The ITALIAN RESISTANCE MOVEMENT (Italian : Resistenza italiana or
just la Resistenza) is an umbrella term for resistance groups that
opposed the occupying German forces and the Italian Fascist puppet
regime of the
Italian Social Republic during the later years of World
War II . It was formed by Italians of any age, gender, political
opinion and social class, following the Allied invasion of the
country, the armistice between
Italy and Allied armed forces , and
German military occupation of northern Italy. The movement is also
known as the ITALIAN RESISTANCE and the ITALIAN PARTISANS (partigiani
in Italian). The brutal conflict they took part in is referred to as
the Italian Liberation War (when referring to the part they took in
the Italian Campaign against the Axis) or as the Italian Civil War
(when referring specifically to the conflict with the Fascists). The
modern Italian Republic was declared to be founded on the struggle of
* 1 Resistance by Italian armed forces
* 1.1 In
* 1.2 Outside
Italian military internees
* 2 Underground resistance
* 2.1 Partisan movement
* 2.2 Countryside
* 2.3 Urban areas
* 2.4 Female partisans
* 2.5 1944 uprising
* 2.6 Foreign contribution
* 2.7 Aid networks
* 3 Liberation
* 3.1 1945 uprising
* 3.2 Revenge killings
* 3.3 Casualties
* 3.4 Liberation Day
* 4 See also
* 4.1 In works of popular culture
* 5 References
* 6 External links
RESISTANCE BY ITALIAN ARMED FORCES
Italian Co-Belligerent Army
Italian Co-Belligerent Army
Unidentified uniformed Italians shot by invading Germans in
Rome, September 1943
Armed resistance to the German occupation following the armistice
Italy and Allied armed forces began with Italian regular
Italian Armed Forces
Italian Armed Forces and the
Carabinieri military police .
The period's best-known battle broke out in
Rome the day the armistice
Regio Esercito units such as the Sassari Division , the
Granatieri di Sardegna , the Piave Division , the Ariete II Division ,
the Centauro Division , the
Piacenza Division and the "Lupi di
Toscana" Division (in addition to Carabinieri, infantry and coastal
artillery regiments) were deployed around the city and along
Fallschirmjäger and Panzergrenadiere were
initially repelled and endured heavy losses, but slowly gained the
upper hand, aided by their experience and superior
The defenders were hampered by the escape of King Victor Emmanuel III
Pietro Badoglio and their staff to
Brindisi , which left the
generals in charge of the city without a coordinated defence plan.
This caused Allied support to be canceled at the last minute, since
Fallschirmjäger took the U.S.
82nd Airborne Division
82nd Airborne Division drop zones ;
Maxwell D. Taylor
Maxwell D. Taylor had crossed enemy lines and gone
Rome to personally supervise the operation. The Italian Centauro II
Division's absence from the battle contributed to the German defeat
given its German-made tanks. It was composed primarily of
Blackshirts and was not trusted.
By 10 September, the Germans had penetrated downtown
Rome and the
Granatieri (aided by civilians) made their last stand at Porta San
Paolo . At 4 pm, General Giorgio Carlo Calvi di Bergolo signed the
order of surrender; the Italian divisions were disbanded, and their
members taken prisoner. Although some officers participating in the
battle later joined the resistance, the clash was not motivated by
anti-German sentiment but by the necessity to defend the Italian
capital and resist the Italian soldiers' disarmament. Generals
Raffaele Cadorna, Jr. (commander of Ariete II) and Giuseppe Cordero
Lanza di Montezemolo (later executed by the Germans) joined the
underground; General Gioacchino Solinas (commander of the Granatieri)
instead opted for the pro-German
Italian Social Republic .
One of the most important episodes of resistance by Italian armed
forces after the armistice was the battle of
Tuscany . On
10 September 1943, during
Operation Achse , a small German flotilla,
Kapitänleutnant Karl-Wolf Albrand, tried to enter the
Piombino but was denied access by the port authorities.
Cesare Maria De Vecchi , in command of the Italian coastal
forces (and a former Fascist
Gerarca ), commanded the port authorities
to allow the German flotilla to enter, against the advice of Commander
Amedeo Capuano, the Naval commander of the harbour. Once they
entered and landed, the German forces showed a hostile behaviour, and
it became clear that their intent was to occupy the town; the local
population asked for a resolved reaction by the Italian forces,
threatening an insurrection, but the senior Italian commander, general
Fortunato Perni, instead ordered his tanks to open fire on the
civilians, to disperse the crowds; De Vecchi forbade any action
against the Germans. This however did not stop the protests; some
junior officers , acting on their own initiative and against the
orders (Perni and De Vecchi even tried to dismiss them for this),
assumed command and started distributing weapons to the population,
and civilian volunteers joined the Italian sailors and soldiers in the
defense. Battle broke out at 21:15 on 10 September, between the
German landing forces (who aimed to occupy the town centre) and the
Italian coastal batteries, tanks, and civilian population. Italian
tanks sank the German torpedo boat TA 11; Italian artillery also
sank seven Marinefährprahme , the péniches Mainz and Meise (another
péniche, Karin, was scuttled at the harbour entrance as a blockship )
Luftwaffe service boats (Fl.B.429, Fl.B.538, Fl.C.3046,
Fl.C.3099, Fl.C.504 e Fl.C.528), and heavily damaged the torpedo boat
TA 9 and the steamers Carbet and Capitano Sauro (formerly Italian).
Sauro and Carbet were scuttled because of the damage they had
suffered. The German attack was repelled; by the dawn of 11
September, 120 Germans had been killed and about 200-300 captured, 120
of them wounded. Italian casualties had been 4 killed (two sailors ,
Guardia di Finanza
Guardia di Finanza brigadier , and one civilian) and a dozen
wounded; four Italian submarine chasers (VAS 208, 214, 219 and 220)
were also sunk during the fightning. Later in the morning, however,
De Vecchi ordered the prisoners to be released, and had their weapons
given back to them. New popular protests broke out, as the Italian
units were disbanded and the senior commanders fled from the city; the
divisional command surrendered
Piombino to the Germans on 12
September, and the city was occupied. Many of the sailors, soldiers
and citizens who had fought in the battle of
Piombino retreated to the
surrounding woods and formed the first partisan formations in the
In the days following 8 September 1943 most servicemen, left without
orders from higher echelons (due to
Wehrmacht units ceasing Italian
radio communications), were disarmed and shipped to
POW camps in the
Third Reich (often by smaller German outfits). However, some garrisons
stationed in occupied Greece, Albania, Yugoslavia and
Italy fought the
Inigo Campioni and
Luigi Mascherpa led an attempt to
defend Rhodes , Kos , Leros and other
Dodecanese islands from their
former allies. With reinforcements from SAS , SBS and British Army
troops under the command of Generals Francis Gerrard, Russell
Robert Tilney , the defenders held on for a month.
Wehrmacht took the islands through air and sea landings
by infantry and
Fallschirmjäger supported by the
Luftwaffe . Both
Campioni and Mascherpa were captured and executed at
Verona for high
treason. On 13 September 1943, the Acqui Division stationed in
Cefalonia was ordered by Italian High Command to attack the Germans,
despite ongoing negotiations. After a ten-day battle, the Germans
executed thousands of officers and enlisted men in retaliation. Those
killed in the massacre of the Acqui Division included division
commander General Antonio Gandin.
Other Italian forces remained trapped in Yugoslavia following the
armistice and some decided to fight alongside the local resistance.
Elements of the Taurinense Division , the Venezia Division , the Aosta
Division and the Emilia Division were assembled in the Italian
Garibaldi Partisan Division, part of the Yugoslav People\'s Liberation
Army . When the unit finally returned to
Italy at the end of the war,
half its members had been killed or were listed as missing in action.
Bastia , in
Corsica , was the setting of a naval battle between
Italian torpedo boats and an attacking German flotilla .
ITALIAN MILITARY INTERNEES
Italian military internees
Italian soldiers captured by the Germans numbered around
650,000-700,000 (some 45,000 others were killed in combat, executed,
or died during transport), of whom between 40,000 and 50,000 later
died in the camps. Most refused cooperation with the Third Reich
despite hardship, chiefly to maintain their oath of fidelity to the
King. Their former allies designated them Italienische
Militär-Internierte ("Italian military internees") to deny them
prisoner of war status and the rights granted by the Geneva Convention
. Their actions were eventually recognized as an act of unarmed
resistance on a par with the armed confrontation of other Italian
Italian Social Republic and
Italian Civil War
In the first major act of resistance following the German occupation,
the city of
Naples was liberated through a chaotic popular rebellion.
Its people rose in the last days of September 1943. Elsewhere, the
nascent movement began as independently operating groups were
organized and led by previously outlawed political parties or by
former officers of the
Royal Italian Army . Many partisan formations
were initially founded by soldiers from disbanded units of the Royal
Italian Army that had evaded capture in
Operation Achse , and were led
by junior Army officers who had decided to resist the German
occupation; they were subsequently joined and re-organized by
Anti-Fascists, and became thus increasingly politicized.
Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (Committee of National
Liberation, or CLN), created by the
Italian Communist Party , the
Italian Socialist Party
Italian Socialist Party , the Partito d\'Azione (a republican liberal
socialist party), Democrazia Cristiana and other minor parties,
largely took control of the movement in accordance with King Victor
Emmanuel III 's ministers and the Allies . The CLN was set up by
partisans behind German lines and had the support of most groups in
The main CLN formations included three politically varied groups: the
communist Garibaldi Brigades, the
Giustizia e Libertà
Giustizia e Libertà (Justice and
Freedom) Brigades related to the Partito d'Azione, and the socialist
Matteotti Brigades. Smaller groups included Christian democrats and,
outside the CLN, monarchists such as the
Brigate Fiamme Verdi (Green
Flame Brigades) and Fronte Militare Clandestino headed by Colonel
Montezemolo. Another sizeable partisan group, particularly strong in
Piedmont (where the Fourth Army had disintegrated in September 1943),
were the "autonomous" (autonomi) partisans, largely composed of former
soldiers with no substantial alignment to any anti-Fascist party; an
example were the 1° Gruppo Divisioni Alpine led by
Enrico Martini .
Relations among the groups varied. For example, in 1945, the
Garibaldi partisans under Yugoslav Partisan command attacked and
killed several partisans of the Catholic and azionista
in the province of Udine . Tensions between the Catholics and the
Communists in the movement led to the foundation of the Fiamme Verdi
as a separate formation.
A further challenge to the 'national unity' embodied in the CLN came
from anarchists as well as dissident-communist Resistance formations,
such as Turin's Stella Rossa movement and the Movimento Comunista
d\'Italia (Rome's largest single anti-fascist force under Occupation),
which sought a revolutionary outcome to the conflict and were thus
unwilling to collaborate with 'bourgeois parties'.
Italy during the Civil War, focusing on the Italian
Rodolfo Graziani estimated the partisan strength at around
70,000-80,000 by May 1944. Some 41% in the Garibaldi Brigades and 29%
were Actionists of the
Giustizia e Libertà
Giustizia e Libertà Brigades. One of the
strongest units, the 8th Garibaldi Brigade, had 8,050 men (450 without
arms) and operated in the
Romagna area. The CLN mostly operated in
the Alpine area, Apennine area and
Po Valley of the RSI as well as in
OZAK and in
OZAV . Its losses amounted to 16,000 killed, wounded or
captured between September 1943 and May 1944. On 15 June 1944, the
General Staff of the
Esercito Nazionale Repubblicano
Esercito Nazionale Repubblicano estimated that
the partisan forces amounted to some 82,000 men, of whom about 25,000
Piedmont , 14,200 in
Liguria , 16,000 in the Julian March
, 17,000 in
Tuscany and Emilia-
Romagna , 5,600 in
Veneto , and 5,000
Lombardy . Their ranks were gradually increased by the influx of
young men escaping the Italian Social Republic's draft, as well as
from deserters from the RSI armed forces. By August 1944, the number
of partisans had grown to 100,000, and it escalated to more than
250,000 with the final insurrection in April 1945.
According to one estimate, the resistance lost some 50,000 fighters
throughout the conflict. An Italian partisan in
August 14, 1944 Partisan Alfredo Sforzini
Partisan unit sizes varied, depending on logistics (such as the
ability to arm, clothe and feed members) and the amount of local
support. The basic unit was the squadra (squad), with three or more
squads (usually five) comprising a distaccamento (detachment). Three
or more detachments made a brigata (brigade), of which two or more
made a divisione (division). In some places, several divisions formed
a gruppo divisione (divisional group). These divisional groups were
responsible for a zona d'operazione (operational group).
While the largest contingents operated in mountainous districts of
Alps and the
Apennine Mountains , other large formations fought in
Po River flatland. In the large towns of northern Italy, such as
Piacenza and the surrounding valleys near the
Gothic Line . Montechino
Castle housed a key partisan headquarters. The Gruppi di Azione
Patriottica (Patriotic Action Groups, or GAP) carried out acts of
sabotage and guerrilla warfare , and the Squadre di Azione Patriottica
(Patriotic Action Squads, or SAP) arranged strike actions and
propaganda campaigns. Like the
French Resistance , women were often
important members and couriers .
Like their counterparts elsewhere in Europe, Italian partisans seized
whatever arms they could find. The first weapons were brought by
ex-soldiers fighting German occupiers from the Regio Esercito
Beretta M 1934 and M1935 pistols, Bodeo
M1889 revolvers, SRCM and OTO hand grenades, Fiat-Revelli Modello 1935
Breda 30 and
Breda M37 machine guns. Later, captured K98ks , MG34s ,
MG42s , the iconic potato-masher grenades , Lugers and Walther P38s
were added to partisan kits. Submachine guns (such as the
MP 40 ) were
initially scarce, and usually reserved for squad leaders.
Automatic weapons became more common as they were captured in combat
and as the Social Republic regime soldiers began defecting, bringing
their own guns.
Beretta MABs began appearing in larger numbers in
October 1943, when they were spirited away en masse from the Beretta
factory which was producing them for the Wehrmacht. Additional weapons
(chiefly of British origin) were airdropped by the Allies: PIATs ,
Lee–Enfield rifles, Bren light machine guns and Sten guns .
U.S.-made weapons were provided on a smaller scale from the Office of
Strategic Services : Thompson submachine guns (both M1928 and M1), M3
submachine guns , United Defense M42s and folding-stock M1 carbines .
Other supplies included explosives, clothing, boots, food rations and
money (used to buy weapons or to compensate civilians for
Resistance monument at Lys Pass in the
Alps (2008) Partisan
The worst conditions and fighting took place in mountainous regions.
Resources were scarce and living conditions were terrible. Due to
limited supplies the resistance adopted guerrilla warfare . This
involved groups of 40-50 fighters ambushing and harassing the Nazis
and their allies. The size of the brigades was reflective of the
resources available to the partisans. Resource limits could not
support large groups in one area. Mobility was key to their success.
Their terrain knowledge enabled narrow escapes in small groups when
nearly surrounded by the Germans. The partisans had no permanent
headquarters or bases, making them difficult to destroy.
The resistance fighters themselves relied heavily on the local
populace for support and supplies. They would often barter or just ask
for food, blankets and medicine. When the partisans took supplies from
families, they would often hand out promissory notes that the peasants
could convert after the war for money. The partisans slept in
abandoned farms and farmhouses. One account from Paolino 'Andrea'
Ranieri (a political commissar at the time) described fighters using
donkeys to move equipment at night while during the day the peasants
used them in the fields. The Nazis tried to split the populace from
the resistance by adopting a reprisal policy of killing 10 Italians
for every German killed by the Partisans. Those executed would come
from the village near where an attack took place and sometimes from
captive partisan fighters.
The German punishments backfired and instead strengthened the
relationship. Because most resistance fighters were peasants, local
populations felt a need to provide for their own. One of the larger
engagements was the battle for Monte Battaglia (lit. "Battle
Mountain"), a mountaintop that was a part of the Gothic Line. On
September 26, 1944, a joint force of 250 Partisans and three companies
of U.S. soldiers from the 88th Infantry Division attacked the hill
occupied by elements of the German 290th Grenadier Regiment. The
Germans were caught completely by surprise. The attackers captured the
hill and held it for five days against reinforced German units,
securing a path for the Allied advance.
Resistance activities were different in the cities. Some Italians
ignored the struggle, while others organized, such as the Patriotic
Action Squads and issued propaganda. Groups such as the Patriotic
Action Groups carried out military actions. A more expansive support
network was devised than in the countryside. Networks of safe houses
were established to hide weapons and wounded fighters. Only
sympathizers were involved, because compulsion was thought to
encourage betrayal. People largely supported the resistance because of
economic hardships, especially inflation.
Pasta prices tripled and
bread prices had quintupled since 1938; hunger unified the underground
and general population.
Carla Capponi , a vice-commander in the Gruppi di azione
Women played a large role. After the war, about 35,000 Italian women
were recognised as female partigiane combattenti (partisan combatants)
and 20,000 as patriote (patriots); they broke into these groups based
on their activities. The majority were between 20 and 29. They were
generally kept separate from male partisans. Few were attached to
brigades and were even rarer in mountain brigades. Female countryside
volunteers were generally rejected. Women still served in large
numbers and had significant influence.
Italian Partisan Republics
During the summer and early fall of 1944, with Allied forces nearby,
partisans attacked behind German lines, led by CLNAI. This rebellion
led to provisional partisan governments throughout the mountainous
Ossola was the most important of these, receiving recognition
from Switzerland and Allied consulates there. According to Field
Albert Kesselring , Germany's commander of occupation forces
in Italy, German casualties fighting partisans in summer 1944 amounted
to 5,000 killed and between 7,000-8,000 missing/"kidnapped" (including
deserters), and a similar number seriously wounded. By the end of the
year, however, German reinforcements and Mussolini's remaining forces
crushed the uprising.
The resistance demonstrated that not all Italians agreed with Fascist
rule, and proved that they were prepared to fight. Ten of thousands of
partisans died, in addition to civilians and prisoners of war .
According to the Center for the Study of Intelligence of the Central
Intelligence Agency , Italian partisans "kept as many as seven German
divisions out of the line", and with the final insurrection in April
1945 "They also obtained the surrender of two full German divisions,
which led directly to the collapse of the German forces in and around
Genoa, Turin, and Milan".
In their attempts to suppress the resistance, German and Italian
Fascist forces (especially the SS,
Gestapo , and paramilitary militias
such as Xª MAS and
Black Brigades ) committed war crimes, including
summary executions and systematic reprisals against civilian
population. Resistance captives and suspects were often tortured and
raped. Some of the most notorious mass atrocities included the
Ardeatine massacre (335 Jewish civilians and political prisoners
executed without a trial in a reprisal operation after a resistance
bomb attack in Rome), the Sant\'Anna di Stazzema massacre (about 560
random villagers brutally killed in an anti-partisan operation in the
central mountains), the
Marzabotto massacre (about 770 civilians
killed in similar circumstances) and the
Salussola massacre (20
partisan murdered after being tortured, as a reprisal). In all, an
estimated 15,000 Italian civilians were deliberately killed, including
many women and children.
A woman executed by public hanging in a street of
Rome , early 1944
German soldier examining the papers of an Italian civilian outside of
The Sant\'Anna di Stazzema massacre memorial relief
Memorial stone in
Soragna for two Italian partisans – killed in
Partisan monument (
Arcevia ) with Italian and Yugoslav names
Not all resistance members were Italians; many foreigners had escaped
POW camps or joined guerrilla bands as so-called "military missions".
Among them were Yugoslavs, Czechs (deserters from the Protectorate of
Bohemia and Moravia army (in
Italy for guard/patrol duty in 1944),
Russians, Ukrainians, Dutch, Spaniards, Greeks, Poles, German
defectors and deserters disillusioned with National
Britons and Americans (ex-prisoners or advisors deployed by the SAS,
SOE and OSS ). Some later became well-known, such as climber and
Bill Tilman , reporter and historian
Peter Tompkins , former
Count Manfred Beckett Czernin , and architect Oliver
Churchill . George Dunning recorded his experiences of fighting with
the partisans in his book "Where bleed the many".
Another task carried out by the resistance was assisting escaping
POWs (an estimated 80,000 were interned in
Italy until 8 September
1943), to reach Allied lines or Switzerland on paths previously used
by smugglers. Some fugitives and groups of fugitives hid in safe
houses, usually arranged by women (less likely to arouse suspicion).
After the war, Field Marshal
Harold Alexander issued a certificate to
those who thereby risked their lives.
Italian Jews were aided by
DELASEM , a network extending throughout
Italy that included Jews and Gentiles,
Roman Catholic clergy,
faithful/sympathetic police officers and even some German soldiers.
Since Jews were considered "enemy aliens" by the Social Republic
regime, they were left with little or nothing to live on, and many
were deported to Nazi concentration and extermination camps where
about 7,000 died.
DELASEM helped thousands of Jews by offering food,
shelter and money. Some of its members would later be designated
Righteous Among the Nations
Righteous Among the Nations .
Monument to the fallen at the burial place of partisans killed
on April 26, 1945 at
Montù Beccaria (2007)
On April 19, 1945, the CLN called for an insurrection (the April 25
Bologna was attacked by partisans on April 19 and was
liberated on April 21 by the
Italian Co-Belligerent Army
Italian Co-Belligerent Army and the
Polish II Corps under Allied command;
Reggio Emilia were
freed on April 24.
Milan were liberated on April 25 through
an insurrection following a general strike that commenced two days
earlier; over 14,000 German and Fascist troops were captured in Genoa
on April 26–27, when General Günther Meinhold surrendered to the
CLN. Many of the defeated German troops attempted to escape from
Italy and some partisans units allowed the German columns to pass
through if they turned over any Italians who were travelling with
them. The forces of German occupation in
Italy officially capitulated
on May 2. Some die-hard Fascists attempted to continue fighting, but
were quickly suppressed by the partisans and the Allied forces.
The April insurrection brought to the fore issues between the
resistance and the Allies. Given the revolutionary dimension of the
insurrection in the industrial centers of Turin, Milan, and Genoa,
where concerted factory occupations by armed workers had occurred, the
Allied commanders sought to impose control as soon as they took the
place of the retreating Germans. While the Kingdom of
Italy was the de
facto ruler of the South, the National Liberation Committee, still
embedded in German territory, existed as a populist organization which
posed a threat to the monarchy and property owners in a post-war
Italy. However the PCI , under directives from Moscow, enabled the
Allies to carry out their program of disarming the partisans and
discouraged any revolutionary attempt at changing the social system.
Instead, the PCI emphasized national unity and "progressive democracy"
in order to stake their claim in the post-war political situation.
Despite the pressing need to resolve social issues which persisted
after the fall of fascism, the resistance movement was subordinated to
the interests of Allied leaders in order to maintain the status quo.
Mussolini - captured and executed by Italian Partisans, along
with his mistress
Clara Petacci and three other Fascist officials.
A score-settling campaign ensued against pro-German collaborators,
thousands of whom were rounded up by the vengeful partisans.
Controversially, many of those detainees were speedily court martialed
, condemned and shot, or killed without trial. Minister of Interior
Mario Scelba later put the number of the victims of such executions at
732, but other estimates were much higher. Partisan leader Ferruccio
Parri , who briefly served as Prime Minister after the war in 1945,
said thousands were killed.
During the waning hours of the war, Mussolini, accompanied by Marshal
Graziani, headed to
Milan to meet with Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso
Mussolini was hoping to negotiate a deal, but was given
only the option of unconditional surrender . His negotiations were an
act of betrayal against the Germans. When confronted about this by
Mussolini said, "They have always treated us as
slaves. I will now resume my freedom of action." With the city already
held by resistance fighters,
Mussolini used his connections one last
time to secure passage with an escaping German convoy on its way to
Brenner Pass with his mistress
Claretta Petacci . On the morning
of 27 April 1945, Umberto Lazzaro (nom de guerre 'Partisan Bill'), a
partisan with the 52nd Garibaldi Brigade, was checking a column of
lorries carrying retreating SS troops at Dongo,
Lombardy , near the
Swiss border. Lazzaro recognized and arrested Mussolini. The task of
Mussolini was, according the official version, given to a
'Colonel Valerio' (identified as
Walter Audisio ) and the bodies of
Mussolini and Petacci were later brought to
Milan and hung upside down
Piazzale Loreto square. Eighteen executed prominent Fascists
Fernando Mezzasoma , Luigi Gatti, Alessandro
Achille Starace ) were displayed in the square; this
place was significant because the bodies of 15 executed enemies of
Mussolini's regime had been displayed in this square the previous
According to a book published in 1955 by an Italian ministerial
committee on the tenth anniversary of the Liberation, casualties in
Italy among the
Resistance movement amounted to 35,828 partisans
killed in action or executed, and 21,168 partisans mutilated or left
disabled by their wounds. Another 32,000 Italian partisans had been
killed abroad (in the Balkans and, to a lesser extent, in France).
9,980 Italian civilians had been killed in reprisals by the German and
Fascist forces. In 2010, the Ufficio dell'Albo d'Oro of the Italian
Ministry of Defence recorded 15,197 partisans killed; however, the
Ufficio dell'Albo d'Oro only considered as partisans the members of
the Resistance who were civilians before joining the partisans,
whereas partisans who were formerly members of the Italian armed
forces (more than half those killed) were considered as members of
their armed force of origin.
The 64th anniversary of the liberation of
Tuscany (25th April 2009)
Since 1949, April 25 has been officially celebrated as Liberation Day
, also known as Anniversary of the Resistance. Speaking at the 2014
Giorgio Napolitano said: "The values and merits
of the Resistance, from the Partisan movement and the soldiers who
sided with the fight for liberation to the Italian armed forces, are
indelible and beyond any rhetoric of mythicization or any biased
denigration. The Resistance, the commitment to reconquer Italy's
liberty and independence, was a great civil engine of ideals, but
above all it was a people in arms, a courageous mobilization of young
and very young citizens who rebelled against foreign power."
ANPI , an association of the participants to the Italian
* People\'s Squads , an Italian left-wing antifascist militia active
during the early 1920s
Anni di piombo
German Resistance to Nazism
German Resistance to Nazism
* Japanese dissidence during the Showa period
* Museum of the Liberation of
IN WORKS OF POPULAR CULTURE
* The Abandoned
* Achtung! Bandits!
* Bebo\'s Girl
Blood of the Losers
* Captain Corelli\'s Mandolin
* Cloak and Dagger
* Cloak -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;
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* ^ A B C D E F G "
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* ^ A B C D E "8 settembre \'43: la breve illusione di pace".
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* ^ "Interventi del Presidente - La Camera dei Deputati". Retrieved
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* ^ "FR L\'Iphigénie of the French Navy - French
Torpedo boat of
the La Melpoméne class - Allied Warships of WWII - uboat.net".
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* ^ "Seekrieg 1943, September". Retrieved 25 April 2017.
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