I heard there was a debt on your church. How much is it?" After the inquiry, Saddam
Saddam
then donated another $200,000 to Chaldean Sacred Heart Church. Rev. Yasso said that Saddam
Saddam
made donations to Chaldean churches all over the world, and even went on record as saying "He's very kind to Christians."

LIST OF GOVERNMENT AND PARTY POSITIONS HELD

* Head of Iraqi Intelligence Service (1963) * Vice President of the Republic of Iraq
Iraq
(1968–1979) * President of the Republic of Iraq
Iraq
(1979–2003) * Prime Minister of the Republic of Iraq
Iraq
(1979–1991 and 1994–2003) * Head of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council (1979–2003) * Secretary of the Regional Command (1979–2006) * Secretary General of the National Command (1989–2006) * Assistant Secretary of the Regional Command (1966–1979) * Assistant Secretary General of the National Command (1979–1989)

SEE ALSO

* _ Iraq
Iraq
portal * Biography portal * Politics portal

* Baghdad
Baghdad
International Airport (formerly Saddam
Saddam
International Airport) * House of Saddam
House of Saddam
_ * Iraqi biological weapons program * Operation Rockingham * Saddam Beach , a fishing village in India named after Saddam Hussein, in an act of solidarity during the 1991 Gulf War
Gulf War
* Saddam Hussein Nagar, Sri Lanka * Saddam
Saddam
Hussein\'s novels * Saddam
Saddam
Hussein (_South Park_) – A fictionalized version of Saddam
Saddam
in _ South Park _

NOTES

* ^ _ Saddam
Saddam
_, pronounced , is his personal name, and means _the stubborn one_ or _he who confronts_ in Arabic. _Hussein_ (Sometimes also transliterated as _HUSSAYN_ or _HUSSAIN_) is not a surname in the Western sense, but a patronymic , his father's given personal name; _Abid al-Majid_ his grandfather's; _al-Tikriti_ means he was born and raised in (or near) Tikrit . He was commonly referred to as _Saddam Hussein_, or _Saddam_ for short. The observation that referring to the deposed Iraqi president as only _Saddam_ is derogatory or inappropriate may be based on the assumption that Hussein is a family name: thus, _ The New York Times _ refers to him as "Mr. Hussein", while _ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
_ uses just _Saddam_. A full discussion can be found here. * ^ Under his government, this date was his official date of birth. His real date of birth was never recorded, but it is believed to be between 1935 and 1939.

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FURTHER READING

* Al-Ani, Dr. Abdul-Haq. _The Trial of Saddam
Saddam
Hussein_. ISBN 978-0-932863-58-4 . Clarity Press. 2008. * Ashton, Nigel John et al. _The Iran- Iraq
Iraq
War: New International Perspectives_. ISBN 9781139505468 . Routledge. 2013. * Balaghi, Shiva. _ Saddam
Saddam
Hussein: A Biography_. ISBN 978-0-313-33077-3 . Greenwich Press. 2008. * Baram, Amatzia. _ Saddam
Saddam
Husayn and Islam, 1968–2003: Ba'thi Iraq from Secularism to Faith_. ISBN 978-1421415826 . Woodrow Wilson Center Press / Johns Hopkins University Press. 2014. * Bozo, Frédéric. _A History of the Iraq
Iraq
Crisis: France, the United States, and Iraq, 1991–2003_ (Columbia University Press, 2016). xviii, 381 pp. * Faust, Aaron M. _The Ba'thification of Iraq: Saddam
Saddam
Hussein's Totalitarianism_. ISBN 978-1-4773-0557-7 . University of Texas Press. 2015. * Gibson, Bryan R. _Sold Out? US Foreign Policy, Iraq, the Kurds, and the Cold War_. ISBN 978-1-137-48711-7 . Palgrave Macmillan. 2015. * Karsh, Efraim and Inari Rautsi. _ Saddam
Saddam
Hussein: A Political Biography_. ISBN 978-0-8021-3978-8 . Grove Press. 2002. * MacKey, Sandra. _The Reckoning: Iraq
Iraq
and the Legacy of Saddam Hussein_. ISBN 978-0-393-32428-0 . W. W. Norton padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutSADDAM HUSSEINat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Learning resources from Wikiversity

* Government of Iraq
Iraq
at the Wayback Machine (archived 30 September 2000) (2000–2003) * Saddam
Saddam
Hussein Profile by BBC News * The Saddam
Saddam
Hussein Sourcebook ( National Security Archive at The George Washington University ) * Saddam
Saddam
Hussein and the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives * Federal Bureau of Investigation Records: The Vault - Saddam Hussein (226 pages)

POLITICAL OFFICES

Preceded by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
PRESIDENT OF IRAQ 1979–2003 Succeeded by Jay Garner _as Director of the Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance of Iraq
Iraq
_

PRIME MINISTER OF IRAQ 1979–1991 Succeeded by Sa\'dun Hammadi

Preceded by Ahmad Husayn Khudayir as-Samarrai PRIME MINISTER OF IRAQ 1994–2003 Succeeded by Mohammad Bahr al-Ulloum _AS ACTING PRESIDENT OF THE GOVERNING COUNCIL OF IRAQ _

PARTY POLITICAL OFFICES

Preceded by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
LEADER OF THE BA\\'ATH PARTY 1979–2006 Succeeded by Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri
Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri

* v * t * e

Iraq
Iraq
articles

HISTORY

ANCIENT

* Sumer
Sumer
* Akkadian Empire * Babylonia
Babylonia
* Assyria
Assyria
* Neo-Assyrian Empire * Neo-Babylonian Empire * Achaemenid Assyria
Assyria
* Seleucid Babylonia
Babylonia
* Parthian Babylonia
Babylonia
* Sassanid Asorestan

638–1958

* Muslim conquest of Persia * Abbasid Caliphate * Buyid dynasty * Kara Koyunlu * Ak Koyunlu * Safavids * Ottoman Iraq
Iraq
(Mamluk dynasty ) * Mandatory Iraq
Iraq
* Kingdom of Iraq * Arab Federation
Arab Federation

REPUBLIC

* 1958–68 * 1968–2003 * 2003–11 * 2011–present

* Arab Socialist Ba\'ath Party – Iraq
Iraq
Region (National Command ) * Saddam
Saddam
Hussein * Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War * Invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait
* Gulf War
Gulf War
* Sanctions

* Iraq
Iraq
War

* U.S. invasion * Iraqi insurgency * U.S. troop withdrawal

* Insurgency (2011–2013)

* Civil War (2014–present)

* Mosul
Mosul
liberation

GEOGRAPHY

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Al-Jazira * Euphrates
Euphrates
* Hamrin Mountains * Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
* Islands * Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
* Mesopotamian Marshes * Places * Lakes * Shatt al-Arab * Syrian Desert * Tigris
Tigris
* Umm Qasr * Zagros Mountains

POLITICS

* Administrative divisions * Constitution * Council of Representatives (legislative) * Elections * Foreign aid * Foreign relations

* Government

* Council of Ministers * Presidency Council * President * Prime Minister

* Human rights

* in pre- Saddam
Saddam
Iraq
Iraq
* in Saddam
Saddam
Hussein\'s Iraq
Iraq

* in post-invasion Iraq
Iraq

* in ISIL-controlled territory

* LGBT * Freedom of religion * Women

* Law * Military * Police * Political parties * Judiciary * Wars and conflicts

ECONOMY

* Central Bank * Dinar (currency) * Infrastructure * Oil Industry * Oil reserves * Reconstruction * Stock Exchange * Telecommunications * Transportation

SOCIETY

* Cuisine * Culture * Education * Health * Media * Music * Sports

DEMOGRAPHICS

* Iraqis
Iraqis

* diaspora * refugees

* Languages

* Arabic
Arabic
* Aramaic * Kurdish * Persian * Turkmen

* Minorities

* Armenians * Assyrians * Circassians * Kurds * Mandaeans * Marsh Arabs * Persians * Solluba * Turkmen

* Religion

* Islam * Christianity * Jews * Mandaeism * Yazidis

* Outline * Index

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Saddam
Saddam
Hussein

28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006

BIOGRAPHY

* 17 July Revolution * Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War (U.S. support ) * Anfal genocide
Anfal genocide
* Gulf War
Gulf War
(1991 uprisings ) * Human rights record

* Relationship with Al-Qaeda

* timeline

* Capture * Interrogation * Trial * Execution

_

BOOKS

* Zabibah and the King
Zabibah and the King
_ * _ The Fortified Castle _ * _ Men and the City _ * _ Begone, Demons _

PROPAGANDA

* Killing babies * Alleged shredder

FAMILY

* Father: Hussein \'Abid al-Majid * Mother: Subha Tulfah al-Mussallat * Half-brothers: Watban , Sabawi , and Barzan * Wives: Sajida Talfah and Samira Shahbandar
Samira Shahbandar
* Uncle and Father-in-Law: Khairallah Talfah
Khairallah Talfah
* Sons: Uday and Qusay * Daughters: Rana , Raghad , and Hala * Grandchildren: Mustapha Hussein
Mustapha Hussein

MEDIA

* _ House of Saddam
House of Saddam
_ * _ South Park _ * _The Devil\'s Double _

* WIKIMEDIA: * Wiktionary * Wikibooks * Wikiquote * Wikisource * Commons * Wikinews * Wikibook * Category
Category

* v * t * e

Presidents of Iraq
Iraq
(List )

REPUBLIC OF IRAQ (1958–2003)

* ar-Ruba\'i † * Abdul Salam Arif † * al-Bazzaz †* * Abdul Rahman Arif † * al-Bakr * Hussein

COALITION PROVISIONAL AUTHORITY (2003–2004)

* Garner * Bremer

REPUBLIC OF IRAQ (SINCE 2004)

* al-Yawer * * Talabani * Masum

* interim † military

* v * t * e

Prime Ministers of Iraq
Iraq
(List )

BRITISH MANDATE OF MESOPOTAMIA (1920–1932)

* al Gillani * as-Sa\'dun † * al-Askari † * al-Hashimi † * Tawfiq al-Suwaydi * Naji al-Suwaydi * as-Said †

KINGDOM OF IRAQ (1932–1958)

* Shawkat * al-Gaylani * al-Midfai † * al-Aiyubi † * al-Hashimi † * Sulayman * as-Said † * H. Pachachi * Tawfiq al-Suwaydi * Arshad al-Umari
Arshad al-Umari
* Jabr * as-Sadr * Muzahim al-Pachachi * Mustafa al-Umari * Mahmud † * al-Jamali * Arshad al-Umari
Arshad al-Umari
* Mirjan * Baban

REPUBLIC OF IRAQ (1958–2003)

* Qasim † * al-Bakr † * Yahya † * ar-Razzaq † * al-Bazzaz † * Talib * Arif † * Yahya † * an-Naif † * al-Bakr * Hussein * Hammadi * Zubeidi * as-Samarrai * Hussein

IRAQI GOVERNING COUNCIL (2003–2004)

* al-Ulloum * * al-Jaafari * Cha