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Richard Georg Strauss
Strauss
(11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas, which include Der Rosenkavalier, Elektra, Die Frau ohne Schatten and Salome; his Lieder, especially his Four Last Songs; his tone poems, including Don Juan, Death and Transfiguration, Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, Also sprach Zarathustra, Ein Heldenleben, Symphonia Domestica, and An Alpine Symphony; and other instrumental works such as Metamorphosen
Metamorphosen
and his Oboe Concerto. Strauss
Strauss
was also a prominent conductor in Western Europe and the Americas, enjoying quasi-celebrity status as his compositions became standards of orchestral and operatic repertoire. Strauss, along with Gustav Mahler, represents the late flowering of German Romanticism
German Romanticism
after Richard Wagner, in which pioneering subtleties of orchestration are combined with an advanced harmonic style.

Contents

1 Early life and family 2 Career as composer

2.1 Solo and chamber works and large ensembles 2.2 Tone poems and other orchestral works 2.3 Solo instrument with orchestra 2.4 Opera 2.5 Lieder
Lieder
and choral 2.6 Strauss
Strauss
in Nazi Germany

2.6.1 Reichsmusikkammer 2.6.2 Friedenstag 2.6.3 Metamorphosen 2.6.4 Last works

2.7 Death and legacy

3 Strauss
Strauss
as a conductor

3.1 Modern critical reception of selected recordings conducted by Strauss

4 Honors 5 Selected works

5.1 Keyboard and chamber 5.2 Tone poems and other orchestral works

5.2.1 First cycle of tone poems 5.2.2 Second cycle of tone poems 5.2.3 Ballet music 5.2.4 Other orchestral works

5.3 Solo instrument with orchestra 5.4 Opera 5.5 Vocal/choral

6 References 7 External links

Early life and family[edit]

Strauss
Strauss
aged 22

Strauss
Strauss
was born on 11 June 1864 in Munich, the son of Josephine (née Pschorr) and Franz Strauss, who was the principal horn player at the Court Opera
Opera
in Munich.[1] In his youth, he received a thorough musical education from his father. He wrote his first composition at the age of six, and continued to write music almost until his death. During his boyhood Strauss
Strauss
attended orchestra rehearsals of the Munich Court Orchestra (now the Bavarian State Orchestra), where he received private instruction in music theory and orchestration from an assistant conductor. In 1872, he started receiving violin instruction at the Royal School of Music from Benno Walter, his father's cousin. In 1874, Strauss
Strauss
heard his first Wagner operas, Lohengrin and Tannhäuser. The influence of Wagner's music on Strauss's style was to be profound, but at first his musically conservative father forbade him to study it. Indeed, in the Strauss
Strauss
household, the music of Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
was viewed with deep suspicion, and it was not until the age of 16 that Strauss
Strauss
was able to obtain a score of Tristan und Isolde. In later life, Strauss
Strauss
said that he deeply regretted the conservative hostility to Wagner's progressive works.[2] Nevertheless, Strauss's father undoubtedly had a crucial influence on his son's developing taste, not least in Strauss's abiding love for the horn. In early 1882, in Vienna, he gave the first performance of his Violin Concerto in D minor, playing a piano reduction of the orchestral part himself, with his teacher Benno Walter as soloist. The same year he entered Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, where he studied philosophy and art history, but not music. He left a year later to go to Berlin, where he studied briefly before securing a post as assistant conductor to Hans von Bülow, who had been enormously impressed by the young composer's Serenade for wind instruments, composed when he was only 16 years of age. Strauss
Strauss
learned the art of conducting by observing Bülow in rehearsal. Bülow was very fond of the young man, and decided that Strauss
Strauss
should be his successor as conductor of the Meiningen Court Orchestra
Meiningen Court Orchestra
when Bülow resigned in 1885. Strauss's compositions at this time were indebted to the style of Robert Schumann
Robert Schumann
or Felix Mendelssohn, true to his father's teachings. His Horn Concerto No. 1, Op. 11, is representative of this period and is a staple of the modern horn repertoire.

Strauss
Strauss
with his wife and son, 1910

Strauss
Strauss
married soprano Pauline de Ahna
Pauline de Ahna
on 10 September 1894. She was famous for being irascible, garrulous, eccentric and outspoken, but to all appearances the marriage was essentially happy, and she was a great source of inspiration to him. Throughout his life, from his earliest songs to the final Four Last Songs
Four Last Songs
of 1948, he preferred the soprano voice to all others, and all his operas contain important soprano roles. The Strausses had one son, Franz, in 1897. Franz married Alice von Grab-Hermannswörth, daughter of a Jewish industrialist, in a Roman Catholic ceremony in 1924.[3] Franz and Alice had two sons, Richard and Christian. Career as composer[edit] Solo and chamber works and large ensembles[edit] Some of Strauss's first compositions were solo instrumental and chamber works. These pieces include early compositions for piano solo in a conservative harmonic style, many of which are lost: two piano trios (1877 and 1878), a string quartet (1881), a piano sonata (1882), a cello sonata (1883), a piano quartet (1885), a violin sonata (1888), as well as a serenade (1882) and a longer suite (1884), both scored for double wind quintet plus two additional horns and contrabassoon. After 1890, Strauss
Strauss
composed very infrequently for chamber groups, his energies being almost completely absorbed with large-scale orchestral works and operas. Four of his chamber pieces are actually arrangements of portions of his operas, including the Daphne-Etude for solo violin and the String Sextet, which is the overture to his final opera Capriccio. His last independent chamber work, an Allegretto in E major for violin and piano, dates from 1948. He also composed two large-scale works for wind ensemble during this period: Sonatina No. 1 "From an Invalid's Workshop" (1943) and Sonatina No. 2 "Happy Workshop" (1946)—both scored for double wind quintet plus two additional horns, a third clarinet in C, bassett horn, bass clarinet, and contrabassoon. Tone poems and other orchestral works[edit]

Play media

Strauss
Strauss
in Amsterdam (short film 1924)

Main article: Tone poems (Strauss) Strauss
Strauss
wrote two early symphonies: Symphony No. 1 (1880) and Symphony No. 2 (1884). However, Strauss's style began to truly develop and change when, in 1885, he met Alexander Ritter, a noted composer and violinist, and the husband of one of Richard Wagner's nieces. It was Ritter who persuaded Strauss
Strauss
to abandon the conservative style of his youth and begin writing tone poems. He also introduced Strauss
Strauss
to the essays of Wagner and the writings of Arthur Schopenhauer. Strauss
Strauss
went on to conduct one of Ritter's operas, and at Strauss's request Ritter later wrote a poem describing the events depicted in Strauss's tone poem Death and Transfiguration.

Also Sprach Zarathustra

"Sunrise fanfare"

Problems playing this file? See media help.

The new influences from Ritter resulted in what is widely regarded[4] as Strauss's first piece to show his mature personality, the tone poem Don Juan (1888), which displays a new kind of virtuosity in its bravura orchestral manner. Strauss
Strauss
went on to write a series of increasingly ambitious tone poems: Death and Transfiguration
Death and Transfiguration
(1889), Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks
Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks
(1895), Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1896), Don Quixote (1897), Ein Heldenleben
Ein Heldenleben
(1898), Symphonia Domestica (1903) and An Alpine Symphony
An Alpine Symphony
(1911–1915). One commentator has observed of these works that "no orchestra could exist without his tone poems, written to celebrate the glories of the post-Wagnerian symphony orchestra."[5] James Hepokoski notes a shift in Strauss's technique in the tone poems, occurring between 1892 and 1893. It was after this point that Strauss
Strauss
rejected the philosophy of Schopenhauer and began more forcefully critiquing the institution of the symphony and the symphonic poem, thereby differentiating the second cycle of tone poems from the first. Solo instrument with orchestra[edit]

Burleske

Burleske
Burleske
(1885–86), performed by Neal O'Doan with the Seattle Philharmonic Orchestra

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Strauss's output of works for solo instrument or instruments with orchestra was fairly extensive. The most famous include two concertos for horn, which are still part of the standard repertoire of most horn soloists—Horn concerto No. 1 (1883) and Horn concerto No. 2 (1942); the Romanze for cello and orchestra (1883); a Violin Concerto in D minor (1882); the Burleske
Burleske
for piano and orchestra (1885, revised 1889); the tone poem Don Quixote for cello, viola and orchestra (1897); the well-known late Oboe Concerto in D major (1945); and the Duett-Concertino for clarinet and bassoon with string orchestra, which was one of his last works (1948). Opera[edit] See also: List of operas by Richard Strauss Around the end of the 19th century, Strauss
Strauss
turned his attention to opera. His first two attempts in the genre, Guntram (1894) and Feuersnot
Feuersnot
(1901), were controversial works: Guntram was the first significant critical failure of Strauss's career, and Feuersnot
Feuersnot
was considered obscene by some critics.[6]

Richard Strauss
Strauss
engraved by Ferdinand Schmutzer (1922)

In 1905, Strauss
Strauss
produced Salome, a somewhat dissonant modernist opera based on the play by Oscar Wilde, which produced a passionate reaction from audiences. The premiere was a major success, with the artists taking more than 38 curtain calls.[7] Many later performances of the opera were also successful, not only with the general public but also with Strauss's peers: Maurice Ravel
Maurice Ravel
said that Salome was "stupendous",[8] and Gustav Mahler
Gustav Mahler
described it as "a live volcano, a subterranean fire".[9] Strauss
Strauss
reputedly financed his house in Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Garmisch-Partenkirchen
completely from the revenues generated by the opera. As with the later Elektra, Salome features an incredibly taxing lead soprano role. Strauss
Strauss
often remarked that he preferred writing for the female voice, which is apparent in these two sister operas—the male parts are almost entirely smaller roles, included only to supplement the soprano's performance. Strauss's next opera was Elektra (1909), which took his use of dissonance even further, in particular with the Elektra chord. Elektra was also the first opera in which Strauss
Strauss
collaborated with the poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal. The two subsequently worked together on numerous occasions. For his later works with Hofmannsthal, Strauss moderated his harmonic language: he used a more lush, melodic late-Romantic style based on Wagnerian chromatic harmonies that he had used in his tone poems, with much less dissonance, and exhibiting immense virtuosity in orchestral writing and tone color. This resulted in operas such as Der Rosenkavalier
Der Rosenkavalier
(1911) having great public success. Strauss
Strauss
continued to produce operas at regular intervals until 1942. With Hofmannsthal he created Ariadne auf Naxos
Ariadne auf Naxos
(1912), Die Frau ohne Schatten (1919), Die ägyptische Helena
Die ägyptische Helena
(1928), and Arabella (1933). For Intermezzo (1924) Strauss
Strauss
provided his own libretto. Die schweigsame Frau (1935), was composed with Stefan Zweig
Stefan Zweig
as librettist; Friedenstag
Friedenstag
(1935–6) and Daphne (1937) both had a libretto by Joseph Gregor and Stefan Zweig; and Die Liebe der Danae
Die Liebe der Danae
(1940) was with Joseph Gregor. Strauss's final opera, Capriccio (1942), had a libretto by Clemens Krauss, although the genesis for it came from Stefan Zweig and Joseph Gregor. According to statistics compiled by Operabase, in number of operas performed worldwide over the five seasons from 2008/09 to 2012/13, Strauss
Strauss
was the second-most performed 20th-century opera composer, ahead of Benjamin Britten
Benjamin Britten
and behind only Giacomo Puccini.[10] Strauss tied with Handel
Handel
as the eighth most-performed opera composer from any century over those five seasons.[10] Over the five seasons from 2008/09 to 2012/13, Strauss's top five most-performed operas were Salome, Ariadne auf Naxos, Der Rosenkavalier, Elektra, and Die Frau ohne Schatten.[11] The most recent figures covering the five seasons 2011/12 to 2015/2016 show that Strauss
Strauss
was the tenth most performed opera composer, with Der Rosenkavalier
Der Rosenkavalier
overtaking Salome to become his most performed opera (the ranking of the other four remains the same).[12] Lieder
Lieder
and choral[edit] Strauss
Strauss
produced Lieder
Lieder
throughout his career. The Four Last Songs
Four Last Songs
are among his best known, along with "Ruhe, meine Seele!", "Cäcilie", "Morgen!", "Heimliche Aufforderung", "Traum durch die Dämmerung", and others. In 1948, Strauss
Strauss
wrote his last work, the Four Last Songs
Four Last Songs
for soprano and orchestra. He reportedly composed them with Kirsten Flagstad in mind and she gave the first performance, which was recorded. Strauss's songs have always been popular with audiences and performers, and are generally considered by musicologists—along with many of his other compositions—to be masterpieces. Strauss
Strauss
in Nazi Germany[edit] Reichsmusikkammer[edit] In March 1933, when Strauss
Strauss
was 68, Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and the Nazi Party rose to power. Strauss
Strauss
never joined the Nazi party, and studiously avoided Nazi forms of greeting. For reasons of expediency, however, he was initially drawn into cooperating with the early Nazi regime in the hope that Hitler—an ardent Wagnerian and music lover who had admired Strauss's work since viewing Salome in 1907—would promote German art and culture. Strauss's need to protect his Jewish daughter-in-law and Jewish grandchildren also motivated his behavior,[13] in addition to his determination to preserve and conduct the music of banned composers such as Gustav Mahler
Gustav Mahler
and Claude Debussy. In 1933, Strauss
Strauss
wrote in his private notebook:

I consider the Streicher-Goebbels Jew-baiting as a disgrace to German honour, as evidence of incompetence—the basest weapon of untalented, lazy mediocrity against a higher intelligence and greater talent.[14]

Meanwhile, far from being an admirer of Strauss's work, Joseph Goebbels maintained expedient cordiality with Strauss
Strauss
only for a period. Goebbels wrote in his diary:

Unfortunately we still need him, but one day we shall have our own music and then we shall have no further need of this decadent neurotic.[15]

Strauss
Strauss
was on the cover of TIME in 1927 and (here) 1938

Nevertheless, because of Strauss's international eminence, in November 1933 he was appointed to the post of president of the newly founded Reichsmusikkammer, the Reich Music Chamber. Strauss, who had lived through numerous political regimes and had no interest in politics, decided to accept the position but to remain apolitical, a decision which would eventually become untenable. He wrote to his family, "I made music under the Kaiser, and under Ebert. I'll survive under this one as well."[16] In 1935 he wrote in his journal:

In November of 1933, the minister Goebbels nominated me president of the Reichsmusikkammer
Reichsmusikkammer
without obtaining my prior agreement. I was not consulted. I accepted this honorary office because I hoped that I would be able to do some good and prevent worse misfortunes, if from now onwards German musical life were going to be, as it was said, "reorganized" by amateurs and ignorant place-seekers.[16]

Strauss
Strauss
privately scorned Goebbels and called him "a pipsqueak".[17] However, in 1933 he dedicated an orchestral song, "Das Bächlein" ("The Little Brook"), to Goebbels, in order to gain his cooperation in extending German music copyright laws from 30 years to 50 years.[18] Strauss
Strauss
attempted to ignore Nazi bans on performances of works by Debussy, Mahler, and Mendelssohn. He also continued to work on a comic opera, Die schweigsame Frau, with his Jewish friend and librettist Stefan Zweig. When the opera was premiered in Dresden in 1935, Strauss insisted that Zweig's name appear on the theatrical billing, much to the ire of the Nazi regime. Hitler and Goebbels avoided attending the opera, and it was halted after three performances and subsequently banned by the Third Reich.[19] On 17 June 1935, Strauss
Strauss
wrote a letter to Stefan Zweig, in which he stated:

Do you believe I am ever, in any of my actions, guided by the thought that I am 'German'? Do you suppose Mozart was consciously 'Aryan' when he composed? I recognise only two types of people: those who have talent and those who have none.[20]

This letter to Zweig was intercepted by the Gestapo
Gestapo
and sent to Hitler. Strauss
Strauss
was subsequently dismissed from his post as Reichsmusikkammer
Reichsmusikkammer
president in 1935. The 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics nevertheless used Strauss's Olympische Hymne, which he had composed in 1934. Strauss's seeming relationship with the Nazis in the 1930s attracted criticism from some noted musicians, including Arturo Toscanini, who in 1933 had said, "To Strauss
Strauss
the composer I take off my hat; to Strauss
Strauss
the man I put it back on again", when Strauss
Strauss
had accepted the presidency of the Reichsmusikkammer.[21] Much of Strauss's motivation in his conduct during the Third Reich was, however, to protect his Jewish daughter-in-law Alice and his Jewish grandchildren from persecution. Both of his grandsons were bullied at school, but Strauss
Strauss
used his considerable influence to prevent the boys or their mother being sent to concentration camps.[22] Friedenstag[edit] In 1938, when the entire nation was preparing for war, Strauss
Strauss
created Friedenstag
Friedenstag
(Peace Day), a one-act opera set in a besieged fortress during the Thirty Years' War. The work is essentially a hymn to peace and a thinly veiled criticism of the Third Reich. With its contrasts between freedom and enslavement, war and peace, light and dark, this work has a close affinity with Beethoven's Fidelio. Productions of the opera ceased shortly after the outbreak of war in 1939.

Strauss
Strauss
at Garmisch in 1938

When his Jewish daughter-in-law Alice was placed under house arrest in Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Garmisch-Partenkirchen
in 1938, Strauss
Strauss
used his connections in Berlin, including opera-house General Intendant Heinz Tietjen, to secure her safety. He drove to the Theresienstadt concentration camp in order to argue, albeit unsuccessfully, for the release of Alice's grandmother, Paula Neumann. In the end, Neumann and 25 other relatives were murdered in the camps.[23] While Alice's mother, Marie von Grab, was safe in Lucerne, Switzerland, Strauss
Strauss
also wrote several letters to the SS pleading for the release of her children who were also held in camps; his letters were ignored.[24] In 1942, Strauss
Strauss
moved with his family back to Vienna, where Alice and her children could be protected by Baldur von Schirach, the Gauleiter of Vienna. However, Strauss
Strauss
was unable to protect his Jewish relatives completely; in early 1944, while Strauss
Strauss
was away, Alice and his son Franz were abducted by the Gestapo
Gestapo
and imprisoned for two nights. Strauss's personal intervention at this point saved them, and he was able to take them back to Garmisch, where the two remained under house arrest until the end of the war. Metamorphosen[edit] Strauss
Strauss
completed the composition of Metamorphosen, a work for 23 solo strings, in 1945. The title and inspiration for the work comes from a profoundly self-examining poem by Goethe, which Strauss
Strauss
had considered setting as a choral work.[25] Generally regarded as one of the masterpieces of the string repertoire, Metamorphosen
Metamorphosen
contains Strauss's most sustained outpouring of tragic emotion. Conceived and written during the blackest days of World War II, the piece expresses Strauss's mourning of, among other things, the destruction of German culture—including the bombing of every great opera house in the nation. At the end of the war, Strauss
Strauss
wrote in his private diary:

The most terrible period of human history is at an end, the twelve year reign of bestiality, ignorance and anti-culture under the greatest criminals, during which Germany's 2000 years of cultural evolution met its doom.[26]

In April 1945, Strauss
Strauss
was apprehended by American soldiers at his Garmisch estate. As he descended the staircase he announced to Lieutenant Milton Weiss of the U.S. Army, "I am Richard Strauss, the composer of Rosenkavalier and Salome." Lt. Weiss, who was also a musician, nodded in recognition. An "Off Limits" sign was subsequently placed on the lawn to protect Strauss.[27] The American oboist John de Lancie, who knew Strauss's orchestral writing for oboe thoroughly, was in the army unit, and asked Strauss
Strauss
to compose an oboe concerto. Initially dismissive of the idea, Strauss
Strauss
completed this late work, his Oboe Concerto, before the end of the year. Last works[edit] The metaphor "Indian Summer" is often used by journalists, biographers, and music critics to describe Strauss's late creative upsurge from 1942 to the end of his life. The events of World War II seemed to bring the composer—who had grown old, tired, and a little jaded—into focus.[28] The major works of the last years of Strauss's life, written in his late 70s and 80s, include, among others, his Horn Concerto No. 2, Metamorphosen, his Oboe Concerto, and his Four Last Songs. The Four Last Songs, composed shortly before Strauss's death, deal with the subject of dying. The last one, "Im Abendrot" (At Sunset), ends with the line "Is this perhaps death?" The question is not answered in words, but instead Strauss
Strauss
quotes the "transfiguration theme" from his earlier tone poem, Death and Transfiguration—meant to symbolize the transfiguration and fulfilment of the soul after death. Death and legacy[edit]

Richard Strauss

Soon after the Munich
Munich
celebrations of the composer's 85th birthday, Strauss
Strauss
began to suffer from heart failure. He died at the age of 85 on 8 September 1949, in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, West Germany. Georg Solti, who had arranged Strauss's 85th birthday celebration, also directed an orchestra during Strauss's burial.[29] The conductor later described how, during the singing of the famous trio from Rosenkavalier, "each singer broke down in tears and dropped out of the ensemble, but they recovered themselves and we all ended together."[30] Strauss's wife, Pauline de Ahna, died eight months later, on 13 May 1950, at the age of 88.[31] Strauss's late works, modelled on "the divine Mozart at the end of a life full of thankfulness,"[32] are widely considered by music critics as the greatest works by any octogenarian composer. Strauss
Strauss
himself declared in 1947 with characteristic self-deprecation: "I may not be a first-rate composer, but I am a first-class second-rate composer." The Canadian pianist Glenn Gould
Glenn Gould
described Strauss
Strauss
in 1962 as "the greatest musical figure who has lived in this century."[33] Until the 1980s, Strauss
Strauss
was regarded by some post-modern musicologists as a conservative, backward-looking composer, but re-examination of and new research on the composer has re-evaluated his place as that of a modernist,[34] albeit one who still utilized and sometimes revered tonality and lush orchestration.[35] Strauss
Strauss
is noted for his pioneering subtleties of orchestration, combined with an advanced harmonic style; when he first played Strauss
Strauss
at a university production of Ariadne auf Naxos, the conductor Mark Elder
Mark Elder
"was flabbergasted. I had no idea music could do the things he was doing with harmony and melody."[36] Strauss's music had a considerable influence on composers at the start of the 20th century. Béla Bartók
Béla Bartók
heard Also sprach Zarathustra in 1902, and later said that the work "contained the seeds for a new life"; a Straussian influence is clearly present in his works of that period, including his First String Quartet, Kossuth, and Bluebeard's Castle.[37] Karol Szymanowski
Karol Szymanowski
was also greatly influenced by Strauss, reflected in such pieces as his Concert Overture and his first and second symphonies,[38] and his opera Hagith which was modeled after Salome. English composers were also influenced by Strauss, from Edward Elgar in his concert overture In the South (Alassio) and other works[39] to Benjamin Britten
Benjamin Britten
in his opera writing. Many contemporary composers recognise a debt to Strauss, including John Adams and John Corigliano.[40] Strauss's musical style played a major role in the development of film music in the middle of the 20th century. The style of his musical depictions of character (Don Juan, Till Eulenspiegel, the Hero) and emotions found their way into the lexicon of film music. Film music historian Timothy Schuerer wrote, "The elements of post (late) romantic music that had greatest impact on scoring are its lush sound, expanded harmonic language, chromaticism, use of program music and use of Leitmotifs. Hollywood composers found the post-romantic idiom compatible with their efforts in scoring film".[41] Max Steiner
Max Steiner
and Erich Korngold
Erich Korngold
came from the same musical world as Strauss
Strauss
and were quite naturally drawn to write in his style. As film historian Roy Prendergast wrote, "When confronted with the kind of dramatic problem films presented to them, Steiner, Korngold and Newman ... looked to Wagner, Puccini, Verdi and Strauss
Strauss
for the answers to dramatic film scoring."[42] Later, the opening to Also sprach Zarathustra became one of the best known pieces of film music when Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
used it in his 1968 movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. The film music of John Williams has continued the Strauss
Strauss
influence, in scores for mainstream hits such as Superman and Star Wars.[43] Strauss
Strauss
has always been popular with audiences in the concert hall and continues to be so. He has consistently been in the top 10 composers most performed by symphony orchestras in the US and Canada over the period 2002–10.[44] He is also in the top 5 of 20th Century composers (born after 1860) in terms of the number of currently available recordings of his works.[45] Strauss
Strauss
as a conductor[edit]

Stamp issued in 1954

Strauss, as conductor, made a large number of recordings, both of his own music as well as music by German and Austrian composers. His 1929 performances of Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks
Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks
and Don Juan with the Berlin State Opera
Opera
Orchestra have long been considered the best of his early electrical recordings. In the first complete performance of his An Alpine Symphony, made in 1941 and later released by EMI, Strauss used the full complement of percussion instruments required in this work. Koch Legacy has also released Strauss's recordings of overtures by Gluck, Carl Maria von Weber, Peter Cornelius, and Wagner. The preference for German and Austrian composers in Germany in the 1920s through the 1940s was typical of the German nationalism that existed after World War I. Strauss
Strauss
clearly capitalized on national pride for the great German-speaking composers. There were many other recordings, including some taken from radio broadcasts and concerts during the 1930s and early 1940s. The sheer volume of recorded performances would undoubtedly yield some definitive performances from a very capable and rather forward-looking conductor. In 1944, Strauss
Strauss
celebrated his 80th birthday and conducted the Vienna Philharmonic in recordings of his own major orchestral works, as well as his seldom-heard Schlagobers
Schlagobers
(Whipped Cream) ballet music. Some find more feeling in these performances than in Strauss's earlier recordings, which were recorded on the Magnetophon
Magnetophon
tape recording equipment. Vanguard Records later issued the recordings on LPs. Some of these recordings have been reissued on CD by Preiser. The last recording made by Strauss
Strauss
was on 19 October 1947 live at the Royal Albert Hall in London, where he conducted the Philharmonia Orchestra in his Burleske
Burleske
for piano and orchestra (Alfred Blumen piano), Don Juan and Sinfonia Domestica.[46] Strauss
Strauss
also made live-recording player piano music rolls for the Hupfeld system and in 1906 ten recordings for the reproducing piano Welte-Mignon
Welte-Mignon
all of which survive today. Strauss
Strauss
was also the composer of the music on the first CD to be commercially released: Deutsche Grammophon's 1983 release of their 1980 recording of Herbert von Karajan conducting the Alpine Symphony. Modern critical reception of selected recordings conducted by Strauss[edit]

Strauss
Strauss
conducting (circa 1900)

Pierre Boulez
Pierre Boulez
has said that Strauss
Strauss
the conductor was "a complete master of his trade".[47] Music critic Harold C. Schonberg writes that, while Strauss
Strauss
was a very fine conductor, he often put scant effort into his recordings.[48] Schonberg focused primarily on Strauss's recordings of Mozart's Symphony No. 40 and Beethoven's Symphony No. 7, as well as noting that Strauss
Strauss
played a breakneck version of Beethoven's 9th Symphony in about 45 minutes. Concerning Beethoven's 7th Symphony, Schonberg wrote, "There is almost never a ritard or a change in expression or nuance. The slow movement is almost as fast as the following vivace; and the last movement, with a big cut in it, is finished in 4 minutes, 25 seconds. (It should run between 7 and 8 minutes.)" [49] He also complained that the Mozart symphony had "no force, no charm, no inflection, with a metronomic rigidity." Peter Gutmann's 1994 review for ClassicalNotes.com says the performances of the Beethoven 5th and 7th symphonies, as well as Mozart's last three symphonies, are actually quite good, even if they are sometimes unconventional. Gutmann wrote:

It is true, as the critics suggest, that the readings forego overt emotion, but what emerges instead is a solid sense of structure, letting the music speak convincingly for itself. It is also true that Strauss's tempos are generally swift, but this, too, contributes to the structural cohesion and in any event is fully in keeping with our modern outlook in which speed is a virtue and attention spans are defined more by MTV clips and news sound bites than by evenings at the opera and thousand page novels.[50]

Honors[edit] His Honors included[51]

1903 (October 26), Honorary Doctorate, Heidelberg University. 1907 (June 30), Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur, Croix de Chevalier, Paris, France.[52] Officier, (June 14, 1914).[53] 1910, (November 24) Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art.[54] 1914 (June 24), Honorary Doctorate, Oxford University. Honorary citizen of Munich. 1924, (June 12), Pour le Mérite
Pour le Mérite
for Sciences and Art, German award.[55] 1924, Honorary Doctorate, University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna. Freedom of the cities of Vienna and Salzburg. 1932, New York College of Music Medal. 1936, (November 5), the Royal Philharmonic Society's Gold Medal. 1939, (April 28), Commandeur de L'Ordre de la Couronne, presented by Leopold III of Belgium.[56] 1949 (June 11), Honorary Doctorate, University of Munich.[57]

Selected works[edit] See also: List of compositions by Richard Strauss Keyboard and chamber[edit]

Five piano pieces (Fünf Klavierstücke) Op. 3 (1880–81) Sonata for piano in B minor, Op. 5
Sonata for piano in B minor, Op. 5
(1880–81) Sonata for Cello and Piano in F, Op. 6 (1883) Violin Sonata in E-flat, Op. 18 (1888) Stimmungsbilder, Op. 9 (piano)

Tone poems and other orchestral works[edit] See also: Tone poems (Strauss) First cycle of tone poems[edit]

Aus Italien (From Italy), Op. 16 (1886) Don Juan, Op. 20 (1888) Macbeth, Op. 23 (1888/90) Tod und Verklärung (Death and Transfiguration), Op. 24 (1888–89)

Second cycle of tone poems[edit]

Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche (Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks), Op. 28 (1895) Also sprach Zarathustra (Thus Spoke Zarathustra), Op. 30 (1896) Don Quixote, Op. 35 (1898) Ein Heldenleben
Ein Heldenleben
(A Hero's Life), Op. 40 (1899) Symphonia Domestica
Symphonia Domestica
(Domestic Symphony), Op. 53 (1904) Eine Alpensinfonie (An Alpine Symphony), Op. 64 (1915)

Ballet music[edit]

Josephslegende
Josephslegende
(The Legend of Joseph), Op. 63 (1914) Schlagobers
Schlagobers
(Whipped Cream), Op. 70 (1921/2) Verklungene Feste: Tanzvisionen aus zwei Jahrhunderten, (Bygone Celebrations: Dance Visions from Two Centuries), (1940).

Other orchestral works[edit]

Symphony No. 1 in D minor (1880) Symphony No. 2 in F minor, Op. 12 (1883) Festive Prelude for orchestra with organ (1913) Le bourgeois gentilhomme, suite for orchestra Op. 60 (1917) Dance suite from keyboard pieces by François Couperin, TrV 245, 1923. Film music for Der Rosenkavalier
Der Rosenkavalier
(1925) Japanese Festival Music
Japanese Festival Music
(1940) Divertimento for chamber orchestra after keyboard pieces by Couperin, Op.86 (1942) Metamorphosen, for 23 solo strings (1945)

Solo instrument with orchestra[edit]

Romance for Clarinet and Orchestra (1879) Violin Concerto in D minor, Op. 8 (1882) Horn Concerto No. 1 in E flat major, Op. 11 (1882/83) Romance for Cello and Orchestra (1883) Burleske
Burleske
for piano and orchestra (1886–1890) Don Quixote for cello, viola and orchestra Parergon zur Symphonia Domestica, for piano (left hand) and orchestra, Op. 73 (1925; ded. Paul Wittgenstein) Panathenäenzug, for piano (left hand) and orchestra, Op. 74 (1926–1927; ded. Wittgenstein) Horn Concerto No. 2 in E flat major (1942) Oboe Concerto in D major (1945) Duett-Concertino, for clarinet and bassoon with Harp and string orchestra (1947)

Opera[edit] Main article: List of operas by Richard Strauss Vocal/choral[edit]

Acht Lieder
Lieder
aus Letzte Blätter, Op. 10 (1885) "Zueignung", Op. 10 No. 1 "Ruhe, meine Seele!" (Rest, My Soul!), Op. 27 No. 1 "Cäcilie", Op. 27 No. 2 "Heimliche Aufforderung" (Secret Invitation), Op. 27 No. 3 "Morgen!" (Tomorrow!), Op. 27 No. 4 Zwei Gesänge, Op. 34 (1896/97) – 1. Der Abend 2. Hymne Wiegenlied (Lullaby), Op. 41 No. 1 Deutsche Motette, Op. 62 (1913) Olympische Hymne, for chorus and orchestra (1934) Die Göttin im Putzzimmer (1935) Männerchöre (1935) An den Baum Daphne (1943) Allerseelen, Op. 10 No. 8 Vier letzte Lieder
Lieder
(Four Last Songs) (1948)

References[edit] Notes

^ "Richard Strauss
Strauss
facts, information, pictures". encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ Boyden 1999, p.[page needed] ^ "Richard Strauss
Strauss
Website".  ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 69 ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 395 ^ Tim Ashley, "Feuersnot". The Guardian
The Guardian
(London), 30 November 2000. Retrieved on 27 October 2007. ^ Derrick Puffett et al, Richard Strauss: "Salome" (1989), p. 4 ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 145 ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 149 ^ a b The five seasons 2008/9 to 2012/13: Composers. Operabase. (Note: "Composer and opera tables are based on counts of performance runs over the five seasons from 2008/09 to 2012/13, i.e. how many times a work was programmed not the number of performances.") ^ The five seasons 2008/9 to 2012/13: Operas (expanded). Operabase. (Note: "Return to main statistics page for an explanation of the figures". The main statistics page says: "Composer and opera tables are based on counts of performance runs over the five seasons from 2008/09 to 2012/13, i.e. how many times a work was programmed not the number of performances.") ^ opera base 2017, extracted 17 April 2017. ^ Gilliam, New Grove online ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 274. ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 293 ^ a b Quoted on Exploring Music
Exploring Music
(2004) on the WFMT Radio Network; Episode 5 of 5 of "Richard Strauss", first aired 9 January 2004. ^ Reuth 1993, p. 402 ^ Kennedy 1999, pp. 281–282 ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 285 ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 297 ^ Kennedy, Michael (1978), Review of "A Confidential Matter: The Letters of Richard Strauss
Strauss
and Stefan Zweig, 1931–1935" in Music & Letters, Vol. 59, No. 4, October 1978. pp. 472–475. ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 316 ^ "Music; Richard Strauss
Strauss
and Hitler's Reich: Jupiter in Hell" by Michael H. Kater (de), The New York Times, 6 January 2002 ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 339 ^ Ross (2009), p. 338 ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 361 ^ Ross 2009, p. 373 ^ McGlaughlin, Bill. Exploring Music, Episode 5 of 5 of "Richard Strauss", first aired January 9, 2004. ^ Portrait of Sir Georg Solti., documentary (1984), directed by Valerie Pitts ^ Kennedy, p. 394 ^ Kennedy, p. 395 ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 365 ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 3 ^ Shirley, Hugo (2012). "In Search of Strauss" in Journal of the Royal Musical Association, vol. 137, issue 1, pp. 187–192 ^ Hepokoski, James, "The Second Cycle of Tone Poems" in Youmans (ed.), p. 78 ^ "Richard Strauss: profound genius or gifted entertainer?". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2016.  ^ Elliott Antokoletz and Paolo Susanni, Béla Bartók: A Research and Information Guide, 2nd Revised edition (1997), Routledge, London, ISBN 978-0815320883, Introduction p. xxi. ^ Paul Caldrin, "Orchestra music and orchestration", pp. 166–169 in Paul Cadrin and Stephen Downes (editors), The Szymanowski Companion, Routledge, London, Revised edition (2015). ISBN 978-0754661511 ^ Ian Parrott, Elgar (Master Musician), Everyman Ltd, London, First Edition (1971), p. 60. ^ Ross, Alex (2010). "Strauss's Place in the Twentieth Century". In The Cambridge Companion to Richard Strauss, edited by Charles Youmans, 195–212. Cambridge Companions to Music. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-72815-7. p. 211. ^ Timothy Scheurer, Music and Mythmaking in Film, Mcfarland, 2007 ISBN 978-0786431908. p. 41. ^ Roy Prendergast, Film Music: A neglected Art, W.W Norton & Company, 1992, ISBN 978 0393308747. ^ "WQXR – New York's Classical Music Radio Station". Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ "ORR Archive – League of American Orchestras". Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ Arkivemusic. The ranking is Debussy, Ravel, Rachmaninoff, Strauss, Prokofiev. ^ Richard Strauss: The last concerts, CD issued by Testament SBT2 1441, 2009 ^ Boulez (2003), p.[page needed] ^ Schonberg, p.[page needed] ^ Schonberg (1967), p.[page needed] ^ Peter Gutmann, "Richard Strauss
Strauss
Conducts" on classicalnotes.net ^ Listed in Wilhelm, Kurt (1989), pp. 298–99. Details in Trenner (2003) ^ Trenner, F. (2003),Page 292. ^ Trenner, page 357. ^ Trenner, page 322. ^ Trenner, Page 452 ^ Trenner, page 595. ^ Kater, Michael H. (de) (2000). Composers of the Nazi Era, p. 262. London: Oxford University
Oxford University
Press 1999. ISBN 9780195099249

Cited sources

Boulez, Pierre (trans. Richard Strokes) (2003), Boulez on Conducting: Conversations with Cécile Gilly, London. Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-21967-5. Boyden, Matthew (1999), Richard Strauss, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, Ltd; Boston, MA: Northeastern Press. ISBN 1-55553-418-X. Dubal, David (2003), The Essential Canon of Classical Music, North Point Press, ISBN 0-86547-664-0. Gilliam, Bryan, "Richard Strauss" in grovemusic.com (subscription required). (This article is very different from the one in the 1980 Grove; in particular, the analysis of Strauss's behavior during the Nazi period is more detailed.) Kennedy, Michael (1999), Richard Strauss: Man, Musician, Enigma, Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-027748 ISBN 978-0521027748 Murray, David (1998), "Richard Strauss", in Stanley Sadie, (Ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Vol. Three, pp. 565–575. London: Macmillan Publishers, Inc. 1998. ISBN 0-333-73432-7, ISBN 1-56159-228-5. Reuth, Ralf Georg. Goebbels. Harcourt Brace, 1993 Ross, Alex (2009), The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-24939-7. Schonberg, Harold C. (1967), The Great Conductors. New York: Simon & Schuster ISBN 0-671-20735-0. Trenner, Franz (2003) Richard Strauss
Strauss
Chronik, Verlag Dr Richard Strauss
Strauss
Gmbh, Wien, ISBN 3-901974-01-6. Youmans, Charles (2005). Richard Strauss's Orchestral Music and the German Intellectual Tradition: the Philosophical Roots of Musical Modernism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34573-1.

Selective bibliography

Del Mar, Norman (3 vols. 1962-1973). Richard Strauss: A Critical Commentary on his Life and Works. London: Barrie & Jenkins. ISBN 0-214-15735-0. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Univ Press, 1986. ISBN 0-8014-9319-6 Gilliam, Bryan (1999). The Life of Richard Strauss. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57895-7. Karpath, Ludwig (de) and Strauss, Richard (1905–1936). The handwritten correspondence between Strauss
Strauss
and Ludwig Karpath, covering 31 years was acquired by the National Library of Austria
National Library of Austria
in 1962 from the daughters of Dr. Alfred Marill who was Mr. Karpath's attorney.[citation needed] It consists of approximately 150 items covering Strauss
Strauss
relationships with the Vienna State Opera
Opera
and other musical events of the period. It stops at the death of Ludwig Karpath in 1936. Dr. Alfred Marill was Mr. Karpath's executor. The terms of Karpath's will stipulated that the correspondence between Karpath and Strauss
Strauss
not be published until after Strauss's death.[citation needed] In keeping with these terms Dr. Marill transported it to the United States when he emigrated in 1940. After Dr. Marill's death his daughters provided the letters to the library so that Mr. Karpath's wishes could be carried out. There is no evidence that these letters have been published.[citation needed] Kennedy, Michael. "Richard Strauss", in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. Vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1998. ISBN 1-56159-174-2 Kennedy, Michael (2006). The Oxford Dictionary of Music, 985 pages, ISBN 0-19-861459-4 Osborne, Charles (1991). The Complete Operas of Richard Strauss. New York City: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80459-X. Tuchman, Barbara W. (1966, reprinted 1980). The Proud Tower chapter 6. Macmillan, London. ISBN 0-333-30645-7. Wilhelm, Kurt (1989). Richard Strauss: An Intimate Portrait. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01459-0.

External links[edit]

Richard Strauss
Strauss
at Encyclopædia Britannica Richard Strauss
Strauss
online Richard Strauss
Strauss
Institute, in English Strauss
Strauss
unpacked: A guide to one of the 20th century's great composers, Kate Hopkins, Royal Opera
Opera
House Ernest Newman, Richard Strauss, John Lane: The Bodley Head, 1908. Richard-Strauss-Quellenverzeichnis (RSQV) Free scores by Richard Strauss
Strauss
at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) "Discovering Richard Strauss". BBC Radio 3.  Works by or about Richard Strauss
Strauss
in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog) Free scores by Richard Strauss
Strauss
in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki) In America with Richard Strauss: Elisabeth Schumann's 1921 diary  "Strauss, Richard". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  Music is a Holy Art: A Richard Strauss
Strauss
Celebration (Three-part WQXR radio documentary series)

Part 1 – Epic Tales Well Told: The Tone Poems of Richard Strauss Part 2 – Strong Women Dominate Strauss
Strauss
Operas Part 3 – The Enigma of Richard Strauss

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v t e

Richard Strauss

Operas

Guntram (1894) Feuersnot
Feuersnot
(1901) Salome (1905) Elektra (1909) Der Rosenkavalier
Der Rosenkavalier
(1911) Ariadne auf Naxos
Ariadne auf Naxos
(1912/16) Die Frau ohne Schatten
Die Frau ohne Schatten
(1919) Intermezzo (1924) Die ägyptische Helena
Die ägyptische Helena
(1928) Arabella
Arabella
(1933) Die schweigsame Frau
Die schweigsame Frau
(1935) Friedenstag
Friedenstag
(1938) Daphne (1938) Die Liebe der Danae
Die Liebe der Danae
(1940) Capriccio (1942)

Ballets

Josephslegende
Josephslegende
(1914) Schlagobers
Schlagobers
(1924) Verklungene Feste (1940)

Orchestral

Symphony No. 1 (1880) Violin Concerto in D minor (1881–82) Horn Concerto No. 1 (1882–83) Symphony No. 2 (1883–84) Burleske
Burleske
(1885–86) Le bourgeois gentilhomme (1911–17) Dance suite from keyboard pieces by François Couperin
Dance suite from keyboard pieces by François Couperin
(1923) Olympische Hymne
Olympische Hymne
(1936) Japanese Festival Music
Japanese Festival Music
(1940) Divertimento for chamber orchestra after keyboard pieces by Couperin (1941) Horn Concerto No.2 (1942) Metamorphosen
Metamorphosen
(1945) Oboe Concerto in D major (1945) Duet concertino for clarinet and bassoon
Duet concertino for clarinet and bassoon
(1947)

Tone poems

Aus Italien (1886) Macbeth (1888) Don Juan (1888) Death and Transfiguration
Death and Transfiguration
(1889) Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks
Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks
(1895) Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1896) Don Quixote (1897) Ein Heldenleben
Ein Heldenleben
(1898) Symphonia Domestica
Symphonia Domestica
(1903) An Alpine Symphony
An Alpine Symphony
(1911–15)

Chamber music

Piano Sonata in B minor (1881) Cello Sonata in F major (1883) Violin Sonata in E-flat (1888) Enoch Arden (1897)

Lieder

"Zueignung" (1885) "Die Nacht" (1885) "Allerseelen" (1885) "Winternacht" (1886) "Ständchen" (1886) "Ruhe, meine Seele!" (1894) "Cäcilie" (1894) "Heimliche Aufforderung" (1894) "Morgen!" (1894) "Traum durch die Dämmerung" (1895) "Sehnsucht" (1896) "Der Arbeitsmann" (1898) "Befreit" (1898) "Notturno" (1899) "Des Dichters Abendgang" (1900) "Freundliche Vision" (1900) "Frühlingsfeier" (1906) "Der Krämerspiegel" (1918) Four Last Songs
Four Last Songs
(1948)

Choral

Wandrers Sturmlied
Wandrers Sturmlied
(1884) Utan svafvel och fosfor
Utan svafvel och fosfor
(1889) Taillefer (1903) Die Tageszeiten
Die Tageszeiten
(1928)

Film adaptations

Der Rosenkavalier
Der Rosenkavalier
(1926 film)

Family and peers

Franz Strauss
Strauss
(father) Pauline de Ahna
Pauline de Ahna
(wife) Hans von Bülow Hugo von Hofmannsthal Max Reinhardt Stefan Zweig Joseph Gregor

Related articles

Elektra chord Treatise on Instrumentation Modernism Neoclassicism Neo-romanticism

List of compositions

v t e

Bayerisches Staatsorchester General Music Directors

Franz Lachner
Franz Lachner
(1836) Hans von Bülow
Hans von Bülow
(1867) Franz Wüllner
Franz Wüllner
(1870) Hermann Levi
Hermann Levi
(1872) Richard Strauss
Strauss
(1894) Hermann Zumpe
Hermann Zumpe
(1901) Felix Mottl
Felix Mottl
(1904) Bruno Walter
Bruno Walter
(1913) Hans Knappertsbusch
Hans Knappertsbusch
(1922) Clemens Krauss
Clemens Krauss
(1937) Hans Knappertsbusch
Hans Knappertsbusch
(1945) Georg Solti
Georg Solti
(1946) Rudolf Kempe
Rudolf Kempe
(1952) Ferenc Fricsay (1956) Joseph Keilberth
Joseph Keilberth
(1959) Wolfgang Sawallisch
Wolfgang Sawallisch
(1971) Peter Schneider (1992) Zubin Mehta
Zubin Mehta
(1998) Kent Nagano
Kent Nagano
(2006) Kirill Petrenko (2013)

v t e

Vienna Staatsoper Directors

Franz von Dingelstedt
Franz von Dingelstedt
(1867) Johann von Herbeck
Johann von Herbeck
(1870) Franz von Jauner
Franz von Jauner
(1875) Wilhelm Jahn
Wilhelm Jahn
(1881) Gustav Mahler
Gustav Mahler
(1897) Felix Weingartner
Felix Weingartner
(1908) Hans Gregor
Hans Gregor
(1911) Richard Strauss
Strauss
/ Franz Schalk
Franz Schalk
(1919) Franz Schalk
Franz Schalk
(1924) Clemens Krauss
Clemens Krauss
(1929) Felix Weingartner
Felix Weingartner
(1935) Heinrich Karl Strohm (1940) Lothar Müthel
Lothar Müthel
(1941) Karl Böhm
Karl Böhm
(1943) Franz Salmhofer
Franz Salmhofer
(1945) Karl Böhm
Karl Böhm
(1954) Herbert von Karajan
Herbert von Karajan
(1956) Egon Hilbert (1964) Heinrich Reif-Gintl (1968) Rudolf Gamsjäger (1972) Egon Seefehlner (1976) Lorin Maazel
Lorin Maazel
(1982) Egon Seefehlner (1984) Claus Helmut Drese (1986) Eberhard Waechter / Ioan Holender
Ioan Holender
(1991) Ioan Holender
Ioan Holender
(1992) Dominique Meyer (2010)

v t e

Berlin Staatsoper General Music Directors

Johannes Wesalius (1572) Johannes Eccard
Johannes Eccard
(1609) Nicolaus Zangius (1612) William Brade (1618) Johann Friedrich Agricola (1759) Johann Friedrich Reichardt
Johann Friedrich Reichardt
(1775) Bernhard Anselm Weber (1816) Gaspare Spontini
Gaspare Spontini
(1820) Giacomo Meyerbeer
Giacomo Meyerbeer
(1842) Otto Nicolai
Otto Nicolai
(1848) Robert Radecke
Robert Radecke
(1871) Joseph Sucher (1888) Richard Strauss
Strauss
(1899) Leo Blech
Leo Blech
(1913) Erich Kleiber
Erich Kleiber
(1923) Clemens Krauss
Clemens Krauss
(1935) Herbert von Karajan
Herbert von Karajan
(1941) Joseph Keilberth
Joseph Keilberth
(1948) Erich Kleiber
Erich Kleiber
(1951) Franz Konwitschny
Franz Konwitschny
(1955) Otmar Suitner
Otmar Suitner
(1964) Daniel Barenboim
Daniel Barenboim
(1992)

v t e

Modernist composers

Europe

Béla Bartók Alban Berg Luciano Berio Pierre Boulez Benjamin Britten Ferruccio Busoni Jacques Calonne Paul Dukas Henri Dutilleux Hans Werner Henze Arthur Honegger Leoš Janáček György Ligeti Witold Lutosławski Gustav Mahler Igor Markevitch Olivier Messiaen Darius Milhaud Nikolai Myaskovsky Luigi Nono Gavriil Popov Francis Poulenc Sergei Prokofiev Nikolai Roslavets Arnold Schoenberg Alexander Scriabin Dmitri Shostakovich Karlheinz Stockhausen Richard Strauss Igor Stravinsky Michael Tippett Ernst Toch Fartein Valen Edgard Varèse William Walton Anton Webern Kurt Weill Iannis Xenakis

N. America

George Antheil Milton Babbitt John J. Becker John Cage Elliott Carter Carlos Chávez Aaron Copland Henry Cowell Ruth Crawford Seeger Charles Ives Conlon Nancarrow Leo Ornstein Silvestre Revueltas Wallingford Riegger George Rochberg Dane Rudhyar Carl Ruggles Charles Seeger Roger Sessions

S. America

Mozart Camargo Guarnieri Alberto Ginastera Heitor Villa-Lobos Gilberto Mendes Leon Schidlowsky

v t e

Musical modernism

Genres and techniques

Abstractionism Athematicism Atonality Dissonant counterpoint Dada Experimental music Expressionism Futurism Impressionism Microtonal music Modality Modes of limited transposition Neoclassicism Neotonality New Objectivity Noise music Pandiatonicism Polyrhythm Polytonality Process music Quartal and quintal harmony Serialism Surrealism Sound collage Sound mass Tone cluster Tropes Twelve-tone technique

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Postmodern music

See also: Modernist composers

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