* 1 Characteristics of the Meditations of Form * 2 The Stages of the Four Meditations of Form * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEDITATIONS OF FORM
There are eight JHāNAS in total, out of which the first four are RūPAJHāNAS, meditations of form. All four RūPAJHāNAS are characterized by EKAGGATā (Skt: EKāGRATā ) which means one-pointedness, i.e. the mind focuses singularly on the material or mental object during meditation.
The four RūPAJHāNAS are:
* PAṭHAMA-JHāNA (Skt: PRATHAMADHYāNA, literally "first jhana") * DUTIYA-JHāNA (Skt: DVITīYADHYāNA, literally "second jhana")), * TATIYA-JHāNA (Skt: TṛTīYADHYāNA,literally "third jhana")) * CATUTTHA-JHāNA (Skt: CATURTHADHYāNA, literally "fourth jhana"))
See also right concentration .
These first four jhānas can be characterized by certain factors called JHāNAṅGA (Skt: DHYāNāṅGA) whose presence or absence in each RūPAJHāNA is summarized in the following table:
JHāNA vitakka TEXT-DECORATION: NONE">PAṭHAMA-JHāNA * * * *
* * *
The JHāNAṅGA have the following meanings: VITAKKA means the noticing of the object of meditation, VICāRA means the experiencing of the object, PīTI means rapture, SUKHA means bliss, EKAGGATā means one-pointedness of concentration, UPEKKHā means equanimity.
THE STAGES OF THE FOUR MEDITATIONS OF FORM
To reach each successive stage of meditation, a factor of attachment in the previous stage is renounced. Such renunciation is aided by a progressive realization of the quality of relative grossness of each of the primary factors characterizing the respective states of jhana absorption, appreciating, in other words, that each factor is in the end a kind of "agitation" of the mind. The first meditation of form includes the three primary factors of the one-pointed noticing and experiencing of the object, rapture in the experience, and bliss in the rapture. In the second meditation of form, the meditator lets go of the relatively gross factors of noticing and experiencing of the object and perceives the rapture and bliss of the one pointedness. In the third meditation of form the person then detaches from the sense of rapture and perceives the one-pointed bliss, a less "agitated" state. In the fourth meditation of form the meditator relinquishes even the quality of bliss and perceives only one-pointed undisturbed equanimity.
The three realms (
After renouncing the poison of greed and entering the realm of form, in order to renounce the poison of aversion, the meditator engages in the four meditations of form. By renouncing one's attachments to objects, the rapture in objects, and bliss in the rapture, one is renouncing one's aversion to the absence of objects, absence of rapture, and absence of bliss. When one is able to renounce even the equanimity achieved in the fourth meditation of form, one renounces the last attachment to the realm of form and is able to enter the formless realm without being overcome by either desire or aversion, and one becomes able to engage in the four formless meditations .
* ^ Catherine, Shaila (2008). Focused and Fearless: A Meditator’s Guide to States of Deep Joy, Calm, and Clarity. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-86171-560-8 . * ^ Shankman, Richard (2008). The Experience of Samādhi: An In-depth Exploration of Buddhist Meditation. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-1-59030-521-8 .
* Nibbana for Everyone by Buddhadasa