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President of the European Commission
President of the European Commission
(1999–2004) Prime Minister of Italy
Prime Minister of Italy
(1996–1998; 2006–2008) -------------------------

* ELECTIONS

* 1996 Italian election * 1999 European election * 2006 Italian election

-------------------------

* POLITICAL CAREERR

* Operation Alba * Withdraw from Iraq
Iraq
* UNIFIL
UNIFIL
* 2008 Italian political crisis

-------------------------

* GOVERNMENTS

* First * Second

-------------------------

* EUROPEAN COMMISSION

* Amsterdam Treaty * Nice Treaty * European Constitution
European Constitution
* 2004 EU enlargement

ROMANO PRODI OMRI (Italian pronunciation: ( listen ); born 9 August 1939) is an Italian politician who served as the 10th President of the European Commission
European Commission
from 1999 to 2004. He served twice as Prime Minister of Italy
Italy
- from 17 May 1996 to 21 October 1998, and from 17 May 2006 to 8 May 2008. He is considered the founder of the Italian centre-left and one of the most prominent and iconic figures of the so-called Second Republic . Prodi is often nicknamed Il Professore ("The Professor"), due to his academic career.

A former professor of economics and international advisor to Goldman Sachs , Prodi ran in 1996 as lead candidate of The Olive Tree coalition, winning the general election and serving as Prime Minister of Italy
Italy
until 1998. Following the victory of his coalition The Union over the House of Freedoms
House of Freedoms
led by Silvio Berlusconi
Silvio Berlusconi
in the April 2006 Italian elections , Prodi took power again. On 24 January 2008, he lost a vote of confidence in the Senate house, and consequently tendered his resignation as Prime Minister to Italian President Giorgio Napolitano , but continued in office for almost four months for routine business, until early elections were held and a new government was formed.

Up to this time, he has been the only one lead candidate of Italian centre-left who won elections and managed to form a government without the need of opponents' parliamentary support.

On 14 October 2007, Prodi became the first President of the Democratic Party upon foundation of the party. On 12 September 2008, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
Ban Ki-moon
selected Prodi as president of the African Union
African Union
-UN peacekeeping panel. He is currently serving as the UN Special Envoy for the Sahel
Sahel
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Personal life * 2 Academic career

* 3 Early political career

* 3.1 Ministry of Industry and Moro\'s kidnapping

* 4 Business and administrative career

* 4.1 First term as IRI President * 4.2 Other offices * 4.3 Second term as IRI President

* 5 First term as Prime Minister

* 5.1 The Olive Tree and 1996 election * 5.2 Economic policy * 5.3 Foreign policy
Foreign policy
* 5.4 Resignation

* 6 President of the European Commission
President of the European Commission

* 6.1 Amsterdam Treaty * 6.2 Nice Treaty * 6.3 2004 enlargement and of the mandate

* 7 Return to Italian politics

* 7.1 The Union primary election

* 8 Second term as Prime Minister

* 8.1 Italian 2006 general election * 8.2 Government formation * 8.3 Foreign policy
Foreign policy
* 8.4 Coalition\'s troubles * 8.5 2008 crisis and resignation

* 9 After the premiership

* 9.1 2013 presidential candidate

* 10 Honours and awards

* 10.1 Academic awards

* 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 External links

PERSONAL LIFE

Prodi was born in Scandiano , in the province of Reggio Emilia , Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
. He is the eighth of nine children of Mario Prodi, an engineer originally from a peasant family, and Enrica, a primary school teacher. He has two sisters and six brothers, five of them being like him university professors (one of whom, Vittorio Prodi , has been also a Member of the European Parliament
Member of the European Parliament
; see also Giorgio Prodi , an oncologist and biosemiotician ).

Prodi married Flavia Franzoni in 1969. He was married by Camillo Ruini , now a well-known cardinal . They have two sons, Giorgio and Antonio. He and his family still live in Bologna
Bologna
.

ACADEMIC CAREER

After completing his secondary education at the Liceo Ludovico Ariosto in Reggio Emilia, Prodi graduated in law at Milan
Milan
's Università Cattolica in 1961 with a thesis on the role of Protectionism
Protectionism
in the development of Italian industry. He then carried out postgraduate studies at the London School of Economics
London School of Economics
.

In 1963 Prodi joined the Christian Democracy party. In the same year he became a teaching assistant for Beniamino Andreatta in the Department of Economics and the Faculty of Political Science at the University of Bologna
Bologna
, subsequently serving as associate professor (1966) and finally (1971–1999) as Professor of Industrial Organisation and Industrial Policy. Prodi has also been a visiting professor at Harvard University
Harvard University
and a researcher at the Stanford Research Institute . His research covers mainly competition regulations and the development of small and medium businesses. He is also interested in industrial districts , anti-monopoly policies, relations between states and markets, and the dynamics of the different capitalistic models.

Between 1974 and 1978 he chaired Il Mulino publishing house, in 1982 he became director of the magazines Energia and L'Industria. In 1981 he founded Nomisma, a company of economic studies and consultancy. He also cooperated with the newspapers Corriere della Sera
Corriere della Sera
and Il Sole 24 Ore .

Prodi has received almost 20 honorary degrees from institutions in Italy, and from the rest of Europe, North America, Asia, and Africa.

EARLY POLITICAL CAREER

Prodi's political career began as a left-of-centre reformist Christian Democrat and a disciple of Beniamino Andreatta , another economist turned politician. In 1963 he was elected municipal councilor in Reggio Emilia for the Christian Democracy, but after few years he resigned to continue his academic career.

MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY AND MORO\'S KIDNAPPING

On 25 November 1978 Prodi was appointed Minister of Industry, Commerce and Craftmanship in the government of the Christian Democratic leader Giulio Andreotti . Even if he was a DC member, Prodi was widely considered a "technical minister".

As minister he promoted a law, known as "Prodi law', which aimed a regulating of the extraordinary state administration procedure for the rescue of large enterprises in crisis.

On 2 April 1978, Prodi and other teachers at the University of Bologna
Bologna
passed on a tip-off that revealed the whereabouts of the safe house where the kidnapped Aldo Moro
Aldo Moro
, the former Prime Minister, was being held captive by the Red Brigades . Prodi claimed he had been given this tip-off by the founders of the Christian Democracy party, contacted from beyond the grave via a séance and a Ouija
Ouija
board . Whilst during this supposed séance Prodi thought the word Gradoli referred to a town on the outskirts of Rome, it probably referred to the Roman address of a Red Brigades safe house, located at no. 96, Via Gradoli. Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
with President Sandro Pertini and Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti in 1978.

The information was trusted and a police group made an armed blitz in the town of Gradoli, 80 km from Rome
Rome
, on the following day, 6 April though Moro was not found.

Prodi spoke to the Italian parliament's commission about the case in 1981. In the notes of the Italian parliament commission on terrorism the séance is described as a fake, used to hide the true source of the information. In 1997 Giulio Andreotti declared that the information came from the Bologna
Bologna
section of Autonomia Operaia , a far-left organization with some ties with the BR, and that Cossiga also knew the true source. Judge Ferdinando Imposimato considered Andreotti's theory as "possible", but accused him of having kept information that could have been valuable in a trial about Moro's murder.

Moro's widow later declared that she had repeatedly informed the police that a via Gradoli existed in Rome, but the investigators did not consider it; some replied to her that the street did not appear in Rome's maps. This is confirmed by other Moro relatives, but strongly denied by Francesco Cossiga , who served as Interior Minister during Moro's kidnapping.

In the 1990s
1990s
the séance matter was reopened by the Italian parliament's commission on terrorism. While Prodi (then Prime Miinister) declared that he had no time for an interview, both Baldassarri (senator and vice-minister in two Berlusconi cabinets) and Clò (Minister of Industry in Lamberto Dini 's cabinet and owner of the house where the séance was performed) responded to the call: they confirmed the circumstances of the séance, and that the word "Gradoli" had appeared in several sessions, even if the participants had changed.

Later, other Italian members of the European Commission
European Commission
claimed Prodi had invented this story to conceal the real source of the tip-off, which they believed t o have originated somewhere among the far-left Italian political groups.

This issue came back again in 2005, when Prodi was accused of being "a KGB
KGB
man" by Mario Scaramella . The same accusation was raised in 2002 by the Mitrokhin Commission .

This claim was further repeated by Gerard Batten , the Member of the European Parliament
European Parliament
for London who claimed he was informed of this by his constituent and former FSB operative, Alexander Litvinenko

BUSINESS AND ADMINISTRATIVE CAREER

In the seventies he had a first managerial assignment as president of Maserati
Maserati
and the boat company "Callegari and Ghigi", companies in difficulty managed by the public financial institution GEPI (Company for Industrial Management and Investments) in order to remedy them.

FIRST TERM AS IRI PRESIDENT

Prodi with Minister Luigi Granelli in 1985.

In 1982–1989 Prodi was appointed, by Prime Minister Giovanni Spadolini , President of the influential state-owned industrial holding company Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (IRI). He was the first economist to lead the IRI.

During his presidency Prodi approved the sale of twenty-nine companies in the group (the largest one was Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
, which was privatized in 1986), the reduction of the number of employees, the liquidation of Finsider, Italsider and Italstat companies, extraordinary operations in important companies like STET and Finmeccanica
Finmeccanica
and the attempted sale of Southern Electricity Company (SME) to the CIR group of Carlo De Benedetti ; however this operation was heavily hindered by the government of Bettino Craxi
Bettino Craxi
. A group of entrepreneurs, including Silvio Berlusconi
Silvio Berlusconi
, made an alternative bid to block the sale; the offer was not honored for financial shortcomings, but the sale of SME blocked.

Thanks to Prodi's policies, in 1987, for the first time in more than a decade, the IRI was in profit .

OTHER OFFICES

After leaving his position in 1989, Prodi ran the Bologna
Bologna
based consulting company Analisi e Studi Economici, which he jointly owned along with his wife. Between 1990 and 1993 the company earned £ 1.4 million, most of which was paid by the investment bank Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
.

Through the late 1980s and early 1990s
1990s
he continuously served various government committees.

SECOND TERM AS IRI PRESIDENT

In 1993 he was between the main candidates to become Prime Minister at the head of a technocratic government , but the Governor of the Bank of Italy Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
was chosen for this office by President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
.

In 1993–1994 Prodi was appointed again President of the IRI, by Ciampi, where he oversaw extensive privatization of public assets. For his activities in this period Prodi would later twice come under investigation – firstly for an alleged conflict of interest in relation to contracts awarded to his own economic research company in relation to the Italdel- Siemens
Siemens
merger, and secondly concerning the sale of the loss-making state-owned food conglomerate SME to the multinational Unilever
Unilever
, for which he had previously been a paid consultant.

Prodi's former employer Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
was involved in both of the deals. In February 2007 the Italian Treasury Police raided the Milan office of Goldman Sachs, where they removed a file called "MTononi /memo-Prodi02.doc". They also obtained a letter to Siemens
Siemens
from the Frankfurt
Frankfurt
office of Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
regarding the Italdel deal, which revealed that Prodi was made the Senior Advisor of Goldman Sachs International in Italy
Italy
in March 1990. In November 1996, after Prodi had been elected Prime Minister, Rome
Rome
prosecutor Guiseppa Geremia concluded that there was enough evidence to press charges against Prodi for conflict of interest in the Unilever
Unilever
deal. The case was however shut down within weeks by superiors, while Geremia was "exiled to Sardinia
Sardinia
".

FIRST TERM AS PRIME MINISTER

On 25 May 1994, Prodi went to Palazzo Chigi to announce his resignation as IRI President to the new Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi ; the resignation had been formalised on 31 May and became effective on 22 July.

On 11 August Prodi announced to the Gazzetta di Reggio of his intent to enter politics. A few months earlier, Prodi had rejected a proposal from the Italian People\'s Party (PPI) to run for the 1994 European election .

THE OLIVE TREE AND 1996 ELECTION

See also: Italian general election, 1996 and The Olive Tree (Italy)
The Olive Tree (Italy)
Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
during the electoral campaign in 1996.

On 13 February 1995 Prodi, along with his close friend Arturo Parisi , founded his political alliance The Olive Tree . Prodi's aim was to build a centre-left coalition composed by centrist and leftist parties, opposed to the centre-right alliance led by Silvio Berlusconi, who resigned from the office of Prime Minister few weeks before, when Lega Nord
Lega Nord
withdrew his support to the government.

The movement was immediately supported by Mariotto Segni , leader of the centrist Segni Pact ; after few weeks the post-communist Democratic Party of the Left
Democratic Party of the Left
of Massimo D\'Alema , the PPI and the Federation of the Greens also joined the Olive Tree coalition.

On 19 February 1996, the outgoing Prime Minister Lamberto Dini announced that he would run in the election with a new party called Italian Renewal , allied with Prodi's Olive Tree rather than Berlusconi's Pole for Freedoms . Shortly after Berlusconi claimed that Dini "copied his electoral programme".

On election day, Prodi's Olive Tree coalition won over Berlusconi's Pole for Freedoms, becoming the first coalition composed by a post-communist party to win general election since the Second World War . In the Senate The Olive Tree obtained the majority, but in the Chamber it required the external support of Communist Refoundation Party .

On 17 May 1996, Prodi received from President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro the task of forming a new government.

ECONOMIC POLICY

Prodi's economic programme consisted in continuing the past governments' work of restoration of the country's economic health, in order to pursue the then seemingly unreachable goal of leading the country within the strict European Monetary System parameters in order to allow the country to join the Euro
Euro
currency. He succeeded in this in little more than six months.

FOREIGN POLICY

During his first premiership, Prodi faced the Albanian civil war ; his government proposed the so-called "Operation Alba" ("Sunrise"), a multinational peacekeeping force sent to Albania
Albania
in 1997 and led by Italy
Italy
. It was intended to help the Albanian government restore law and order in their troubled country after the 1997 rebellion in Albania
Albania
. Prodi with US Secretary of Defence
US Secretary of Defence
, William Cohen
William Cohen
.

Following the degenerating loss of administrative control by the Government in the first days of March 1997, culminating in the desertion of most Police and many Republican Guard and Army units, leaving their armouries open to the inevitable looting which soon followed, several Nations autonomously helped evacuate their Nationals, causing wider concerns about the fate of others. The UN Security Council therefore agreed United Nations Security Council Resolution 1101 as a stop-gap operation to manage this and buy time, laying the foundations for another International Organisation to manage a planned reconstruction, which after six weeks of debate fell to the Western European Union
Western European Union
, creating the Multinational Albanian Police Element around a command structure of Italian Military Carabinieri, which actually undertook the work of Judicial and Police reconstruction, extending into the elimination of the economic causes of the crisis.

The Italian 3rd Army Corps assumed responsibility for the stop-gap mission as Operation Alba, the first multinational Italian-led Mission since World War II. Eleven contributing European Nations brought humanitarian aid to a country that was in a dramatic economic and political situation.

RESIGNATION

Prodi's government fell in 1998 when the Communist Refoundation Party withdrew its external support. This led to the formation of a new government led by Massimo D\'Alema as Prime Minister. There are those who claim that D'Alema, along with People's Party leader Franco Marini , deliberately engineered the collapse of the Prodi government to become Prime Minister himself. As the result of a vote of no confidence in Prodi's government, D'Alema's nomination was passed by a single vote. This was the first occasion in the history of the Italian republic on which a vote of no confidence had ever been called; the Republic's many previous governments had been brought down by a majority "no" vote on some crucially important piece of legislation (such as the budget).

PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION

Main article: Prodi Commission Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
with Göran Persson and George W. Bush
George W. Bush
at Gunnebo Slott
Gunnebo Slott
near Gothenburg
Gothenburg
, June 2001.

In September 1999 Prodi, a strong supporter of European Integration
European Integration
, became President of the European Commission
President of the European Commission
, thanks to the support of both the conservative European People\'s Party , the social-democratic Party of European Socialists and the centrist Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party in the European Parliament.

His commission took office on 13 September 1999 following the scandal and subsequent resignation of the Santer Commission which had damaged the reputation of the institution. It took over from the interim Marín Commission. The College consisted of 20 Commissioners which grew to 30 following the Enlargement of the European Union
Enlargement of the European Union
in 2004. It was the last commission to see two members allocated to the larger member states .

This commission (the 10th) saw in increase in power and influence following Amsterdam Treaty . Some in the media described president Prodi as being the first "Prime Minister of the European Union
European Union
".

AMSTERDAM TREATY

It was during Prodi's presidency, in 2002, that eleven EU member states left their national currencies and adopted the euro as their single currency. This commission (the 10th) saw in increase in power and influence following Amsterdam Treaty .

The treaty was the result of long negotiations which began in Messina, Sicily
Messina, Sicily
, on 2 June 1995, nearly forty years after the signing of the Treaty of Rome
Rome
, and reached completion in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
on 18 June 1997. Following the formal signing of the Treaty on 2 October 1997, the Member States engaged in an equally long and complex ratification process. The European Parliament
European Parliament
endorsed the treaty on 19 November 1997, and after two referendums and 13 decisions by parliaments, the Member States finally concluded the procedure.

Under this treaty the member states agreed to devolve certain powers from national governments to the European Parliament
European Parliament
across diverse areas, including legislating on immigration, adopting civil and criminal laws, and enacting foreign and security policy (CFSP), as well as implementing institutional changes for expansion as new member nations join the EU.

Due to this increased power of the Commission President, some media described President Prodi as being the first "Prime Minister of the European Union".

NICE TREATY

Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
in Moscow
Moscow
, 2001.

As well as the enlargement and Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Treaty, the Prodi Commission also saw the signing and enforcement of the Treaty of Nice
Treaty of Nice
as well as the conclusion and signing of the European Constitution
European Constitution
: in which he introduced the "Convention method" of negotiation. The treaty was signed by European leaders on 26 February 2001 and came into force on 1 February 2003.

It amended the Maastricht Treaty
Maastricht Treaty
(or the Treaty on European Union) and the Treaty of Rome
Rome
(or the Treaty establishing the European Community which, before the Maastricht Treaty, was the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community). The Treaty of Nice reformed the institutional structure of the European Union
European Union
to withstand eastward expansion, a task which was originally intended to have been done by the Amsterdam Treaty , but failed to be addressed at the time.

The entry into force of the treaty was in doubt for a time, after its initial rejection by Irish voters in a referendum in June 2001. This referendum result was reversed in a subsequent referendum held a little over a year later.

2004 ENLARGEMENT AND OF THE MANDATE

Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
with Russian President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
in 2004.

In 2004, his last year as Commission President, the European Union was enlarged to admit several more member nations, most formerly part of the Soviet bloc . It was the largest single expansion of the European Union
European Union
(EU), in terms of territory, number of states, and population to date; however, it was not the largest in terms of gross domestic product. It occurred on 1 May 2004.

The simultaneous accessions concerned the following countries (sometimes referred to as the "A10" countries ): Cyprus
Cyprus
, the Czech Republic , Estonia
Estonia
, Hungary
Hungary
, Latvia
Latvia
, Lithuania
Lithuania
, Malta
Malta
, Poland
Poland
, Slovakia
Slovakia
, and Slovenia
Slovenia
. Seven of these were part of the former Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
(of which three were from the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and four were and still are members of the Central European alliance Visegrád Group
Visegrád Group
), one of the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(together sometimes referred to as the "A8" countries ), and the remaining two were Mediterranean
Mediterranean
islands and former British colonies .

Part of the same wave of enlargement was the accession of Bulgaria and Romania
Romania
in 2007 , who were unable to join in 2004, but, according to the Commission, constitute part of the fifth enlargement.

The commission was due to leave office on 31 October 2004, but due to opposition from the European parliament
European parliament
to the proposed Barroso Commission which would succeed it, it was extended and finally left office on 21 November 2004. When his mandate expired, Prodi returned to domestic politics.

RETURN TO ITALIAN POLITICS

THE UNION PRIMARY ELECTION

See also: Italian centre-left primary election, 2005

Shortly before the end of his term as President of the European Commission, Prodi returned to national Italian politics at the helm of the enlarged centre-left coalition, The Union . Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
in Bari
Bari
, during the electoral campaign.

Having no party of his own, in order to officially state his candidacy for the 2006 general election , Prodi came up with the idea of an apposite primary election , the first of such kind to be ever introduced in Europe and seen by its creator (Prodi himself) as a democratic move to bring the public and its opinion closer to the Italian politics.

When the primary elections were first proposed, they were mostly meant as a plebiscite for Romano Prodi, since there were no other candidates to the leadership of the coalition. The secretary of the Communist Refoundation Party, Fausto Bertinotti , then announced he would run for the leadership, even if only to act as a symbolic candidate , to avoid a one-candidate election. After some time, more candidates were presented, like Union of Democrats for Europe leader Clemente Mastella , Italy
Italy
of Values leader and former magistrate Antonio Di Pietro , Federation of the Greens leader Alfonso Pecoraro Scanio and others few minor candidates.

The primary election may have been foreseen an easy win for Romano Prodi, with the other candidates running mostly to "measure their strengths" in the coalition, and they often talked about reaching a certain percentage rather than winning. However, there were rumours of supporters of the House of Freedoms
House of Freedoms
trying to participate in the elections, and vote in favour of Mastella, reputed to be the least competent of the candidates and the least likely to win against Berlusconi, other than the most centrist; other rumours indicated such "fake" left-wing voters would vote for Bertinotti, because his leadership would likely lose any grip on the political centre .

The election had been held nationwide on 16 October 2005, from 8am to 10pm. Poll stations were mainly managed on a voluntary basis; they were hosted mainly in squares, local party quarters, schools, and even restaurants , bars , campers and a hairdresser ; some polling stations were also provided outside the country for Italians abroad. Most of the party leaders claimed a result of 1 million voters would be a good success for the election, but over four million people for the occasion went to cast a vote in the primary election.

SECOND TERM AS PRIME MINISTER

ITALIAN 2006 GENERAL ELECTION

After having won the centre-left primary election, Prodi led The Union coalition in the 2006 election . The Union was an heterogeneous alliance, which was formed by centrist parties like UDEUR and communists like PRC and Party of Italian Communists .

Prodi led his coalition to the electoral campaign preceding the election, eventually on 9 and 10 April won by a very narrow margin of 25,000 votes, and a final majority of two seats in the Senate . Initial exit polls suggested a victory for Prodi, but the results narrowed as the count progressed. On 11 April 2006, Prodi declared victory; Berlusconi never conceded defeat explicitly but this is not required by the Italian law . Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
in 2007.

Preliminary results showed The Union leading the House of Freedoms
House of Freedoms
in the Chamber of Deputies , with 340 seats to 277, thanks to obtaining a majority bonus (actual votes were distributed 49.81% to 49.74%). One more seat is allied with The Union ( Aosta Valley
Aosta Valley
) and 7 more seats in the foreign constituency. The House of Freedoms
House of Freedoms
had secured a slight majority of Senate seats elected within Italy
Italy
(155 seats to 154), but The Union won 4 of the 6 seats allocated to voters outside Italy
Italy
, giving them control of both chambers.

On 19 April 2006, Italy's Supreme Court of Cassation ruled that Prodi had indeed won the election, winning control of the Chamber of Deputies by only 24,755 votes out of more than 38 million votes cast, and winning 158 seats in the Senate to 156 for Berlusconi's coalition. Even so, Berlusconi refused to concede defeat, claiming unproven fraud.

GOVERNMENT FORMATION

Prodi's appointment was somewhat delayed, as the outgoing President of the Republic, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
, ended his mandate in May, not having enough time for the usual procedure (consultations made by the President, appointment of a Prime Minister, motion of confidence and oath of office). After the acrimonious election of Giorgio Napolitano to replace Ciampi, Prodi could proceed with his transition to government. On 16 May he was invited by Napolitano to form a government. The following day, 17 May 2006, Prodi and his second cabinet were sworn into office.

Prodi's new cabinet drew in politicians from across his centre-left winning coalition, in addition to Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa , an unelected former official of the European Central Bank
European Central Bank
with no partisan membership. Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
obtained the support for his cabinet on 19 May at the Senate and on 23 May at the Chamber of Deputies .

The coalition led by Romano Prodi, thanks to the electoral law which gave the winner a sixty-seat majority, can count on a good majority in the Chamber of Deputies but only on a very narrow majority in the Senate. The composition of the coalition was heterogeneous, combining parties of communist ideology, the Party of Italian Communists and Communist Refoundation Party
Communist Refoundation Party
, within the same government as parties of Catholic inspiration, Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy
Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy
and UDEUR Populars . The latter was led by Clemente Mastella , former chairman of Christian Democracy. Therefore, according to critics, it was difficult to have a single policy in different key areas, such as economics and foreign politics (for instance, Italian military presence in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
).

FOREIGN POLICY

Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
at the Helligendamm G8 Summit , June 2007.

In foreign policy, the Prodi II Cabinet
Prodi II Cabinet
continued the engagement in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, under UN command, while withdrawing troops from post-invasion Iraq
Iraq
on 18 May 2006, when Prodi laid out some sense of his new foreign policy , pledging to withdraw Italian troops from Iraq and called the Iraq
Iraq
war a "grave mistake that has not solved but increased the problem of security".

The major effort of foreign minister Massimo D\'Alema concerned the aftermath of the 2006 Lebanon War , being the first to offer troops to the UN for the constitution of the UNIFIL
UNIFIL
force, and assuming its command in February 2007. In fact Prodi had a key role in the creation of a multinational peacekeeping force in Lebanon
Lebanon
following the Israel- Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict.

Italy
Italy
led negotiations with the Israeli foreign minister Tzipi Livni and was proposed by Israel to head the multinational peacekeeping mission, although the dangers of the mission for Italian troops sparked warnings from the center-right opposition that it could prove a "kamikaze" mission, with the peacekeepers sandwiched between Israel and the well-armed Hezbollah
Hezbollah
. Prodi and D’Alema pledged Italy’s willingness to enforce the United Nations resolution on Lebanon
Lebanon
and urged other European Union
European Union
member states to do the same because the stability of the Middle East should be a chief concern for Europeans.

COALITION\'S TROUBLES

Prodi's government faced a crisis over policies in early 2007, after just nine months of government. Three ministers in Prodi's Cabinet boycotted a vote in January to continue funding for Italian troop deployments in Afghanistan. Lawmakers approved the expansion of the US military base Caserma Ederle at the end of January, but the victory was so narrow that Deputy Prime Minister Francesco Rutelli criticised members of the coalition who had not supported the government. At around the same time, Justice Minister Clemente Mastella , of the coalition member UDEUR Populars, said he would rather see the government fall than support its unwed couples legislation.

Tens of thousands of people marched in Vicenza
Vicenza
against the expansion of Caserma Ederle, which saw the participation of some leading far-left members of the government. Harsh debates followed in the Italian Senate
Italian Senate
on 20 February 2007. Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Affairs Minister Massimo D\'Alema declared during an official visit in Ibiza
Ibiza
, Spain
Spain
that, without a majority on foreign policy affairs, the government would resign. The following day, D'Alema gave a speech at the Senate representing the government, clarifying his foreign policy and asking the Senate to vote for or against it. In spite of the fear of many senators that Prodi's defeat would return Silvio Berlusconi
Silvio Berlusconi
to power, the Senate did not approve a motion backing Prodi's government foreign policy, two votes shy of the required majority of 160. Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
with President Giorgio Napolitano .

After a Government meeting on 21 February, Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
tendered his resignation to the President Giorgio Napolitano , who cut short an official visit to Bologna
Bologna
in order to receive the Prime Minister. Prodi's spokesman indicated that he would only agree to form a new Government "if, and only if, he is guaranteed the full support of all the parties in the majority from now on." On 22 February, centre-left coalition party leaders backed a non-negotiable list of twelve political conditions given by Prodi as conditions of his remaining in office. President Napolitano held talks with political leaders on 23 February to decide whether to confirm Prodi's Government, ask Prodi to form a new government or call fresh elections.

Following these talks, on 24 February, President Napolitano asked Prodi to remain in office but to submit to a vote of confidence in both houses. "I will seek a vote of confidence as soon as possible, with renewed impetus and a united and determined coalition," Prodi said after meeting with President Giorgio Napolitano. On 28 February, the Senate voted to grant confidence to Prodi's Government. Though facing strong opposition from the centre-right coalition, the vote resulted in a 162–157 victory. Prodi then faced a vote of confidence in the lower house on 2 March, which he won as expected with a large majority of 342–198.

On 14 October 2007, Prodi oversaw the merger of two main parties of the Italian centre-left, Democrats of the Left
Democrats of the Left
and Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy , creating the Democratic Party . Prodi himself led the merger of the two parties, which had been planned over a twelve-year period, and became the first President of the party. He announced his resignation from that post on 16 April 2008, two days after the Democratic Party's defeat in the general election.

2008 CRISIS AND RESIGNATION

See also: 2008 Italian political crisis

In early January 2008, Justice Minister and Union of Democrats for Europe 's leader Clemente Mastella resigned after his wife Sandra Lonardo was put under house arrest for corruption charges. With three Senators, UDEUR was instrumental to ensure a narrow centre-left majority in the Italian Senate.

After first promising to support the government, he later retracted this support, and his party followed, in part also due to pressure from the Vatican , for which the government's proposed laws in regards to registered partnerships of same-sex couples, and other liberal reforms were objectionable. Mastella also cited lack of solidarity from the majority parties after the arrest of his wife, and declared that his party would vote against the government bills since then.

The decision of former Minister of Justice Mastella arrived a few days after the confirmation of the Constitutional Court which confirmed the referendum to modify the electoral system. As stated many times by Minister Mastella, if the referendum would have been confirmed this would lead directly to the fall of the government and it happened. The fall of the government would disrupt a pending election-law referendum that if passed would make it harder for small parties like Mastella's to gain seats in parliament.

The UDEUR defection forced caused Prodi to ask for a confidence vote in both Chambers: he won a clear majority in the Chamber of Deputies on 23 January, but was defeated 156 to 161 (with 1 abstention) in the Senate the next day. He therefore tendered his resignation as Prime Minister to President Giorgio Napolitano , who accepted it and appointed the President of the Senate, Franco Marini , with the task of evaulating possibilities for forming interim government to implement electoral reforms prior to holding elections. Marini, after consultation with all major political forces, acknowledged the impossibility of doing so on 5 February, forcing Napolitano to announce the end of the legislature. Prodi said that he would not seek to lead a new government and snap election were called. In the election that followed in April 2008, Berlusconi's centre-right The People of Freedom and allies defeated the Democratic Party .

AFTER THE PREMIERSHIP

Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
in 2014.

On 19 March 2008, during the political campaign for the snap general election, Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
stated "I called it a day with Italian politics and maybe with politics in general."

On 12 September 2008, Prodi was named by the UN as head of a joint AU -UN panel aimed at enhancing peacekeeping operations in Africa.

On 6 February 2009, he was appointed Professor-at-Large at the Watson Institute for International Studies of Brown University
Brown University
. Since 2010 Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
is the chair for Sino-European dialogue at the China Europe International Business School (CEIBS – Shanghai"> Romano Prodi in Bologna
Bologna
, 2016.

On 16 April 2013, just a few day prior to the fourth ballot, Prodi gave a lectio magistralis at the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum entitled “I grandi cambiamenti della politica e dell’economia mondiale: c’è un posto per l’Europa?” ("The Great Changes in Politics and the World Economy: Is there Room for Europe?). Prodi was sponsored by the Angelicum and the Università degli Studi Guglielmo Marconi on behalf of the Political Science program "Scienze Politiche e del Buon Governo."

A few days later, on 19 April, starting on the fourth ballot Prodi was looked at seriously as a possible candidate. However, Prodi announced he was pulling out of the race for president after more than 100 center-left electors didn't vote for him: he received only 395 (of 504 votes needed to be elected.) After this vote Pier Luigi Bersani
Pier Luigi Bersani
, leader of center-left Democratic Party announced his resignation as party's secretary.

HONOURS AND AWARDS

* Albania
Albania
: Received a copy of the key of the city of Tirana
Tirana
on the occasion of his state visit to Albania. * Italy
Italy
: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic – 2 June 1993 * Poland
Poland
: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland
Poland
– 1997 * Spain
Spain
: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic – 1998 * Romania
Romania
: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania – 2000 * Latvia
Latvia
: Order of the Three Stars , 1st Class – 2007 * Japan
Japan
: Order of the Rising Sun
Order of the Rising Sun
, Grand Cordon – 2012

ACADEMIC AWARDS

* Laurea in Giurisprudenza (110 e lode) Università Cattolica Milano (1961) * Madras University
Madras University
(India, 1998) * Sofia University (Bulgaria, 1998) * Universitat Politecnica de Barcelona (Spain, 1998) * Brown University
Brown University
(United States, 1999) * University of Michigan
University of Michigan
(United States, 1999) * Economical studies Bucharest (Romania, 2000) * Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium, 2000) * University of Malta
Malta
(2000) * Modena e Reggio Emilia University (Italy, 2000) * University of Ottawa
University of Ottawa
(Canada, 2000) * St. Gallen University (Switzerland, 2000) * Kyung Hee University
Kyung Hee University
, (South Korea, 2000) * Pisa University (Italy, 2001) * University of Tirana
Tirana
(Albania, 2001) * Carleton University
Carleton University
(Ottawa, Canada, 2001) * Instituto de Empresa de Madrid (Spain, 2002) * University of Oxford
University of Oxford
, (United Kingdom, 2002) * Pavia University , (Italy, 2002) * Skopje University
Skopje University
, (2003) * Tunis University
Tunis University
, (Tunisia, 2003) * University of Calabria (Italy, 2003) * Torino University (Italy, 2004) * Lublin University (Poland, 2004) * Tongji University (P.R.China, 2006) * Università Cattolica Milano (Italy, 2007) * Addis Abeba University
Addis Abeba University
(2007) * University of Calcutta (2007 ) * Friburg University (2008) * MIRBIS University Moscow
Moscow
(2009) * Chinese Academy of Governance (P.R.China, 2010) * Nova Gorica University (2010) * Nankai University (P.R.China, 2010) * University of Halle-Wittenberg (Germany, 2011)

SEE ALSO

* Enlargement of the European Union
Enlargement of the European Union
* Lisbon Agenda

NOTES

* ^ Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
– Biografia * ^ Quegli incarichi mai arrivati a Prodi. Il premier e il distacco dal Professore * ^ Il professor Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri * ^ "Former Italian PM to head African Union-UN peacekeeping panel". Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
website. 12 September 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2010. * ^ "Profile: Romano Prodi". BBC. 10 May 1999. Retrieved 25 February 2007. * ^ Fisher, Ian (12 April 2006). "A tenuous time for Mr. Serenity". International Herald Tribune
International Herald Tribune
. Retrieved 25 February 2007. * ^ Biography of Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
(in Italian) * ^ Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
– Onoreficenze * ^ Detta anche Legge Prodi, ha introdotto nel nostro ordinamento l\'amministrazione straordinaria delle grandi imprese in crisi * ^ "Moro e i segreti, by Paolo Avanti, page at Cronologia italiana history website". Cronologia.leonardo.it. Retrieved 2013-05-05. * ^ The supernatural element was generally not overlooked during the investigations. For example, The Italian government had engaged a diviner , hoping that he would find Moro's location. As document in Sergio Flamigni's La tela del ragno (pages 102–103), the police made another fruitless blitz in Viterbo after an abbess declared that, during a vision, she had seen him there. * ^ "Pellegrino: un\'intelligence a caccia delle carte di Moro, on \'\'La Repubblica online website\'\', 28 July 1999". Repubblica.it. Retrieved 2013-05-05. * ^ Dino Martiniano. "Macchè seduta spiritica per Moro". Corriere della Sera. April 12, 1999. * ^ Commissione parlamentare d'inchiesta sul terrorismo in Italia e sulle cause della mancata individuazione dei responsabili delle stragi, 48th session, interview of Giovanni Moro, 9 March 1999 * ^ Willan, Philip (3 August 1999). "Seance points to problem for Prodi". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 25 February 2007. * ^ "\'Multiple attempts\' on Litvinenko". BBC. London. 22 January 2007. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. * ^ A B C D E F G Evans-Pritchard, Ambrose (19 June 2007). "Italians claim country run by Goldman Sachs". London: Telegraph Media Group . Retrieved 5 August 2013. * ^ Governo Ciampi * ^ Quel summit Prodi-Berlusconi * ^ Iri, comincia il dopo Prodi * ^ Prodi: "Pronto a lavorare per il Centro" * ^ Europee, si candidano tutti i leader * ^ E Berlusconi prepara un "contratto con gli Italiani" * ^ Cronoligia, anno 1996 – Mese di Febbraio * ^ La storia del governo Prodi * ^ Operation Alba on the UN website, accessed 2012 November * ^ Operation Silver Wake
Operation Silver Wake
* ^ Operation Libelle
Operation Libelle
* ^ Colonel Marchio, Riccardo (2000). "OPERATION ALBA": A EUROPEAN APPROACH TO PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS IN THE BALKANS. p. iii. "This operation, in which 11 European countries took part" * ^ NATO, NRDC-IT Emblem, accessed November 2011 * ^ "Così io e D\'Alema facemmo cadere Prodi". May 2001. * ^ Prodi to Have Wide, New Powers as Head of the European Commission iht.com 16 April 1999 * ^ Commentary: Romano Prodi: Europe\'s First Prime Minister? (int\'l edition) Businessweek.com 1999 * ^ Essential information for new arrivals in Derbyshire * ^ Twenty years of Tony Blair: totting up the balance sheet * ^ Primarie Pd, la storia: partì tutto da Prodi nel 2005 * ^ Quattro milioni e 300mila, Prodi al 74,1% * ^ Unione, quasi 4 milioni di elettori. Prodi supera il 73%, Bertinotti al 15,4% * ^ Centre-left claims Italy
Italy
victory, BBC News
BBC News
* ^ http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/europe/04/11/italy.elections/index.html * ^ Sturcke, James (18 May 2006). "Prodi condemns Iraq
Iraq
war as \'grave mistake\'". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 25 February 2007. * ^ " Italy
Italy
to send up to 3,000 troops to Lebanon, largest pledge so far". Haaretz
Haaretz
. 22 August 2006. Retrieved 22 August 2006. * ^ Smith, Craig S. (24 August 2006). "France Pledges More Troops to Lebanon". New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2010. * ^ "Rift threatens Italian coalition". BBC News. 2 February 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2007. * ^ "Italians march in US base protest". BBC News. 17 February 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2007. * ^ "Italian PM Prodi resigns after foreign policy defeat". CBC News . 21 February 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2007. * ^ "Italian PM hands in resignation". BBC News. 21 February 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2007. * ^ A B "Italian coalition \'to back Prodi". BBC News. 23 February 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2007. * ^ "Italian PM asked to resume duties". BBC News. 24 February 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2007. * ^ Italy\'s Leader Asks Premier to Stay on. Associated Press
Associated Press
, 25 February 2007. * ^ * ^ "Italy\'s ruling coalition weakened". BBC News. 17 January 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2008. * ^ Jeff Israely (2008-01-24). "How An Italian Government Falls". TIME . Archived from the original on 29 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-27. * ^ "Italian court okays referendum on election law" Reuters, January 16th 2008 * ^ "Legge elettorale, Mastella minaccia la crisi" Corriere della Sera, April 10, 2007 * ^ "Mastella: Se c\'è referendum si rischia la crisi di governo" La Stampa, April 10, 2007 * ^ "Prodi Likely to Quit, Prompt Vote or Election Reform" Bloomberg.com * ^ "Embattled Italy
Italy
PM backed by MPs". BBC News. 23 January 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2008. * ^ (in Italian) Crisi di governo: il Senato sfiducia Prodi – Wikinotizie. It.wikinews.org. Retrieved on 24 August 2013. * ^ "DOMANI LO SCIOGLIMENTO DELLE CAMERE" (in Italian). Ansa . 5 February 2008. Archived from the original on 4 February 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2008. * ^ Andrew Davis and Steve Scherer, "Prodi Government Near Collapse After Key Ally Defects (Update2)", Bloomberg.com, 22 January 2008. * ^ "Berlusconi declares election win". BBC News. 14 April 2008. * ^ ANSA. "Prodi, lascio la politica ma il mondo è pieno di occasioni". Archived from the original on 30 March 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2008. * ^ Thomson Reuters Foundation News, Information and Connections for Action. Alertnet.org. Retrieved on 24 August 2013. * ^ "Former Italian Prime Minister Appointed Professor-at-Large". Brown University. 6 February 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2010. * ^ Secretary-General Appoints Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
of Italy
Italy
as Special Envoy for Sahel. Un.org. Retrieved on 24 August 2013. * ^ "Prodi, Romano". Club de Madrid. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * ^ "Former Steering Committee Members". bilderbergmeetings.org. Bilderberg Group . Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2014. * ^ it:Università degli Studi "Guglielmo Marconi" Accessed 17, 2013 * ^ http://angelicumnewsletterblog.blogspot.com/ Accessed 17 April * ^ Italy
Italy
center-left leader Bersani quits after vote debacle Reuters. 19 April 2013. Accessed 20 April 2013 * ^ Received a copy of the key of the city of Tirana
Tirana
Archived 11 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ http://www.mofa.go.jp/announce/info/conferment/pdfs/2012_au.pdf

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