RICHARD GEORG STRAUSS (11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas , which include _ Der Rosenkavalier _, _Elektra _, _ Die Frau ohne Schatten _ and _Salome _; his Lieder , especially his _ Four Last Songs _; his tone poems , including _Don Juan _, _Death and Transfiguration _, _Till Eulenspiegel\'s Merry Pranks _, _Also sprach Zarathustra _, _ Ein Heldenleben _, _ Symphonia Domestica _, and _ An Alpine Symphony _; and other instrumental works such as _ Metamorphosen _ and his Oboe Concerto . Strauss was also a prominent conductor in Western Europe and the Americas, enjoying quasi-celebrity status as his compositions became standards of orchestral and operatic repertoire.
Strauss, along with Gustav Mahler , represents the late flowering of German Romanticism after Richard Wagner , in which pioneering subtleties of orchestration are combined with an advanced harmonic style.
* 1 Early life and family
* 2 Career as composer
* 2.6.1 _Reichsmusikkammer_ * 2.6.2 _Friedenstag_ * 2.6.3 _Metamorphosen_ * 2.6.4 Last works
* 2.7 Death and legacy
* 3 Strauss as a conductor
* 3.1 Modern critical reception of selected recordings conducted by Strauss
* 4 Honors
* 5 Selected works
* 5.1 Keyboard and chamber
* 5.2 Tone poems and other orchestral works
* 5.2.1 First cycle of tone poems * 5.2.2 Second cycle of tone poems * 5.2.3 Ballet music * 5.2.4 Other orchestral works
* 5.3 Solo instrument with orchestra * 5.4 Opera * 5.5 Vocal/choral
* 6 References * 7 External links
EARLY LIFE AND FAMILY
Strauss aged 22
Strauss was born on 11 June 1864 in Munich , the son of Josephine (_née_ Pschorr) and Franz Strauss , who was the principal horn player at the Court Opera in Munich. In his youth, he received a thorough musical education from his father. He wrote his first composition at the age of six, and continued to write music almost until his death.
During his boyhood Strauss attended orchestra rehearsals of the Munich Court Orchestra (now the Bavarian State Orchestra ), where he received private instruction in music theory and orchestration from an assistant conductor. In 1872, he started receiving violin instruction at the Royal School of Music from Benno Walter , his father's cousin. In 1874, Strauss heard his first Wagner operas, _Lohengrin _ and _Tannhäuser _. The influence of Wagner's music on Strauss's style was to be profound, but at first his musically conservative father forbade him to study it. Indeed, in the Strauss household, the music of Richard Wagner was viewed with deep suspicion, and it was not until the age of 16 that Strauss was able to obtain a score of _Tristan und Isolde _. In later life, Strauss said that he deeply regretted the conservative hostility to Wagner's progressive works. Nevertheless, Strauss's father undoubtedly had a crucial influence on his son's developing taste, not least in Strauss's abiding love for the horn.
In early 1882, in Vienna, he gave the first performance of his Violin Concerto in D minor , playing a piano reduction of the orchestral part himself, with his teacher Benno Walter as soloist. The same year he entered Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich , where he studied philosophy and art history, but not music. He left a year later to go to Berlin, where he studied briefly before securing a post as assistant conductor to Hans von Bülow , who had been enormously impressed by the young composer's Serenade for wind instruments, composed when he was only 16 years of age. Strauss learned the art of conducting by observing Bülow in rehearsal. Bülow was very fond of the young man, and decided that Strauss should be his successor as conductor of the Meiningen Court Orchestra when Bülow resigned in 1885. Strauss's compositions at this time were indebted to the style of Robert Schumann or Felix Mendelssohn , true to his father's teachings. His Horn Concerto No. 1, Op. 11 , is representative of this period and is a staple of the modern horn repertoire. Strauss with his wife and son, 1910
Strauss married soprano Pauline de Ahna on 10 September 1894. She was famous for being irascible, garrulous, eccentric and outspoken, but to all appearances the marriage was essentially happy, and she was a great source of inspiration to him. Throughout his life, from his earliest songs to the final _ Four Last Songs _ of 1948, he preferred the soprano voice to all others, and all his operas contain important soprano roles.
The Strausses had one son, Franz, in 1897. Franz married Alice von Grab-Hermannswörth, daughter of a Jewish industrialist, in a Roman Catholic ceremony in 1924. Franz and Alice had two sons, Richard and Christian.
CAREER AS COMPOSER
SOLO AND CHAMBER WORKS AND LARGE ENSEMBLES
Some of Strauss's first compositions were solo instrumental and chamber works. These pieces include early compositions for piano solo in a conservative harmonic style, many of which are lost: two piano trios (1877 and 1878), a string quartet (1881), a piano sonata (1882), a cello sonata (1883), a piano quartet (1885), a violin sonata (1888), as well as a serenade (1882) and a longer suite (1884), both scored for double wind quintet plus two additional horns and contrabassoon.
After 1890, Strauss composed very infrequently for chamber groups, his energies being almost completely absorbed with large-scale orchestral works and operas. Four of his chamber pieces are actually arrangements of portions of his operas, including the _Daphne-Etude_ for solo violin and the String Sextet, which is the overture to his final opera _Capriccio _. His last independent chamber work, an Allegretto in E major for violin and piano, dates from 1948.
He also composed two large-scale works for wind ensemble during this period: Sonatina No. 1 "From an Invalid's Workshop" (1943) and Sonatina No. 2 "Happy Workshop" (1946)—both scored for double wind quintet plus two additional horns, a third clarinet in C, bassett horn, bass clarinet, and contrabassoon.
TONE POEMS AND OTHER ORCHESTRAL WORKS
Strauss wrote two early symphonies: Symphony No. 1 (1880) and Symphony No. 2 (1884). However, Strauss's style began to truly develop and change when, in 1885, he met Alexander Ritter , a noted composer and violinist, and the husband of one of Richard Wagner's nieces. It was Ritter who persuaded Strauss to abandon the conservative style of his youth and begin writing tone poems . He also introduced Strauss to the essays of Wagner and the writings of Arthur Schopenhauer . Strauss went on to conduct one of Ritter's operas, and at Strauss's request Ritter later wrote a poem describing the events depicted in Strauss's tone poem _Death and Transfiguration_.
_ Also Sprach Zarathustra "Sunrise fanfare" -------------------------
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The new influences from Ritter resulted in what is widely regarded as Strauss's first piece to show his mature personality, the tone poem _Don Juan _ (1888), which displays a new kind of virtuosity in its bravura orchestral manner. Strauss went on to write a series of increasingly ambitious tone poems: _ Death and Transfiguration _ (1889), _Till Eulenspiegel\'s Merry Pranks _ (1895), _Thus Spoke Zarathustra _ (1896), _Don Quixote _ (1897), _ Ein Heldenleben _ (1898), _ Symphonia Domestica _ (1903) and _ An Alpine Symphony _ (1911–1915). One commentator has observed of these works that "no orchestra could exist without his tone poems, written to celebrate the glories of the post-Wagnerian symphony orchestra."
James Hepokoski notes a shift in Strauss's technique in the tone poems, occurring between 1892 and 1893. It was after this point that Strauss rejected the philosophy of Schopenhauer and began more forcefully critiquing the institution of the symphony and the symphonic poem, thereby differentiating the second cycle of tone poems from the first.
SOLO INSTRUMENT WITH ORCHESTRA
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Strauss's output of works for solo instrument or instruments with orchestra was fairly extensive. The most famous include two concertos for horn, which are still part of the standard repertoire of most horn soloists—Horn concerto No. 1 (1883) and Horn concerto No. 2 (1942); the Romanze for cello and orchestra (1883); a Violin Concerto in D minor (1882); the _Burleske_ for piano and orchestra (1885, revised 1889); the tone poem _Don Quixote_ for cello, viola and orchestra (1897); the well-known late Oboe Concerto in D major (1945); and the Duett-Concertino for clarinet and bassoon with string orchestra, which was one of his last works (1948).
See also: List of operas by Richard Strauss
Around the end of the 19th century, Strauss turned his attention to opera. His first two attempts in the genre, _Guntram _ (1894) and _ Feuersnot _ (1901), were controversial works: _Guntram_ was the first significant critical failure of Strauss's career, and _Feuersnot_ was considered obscene by some critics. Richard Strauss engraved by Ferdinand Schmutzer (1922)
In 1905, Strauss produced _Salome _, a somewhat dissonant modernist opera based on the play by Oscar Wilde , which produced a passionate reaction from audiences. The premiere was a major success, with the artists taking more than 38 curtain calls. Many later performances of the opera were also successful, not only with the general public but also with Strauss's peers: Maurice Ravel said that _Salome_ was "stupendous", and Gustav Mahler described it as "a live volcano, a subterranean fire". Strauss reputedly financed his house in Garmisch-Partenkirchen completely from the revenues generated by the opera. As with the later _Elektra_, _Salome_ features an incredibly taxing lead soprano role. Strauss often remarked that he preferred writing for the female voice, which is apparent in these two sister operas—the male parts are almost entirely smaller roles, included only to supplement the soprano's performance.
Strauss's next opera was _Elektra _ (1909), which took his use of dissonance even further, in particular with the Elektra chord . _Elektra_ was also the first opera in which Strauss collaborated with the poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal . The two subsequently worked together on numerous occasions. For his later works with Hofmannsthal, Strauss moderated his harmonic language: he used a more lush, melodic late-Romantic style based on Wagnerian chromatic harmonies that he had used in his tone poems, with much less dissonance, and exhibiting immense virtuosity in orchestral writing and tone color. This resulted in operas such as _ Der Rosenkavalier _ (1911) having great public success. Strauss continued to produce operas at regular intervals until 1942. With Hofmannsthal he created _ Ariadne auf Naxos _ (1912), _ Die Frau ohne Schatten _ (1919), _ Die ägyptische Helena _ (1928), and _ Arabella _ (1933). For _Intermezzo _ (1924) Strauss provided his own libretto. _ Die schweigsame Frau _ (1935), was composed with Stefan Zweig as librettist; _ Friedenstag _ (1935–6) and _Daphne _ (1937) both had a libretto by Joseph Gregor and Stefan Zweig; and _Die Liebe der Danae _ (1940) was with Joseph Gregor. Strauss's final opera, _Capriccio _ (1942), had a libretto by Clemens Krauss , although the genesis for it came from Stefan Zweig and Joseph Gregor.
According to statistics compiled by Operabase , in number of operas performed worldwide over the five seasons from 2008/09 to 2012/13, Strauss was the second-most performed 20th-century opera composer, ahead of Benjamin Britten and behind only Giacomo Puccini . Strauss tied with Handel as the eighth most-performed opera composer from any century over those five seasons. Over the five seasons from 2008/09 to 2012/13, Strauss's top five most-performed operas were _Salome_, _Ariadne auf Naxos_, _Der Rosenkavalier_, _Elektra_, and _Die Frau ohne Schatten_. The most recent figures covering the five seasons 2011/12 to 2015/2016 show that Strauss was the tenth most performed opera composer, with _Der Rosenkavalier_ overtaking _Salome_ to become his most performed opera (the ranking of the other four remains the same).
LIEDER AND CHORAL
Strauss produced Lieder throughout his career. The _Four Last Songs_ are among his best known, along with " Ruhe, meine Seele! ", "Cäcilie ", " Morgen! ", " Heimliche Aufforderung ", "Traum durch die Dämmerung ", and others. In 1948, Strauss wrote his last work, the _Four Last Songs_ for soprano and orchestra. He reportedly composed them with Kirsten Flagstad in mind and she gave the first performance, which was recorded. Strauss's songs have always been popular with audiences and performers, and are generally considered by musicologists—along with many of his other compositions—to be masterpieces.
STRAUSS IN NAZI GERMANY
In March 1933, when Strauss was 68, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party rose to power. Strauss never joined the Nazi party, and studiously avoided Nazi forms of greeting . For reasons of expediency, however, he was initially drawn into cooperating with the early Nazi regime in the hope that Hitler—an ardent Wagnerian and music lover who had admired Strauss's work since viewing _Salome_ in 1907—would promote German art and culture. Strauss's need to protect his Jewish daughter-in-law and Jewish grandchildren also motivated his behavior, in addition to his determination to preserve and conduct the music of banned composers such as Gustav Mahler and Claude Debussy .
In 1933, Strauss wrote in his private notebook: I consider the Streicher-Goebbels Jew-baiting as a disgrace to German honour, as evidence of incompetence—the basest weapon of untalented, lazy mediocrity against a higher intelligence and greater talent.
Meanwhile, far from being an admirer of Strauss's work, Joseph Goebbels maintained expedient cordiality with Strauss only for a period. Goebbels wrote in his diary: Unfortunately we still need him, but one day we shall have our own music and then we shall have no further need of this decadent neurotic. _ Strauss was on the cover of TIME _ in 1927 and (here) 1938
Nevertheless, because of Strauss's international eminence, in November 1933 he was appointed to the post of president of the newly founded _ Reichsmusikkammer _, the State Music Bureau. Strauss, who had lived through numerous political regimes and had no interest in politics, decided to accept the position but to remain apolitical, a decision which would eventually become untenable. He wrote to his family, "I made music under the Kaiser , and under Ebert . I'll survive under this one as well." In 1935 he wrote in his journal: In November of 1933, the minister Goebbels nominated me president of the _Reichsmusikkammer_ without obtaining my prior agreement. I was not consulted. I accepted this honorary office because I hoped that I would be able to do some good and prevent worse misfortunes, if from now onwards German musical life were going to be, as it was said, "reorganized" by amateurs and ignorant place-seekers.
Strauss privately scorned Goebbels and called him "a pipsqueak". However, in 1933 he dedicated an orchestral song, "Das Bächlein" ("The Little Brook"), to Goebbels, in order to gain his cooperation in extending German music copyright laws from 30 years to 50 years.
Strauss attempted to ignore Nazi bans on performances of works by Debussy, Mahler, and Mendelssohn. He also continued to work on a comic opera, _Die schweigsame Frau_, with his Jewish friend and librettist Stefan Zweig. When the opera was premiered in Dresden in 1935, Strauss insisted that Zweig's name appear on the theatrical billing, much to the ire of the Nazi regime. Hitler and Goebbels avoided attending the opera, and it was halted after three performances and subsequently banned by the Third Reich .
On 17 June 1935, Strauss wrote a letter to Stefan Zweig, in which he stated: Do you believe I am ever, in any of my actions, guided by the thought that I am 'German'? Do you suppose Mozart was consciously 'Aryan' when he composed? I recognise only two types of people: those who have talent and those who have none.
This letter to Zweig was intercepted by the Gestapo and sent to Hitler. Strauss was subsequently dismissed from his post as _Reichsmusikkammer_ president in 1935. The 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics nevertheless used Strauss's _ Olympische Hymne _, which he had composed in 1934. Strauss's seeming relationship with the Nazis in the 1930s attracted criticism from some noted musicians, including Arturo Toscanini , who in 1933 had said, "To Strauss the composer I take off my hat; to Strauss the man I put it back on again," when Strauss had accepted the presidency of the _Reichsmusikkammer_. Much of Strauss's motivation in his conduct during the Third Reich was, however, to protect his Jewish daughter-in-law Alice and his Jewish grandchildren from persecution. Both of his grandsons were bullied at school, but Strauss used his considerable influence to prevent the boys or their mother being sent to concentration camps .
In 1938, when the entire nation was preparing for war, Strauss created _ Friedenstag _ (_Peace Day_), a one-act opera set in a besieged fortress during the Thirty Years\' War . The work is essentially a hymn to peace and a thinly veiled criticism of the Third Reich. With its contrasts between freedom and enslavement, war and peace, light and dark, this work has a close affinity with Beethoven 's _ Fidelio _. Productions of the opera ceased shortly after the outbreak of war in 1939. Strauss at Garmisch in 1938
When his Jewish daughter-in-law Alice was placed under house arrest in Garmisch-Partenkirchen in 1938, Strauss used his connections in Berlin, including opera-house General Intendant Heinz Tietjen , to secure her safety. He drove to the Theresienstadt concentration camp in order to argue, albeit unsuccessfully, for the release of his son Franz's Jewish mother-in-law, Marie von Grab. Strauss also wrote several letters to the SS pleading for the release of her children who were also held in camps; his letters were ignored.
In 1942, Strauss moved with his family back to Vienna, where Alice and her children could be protected by Baldur von Schirach , the Gauleiter of Vienna. However, Strauss was unable to protect his Jewish relatives completely; in early 1944, while Strauss was away, Alice and his son Franz were abducted by the Gestapo and imprisoned for two nights. Strauss's personal intervention at this point saved them, and he was able to take them back to Garmisch, where the two remained under house arrest until the end of the war.
Strauss completed the composition of _ Metamorphosen _, a work for 23 solo strings, in 1945. The title and inspiration for the work comes from a profoundly self-examining poem by Goethe , which Strauss had considered setting as a choral work. Generally regarded as one of the masterpieces of the string repertoire, _Metamorphosen_ contains Strauss's most sustained outpouring of tragic emotion. Conceived and written during the blackest days of World War II , the piece expresses Strauss's mourning of, among other things, the destruction of German culture—including the bombing of every great opera house in the nation. At the end of the war, Strauss wrote in his private diary: The most terrible period of human history is at an end, the twelve year reign of bestiality, ignorance and anti-culture under the greatest criminals, during which Germany's 2000 years of cultural evolution met its doom.
In April 1945, Strauss was apprehended by American soldiers at his Garmisch estate. As he descended the staircase he announced to Lieutenant Milton Weiss of the U.S. Army, "I am Richard Strauss, the composer of _Rosenkavalier_ and _Salome_." Lt. Weiss, who was also a musician, nodded in recognition. An "Off Limits" sign was subsequently placed on the lawn to protect Strauss. The American oboist John de Lancie , who knew Strauss's orchestral writing for oboe thoroughly, was in the army unit, and asked Strauss to compose an oboe concerto. Initially dismissive of the idea, Strauss completed this late work, his Oboe Concerto, before the end of the year.
The metaphor "Indian Summer " is often used by journalists, biographers, and music critics to describe Strauss's late creative upsurge from 1942 to the end of his life. The events of World War II seemed to bring the composer—who had grown old, tired, and a little jaded—into focus. The major works of the last years of Strauss's life, written in his late 70s and 80s, include, among others, his Horn Concerto No. 2, _Metamorphosen_, his Oboe Concerto, and his _Four Last Songs_.
The _Four Last Songs_, composed shortly before Strauss's death, deal with the subject of dying. The last one, "Im Abendrot" (At Sunset), ends with the line "Is this perhaps death?" The question is not answered in words, but instead Strauss quotes the "transfiguration theme" from his earlier tone poem, _Death and Transfiguration_—meant to symbolize the transfiguration and fulfilment of the soul after death.
DEATH AND LEGACY
Strauss died at the age of 85 on 8 September 1949, in Garmisch-Partenkirchen , Germany. Georg Solti , who had arranged Strauss's 85th birthday celebration, also directed an orchestra during Strauss's burial. The conductor later described how, during the singing of the famous trio from _Rosenkavalier_, "each singer broke down in tears and dropped out of the ensemble, but they recovered themselves and we all ended together." Strauss's wife, Pauline de Ahna, died eight months later, on 13 May 1950, at the age of 88.
Strauss's late works, modelled on "the divine Mozart at the end of a life full of thankfulness," are widely considered by music critics as the greatest works by any octogenarian composer. Strauss himself declared in 1947 with characteristic self-deprecation: "I may not be a first-rate composer, but I am a first-class second-rate composer." The Canadian pianist Glenn Gould described Strauss in 1962 as "the greatest musical figure who has lived in this century."
Until the 1980s, Strauss was regarded by some post-modern musicologists as a conservative, backward-looking composer, but re-examination of and new research on the composer has re-evaluated his place as that of a modernist, albeit one who still utilized and sometimes revered tonality and lush orchestration. Strauss is noted for his pioneering subtleties of orchestration, combined with an advanced harmonic style; when he first played Strauss at a university production of Ariadne auf Naxos , the conductor Mark Elder "was flabbergasted. I had no idea music could do the things he was doing with harmony and melody."
Strauss's music had a considerable influence on composers at the start of the 20th century. Bela Bartók heard _Also sprach Zarathustra_ in 1902, and later said that the work "contained the seeds for a new life"; a Straussian influence is clearly present in his works of that period, including his First String Quartet , _Kossuth _, and _Bluebeard\'s Castle _. Karol Szymanowski was also greatly influenced by Strauss, reflected in such pieces as his _Concert Overture_ and his first and second symphonies, and his opera _Hagith _ which was modeled after _Salome _. English composers were also influenced by Strauss, from Edward Elgar in his concert overture _ In the South (Alassio) _ and other works to Benjamin Britten in his opera writing. Many contemporary composers recognise a debt to Strauss, including John Adams and John Corigliano .
Strauss's musical style played a major role in the development of film music in the middle of the 20th century. The style of his musical depictions of character (Don Juan, Till Eulenspiegel, the Hero) and emotions found their way into the lexicon of film music. Film music historian Timothy Schuerer wrote, "The elements of post (late) romantic music that had greatest impact on scoring are its lush sound, expanded harmonic language, chromaticism, use of program music and use of Leitmotifs . Hollywood composers found the post-romantic idiom compatible with their efforts in scoring film". Max Steiner and Erich Korngold came from the same musical world as Strauss and were quite naturally drawn to write in his style. As film historian Roy Prendergast wrote, "When confronted with the kind of dramatic problem films presented to them, Steiner, Korngold and Newman ... looked to Wagner, Puccini , Verdi and Strauss for the answers to dramatic film scoring." Later, the opening to _Also sprach Zarathustra_ became one of the best known pieces of film music when Stanley Kubrick used it in his 1968 movie _2001: A Space Odyssey _. The film music of John Williams has continued the Strauss influence, in scores for mainstream hits such as _Superman _ and _ Star Wars _.
Strauss has always been popular with audiences in the concert hall and continues to be so. He has consistently been in the top 10 composers most performed by symphony orchestras in the US and Canada over the period 2002–10. He is also in the top 5 of 20th Century composers (born after 1860) in terms of the number of currently available recordings of his works.
STRAUSS AS A CONDUCTOR
Stamp issued in 1954
Strauss, as conductor, made a large number of recordings, both of his own music as well as music by German and Austrian composers. His 1929 performances of _Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks_ and _Don Juan_ with the Berlin State Opera Orchestra have long been considered the best of his early electrical recordings. In the first complete performance of his _An Alpine Symphony_, made in 1941 and later released by EMI , Strauss used the full complement of percussion instruments required in this work.
Koch Legacy has also released Strauss's recordings of overtures by Gluck , Carl Maria von Weber , Peter Cornelius , and Wagner. The preference for German and Austrian composers in Germany in the 1920s through the 1940s was typical of the German nationalism that existed after World War I. Strauss clearly capitalized on national pride for the great German-speaking composers.
There were many other recordings, including some taken from radio broadcasts and concerts during the 1930s and early 1940s. The sheer volume of recorded performances would undoubtedly yield some definitive performances from a very capable and rather forward-looking conductor.
In 1944, Strauss celebrated his 80th birthday and conducted the Vienna Philharmonic in recordings of his own major orchestral works, as well as his seldom-heard _ Schlagobers _ (_Whipped Cream_) ballet music. Some find more feeling in these performances than in Strauss's earlier recordings, which were recorded on the Magnetophon tape recording equipment. Vanguard Records later issued the recordings on LPs. Some of these recordings have been reissued on CD by Preiser. The last recording made by Strauss was on 19 October 1947 live at the Royal Albert Hall in London, where he conducted the Philharmonia Orchestra in his Burleske for piano and orchestra (Alfred Blumen piano), Don Juan and Sinfonia Domestica.
Strauss also made live-recording player piano music rolls for the Hupfeld system and in 1906 ten recordings for the reproducing piano Welte-Mignon all of which survive today. Strauss was also the composer of the music on the first CD to be commercially released: Deutsche Grammophon 's 1983 release of their 1980 recording of Herbert von Karajan conducting the _Alpine Symphony_.
MODERN CRITICAL RECEPTION OF SELECTED RECORDINGS CONDUCTED BY STRAUSS
Strauss conducting (circa 1900)
Pierre Boulez has said that Strauss the conductor was "a complete master of his trade". Music critic Harold C. Schonberg writes that, while Strauss was a very fine conductor, he often put scant effort into his recordings. Schonberg focused primarily on Strauss's recordings of Mozart 's Symphony No. 40 and Beethoven 's Symphony No. 7 , as well as noting that Strauss played a breakneck version of Beethoven's 9th Symphony in about 45 minutes. Concerning Beethoven's 7th Symphony, Schonberg wrote, "There is almost never a _ritard_ or a change in expression or nuance. The slow movement is almost as fast as the following _vivace_; and the last movement, with a big cut in it, is finished in 4 minutes, 25 seconds. (It should run between 7 and 8 minutes.)" He also complained that the Mozart symphony had "no force, no charm, no inflection, with a metronomic rigidity."
Peter Gutmann 's 1994 review for _ClassicalNotes.com_ says the performances of the Beethoven 5th and 7th symphonies, as well as Mozart's last three symphonies, are actually quite good, even if they are sometimes unconventional. Gutmann wrote:
It is true, as the critics suggest, that the readings forego overt emotion, but what emerges instead is a solid sense of structure, letting the music speak convincingly for itself. It is also true that Strauss's tempos are generally swift, but this, too, contributes to the structural cohesion and in any event is fully in keeping with our modern outlook in which speed is a virtue and attention spans are defined more by MTV clips and news sound bites than by evenings at the opera and thousand page novels.
His Honors included
* 1903 (October 26), Honorary Doctorate, Heidelberg University . * 1907 (June 30), Ordre national de la Légion d\'honneur , _Croix de Chevalier_, Paris, France. _Officier_, (June 14, 1914). * 1910, (November 24) Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art . * 1914 (June 24), Honorary Doctorate, Oxford University . Honorary citizen of Munich. * 1924, (June 12), Pour le Mérite for Sciences and Art, German award . * 1924, Honorary Doctorate, University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna . Freedom of the cities of Vienna and Salzburg. * 1932, New York College of Music Medal. * 1936, (November 5), the Royal Philharmonic Society 's Gold Medal. * 1939, (April 28), Commandeur de L\'Ordre de la Couronne , presented by Leopold III of Belgium . * 1949 (June 11), Honorary Doctorate, University of Munich .
See also: List of compositions by Richard Strauss
KEYBOARD AND CHAMBER
* Five piano pieces (Fünf Klavierstücke) Op. 3 (1880–81) * Sonata for piano in B minor, Op. 5 (1880–81) * Sonata for Cello and Piano in F, Op. 6 (1883) * Violin Sonata in E-flat , Op. 18 (1888) * _Stimmungsbilder_, Op. 9 (piano)
TONE POEMS AND OTHER ORCHESTRAL WORKS
See also: Tone poems (Strauss)
First Cycle Of Tone Poems
* _ Aus Italien _ (_From Italy_), Op. 16 (1886) * _Don Juan _, Op. 20 (1888) * _Macbeth _, Op. 23 (1888/90) * _Tod und Verklärung _ (_Death and Transfiguration_), Op. 24 (1888–89)
Second Cycle Of Tone Poems
* _Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche _ (_Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks_), Op. 28 (1895) * _Also sprach Zarathustra _ (_Thus Spoke Zarathustra_), Op. 30 (1896) * _Don Quixote _, Op. 35 (1898) * _ Ein Heldenleben _ (_A Hero's Life_), Op. 40 (1899) * _ Symphonia Domestica _ (_Domestic Symphony_), Op. 53 (1904) * _Eine Alpensinfonie _ (_An Alpine Symphony_), Op. 64 (1915)
* _ Josephslegende _ (The Legend of Joseph), Op. 63 (1914) * _ Schlagobers _ (Whipped Cream), Op. 70 (1921/2) * _Verklungene Feste: Tanzvisionen aus zwei Jahrhunderten_ , (Bygone Celebrations: Dance Visions from Two Centuries), (1940).
Other Orchestral Works
* Symphony No. 1 in D minor (1880) * Symphony No. 2 in F minor , Op. 12 (1883) * _Festive Prelude_ for orchestra with organ (1913) * _Le bourgeois gentilhomme _, suite for orchestra Op. 60 (1917) * _Dance suite from keyboard pieces by François Couperin_ , TrV 245, 1923. * Film music for _ Der Rosenkavalier _ (1925) * _ Japanese Festival Music _ (1940) * _Divertimento for chamber orchestra after keyboard pieces by Couperin_ , Op.86 (1942) * _ Metamorphosen _, for 23 solo strings (1945)
SOLO INSTRUMENT WITH ORCHESTRA
* Romance for Clarinet and Orchestra (1879) * Violin Concerto in D minor , Op. 8 (1882) * Horn Concerto No. 1 in E flat major, Op. 11 (1882/83) * Romance for Cello and Orchestra (1883) * _ Burleske _ for piano and orchestra (1886–1890) * _Don Quixote _ for cello, viola and orchestra * _Parergon zur Symphonia Domestica _, for piano (left hand) and orchestra, Op. 73 (1925; ded. Paul Wittgenstein ) * _Panathenäenzug_, for piano (left hand) and orchestra, Op. 74 (1926–1927; ded. Wittgenstein) * Horn Concerto No. 2 in E flat major (1942) * Oboe Concerto in D major (1945) * Duett-Concertino, for clarinet and bassoon with Harp and string orchestra (1947)
Main article: List of operas by Richard Strauss
* _Acht Lieder aus Letzte Blätter_, Op. 10 (1885) * " Zueignung ", Op. 10 No. 1 * " Ruhe, meine Seele! " (Rest, My Soul!), Op. 27 No. 1 * "Cäcilie ", Op. 27 No. 2 * " Heimliche Aufforderung " (Secret Invitation), Op. 27 No. 3 * " Morgen! " (Tomorrow!), Op. 27 No. 4 * _Zwei Gesänge_, Op. 34 (1896/97) – 1. Der Abend 2. Hymne * _Wiegenlied_ (Lullaby), Op. 41 No. 1 * _Deutsche Motette_, Op. 62 (1913) * _ Olympische Hymne _, for chorus and orchestra (1934) * _Die Göttin im Putzzimmer_ (1935) * _Männerchöre_ (1935) * _An den Baum Daphne_ (1943) * _Allerseelen _, Op. 10 No. 8 * _Vier letzte Lieder _ (Four Last Songs) (1948)
* ^ "Richard Strauss facts, information, pictures - Encyclopedia.com articles about Richard Strauss". Retrieved 29 April 2017. * ^ Boyden 1999, p. * ^ "Richard Strauss Website". * ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 69 * ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 395 * ^ Tim Ashley, "Feuersnot". _ The Guardian _ (London), 30 November 2000. Retrieved on 27 October 2007. * ^ Derrick Puffett _et al_, _Richard Strauss: "Salome"_ (1989), p. 4 * ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 145 * ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 149 * ^ _A_ _B_ The five seasons 2008/9 to 2012/13: Composers. Operabase . (Note: "Composer and opera tables are based on counts of performance runs over the five seasons from 2008/09 to 2012/13, i.e. how many times a work was programmed not the number of performances.") * ^ The five seasons 2008/9 to 2012/13: Operas (expanded). Operabase . (Note: "Return to main statistics page for an explanation of the figures". The main statistics page says: "Composer and opera tables are based on counts of performance runs over the five seasons from 2008/09 to 2012/13, i.e. how many times a work was programmed not the number of performances.") * ^ opera base 2017, extracted 17 April 2017. * ^ Gilliam, New Grove online * ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 274. * ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 293 * ^ _A_ _B_ Quoted on Exploring Music (2004) on the WFMT Radio Network; Episode 5 of 5 of "Richard Strauss", first aired 9 January 2004. * ^ Reuth 1993, p. 402 * ^ Kennedy 1999, pp. 281–282 * ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 285 * ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 297 * ^ Kennedy, Michael (1978), Review of "A Confidential Matter: The Letters of Richard Strauss and Stefan Zweig, 1931–1935" in _Music & Letters_, Vol. 59, No. 4, October 1978. pp. 472–475. * ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 316 * ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 339 * ^ Ross (2009), p. 338 * ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 361 * ^ Ross 2009, p. 373 * ^ McGlaughlin, Bill . _ Exploring Music _, Episode 5 of 5 of "Richard Strauss", first aired January 9, 2004. * ^ _Portrait of Sir Georg Solti._, documentary (1984), directed by Valerie Pitts * ^ Kennedy, p. 394 * ^ Kennedy, p. 395 * ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 365 * ^ Kennedy 1999, p. 3 * ^ Shirley, Hugo (2012). "In Search of Strauss" in _Journal of the Royal Musical Association_, vol. 137, issue 1, pp. 187–192 * ^ Hepokoski, James, "The Second Cycle of Tone Poems" in Youmans (ed.), p. 78 * ^ "Richard Strauss: profound genius or gifted entertainer?". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2016. * ^ Elliott Antokoletz and Paolo Susanni, _Béla Bartók: A Research and Information Guide_, 2nd Revised edition (1997), Routledge, London, ISBN 978-0815320883 , Introduction p. xxi. * ^ Paul Caldrin, "Orchestra music and orchestration", pp. 166–169 in Paul Cadrin and Stephen Downes (editors), _The Szymanowski Companion_, Routledge, London, Revised edition (2015). ISBN 978-0754661511 * ^ Ian Parrott, _Elgar (Master Musician)_, Everyman Ltd, London, First Edition (1971), p. 60. * ^ Ross, Alex (2010). "Strauss's Place in the Twentieth Century". In The Cambridge Companion to Richard Strauss, edited by Charles Youmans, 195–212. Cambridge Companions to Music. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-72815-7 . p. 211. * ^ Timothy Scheurer, _Music and Mythmaking in Film_, Mcfarland, 2007 ISBN 978-0786431908 . p. 41. * ^ Roy Prendergast, _Film Music: A neglected Art_, W.W Norton & Company, 1992, ISBN 978 0393308747 . * ^ "WQXR – New York\'s Classical Music Radio Station". Retrieved 29 April 2017. * ^ "ORR Archive – League of American Orchestras". Retrieved 29 April 2017. * ^ Arkivemusic. The ranking is Debussy, Ravel, Rachmaninoff, Strauss, Prokofiev. * ^ Richard Strauss: The last concerts, CD issued by Testament SBT2 1441, 2009 * ^ Boulez (2003), p. * ^ Schonberg, p. * ^ Schonberg (1967), p. * ^ Peter Gutmann, "Richard Strauss Conducts" on classicalnotes.net * ^ Listed in Wilhelm, Kurt (1989), pages 298-99. Details in Trenner (2003) * ^ Trenner, F. (2003),Page 292. * ^ Trenner, page 357. * ^ Trenner, page 322. * ^ Trenner, Page 452 * ^ Trenner, page 595. * ^ Kater, Michael._Composers of the Nazi Era: Eight Portraits_. Oxford University Press, 1999, Page 262.
* Boulez, Pierre (trans. Richard Strokes) (2003), _Boulez on Conducting: Conversations with Cécile Gilly_, London. Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-21967-5 . * Boyden, Matthew (1999), _Richard Strauss_, London: Weidenfeld Boston, MA: Northeastern Press. ISBN 1-55553-418-X . * Dubal, David (2003), _The Essential Canon of Classical Music_, North Point Press, ISBN 0-86547-664-0 . * Gilliam, Bryan, "Richard Strauss" in grovemusic.com (subscription required). (This article is very different from the one in the 1980 _Grove_; in particular, the analysis of Strauss's behavior during the Nazi period is more detailed.) * Kennedy, Michael (1999), _Richard Strauss: Man, Musician, Enigma_, Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-027748 ISBN 978-0521027748 * Murray, David (1998), "Richard Strauss", in