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War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession

Seven Years\' War

* Battle of Fort Beausejour
Fort Beausejour
* Bay of Fundy Campaign * St. John River Campaign * Battle of Beauport * Battle of the Plains of Abraham
Battle of the Plains of Abraham
* Capture of Martinique
Martinique

American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War

* Armada of 1779
Armada of 1779

OTHER WORK MP for Pontefract Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Governor of Province of New York
Province of New York
Governor of Berwick-upon-Tweed
Berwick-upon-Tweed
Governor of Portsmouth
Portsmouth
MP for Portsmouth
Portsmouth

ROBERT MONCKTON (24 June 1726 – 21 May 1782) was an officer of the British army
British army
and also a colonial administrator in British North America . He had a distinguished military and political career, being second in command to General Wolfe at the battle of Quebec
Quebec
and later being named the Governor of the Province of New York
Province of New York
. Monckton is also remembered for his role in a number of other events in the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years\' War ), including the capture of Fort Beausejour
Fort Beausejour
, and the island of Martinique
Martinique
, as well as for his role in the deportation of the Acadians from British controlled Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and also from French-controlled Acadia
Acadia
(present-day New Brunswick
New Brunswick
). The city of Moncton
Moncton
, New Brunswick, (about 50 km west of Fort Beausejour
Fort Beausejour
) and Fort Monckton in Port Elgin, New Brunswick
New Brunswick
, are named for him.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life

* 2 French and Indian War
French and Indian War

* 2.1 Fort Beausejour
Fort Beausejour
* 2.2 Acadian
Acadian
deportation * 2.3 The Plains of Abraham * 2.4 Capture of Martinique
Martinique

* 3 Later life * 4 Legacy * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

EARLY LIFE

Robert Monckton
Robert Monckton
was the second son of Elizabeth Manners and John Monckton (later the first Viscount Galway ) and, like many second sons of British aristocrats, he entered military service. He enlisted in 1741 at the age of 15 and received a commission in the 3rd Regiment of Foot Guards . He saw action in the War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession
, later staying on in Flanders
Flanders
after the bulk of the British Army
British Army
had been recalled in 1745 to deal with the Jacobite Rebellion
Jacobite Rebellion
. He rose rapidly through the ranks, eventually becoming lieutenant colonel in charge of the 47th Foot in early 1752.

Monckton's father died later that year and he subsequently inherited the family controlled seat of Pontefract in Parliament. He resigned his parliamentary seat within the year, after receiving a military posting (with the 47th Foot) in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
as commander of Fort Lawrence , which was located on the frontier with Acadia
Acadia
, facing Fort Beausejour across the Missaguash River
Missaguash River
. Monckton stayed in this posting for less than a year but the experience he gained during this time would prove invaluable to him during subsequent events.

Monckton was called to Halifax in 1753 to preside over a court martial but was asked to stay on as a member of the colonial council. Monckton deftly handled a minor uprising by German settlers (the Hoffman Insurrection) near Lunenburg, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
later that year.

FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR

Main article: Great Britain in the Seven Years War
Great Britain in the Seven Years War

In the winter of 1754, Governor Charles Lawrence of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Governor William Shirley
William Shirley
, under a general British directive, made plans to deal with French "encroachments" on the frontier of the British North American colonies. This process ultimately led to the beginning of the final French and Indian War
French and Indian War
and the onset of the Seven Years\' War in North America. One of the first actions of this war was to be at Fort Beausejour
Fort Beausejour
and Robert Monckton, with his intimate knowledge of the local fortifications, was invited to spend the winter in Boston to assist in the planning process.

FORT BEAUSEJOUR

See main article at Battle of Fort Beauséjour
Battle of Fort Beauséjour
View of Fort Beausejour showing the foundation of the Officers Quarters in the foreground, the modern (1930s)museum in the middle ground, and Cumberland Basin in the background. Monckton approached the fort from Aulac Ridge, which would be behind the observer.

In June 1755, Monckton, commanding a fleet of 31 transports and three warships carrying 270 British regular troops and 2,000 New England militia, entered Cumberland Basin . The ships dropped anchor at the mouth of the Missaguash River
Missaguash River
and the British forces were able to land unopposed. Using Fort Lawrence
Fort Lawrence
as a staging area, Monckton quickly surrounded Fort Beausejour
Fort Beausejour
and began a careful advancement on the fort from the north by moving along the top of Aulac Ridge. A two-week siege ensued. During this time sappers were used to dig zig-zag offensive trenches until they were close enough to the fort to allow for bombardment by 13-inch mortars. The French commander of the fort, Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor , being outnumbered more than four to one, realised that his position was untenable. Morale in the fort deteriorated considerably once word was received that reinforcements would not be arriving from Fortress Louisbourg. Desertions within the Acadian
Acadian
irregular ranks became a major problem. After one of the British mortar rounds hit the officers mess killing several French soldiers, Vergor decided to capitulate. The British forces then occupied the fort and renamed it Fort Cumberland (after the Duke of Cumberland ). Following the capitulation, Monckton treated the defeated French generously and offered the garrison passage to Fortress Louisbourg . He also pardoned the Acadian
Acadian
irregulars . The French commander of Fort Gaspareaux , on the opposite side of the Isthmus of Chignecto
Isthmus of Chignecto
, was offered (and subsequently agreed to) the same terms on the following day, thus securing the frontier of Nova Scotia . Fort Gaspareaux was subsequently renamed Fort Monckton.

ACADIAN DEPORTATION

Main article: Bay of Fundy Campaign (1755)
Bay of Fundy Campaign (1755)
Grand Pré: Deportation of the Acadians during the Bay of Fundy Campaign (1755)
Bay of Fundy Campaign (1755)
St. John River Campaign : Raid on Grimrose (present day Gagetown, New Brunswick
New Brunswick
). This is the only contemporaneous image of the Expulsion of the Acadians
Expulsion of the Acadians

Following the capture of Fort Beausejour, Governor Lawrence and the Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Council decided that the presence of Acadian
Acadian
irregulars helping in the defence of the fort constituted a "violation" of Acadian
Acadian
neutrality. This of course ignored the fact that the vast majority of the Acadians in the fort were from French controlled Acadia
Acadia
and not from British controlled Nova Scotia. Nevertheless, he used this as a pretext to force the Acadian
Acadian
inhabitants of Nova Scotia to swear an unqualified oath of allegiance to the British crown; something that the Acadian
Acadian
population of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
had been successfully able to avoid for 40 years. The Acadians again refused to comply. The die was thus cast and Lawrence subsequently issued the order to expel the Acadian
Acadian
population from the region. This decision was heavily influenced by the recent conflicts between the British colonial authorities and the Acadians in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
during Father Le Loutre\'s War . Lawrence's ordering of the deportation of the Acadians from Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
resulted in their dispersal to the other British North American colonies, as well as to Louisiana
Louisiana
and to France. Since Monckton and his expeditionary force (47th Foot) constituted the largest British military force in the area, Governor Lawrence placed them in charge of executing this order. On 10 August, under Lawrence's directive, Monckton rounded up 400 Acadian
Acadian
men (whom he had originally pardoned) and imprisoned them at Fort Cumberland to await deportation. Over the course of the next several months, the deportation effort spread to other French settlements on the Bay of Fundy and ultimately over 7,000 Acadian
Acadian
men, women and children were forced from their homes.

Monckton was named Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
later in 1755. He served in this capacity for three years; twice as acting Governor of the colony. Because of these administrative duties, he could not participate in the fall of Fortress Louisbourg in 1758, but later that same year, the now Colonel Monckton did lead a force of 2,000 men in the clearance of Acadian
Acadian
resistance (and the removal of the Acadian civilian population) from the lower Saint John River valley during the St. John River Campaign . This was the final act of the deportation drama. Following this action, all of Acadia
Acadia
came under British control.

THE PLAINS OF ABRAHAM

The Death of General Wolfe
The Death of General Wolfe
by Benjamin West
Benjamin West
. Brigadier
Brigadier
Robert Monckton is pictured standing to the left of General Wolfe and is illustrated holding his hand over his wounded chest.

Early in 1759, General James Wolfe
James Wolfe
chose Monckton to be his second in command for the assault on Quebec
Quebec
. Monckton's role in the siege and later the capture of Quebec
Quebec
was considerable. Monckton established control of the south shore of the St. Lawrence River
St. Lawrence River
facing Quebec
Quebec
and was placed in charge of the artillery batteries trained on Quebec
Quebec
from Lévis . Monckton later commanded the 47th Foot on the British right flank during the Battle of Beauport on 31 July.

As the siege wore on, General Wolfe and his three brigadiers came to dislike each other and disagreed as to how to conduct the battle plan. Monckton and the other two brigadiers, George Townshend and James Murray recommended a stealthy advance on Quebec
Quebec
from the west rather than another frontal attack on the Beauport shore . Wolfe eventually was swayed by their argument but instead of landing at Cap Rouge (as they recommended) he secretly chose to land at Anse au Foulon, where a narrow path led to the top of the bluff. Landing here would allow the British to gain direct access to the Plains of Abraham , only a short distance from the walls of Quebec. The landing was carried out at dawn on the morning of 13 September. Ironically, the French commander in charge of the encampment at the top of the bluff, and the first to encounter the English forces, was again the hapless de Vergor . The French encampment was quickly overrun and de Vergor shot and captured.

The Plains of Abraham were quickly gained and the British forces marshalled into fighting ranks. The French commander of Quebec, Louis Joseph de Montcalm decided to directly engage the British forces on the field. In the ensuing battle, Monckton again commanded the British right flank and was wounded in the chest. This prevented him from being present at the surrender of Quebec
Quebec
and, with Wolfe's death during the battle, it was Brigadier
Brigadier
George Townshend that received the French capitulation. Monckton resented this and, although severely wounded, he roused whatever strength he had to assume command of the defeated city. Monckton commanded Quebec
Quebec
for a month following the capitulation and demonstrated considerable concern for (and leniency with) the conquered civilian population. This was a strategically wise decision, as winter was approaching and the occupying British forces needed the goodwill of the civilian population in order to survive the season.

Monckton was relieved of his duties at Quebec
Quebec
on 26 October 1759 and was reassigned to New York for convalescence. He eventually recovered from his wound and, in 1760, was appointed Colonel of the 17th Regiment of Foot and commander of the British forces in the southern provinces (the provinces south of New York). Here, Monckton was charged with consolidating control of the area around Fort Pitt, as well as the Niagara region and the old French fortifications in the Alleghenies. In 1761, Monckton was promoted to the rank of major-general.

CAPTURE OF MARTINIQUE

Main article: British expedition against Martinique
Martinique
Major-General The Honourable Robert Monckton, at the Taking of Martinique, 1762 : by Benjamin West
Benjamin West
. This is the first full length portrait ever painted by West, and was commissioned to celebrate this great victory.

In 1762, Monckton was given the command by Jeffrey Amherst of the British expeditionary force against Martinique. The British invasion force consisted of approximately 8,000 men and with Admiral Rodney sailed from Barbados
Barbados
on 5 January, arriving off Martinique
Martinique
on 7 January. The forces landed unopposed on 16 January, near the southern tip of the island about 5 km from the principal town of Fort Royal ( Fort-de-France
Fort-de-France
). Monckton patiently constructed batteries for the subsequent offensive, which was not launched until 24 January. Under covering cannon fire, heavy fighting ensued on steep and uneven terrain especially around the high ground of Morne Grenier. By 28 January, Monckton's lines were secure and he had established firing positions overlooking Fort Royal. The town surrendered on 3 February and the remainder of the island was secured by 12 February. The terms of capitulation of the island, modelled on the surrender of Guadeloupe in 1759 with only a few minor changes, suggest that Monckton was a skilful and well-informed negotiator. From 26 February – 3 March, Monckton shipped off detachments to Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
, Grenada
Grenada
and Saint Vincent , all of which fell without resistance. Monckton had already made his arrangements for the capture of Tobago
Tobago
when he received orders requiring the presence of his troops for the attack on Havana, Cuba .

The capture of Martinique
Martinique
by Monckton was of tremendous strategic importance to the British war effort as it gave the British a very valuable bargaining chip in the subsequent peace negotiations. The French much desired the return of this valuable island and it's sugar plantations. At the Treaty of Paris , which ended the Seven Years' War, the French willingly bargained away Canada and Acadia
Acadia
in return for Martinique. Voltaire
Voltaire
at the time, famously stated that Canada was nothing more than "a few acres of snow ". The capture of Martinique thus helped to disproportionately influence the course of history in North America.

LATER LIFE

Monckton returned from the Caribbean later in 1762. He was subsequently named Governor of the Province of New York
Province of New York
. He held this position until 1765, even though he left North America for good in 1763 to return to England. In 1765 Monckton was appointed governor of Berwick-upon-Tweed
Berwick-upon-Tweed
. In 1770 he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general. Later, Monckton became interested in becoming the British military commander of India and although he had the East India Company nomination and some royal support, he was not offered the position. Instead, he was offered the command of the British army
British army
in North America which he declined. In 1778 he became governor of Portsmouth
Portsmouth
and MP for the town in the Admiralty interest. Also that year, his younger brother, Henry Monckton was killed while leading the grenadiers at the Battle of Monmouth
Battle of Monmouth
in New Jersey during the evacuation of Philadelphia. The following year, Robert Monckton organised Portsmouth's defences against the Armada of 1779
Armada of 1779
(during the American War of Independence
American War of Independence
). Monckton died on 21 May 1782 at age 55 and is buried in St. Mary Abbot\'s Church , Kensington, London .

LEGACY

Monckton's actions in The Maritimes
Maritimes
has led to his veneration in the region. The city of Moncton
Moncton
, New Brunswick
New Brunswick
(near Fort Beausejour) is named for him. As of 2016, the population of Metro Moncton
Moncton
(Moncton, Dieppe , and Riverview ) is 144,810.

Monckton, however, remains somewhat of a controversial historical figure. He is generally reviled by the Acadian
Acadian
population of the Maritimes
Maritimes
for his role in the deportation, but for the most part, Monckton was merely a subordinate following Governor Lawrence's directives. Aside from the deportation debacle, Monckton can be considered as one of the more skilled British commanders during the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
and as a competent administrator.

Writing in 1884 about the later assessments of the historical event, noted 19th-century historian Francis Parkman concludes, "New England humanitarianism , melting into sentimentality at a tale of woe, has been unjust to its own. Whatever judgment may be passed on the cruel measure of wholesale expatriation, it was not put in execution till every resource of patience and persuasion had been tried in vain."

As an example of the mixed emotions surrounding Monckton's legacy, "The Un-Canadians", a 2007 article in Beaver Magazine, includes Robert Monckton in a list of people in the history of Canada who were considered by the authors contemptible: "Lieutenant-General Robert Monckton, a colonial administrator in British North America, implemented the exile of the Acadians in 1755."

SEE ALSO

* Military history of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia

REFERENCES

* ^ The Un-Canadians Beaver;Aug/Sep2007, Vol. 87 Issue 4,

.