President of the European Commission
President of the European Commission
Prime Minister of Italy
* 1996 Italian election
* 1999 European election
* 2006 Italian election
* POLITICAL CAREERR
* Withdraw from
2008 Italian political crisis
* EUROPEAN COMMISSION
* 2004 EU enlargement
ROMANO PRODI OMRI (Italian pronunciation: ( listen ); born 9
August 1939) is an Italian politician who served as the 10th President
European Commission from 1999 to 2004. He served twice as Prime
Italy - from 17 May 1996 to 21 October 1998, and from 17
May 2006 to 8 May 2008. He is considered the founder of the Italian
centre-left and one of the most prominent and iconic figures of the
so-called Second Republic . Prodi is often nicknamed Il Professore
("The Professor"), due to his academic career.
A former professor of economics and international advisor to Goldman
Sachs , Prodi ran in 1996 as lead candidate of The Olive Tree
coalition, winning the general election and serving as Prime Minister
Italy until 1998. Following the victory of his coalition The Union
House of Freedoms led by
Silvio Berlusconi in the April 2006
Italian elections , Prodi took power again. On 24 January 2008, he
lost a vote of confidence in the Senate house, and consequently
tendered his resignation as Prime Minister to Italian President
Giorgio Napolitano , but continued in office for almost four months
for routine business, until early elections were held and a new
government was formed.
Up to this time, he has been the only one lead candidate of Italian
centre-left who won elections and managed to form a government without
the need of opponents' parliamentary support.
On 14 October 2007, Prodi became the first President of the
Democratic Party upon foundation of the party. On 12 September 2008,
United Nations Secretary-General
Ban Ki-moon selected Prodi as
president of the
African Union -UN peacekeeping panel. He is
currently serving as the UN
Special Envoy for the
* 1 Personal life
* 2 Academic career
* 3 Early political career
* 3.1 Ministry of Industry and Moro\'s kidnapping
* 4 Business and administrative career
* 4.1 First term as IRI President
* 4.2 Other offices
* 4.3 Second term as IRI President
* 5 First term as Prime Minister
* 5.1 The Olive Tree and 1996 election
* 5.2 Economic policy
* 5.4 Resignation
President of the European Commission
President of the European Commission
* 6.3 2004 enlargement and of the mandate
* 7 Return to Italian politics
* 7.1 The Union primary election
* 8 Second term as Prime Minister
* 8.1 Italian 2006 general election
* 8.2 Government formation
* 8.4 Coalition\'s troubles
* 8.5 2008 crisis and resignation
* 9 After the premiership
* 9.1 2013 presidential candidate
* 10 Honours and awards
* 10.1 Academic awards
* 11 See also
* 12 Notes
* 13 External links
Prodi was born in
Scandiano , in the province of
Reggio Emilia ,
Emilia-Romagna . He is the eighth of nine children of Mario Prodi, an
engineer originally from a peasant family, and Enrica, a primary
school teacher. He has two sisters and six brothers, five of them
being like him university professors (one of whom,
Vittorio Prodi ,
has been also a
Member of the European Parliament
Member of the European Parliament ; see also Giorgio
Prodi , an oncologist and biosemiotician ).
Prodi married Flavia Franzoni in 1969. He was married by Camillo
Ruini , now a well-known cardinal . They have two sons, Giorgio and
Antonio. He and his family still live in
After completing his secondary education at the Liceo Ludovico
Ariosto in Reggio Emilia, Prodi graduated in law at
Università Cattolica in 1961 with a thesis on the role of
Protectionism in the development of Italian industry. He then carried
out postgraduate studies at the
London School of Economics
London School of Economics .
In 1963 Prodi joined the Christian Democracy party. In the same year
he became a teaching assistant for
Beniamino Andreatta in the
Department of Economics and the Faculty of
Political Science at the
Bologna , subsequently serving as associate professor
(1966) and finally (1971–1999) as Professor of Industrial
Organisation and Industrial Policy. Prodi has also been a visiting
Harvard University and a researcher at the Stanford
Research Institute . His research covers mainly competition
regulations and the development of small and medium businesses. He is
also interested in industrial districts , anti-monopoly policies,
relations between states and markets, and the dynamics of the
different capitalistic models.
Between 1974 and 1978 he chaired Il Mulino publishing house, in 1982
he became director of the magazines Energia and L'Industria. In 1981
he founded Nomisma, a company of economic studies and consultancy. He
also cooperated with the newspapers
Corriere della Sera
Corriere della Sera and Il Sole 24
Prodi has received almost 20 honorary degrees from institutions in
Italy, and from the rest of Europe, North America, Asia, and Africa.
EARLY POLITICAL CAREER
Prodi's political career began as a left-of-centre reformist
Christian Democrat and a disciple of
Beniamino Andreatta , another
economist turned politician. In 1963 he was elected municipal
Reggio Emilia for the Christian Democracy, but after few
years he resigned to continue his academic career.
MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY AND MORO\'S KIDNAPPING
On 25 November 1978 Prodi was appointed Minister of Industry,
Commerce and Craftmanship in the government of the Christian
Giulio Andreotti . Even if he was a DC member, Prodi
was widely considered a "technical minister".
As minister he promoted a law, known as "Prodi law', which aimed a
regulating of the extraordinary state administration procedure for the
rescue of large enterprises in crisis.
On 2 April 1978, Prodi and other teachers at the University of
Bologna passed on a tip-off that revealed the whereabouts of the safe
house where the kidnapped
Aldo Moro , the former Prime Minister, was
being held captive by the
Red Brigades . Prodi claimed he had been
given this tip-off by the founders of the Christian Democracy party,
contacted from beyond the grave via a séance and a
Ouija board .
Whilst during this supposed séance Prodi thought the word Gradoli
referred to a town on the outskirts of Rome, it probably referred to
the Roman address of a
Red Brigades safe house, located at no. 96, Via
Romano Prodi with President
Sandro Pertini and Prime
Giulio Andreotti in 1978.
The information was trusted and a police group made an armed blitz in
the town of Gradoli, 80 km from
Rome , on the following day, 6 April
though Moro was not found.
Prodi spoke to the Italian parliament's commission about the case in
1981. In the notes of the Italian parliament commission on terrorism
the séance is described as a fake, used to hide the true source of
the information. In 1997
Giulio Andreotti declared that the
information came from the
Bologna section of
Autonomia Operaia , a
far-left organization with some ties with the BR, and that Cossiga
also knew the true source. Judge
Ferdinando Imposimato considered
Andreotti's theory as "possible", but accused him of having kept
information that could have been valuable in a trial about Moro's
Moro's widow later declared that she had repeatedly informed the
police that a via Gradoli existed in Rome, but the investigators did
not consider it; some replied to her that the street did not appear in
Rome's maps. This is confirmed by other Moro relatives, but strongly
Francesco Cossiga , who served as Interior Minister during
1990s the séance matter was reopened by the Italian
parliament's commission on terrorism. While Prodi (then Prime
Miinister) declared that he had no time for an interview, both
Baldassarri (senator and vice-minister in two Berlusconi cabinets) and
Clò (Minister of Industry in
Lamberto Dini 's cabinet and owner of
the house where the séance was performed) responded to the call: they
confirmed the circumstances of the séance, and that the word
"Gradoli" had appeared in several sessions, even if the participants
Later, other Italian members of the
European Commission claimed Prodi
had invented this story to conceal the real source of the tip-off,
which they believed t o have originated somewhere among the far-left
Italian political groups.
This issue came back again in 2005, when Prodi was accused of being
KGB man" by
Mario Scaramella . The same accusation was raised in
2002 by the
Mitrokhin Commission .
This claim was further repeated by
Gerard Batten , the Member of the
European Parliament for London who claimed he was informed of this by
his constituent and former FSB operative,
BUSINESS AND ADMINISTRATIVE CAREER
In the seventies he had a first managerial assignment as president of
Maserati and the boat company "Callegari and Ghigi", companies in
difficulty managed by the public financial institution GEPI (Company
for Industrial Management and Investments) in order to remedy them.
FIRST TERM AS IRI PRESIDENT
Prodi with Minister Luigi Granelli in 1985.
In 1982–1989 Prodi was appointed, by Prime Minister Giovanni
Spadolini , President of the influential state-owned industrial
holding company Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (IRI). He was
the first economist to lead the IRI.
During his presidency Prodi approved the sale of twenty-nine
companies in the group (the largest one was
Alfa Romeo , which was
privatized in 1986), the reduction of the number of employees, the
liquidation of Finsider, Italsider and Italstat companies,
extraordinary operations in important companies like STET and
Finmeccanica and the attempted sale of Southern Electricity Company
(SME) to the CIR group of
Carlo De Benedetti ; however this operation
was heavily hindered by the government of
Bettino Craxi . A group of
Silvio Berlusconi , made an alternative bid
to block the sale; the offer was not honored for financial
shortcomings, but the sale of SME blocked.
Thanks to Prodi's policies, in 1987, for the first time in more than
a decade, the IRI was in profit .
After leaving his position in 1989, Prodi ran the
consulting company Analisi e Studi Economici, which he jointly owned
along with his wife. Between 1990 and 1993 the company earned £ 1.4
million, most of which was paid by the investment bank
Goldman Sachs .
Through the late 1980s and early
1990s he continuously served various
SECOND TERM AS IRI PRESIDENT
In 1993 he was between the main candidates to become Prime Minister
at the head of a technocratic government , but the Governor of the
Bank of Italy
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi was chosen for this office by
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro .
In 1993–1994 Prodi was appointed again President of the IRI, by
Ciampi, where he oversaw extensive privatization of public assets. For
his activities in this period Prodi would later twice come under
investigation – firstly for an alleged conflict of interest in
relation to contracts awarded to his own economic research company in
relation to the Italdel-
Siemens merger, and secondly concerning the
sale of the loss-making state-owned food conglomerate SME to the
Unilever , for which he had previously been a paid
Prodi's former employer
Goldman Sachs was involved in both of the
deals. In February 2007 the Italian Treasury Police raided the Milan
office of Goldman Sachs, where they removed a file called "MTononi
/memo-Prodi02.doc". They also obtained a letter to
Siemens from the
Frankfurt office of
Goldman Sachs regarding the Italdel deal, which
revealed that Prodi was made the Senior Advisor of Goldman Sachs
Italy in March 1990. In November 1996, after Prodi
had been elected Prime Minister,
Rome prosecutor Guiseppa Geremia
concluded that there was enough evidence to press charges against
Prodi for conflict of interest in the
Unilever deal. The case was
however shut down within weeks by superiors, while Geremia was "exiled
FIRST TERM AS PRIME MINISTER
On 25 May 1994, Prodi went to Palazzo Chigi to announce his
resignation as IRI President to the new Prime Minister Silvio
Berlusconi ; the resignation had been formalised on 31 May and became
effective on 22 July.
On 11 August Prodi announced to the
Gazzetta di Reggio of his intent
to enter politics. A few months earlier, Prodi had rejected a
proposal from the Italian People\'s Party (PPI) to run for the 1994
European election .
THE OLIVE TREE AND 1996 ELECTION
Italian general election, 1996
Italian general election, 1996 and
The Olive Tree (Italy)
Romano Prodi during the electoral campaign in 1996.
On 13 February 1995 Prodi, along with his close friend Arturo Parisi
, founded his political alliance The Olive Tree . Prodi's aim was to
build a centre-left coalition composed by centrist and leftist
parties, opposed to the centre-right alliance led by Silvio
Berlusconi, who resigned from the office of Prime Minister few weeks
Lega Nord withdrew his support to the government.
The movement was immediately supported by
Mariotto Segni , leader of
Segni Pact ; after few weeks the post-communist
Democratic Party of the Left of Massimo D\'Alema , the PPI and the
Federation of the Greens also joined the Olive Tree coalition.
On 19 February 1996, the outgoing Prime Minister Lamberto Dini
announced that he would run in the election with a new party called
Italian Renewal , allied with Prodi's Olive Tree rather than
Pole for Freedoms . Shortly after Berlusconi claimed that
Dini "copied his electoral programme".
On election day, Prodi's Olive Tree coalition won over Berlusconi's
Pole for Freedoms, becoming the first coalition composed by a
post-communist party to win general election since the Second World
War . In the Senate The Olive Tree obtained the majority, but in the
Chamber it required the external support of Communist Refoundation
On 17 May 1996, Prodi received from President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
the task of forming a new government.
Prodi's economic programme consisted in continuing the past
governments' work of restoration of the country's economic health, in
order to pursue the then seemingly unreachable goal of leading the
country within the strict
European Monetary System parameters in order
to allow the country to join the
Euro currency. He succeeded in this
in little more than six months.
During his first premiership, Prodi faced the Albanian civil war ;
his government proposed the so-called "Operation Alba" ("Sunrise"), a
multinational peacekeeping force sent to
Albania in 1997 and led by
Italy . It was intended to help the Albanian government restore law
and order in their troubled country after the 1997 rebellion in
Albania . Prodi with
US Secretary of Defence ,
William Cohen .
Following the degenerating loss of administrative control by the
Government in the first days of March 1997, culminating in the
desertion of most Police and many Republican Guard and Army units,
leaving their armouries open to the inevitable looting which soon
followed, several Nations autonomously helped evacuate their
Nationals, causing wider concerns about the fate of others. The UN
Security Council therefore agreed United Nations Security Council
Resolution 1101 as a stop-gap operation to manage this and buy time,
laying the foundations for another International Organisation to
manage a planned reconstruction, which after six weeks of debate fell
Western European Union
Western European Union , creating the Multinational Albanian
Police Element around a command structure of Italian Military
Carabinieri, which actually undertook the work of Judicial and Police
reconstruction, extending into the elimination of the economic causes
of the crisis.
The Italian 3rd Army Corps assumed responsibility for the stop-gap
mission as Operation Alba, the first multinational Italian-led Mission
since World War II. Eleven contributing European Nations brought
humanitarian aid to a country that was in a dramatic economic and
Prodi's government fell in 1998 when the Communist Refoundation Party
withdrew its external support. This led to the formation of a new
government led by Massimo D\'Alema as Prime Minister. There are those
who claim that D'Alema, along with People's Party leader Franco Marini
, deliberately engineered the collapse of the Prodi government to
become Prime Minister himself. As the result of a vote of no
confidence in Prodi's government, D'Alema's nomination was passed by a
single vote. This was the first occasion in the history of the Italian
republic on which a vote of no confidence had ever been called; the
Republic's many previous governments had been brought down by a
majority "no" vote on some crucially important piece of legislation
(such as the budget).
PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION
Romano Prodi with Göran Persson
George W. Bush
George W. Bush at
Gunnebo Slott near
Gothenburg , June 2001.
In September 1999 Prodi, a strong supporter of
European Integration ,
President of the European Commission
President of the European Commission , thanks to the support of
both the conservative European People\'s Party , the social-democratic
Party of European Socialists
Party of European Socialists and the centrist Alliance of Liberals and
Democrats for Europe Party in the European Parliament.
His commission took office on 13 September 1999 following the scandal
and subsequent resignation of the
Santer Commission which had damaged
the reputation of the institution. It took over from the interim
Marín Commission. The College consisted of 20 Commissioners which
grew to 30 following the
Enlargement of the European Union
Enlargement of the European Union in 2004. It
was the last commission to see two members allocated to the larger
member states .
This commission (the 10th) saw in increase in power and influence
Amsterdam Treaty . Some in the media described president
Prodi as being the first "Prime Minister of the
European Union ".
It was during Prodi's presidency, in 2002, that eleven EU member
states left their national currencies and adopted the euro as their
single currency. This commission (the 10th) saw in increase in power
and influence following
Amsterdam Treaty .
The treaty was the result of long negotiations which began in
Messina, Sicily , on 2 June 1995, nearly forty years after the signing
of the Treaty of
Rome , and reached completion in
Amsterdam on 18 June
1997. Following the formal signing of the Treaty on 2 October 1997,
Member States engaged in an equally long and complex ratification
European Parliament endorsed the treaty on 19 November
1997, and after two referendums and 13 decisions by parliaments, the
Member States finally concluded the procedure.
Under this treaty the member states agreed to devolve certain powers
from national governments to the
European Parliament across diverse
areas, including legislating on immigration, adopting civil and
criminal laws, and enacting foreign and security policy (CFSP), as
well as implementing institutional changes for expansion as new member
nations join the EU.
Due to this increased power of the Commission President, some media
described President Prodi as being the first "Prime Minister of the
Romano Prodi in
Moscow , 2001.
As well as the enlargement and
Amsterdam Treaty, the Prodi Commission
also saw the signing and enforcement of the
Treaty of Nice as well as
the conclusion and signing of the
European Constitution : in which he
introduced the "Convention method" of negotiation. The treaty was
signed by European leaders on 26 February 2001 and came into force on
1 February 2003.
It amended the
Maastricht Treaty (or the Treaty on European Union)
and the Treaty of
Rome (or the Treaty establishing the European
Community which, before the Maastricht Treaty, was the Treaty
establishing the European Economic Community). The Treaty of Nice
reformed the institutional structure of the
European Union to
withstand eastward expansion, a task which was originally intended to
have been done by the
Amsterdam Treaty , but failed to be addressed at
The entry into force of the treaty was in doubt for a time, after its
initial rejection by Irish voters in a referendum in June 2001. This
referendum result was reversed in a subsequent referendum held a
little over a year later.
2004 ENLARGEMENT AND OF THE MANDATE
Romano Prodi with Russian President
Vladimir Putin in 2004.
In 2004, his last year as Commission President, the European Union
was enlarged to admit several more member nations, most formerly part
of the Soviet bloc . It was the largest single expansion of the
European Union (EU), in terms of territory, number of states, and
population to date; however, it was not the largest in terms of gross
domestic product. It occurred on 1 May 2004.
The simultaneous accessions concerned the following countries
(sometimes referred to as the "A10" countries ):
Cyprus , the Czech
Slovakia , and
Slovenia . Seven of these were part of the former
Eastern Bloc (of which three were from the former
Soviet Union and
four were and still are members of the Central European alliance
Visegrád Group ), one of the former
Yugoslavia (together sometimes
referred to as the "A8" countries ), and the remaining two were
Mediterranean islands and former British colonies .
Part of the same wave of enlargement was the accession of Bulgaria
Romania in 2007 , who were unable to join in 2004, but, according
to the Commission, constitute part of the fifth enlargement.
The commission was due to leave office on 31 October 2004, but due to
opposition from the
European parliament to the proposed Barroso
Commission which would succeed it, it was extended and finally left
office on 21 November 2004. When his mandate expired, Prodi returned
to domestic politics.
RETURN TO ITALIAN POLITICS
THE UNION PRIMARY ELECTION
Italian centre-left primary election, 2005
Shortly before the end of his term as President of the European
Commission, Prodi returned to national Italian politics at the helm of
the enlarged centre-left coalition, The Union .
Romano Prodi in
Bari , during the electoral campaign.
Having no party of his own, in order to officially state his
candidacy for the 2006 general election , Prodi came up with the idea
of an apposite primary election , the first of such kind to be ever
introduced in Europe and seen by its creator (Prodi himself) as a
democratic move to bring the public and its opinion closer to the
When the primary elections were first proposed, they were mostly
meant as a plebiscite for Romano Prodi, since there were no other
candidates to the leadership of the coalition. The secretary of the
Communist Refoundation Party,
Fausto Bertinotti , then announced he
would run for the leadership, even if only to act as a symbolic
candidate , to avoid a one-candidate election. After some time, more
candidates were presented, like
Union of Democrats for Europe leader
Clemente Mastella ,
Italy of Values leader and former magistrate
Antonio Di Pietro
Antonio Di Pietro ,
Federation of the Greens leader Alfonso Pecoraro
Scanio and others few minor candidates.
The primary election may have been foreseen an easy win for Romano
Prodi, with the other candidates running mostly to "measure their
strengths" in the coalition, and they often talked about reaching a
certain percentage rather than winning. However, there were rumours of
supporters of the
House of Freedoms trying to participate in the
elections, and vote in favour of Mastella, reputed to be the least
competent of the candidates and the least likely to win against
Berlusconi, other than the most centrist; other rumours indicated such
"fake" left-wing voters would vote for Bertinotti, because his
leadership would likely lose any grip on the political centre .
The election had been held nationwide on 16 October 2005, from 8am to
10pm. Poll stations were mainly managed on a voluntary basis; they
were hosted mainly in squares, local party quarters, schools, and even
restaurants , bars , campers and a hairdresser ; some polling stations
were also provided outside the country for Italians abroad. Most of
the party leaders claimed a result of 1 million voters would be a good
success for the election, but over four million people for the
occasion went to cast a vote in the primary election.
SECOND TERM AS PRIME MINISTER
ITALIAN 2006 GENERAL ELECTION
After having won the centre-left primary election, Prodi led The
Union coalition in the 2006 election . The Union was an heterogeneous
alliance, which was formed by centrist parties like UDEUR and
communists like PRC and
Party of Italian Communists .
Prodi led his coalition to the electoral campaign preceding the
election, eventually on 9 and 10 April won by a very narrow margin of
25,000 votes, and a final majority of two seats in the Senate .
Initial exit polls suggested a victory for Prodi, but the results
narrowed as the count progressed. On 11 April 2006, Prodi declared
victory; Berlusconi never conceded defeat explicitly but this is not
required by the
Italian law .
Romano Prodi in 2007.
Preliminary results showed The Union leading the
House of Freedoms in
the Chamber of Deputies , with 340 seats to 277, thanks to obtaining a
majority bonus (actual votes were distributed 49.81% to 49.74%). One
more seat is allied with The Union (
Aosta Valley ) and 7 more seats in
the foreign constituency. The
House of Freedoms had secured a slight
majority of Senate seats elected within
Italy (155 seats to 154), but
The Union won 4 of the 6 seats allocated to voters outside
giving them control of both chambers.
On 19 April 2006, Italy's Supreme Court of Cassation ruled that Prodi
had indeed won the election, winning control of the Chamber of
Deputies by only 24,755 votes out of more than 38 million votes cast,
and winning 158 seats in the Senate to 156 for Berlusconi's coalition.
Even so, Berlusconi refused to concede defeat, claiming unproven
Prodi's appointment was somewhat delayed, as the outgoing President
of the Republic,
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi , ended his mandate in May, not
having enough time for the usual procedure (consultations made by the
President, appointment of a Prime Minister, motion of confidence and
oath of office). After the acrimonious election of Giorgio Napolitano
to replace Ciampi, Prodi could proceed with his transition to
government. On 16 May he was invited by Napolitano to form a
government. The following day, 17 May 2006, Prodi and his second
cabinet were sworn into office.
Prodi's new cabinet drew in politicians from across his centre-left
winning coalition, in addition to
Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa , an
unelected former official of the
European Central Bank
European Central Bank with no
Romano Prodi obtained the support for his cabinet
on 19 May at the Senate and on 23 May at the Chamber of Deputies .
The coalition led by Romano Prodi, thanks to the electoral law which
gave the winner a sixty-seat majority, can count on a good majority in
the Chamber of Deputies but only on a very narrow majority in the
Senate. The composition of the coalition was heterogeneous, combining
parties of communist ideology, the
Party of Italian Communists and
Communist Refoundation Party , within the same government as parties
of Catholic inspiration,
Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy
Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy and UDEUR
Populars . The latter was led by
Clemente Mastella , former chairman
of Christian Democracy. Therefore, according to critics, it was
difficult to have a single policy in different key areas, such as
economics and foreign politics (for instance, Italian military
Romano Prodi at the Helligendamm G8 Summit , June 2007.
In foreign policy, the
Prodi II Cabinet continued the engagement in
Afghanistan , under UN command, while withdrawing troops from
Iraq on 18 May 2006, when Prodi laid out some sense of
his new foreign policy , pledging to withdraw Italian troops from Iraq
and called the
Iraq war a "grave mistake that has not solved but
increased the problem of security".
The major effort of foreign minister Massimo D\'Alema concerned the
aftermath of the
2006 Lebanon War , being the first to offer troops to
the UN for the constitution of the
UNIFIL force, and assuming its
command in February 2007. In fact Prodi had a key role in the creation
of a multinational peacekeeping force in
Lebanon following the
Italy led negotiations with the Israeli foreign minister Tzipi Livni
and was proposed by Israel to head the multinational peacekeeping
mission, although the dangers of the mission for Italian troops
sparked warnings from the center-right opposition that it could prove
a "kamikaze" mission, with the peacekeepers sandwiched between Israel
and the well-armed
Hezbollah . Prodi and D’Alema pledged Italy’s
willingness to enforce the United Nations resolution on
European Union member states to do the same because the
stability of the Middle East should be a chief concern for Europeans.
Prodi's government faced a crisis over policies in early 2007, after
just nine months of government. Three ministers in Prodi's Cabinet
boycotted a vote in January to continue funding for Italian troop
deployments in Afghanistan. Lawmakers approved the expansion of the US
Caserma Ederle at the end of January, but the victory
was so narrow that Deputy Prime Minister
Francesco Rutelli criticised
members of the coalition who had not supported the government. At
around the same time, Justice Minister
Clemente Mastella , of the
coalition member UDEUR Populars, said he would rather see the
government fall than support its unwed couples legislation.
Tens of thousands of people marched in
Vicenza against the expansion
of Caserma Ederle, which saw the participation of some leading
far-left members of the government. Harsh debates followed in the
Italian Senate on 20 February 2007. Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign
Affairs Minister Massimo D\'Alema declared during an official visit in
Spain that, without a majority on foreign policy affairs, the
government would resign. The following day, D'Alema gave a speech at
the Senate representing the government, clarifying his foreign policy
and asking the Senate to vote for or against it. In spite of the fear
of many senators that Prodi's defeat would return
Silvio Berlusconi to
power, the Senate did not approve a motion backing Prodi's government
foreign policy, two votes shy of the required majority of 160.
Romano Prodi with President
Giorgio Napolitano .
After a Government meeting on 21 February,
Romano Prodi tendered his
resignation to the President
Giorgio Napolitano , who cut short an
official visit to
Bologna in order to receive the Prime Minister.
Prodi's spokesman indicated that he would only agree to form a new
Government "if, and only if, he is guaranteed the full support of all
the parties in the majority from now on." On 22 February, centre-left
coalition party leaders backed a non-negotiable list of twelve
political conditions given by Prodi as conditions of his remaining in
office. President Napolitano held talks with political leaders on 23
February to decide whether to confirm Prodi's Government, ask Prodi to
form a new government or call fresh elections.
Following these talks, on 24 February, President Napolitano asked
Prodi to remain in office but to submit to a vote of confidence in
both houses. "I will seek a vote of confidence as soon as possible,
with renewed impetus and a united and determined coalition," Prodi
said after meeting with President Giorgio Napolitano. On 28 February,
the Senate voted to grant confidence to Prodi's Government. Though
facing strong opposition from the centre-right coalition, the vote
resulted in a 162–157 victory. Prodi then faced a vote of confidence
in the lower house on 2 March, which he won as expected with a large
majority of 342–198.
On 14 October 2007, Prodi oversaw the merger of two main parties of
the Italian centre-left,
Democrats of the Left and Democracy is
Freedom – The Daisy , creating the Democratic Party . Prodi himself
led the merger of the two parties, which had been planned over a
twelve-year period, and became the first President of the party. He
announced his resignation from that post on 16 April 2008, two days
after the Democratic Party's defeat in the general election.
2008 CRISIS AND RESIGNATION
2008 Italian political crisis
In early January 2008, Justice Minister and Union of Democrats for
Europe 's leader
Clemente Mastella resigned after his wife Sandra
Lonardo was put under house arrest for corruption charges. With three
Senators, UDEUR was instrumental to ensure a narrow centre-left
majority in the Italian Senate.
After first promising to support the government, he later retracted
this support, and his party followed, in part also due to pressure
from the Vatican , for which the government's proposed laws in regards
to registered partnerships of same-sex couples, and other liberal
reforms were objectionable. Mastella also cited lack of solidarity
from the majority parties after the arrest of his wife, and declared
that his party would vote against the government bills since then.
The decision of former Minister of Justice Mastella arrived a few
days after the confirmation of the Constitutional Court which
confirmed the referendum to modify the electoral system. As stated
many times by Minister Mastella, if the referendum would have been
confirmed this would lead directly to the fall of the government and
The fall of the government would disrupt a pending election-law
referendum that if passed would make it harder for small parties like
Mastella's to gain seats in parliament.
The UDEUR defection forced caused Prodi to ask for a confidence vote
in both Chambers: he won a clear majority in the Chamber of Deputies
on 23 January, but was defeated 156 to 161 (with 1 abstention) in
the Senate the next day. He therefore tendered his resignation as
Prime Minister to President
Giorgio Napolitano , who accepted it and
appointed the President of the Senate,
Franco Marini , with the task
of evaulating possibilities for forming interim government to
implement electoral reforms prior to holding elections. Marini, after
consultation with all major political forces, acknowledged the
impossibility of doing so on 5 February, forcing Napolitano to
announce the end of the legislature. Prodi said that he would not
seek to lead a new government and snap election were called. In the
election that followed in April 2008, Berlusconi's centre-right The
People of Freedom and allies defeated the Democratic Party .
AFTER THE PREMIERSHIP
Romano Prodi in 2014.
On 19 March 2008, during the political campaign for the snap general
Romano Prodi stated "I called it a day with Italian politics
and maybe with politics in general."
On 12 September 2008, Prodi was named by the UN as head of a joint AU
-UN panel aimed at enhancing peacekeeping operations in Africa.
On 6 February 2009, he was appointed Professor-at-Large at the Watson
Institute for International Studies of
Brown University . Since 2010
Romano Prodi is the chair for Sino-European dialogue at the China
Europe International Business School (CEIBS – Shanghai"> Romano
Bologna , 2016.
On 16 April 2013, just a few day prior to the fourth ballot, Prodi
gave a lectio magistralis at the Pontifical University of St. Thomas
Aquinas, Angelicum entitled “I grandi cambiamenti della politica e
dell’economia mondiale: c’è un posto per l’Europa?” ("The
Great Changes in Politics and the World Economy: Is there Room for
Europe?). Prodi was sponsored by the Angelicum and the Università
degli Studi Guglielmo Marconi on behalf of the Political Science
program "Scienze Politiche e del Buon Governo."
A few days later, on 19 April, starting on the fourth ballot Prodi
was looked at seriously as a possible candidate. However, Prodi
announced he was pulling out of the race for president after more than
100 center-left electors didn't vote for him: he received only 395 (of
504 votes needed to be elected.) After this vote
Pier Luigi Bersani
Pier Luigi Bersani ,
leader of center-left Democratic Party announced his resignation as
HONOURS AND AWARDS
Albania : Received a copy of the key of the city of
Tirana on the
occasion of his state visit to Albania.
Italy : Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian
Republic – 2 June 1993
Poland : Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic
Poland – 1997
Spain : Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic
Romania : Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania
Order of the Three Stars , 1st Class – 2007
Order of the Rising Sun , Grand Cordon – 2012
* Laurea in Giurisprudenza (110 e lode) Università Cattolica Milano
Madras University (India, 1998)
Sofia University (Bulgaria, 1998)
Universitat Politecnica de Barcelona (Spain, 1998)
Brown University (United States, 1999)
University of Michigan
University of Michigan (United States, 1999)
* Economical studies Bucharest (Romania, 2000)
* Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium, 2000)
* University of
* Modena e
Reggio Emilia University (Italy, 2000)
University of Ottawa
University of Ottawa (Canada, 2000)
St. Gallen University (Switzerland, 2000)
Kyung Hee University
Kyung Hee University , (South Korea, 2000)
Pisa University (Italy, 2001)
* University of
Tirana (Albania, 2001)
Carleton University (Ottawa, Canada, 2001)
Instituto de Empresa de Madrid (Spain, 2002)
University of Oxford
University of Oxford , (United Kingdom, 2002)
Pavia University , (Italy, 2002)
Skopje University , (2003)
Tunis University , (Tunisia, 2003)
University of Calabria (Italy, 2003)
Torino University (Italy, 2004)
Lublin University (Poland, 2004)
Tongji University (P.R.China, 2006)
* Università Cattolica Milano (Italy, 2007)
Addis Abeba University (2007)
University of Calcutta
University of Calcutta (2007 )
* Friburg University (2008)
* MIRBIS University
* Chinese Academy of Governance (P.R.China, 2010)
* Nova Gorica University (2010)
* Nankai University (P.R.China, 2010)
University of Halle-Wittenberg (Germany, 2011)
Enlargement of the European Union
Enlargement of the European Union
Romano Prodi – Biografia
* ^ Quegli incarichi mai arrivati a Prodi. Il premier e il distacco
* ^ Il professor
Romano Prodi Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
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Romano Prodi – Onoreficenze
* ^ Detta anche Legge Prodi, ha introdotto nel nostro ordinamento
l\'amministrazione straordinaria delle grandi imprese in crisi
* ^ "Moro e i segreti, by Paolo Avanti, page at Cronologia italiana
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* ^ The supernatural element was generally not overlooked during
the investigations. For example, The Italian government had engaged a
diviner , hoping that he would find Moro's location. As document in
Sergio Flamigni's La tela del ragno (pages 102–103), the police made
another fruitless blitz in Viterbo after an abbess declared that,
during a vision, she had seen him there.
* ^ "Pellegrino: un\'intelligence a caccia delle carte di Moro, on
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stragi, 48th session, interview of Giovanni Moro, 9 March 1999
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* ^ Governo Ciampi
* ^ Quel summit Prodi-Berlusconi
* ^ Iri, comincia il dopo Prodi
* ^ Prodi: "Pronto a lavorare per il Centro"
* ^ Europee, si candidano tutti i leader
* ^ E Berlusconi prepara un "contratto con gli Italiani"
* ^ Cronoligia, anno 1996 – Mese di Febbraio
* ^ La storia del governo Prodi
Operation Alba on the UN website, accessed 2012 November
Operation Silver Wake
* ^ Colonel Marchio, Riccardo (2000). "OPERATION ALBA": A EUROPEAN
APPROACH TO PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS IN THE BALKANS. p. iii. "This
operation, in which 11 European countries took part"
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* ^ "Così io e D\'Alema facemmo cadere Prodi". May 2001.
* ^ Prodi to Have Wide, New Powers as Head of the European
Commission iht.com 16 April 1999
* ^ Commentary: Romano Prodi: Europe\'s First Prime Minister?
(int\'l edition) Businessweek.com 1999
* ^ Essential information for new arrivals in Derbyshire
* ^ Twenty years of Tony Blair: totting up the balance sheet
* ^ Primarie Pd, la storia: partì tutto da Prodi nel 2005
* ^ Quattro milioni e 300mila, Prodi al 74,1%
* ^ Unione, quasi 4 milioni di elettori. Prodi supera il 73%,
Bertinotti al 15,4%
* ^ Sturcke, James (18 May 2006). "Prodi condemns
Iraq war as
\'grave mistake\'". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 25 February 2007.
* ^ "
Italy to send up to 3,000 troops to Lebanon, largest pledge so
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* ^ Italy\'s Leader Asks Premier to Stay on.
Associated Press , 25
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occasioni". Archived from the original on 30 March 2008. Retrieved 3
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Italy as Special
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* ^ it:Università degli Studi "Guglielmo Marconi" Accessed 17,
* ^ http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/ Accessed 17 April
Italy center-left leader Bersani quits after vote debacle
Reuters. 19 April 2013. Accessed 20 April 2013
* ^ Received a copy of the key of the city of