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The River
River
Tyne /ˈtaɪn/ ( listen) is a river in North East England
England
and its length (excluding tributaries) is 73 miles (118 km).[1] It is formed by the confluence of two rivers: the North Tyne
North Tyne
and the South Tyne. These two rivers converge at Warden Rock near Hexham
Hexham
in Northumberland
Northumberland
at a place dubbed 'The Meeting of the Waters'. The North Tyne
North Tyne
rises on the Scottish border, north of Kielder Water. It flows through Kielder Forest, and in and out of the border. It then passes through the village of Bellingham before reaching Hexham. The South Tyne
South Tyne
rises on Alston Moor, Cumbria
Cumbria
and flows through the towns of Haltwhistle
Haltwhistle
and Haydon Bridge, in a valley often called the Tyne Gap. Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
lies to the north of the Tyne Gap. Coincidentally the source of the South Tyne
South Tyne
is very close to the sources of the other two great rivers of the industrial north east namely the Tees and the Wear. The South Tyne
South Tyne
Valley falls within the North Pennines
North Pennines
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty
(AONB) - the second largest of the 40 AONBs in England
England
and Wales. The combined Tyne flows from the convergence point at Warden Rock just to the north west of Hexham, the area where the river's now thriving barbel stocks were first introduced in the mid-1980s, through Corbridge
Corbridge
in Northumberland. It enters the county of Tyne and Wear between Clara Vale
Clara Vale
(in the Borough of Gateshead
Gateshead
on the south bank) and Tyne Riverside Country Park (in Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
on the north bank) and continues to divide Newcastle and Gateshead
Gateshead
for 13 miles (21 km), in the course of which it is spanned by 10 bridges. To the east of Gateshead
Gateshead
and Newcastle, the Tyne divides Hebburn
Hebburn
and Jarrow
Jarrow
on the south bank from Walker and Wallsend
Wallsend
on the north bank. Jarrow
Jarrow
and Wallsend
Wallsend
are linked underneath the river by the Tyne Tunnel. Finally it flows between South Shields
South Shields
and Tynemouth
Tynemouth
into the North Sea.[2] The Tyne Rivers Trust measure the whole Tyne catchment as 2,936 square kilometres (1,134 sq mi), containing around 4,399 kilometres (2,733 mi) of waterways.[3] The River
River
Tyne is believed to be around 30 million years old.[4]

Contents

1 Conservation history 2 Port of Tyne 3 Origins of name 4 River
River
crossings

4.1 River
River
Tyne 4.2 River
River
North Tyne 4.3 River
River
South Tyne

5 Artworks and sculpture

5.1 Newcastle-upon-Tyne 5.2 Salmon Trail 5.3 Conversation Piece 5.4 Bamboo Bridge

6 Conservation 7 Songs featuring the Tyne 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Conservation history[edit] The conservation of the Tyne has been handled by various bodies over the past 500 years. Conservation bodies have included: Newcastle Trinity House,[5] and the Tyne Improvement Commission.[5] The Tyne Improvement Commission conservation lasted from 1850 until 1968.[5] The 1850-1950 era was the worst period for pollution of the river.[5] The Tyne Improvement Commission laid the foundations for what has become the modern day Port of Tyne.[6] Under the management of the Tyne Improvement Commissioners, over a period of the first 70 years the Tyne was deepened from 1.83 to 9.14 meters and had 150 million tonnes dredged from it.[6] Inside these 70 years, the two Tyne piers were built;[6] Northumbrian, Tyne and Albert Docks were built[6] as well as the staithes at Whitehill and Dunston.[6] This infrastructure enabled millions of tonnes of cargo to be handled by the Port by 1910.[6] As of 2018 the tidal river is now managed by the Port of Tyne Authority, and has been managed by the Port of Tyne Authority since 1968.[5][6] Port of Tyne[edit] Main article: Port of Tyne

The River
River
Tyne at Bill Quay

With its proximity to surrounding coalfields, the Tyne was a major route for the export of coal from the 13th century until the decline of the coal mining industry in North East England
England
in the second half of the 20th century. The largest coal staithes were located at Dunston in Gateshead, Hebburn
Hebburn
and Tyne Dock, South Shields. The dramatic wooden staithes (a structure for loading coal onto ships) at Dunston, built in 1890, have been preserved, although they were partially destroyed by fire in 2006.[7] In 2016, Tyne Dock, South Shields
South Shields
was still involved with coal, importing 2 million tonnes of shipments a year. The lower reaches of the Tyne were, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, one of the world's most important centres of shipbuilding, and there are still shipyards in South Shields
South Shields
and Hebburn
Hebburn
to the south of the river. To support the shipbuilding and export industries of Tyneside, the lower reaches of the river were extensively remodelled during the second half of the 19th century, with islands removed and meanders in the river straightened. Origins of name[edit] Nothing definite is known of the origin of the designation "Tyne", nor is the river known by that name until the Saxon period: Tynemouth
Tynemouth
is recorded in Anglo-Saxon as Tinanmuðe (probably dative case). There is a theory that Tīn was a word that meant "river" in the local Celtic language or in a language spoken in England
England
before the Celts came: compare Tardebigge. There is also a river Tyne that rises in Midlothian in Scotland and flows through East Lothian into the North Sea. The River
River
Vedra on the Roman map of Britain may be the Tyne, or may be the River
River
Wear. The late Thomas John Taylor supposed that the main course of the river anciently flowed through what is now Team Valley, its outlet into the tidal river being by a waterfall at Bill Point (in the area of Bill Quay). His theory is not far from the truth, as there is evidence that prior to the last Ice Age, the River
River
Wear did once follow the current route of the lower River
River
Team, merging with the Tyne at Dunston. Ice diverted the course of the Wear to its current location, flowing east the course of the Tyne) and joining the North Sea
North Sea
at Sunderland. River
River
crossings[edit] River
River
Tyne[edit]

The Tyne Bridge
Tyne Bridge
across the River
River
Tyne between Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
and Gateshead. Taken from the deck of the Gateshead
Gateshead
Millennium Bridge, looking west and upstream.

The River
River
Tyne flowing through Newcastle upon Tyne

Shields Ferry
Shields Ferry
(ferry service between North and South Shields) New Tyne Tunnel
Tyne Tunnel
(road) Old Tyne Tunnel
Tyne Tunnel
(road) Tyne Pedestrian & Cycle Tunnel (foot, bicycle) Gateshead
Gateshead
Millennium Bridge (foot, bicycle) Tyne Bridge
Tyne Bridge
(road, foot) Swing Bridge (road, foot) High Level Bridge
High Level Bridge
(rail, road, foot) Queen Elizabeth II Metro Bridge (Metro light rail) King Edward VII Bridge
King Edward VII Bridge
(rail) Redheugh Bridge
Redheugh Bridge
(road, foot) Scotswood Bridge
Scotswood Bridge
(road, foot) Scotswood Railway Bridge
Scotswood Railway Bridge
(disused rail, now carries water and gas mains) Blaydon Bridge
Blaydon Bridge
(road) Newburn Bridge
Newburn Bridge
(road, foot) Wylam Bridge
Wylam Bridge
(road, foot) Wylam Railway Bridge
Wylam Railway Bridge
(foot, bicycle, disused rail) Ovingham Footbridge (foot) Ovingham Bridge
Ovingham Bridge
(road) Bywell
Bywell
Bridge (road, foot) Styford Bridge
Styford Bridge
(road, foot) Corbridge
Corbridge
Bridge (road, foot) Hexham
Hexham
Bridge (road, foot) Hexham
Hexham
Old Bridge (road, swept away 1771) Border Counties Bridge
Border Counties Bridge
(former rail, only piers remain) Constantius Bridge
Constantius Bridge
(road)

26 crossings in total River
River
North Tyne[edit]

Chesters Bridge
Chesters Bridge
(ruined Roman bridge) Chollerford Bridge
Chollerford Bridge
(road, foot) Wark Bridge
Wark Bridge
(foot) Bellingham Bridge
Bellingham Bridge
(road, foot) Tarset Bridge (road, foot) Greystead Bridge (foot) Falstone Bridge (road, foot) Kielder Viaduct
Kielder Viaduct
(foot – previously rail) Kerseycleugh Bridge (road, foot)

7 crossings in total, 6 in use River
River
South Tyne[edit]

Warden Railway Bridge
Warden Railway Bridge
(rail) Warden Bridge
Warden Bridge
(road, foot) New Haydon Bridge
Haydon Bridge
(road) Old Haydon Bridge
Haydon Bridge
(foot) Haydon Bridge
Haydon Bridge
Viaduct (road, foot) Lipwood Railway Bridge
Lipwood Railway Bridge
(rail) Ridley Bridge
Ridley Bridge
(road, foot) Ridley Railway Bridge
Ridley Railway Bridge
(rail) Millhouse Bridge
Millhouse Bridge
(at Bardon Mill) (foot) Haltwhistle
Haltwhistle
A69 Bridge, East (road) Alston Arches Viaduct
Alston Arches Viaduct
(at Haltwhistle) (disused rail) Blue Bridge, Haltwhistle
Haltwhistle
(at Haltwhistle) (foot – previously road) Bellister Bridge
Bellister Bridge
(at Haltwhistle) (foot – previously road) Haltwhistle
Haltwhistle
A69 Bridge, West (road, foot) Featherstone Bridge
Featherstone Bridge
(road, foot) Featherstone Castle Footbridge
Featherstone Castle Footbridge
(foot) Diamond Oak Bridge
Diamond Oak Bridge
(at Coanwood) (road, foot) Lambley Footbridge
Lambley Footbridge
(foot) Lambley Viaduct
Lambley Viaduct
(foot – previously rail) Eals Footbridge (foot) Eals Bridge
Eals Bridge
(road, foot) Parson Shields Farm Bridge (road, private) Slaggyford
Slaggyford
Bridge (road) Kirkhaugh
Kirkhaugh
Footbridge (foot) Harbut Lodge Railway Bridge (rail) Tyne (or Brewery) Bridge (at Alston) (road, foot) Garrigill Bridge (road, foot)

27 crossings in total Artworks and sculpture[edit] Newcastle-upon-Tyne[edit]

River
River
God Tyne by David Wynne at Newcastle Civic Centre

The river is represented, and personified, in a sculpture unveiled in 1968 as part of the new Civic Centre (seat of Newcastle City Council). Sculpted by David Wynne, the massive bronze figure incorporates flowing water into its design.[8] Salmon Trail[edit] The Environment Agency is currently working with architects and cultural consultancy xsite, in collaboration with Commissions North, to create a travelling sculpture trail along the River
River
Tyne. The Tyne Salmon Trail[9] will serve as a celebration of the river, its heritage and its increasingly diverse ecosystem. Historically a major symbol in the regional identity of the North East of England, the river plays host to a plethora of different species, the number of which is growing year on year in line with the rivers improving health. The Tyne Salmon Trail looks to capture the imagination of residents and tourists visiting the area - providing them with the ultimate 'fact finding' design experience, which celebrates the salmon's migratory journey in the Northeast of England. FINS, REFLECTION and JOURNEY were the first 3 cubes to be launched in December 2007 from a family of 10. Each cube is inspired by the textures, changing colours, movement and journey of the salmon. With each offering a 'modern day keepsake' to take away, in the form of a designed Bluetooth message. The other cubes will be moving along the River
River
Tyne over 1 year visiting different locations from Kielder to the Mouth of the Tyne in the summer 2008 before starting their long journey back to their birthplace. Conversation Piece[edit]

Created by acclaimed Spanish sculptor, Juan Muñoz
Juan Muñoz
in 1999. Celebrating the Tyne Salmon;[9] here with the 2008 River
River
Tyne Bluetooth Salmon Trail Cubes,[10] are the 22 bronze life size figures that command and celebrate a superb view of South Shields
South Shields
Harbour and the Tyne Piers.

Bamboo Bridge[edit] For three days, between 18–20 July 2008, a temporary bamboo artwork was installed over the Tyne close to the Gateshead
Gateshead
Millennium Bridge. The Bambuco Bridge
Bambuco Bridge
was created as part of that year's 'SummerTyne' festival. Conservation[edit] The River
River
Tyne has a charity dedicated to protecting and enhancing its waters and surrounding areas. The Tyne Rivers Trust, established in 2004, is a community-based organisation that works to improve habitat, promote better understanding of the Tyne catchment area and build the reputation of the Tyne catchment as a place of environmental excellence.[11] Songs featuring the Tyne[edit]

Asonance
Asonance
- Kopce u pramenů řeky Tyne / Hills on Tyne's source (a Czech adaptation of the folk song The Rolling Hills of the Borders, which does not mention the Tyne) Blur - This Is a Low Busker - Home Newcastle Elvis Costello
Elvis Costello
- Oliver's Army Elton John
Elton John
- Merry Christmas Maggie Thatcher ( Billy Elliot
Billy Elliot
musical) Mark Knopfler
Mark Knopfler
- Sailing to Philadelphia, Why Aye Man, Fare Thee Well Northumberland, 5.15 A.M. Lindisfarne - Fog on the Tyne Madness - Driving in My Car Jimmy Nail - Big River Gretchen Peters
Gretchen Peters
- England
England
Blues Hilton Valentine - River
River
Tyne Kate Rusby
Kate Rusby
- Bring Me a Boat Sting - All This Time, I Was Brought To My Sense Dire Straits
Dire Straits
- Southbound Again, Down to the Waterline Gazza - Fog on the Tyne Traditional, covered by Sting - Waters of Tyne Renaissance
Renaissance
- Back Home Once Again (The Paper Lads' TV Theme) Roger Whittaker
Roger Whittaker
- Durham Town (even though Durham is actually on the River
River
Wear and not the Tyne) Eric Burdon and the Animals
Eric Burdon and the Animals
- The Immigrant Lad The Nice
The Nice
- Five Bridges
Five Bridges
Suite Genesis - Blood on the Rooftops Big Big Train
Big Big Train
- Swan Hunter

See also[edit]

UK Waterways portal

Association of Rivers Trusts Rivers of the United Kingdom Tyne Valley, Prince Edward Island Tuxedo Princess Northeast England Tyne, the name of one of the sea areas of the British Shipping Forecast.

References[edit]

^ a b Owen, Susan; et al. (2005). Rivers and the British Landscape. Carnegie. ISBN 978-1-85936-120-7.  ^ a b c "Environment Agency - River
River
Tyne Salmon Action Plan Review" (PDF). Environment Agency - APEM REF EA 410230. July 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2013.  ^ "Facts & Figures". tyneriverstrust.org. 2 June 2013. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013. The Tyne Catchment covers 2,936 km2 (1,134 sq mi) and contains around 4,399 km (2,733 mi) of waterways. In the language of the Water Framework Directive (which currently drives so much of what is done on rivers) the Tyne Catchment contains 116 river water bodies and 19 lake water bodies.  ^ Tyne river trust staff. "The Tyne's origins". Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2017.  ^ a b c d e Henderson, Tony (16 January 2015), " River
River
Tyne's story revealed in study by environmental historian", The Journal, North East England  ^ a b c d e f g Port of Tyne staff (30 July 2017). "Tyne Improvement Commission". portoftyne.co.uk. Port of Tyne. Retrieved 30 July 2017.  ^ " Coal
Coal
heritage goes up in flames". bbc.co.uk. 20 November 2003. Retrieved 25 August 2008. "The staithes is a lot more than just a lump of wood in the Tyne, it is a magnificent structure and very important to the area's industrial heritage.  ^ Usherwood, Beach & Morris (2000). Public Sculpture of North-East England. Liverpool University Press.  ^ a b "Tyne Salmon Trail". 2008. Archived from the original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008. Ten cubes inspired by the textures, changing colours, movement and journey of the salmon will migrate along the River
River
Tyne, following the amazing journey of the salmon.  ^ Strug, Leah (21 July 2008). "Attraction's sending art lovers fishy messages". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette.  ^ "Tyne Rivers Trust". Charity. Tynerivertrust.org. 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2008. The Tyne Rivers Trust is an independent charity established to assist in management and improvement of the environment in the Tyne Catchment. The Trust aims to achieve this through Actions to: Improve Habitat; Get Better Information and Promote Better Understanding; Grow the Reputation of the Tyne Catchment and the Tyne Rivers Trust nationally and internationally 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to River
River
Tyne.

Bridges On The Tyne Online Charts of The Tyne, to Newcastle

.