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A recall election (also called a recall referendum, recall petition or representative recall) is a procedure by which, in certain polities, voters can remove an elected official from office through a referendum before that official's term of office has ended. Recalls, which are initiated when sufficient voters sign a petition, have a history dating back to the constitution in ancient Athenian democracy and feature in several current constitutions. In indirect or
representative democracy Representative democracy, also known as indirect democracy, is a type of democracy where elected people represent a group of people, in contrast to direct democracy. Nearly all modern Western-style democracies function as some type of repres ...
, people's representatives are elected and these representatives serve for a specific period of time. However, where the facility to recall exists, if any representative comes to be perceived as not properly discharging their responsibilities, they can be called back with the written request of a specific number or proportion of voters. Even where they are legally available, recall elections are only commonly held in a small number of countries including the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territor ...
,
Peru , image_flag = Flag of Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo nacional del Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = National seal , national_motto = "Firm and Happy f ...
, Ecuador, and
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally , ''Nihonkoku'') is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the n ...
. They are considered by groups such as ACE Electoral Knowledge Network the most rarely used form of direct democracy.


Process

The processes for recall elections vary greatly by country and can be originated in different ways. The process for calling a recall election may be: * Indirect (also known as a "Mixed" or "Top-down" recall): A recall may only be triggered by an official authority such as a government, parliament, or president. *Direct (also known as a "Full" or "Bottom-up" recall): A recall may be triggered by the public directly by the collection of signatures.


Argentina

The recall referendum arrived in Latin America shortly after its introduction at the US subnational level, in 1923 and 1933, to Cordoba and Entre Ríos provinces, respectively, both in Argentina. There, recall exists at the provincial level in Chaco (introduced in 1957), Chubut (1994), Córdoba (1923, 1987), Corrientes (1960), La Rioja (1986), Rio Negro (1988), Santiago del Estero and Tierra del Fuego (1991); other provinces include it for their municipalities, namely, Entre Ríos (1933), Neuquén (1957), Misiones (1958), San Juan (1986), San Luis (1987). It is also included in Buenos Aires City (1996).


Canada

Canada has legislation through a private members bill allowing for recall elections on the federal level wit
BILL C-269
The only province or territory with recall election laws currently in force is British Columbia. Alberta has passed legislation but it is not yet in force.


Alberta

The province of
Alberta Alberta ( ) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada, provinces and territories of Canada. It is part of Western Canada and is one of the three Canadian Prairies, prairie provinces. Alberta is bordered by British Columbia to t ...
enacted recall legislation for Members of the Legislative Assembly in 1936 during the Social Credit government of William Aberhart. The legislation was repealed after a petition was introduced for the recall of Aberhart himself. In 2020, the Government of Alberta announced it will introduce a bill allowing recall elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly, municipal governments, and school boards. This bill, Bill 52, was passed and received Royal Assent June 17, 2021, and came into effect on April 7, 2022.


British Columbia

British Columbia's ''Recall and Initiative Act'', enacted in 1995, provides a process for recalling members of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia. Voters in a provincial riding can petition to have their Member of the Legislative Assembly removed from office once said MLA has been in office for at least 18 months. If over 40 percent of registered voters in the riding sign the petition and the petition is validated by Elections BC, the Chief Electoral Officer informs the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the member in question that the member has been recalled and their seat vacated. A by-election is called by the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia as soon as possible to fill the vacant seat. The recalled MLA is permitted to run in the by-election for their former seat. Twenty-six recall petitions have been launched ; of the six completed petitions returned to Elections BC, five were rejected for having too few valid signatures. The sixth, on the recall of MLA Paul Reitsma, was halted after Reitsma resigned in 1998 during the secondary verification stage.


Colombia

In Colombia, the recall referendum was included by the constitution in 1991. The constitutional replacement was launched as an answer to the movement known as ''la séptima papeleta'' (the seventh ballot), which requested a constitutional reform to end violence, narcoterrorism, corruption and increasing citizenship apathy. The definition of recall referendum in relation to programmatic vote was approved. It obliges candidates running for office to register a government plan which is later on considered to activate the recall. Since the time the mechanism was regulated by Law 134 in 1994, until 2015, 161 attempts led 41 referendums and none of them succeeded since the threshold of participation was not reached. In 2015, a new law (303/2015) reduced the number of signatures required to activate a recall referendum (from 40 per cent to 30 per cent of the total of votes obtained by the elected authority) and the threshold (dropping from the 50 per cent to the 40 per cent of valid votes on the day of the elections of the challenged authority). The change in the regulation, also quickening the registration of promoters, led to a considerable increase in the number of attempts.


Ecuador

Article 105 of the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador provides for recall of all elected officials:


Germany


Mayoral Recalls

Mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than cities, though the criteri ...
s may be recalled in 11 out of the 16 states of
Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is situated betwe ...
. In a majority of these states recall elections are indirect, meaning that they only take place after a motion of no confidence from the municipal council of the city. A supermajority vote is normally needed to start the recall process from the council. Four states also allow the direct recall, where citizens may sign a petition to trigger the recall vote.


State parliaments

The recall of members of the state parliaments of Germany exist in five states;
Bavaria Bavaria ( ; ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (german: Freistaat Bayern, link=no ), is a state in the south-east of Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the s ...
, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, and
Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate ( , ; german: link=no, Rheinland-Pfalz ; lb, Rheinland-Pfalz ; pfl, Rhoilond-Palz) is a western state of Germany. It covers and has about 4.05 million residents. It is the ninth largest and sixth most populous of the ...
. All of these states only allow for the recall of the entire legislature by triggering a new election, the recall of individual members is not allowed. Article 18, Section 3 of th
Constitution of Bavaria
provides, that the entire Landtag can be dismissed by referendum on petition of 1 Million citizens, with elections of a new Landtag to be held up to six weeks after the recall referendum.


India


Kiribati

Section 69 of the Constitution of Kiribati provides for a majority of electors in a district (who were electors of the district at the time of the original election) to sign a petition requesting a recall election. The recall election must not occur less than 6 months after the original election or a failed recall attempt. If the recall election is successful another election to fill the seat must be held within 3 months.


Latvia

Article 14 of the Constitution of Latvia enables the recall of the entire Saiema, though not of specific representatives: :Article 14: Not less than one tenth of electors has the right to initiate a national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima. :If the majority of voters and at least two thirds of the number of the voters who participated in the last elections of the Saeima vote in the national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima, then the Saeima shall be deemed recalled. :The right to initiate a national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima may not be exercised one year after the convening of the Saeima and one year before the end of the term of office of the Saeima, during the last six months of the term of office of the President, as well as earlier than six months after the previous national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima. : :The electors may not recall any individual member of the Saeima.


Mexico

In
Mexico Mexico ( Spanish: México), officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere ...
, the State of Yucatán was the first to introduce the recall in 1938. The mechanism, which had never been used, was declared unconstitutional 72 years later by the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation. A similar mechanism introduced in Chihuahua in 1997 was also declared unconstitutional and consequently eliminated from law. Despite these precedents, the recall was later included in the states of Oaxaca (1998), Morelos (2011), Guerrero (2013), Zacatecas and Aguascalientes.


New Zealand

Early policies of the New Zealand Labour Party included support for "the recall".


Philippines

Article 10 of the constitution of the Philippines allows for the recall of local officials. The Local Government Code, as amended, enabled the application of the provisions of the constitution. Elected officials from provincial governors to the barangay councilors are potentially subject to recall. At least 25% of the electorate in a specific place must have their signatures verified in a petition in order for the recall to take place. The president, vice president, members of Congress, and the elected officials of the Bangsamoro cannot be removed via recall. The most recent recall election above the barangay level was the 2015 Puerto Princesa mayoral recall election.


Peru

Recall regulations were introduced in Peru by the Democratic Constituent Congress (''Congreso Constituyente Democrático'') which drafted a new constitution after Alberto Fujimori's ''autogolpe'' in 1992. Between 1997 and 2013, more than 5000 recall referendums were activated against democratically elected authorities from 747 Peruvian municipalities (45.5% of all municipalities). This makes Peru the world's most intensive user of this mechanism.


Switzerland

While recalls are not provided for at the federal level in Switzerland, six cantons allow them: * Bern: Recall of the executive and legislative has been possible since 1846. 30,000 signatures (4% of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum. There has been one unsuccessful attempt to recall the executive in 1852 (the 'Schatzgelder' affair). * Schaffhausen: Recall of the executive and legislative has been possible since 1876. 1,000 signatures (2% of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum. There has been one unsuccessful attempt to recall the executive in 2000, triggered by the lawyer and cantonal MP Gerold Meier. * Solothurn: Recall of the executive and legislative has been possible since 1869. 6,000 signatures (3% of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum. There has been one unsuccessful attempt to recall the executive and legislative in 1995 (related to a banking scandal). Three further attempts (in 1887, 1961 and 1973) failed to collect the necessary number of signatures. * Ticino: Recall of the executive has been possible since 1892. 15,000 signatures (7% of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum. There has been one unsuccessful recall attempt in 1942. In addition, recall of municipal executives has been possible since 2011. Signatures of 30% of all adult citizens are required to trigger a recall referendum. * Thurgau: Recall of the executive and legislative has been possible since 1869. 20,000 signatures (13% of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum. There have been no recall attempts. * Uri: Recall of the executive and legislative has been possible since 1888. Since 1979, 600 signatures (3% of all adult citizens) have been required to trigger a recall referendum. In addition, recall of municipal executives and legislatives has been possible since 2011. Signatures of 10% of registered voters are required to trigger a recall referendum. There have been no recall attempts either at the cantonal or municipal levels. The possibility of recall referendums (together with the popular election of executives, the initiative and the legislative referendum) was introduced into several cantonal constitutions after the 1860s in the course of a broad movement for democratic reform. The instrument has never been of any practical importance—the few attempts at recall so far have failed, usually because the required number of signatures was not collected—and it was abolished in the course of constitutional revisions in Aargau (1980), Baselland (1984) and Lucerne (2007). The only successful recall so far happened in the Canton of Aargau in the year 1862. However, the possibility of recalling municipal executives was newly introduced in Ticino in 2011, with 59% of voters in favor, as a reaction to the perceived problem of squabbling and dysfunctional municipal governments.


Soviet Union

Article 142 of The 1936 Constitution of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. A flagship communist state, it was nominally a federal union of fifteen nati ...
had the right in theory to recall deputies in legislature at all levels of government: The recall was widely copied in the constitutions of communist countries of the Eastern Bloc,
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population exceeding 1.4 billion, slightly ahead of India India, officially the Republic of India ...
,
Vietnam Vietnam or Viet Nam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,., group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia, S ...
, North Korea, and Cuba. Although allowable according to law, in practice the right of recall was never used in any soviet system of government.


Taiwan

In
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia, at the junction of the East and South China Seas in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, with the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's R ...
, according to the Additional Articles of the Constitution, the recall of the president or the vice president shall be initiated upon the proposal of one-fourth of all members of the Legislative Yuan, and also passed by two-thirds of all the members. The final recall must be passed by more than one-half of the valid ballots in a vote in which more than one-half of the electorate in the free area of the Republic of China takes part. On 6 June 2020, mayor of Kaohsiung, Han Kuo-yu, became the first mayor to be recalled. 939,090 votes within 969,259 agreed the recall.


Ukraine

A year after the 2015 Ukrainian local elections, voters can achieve a recall election of an elected deputy or mayor if as many signatures as voters are collected.


United Kingdom

The Recall of MPs Act 2015 (c. 25) is an Act of the
Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off th ...
which allows a recall petition to be held if a Member of Parliament did certain wrongdoings, including being sentenced to prison for up to a year (longer sentences result in automatic disqualification). The petitions cannot be triggered by popular initiative, but rather are automatic and administered by the local returning officer for parliamentary elections, who is designated as petitions officer for this purpose. If the subsequent recall petition is successful, by being signed by at least 10% of the electorate, a by-election is called. It received Royal Assent on 26 March 2015 after being introduced on 11 September 2014. On 1 May 2019, Fiona Onasanya became the first MP to be removed from office after a successful recall petition.


United States

Recall first appeared in Colonial America in the laws of the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1631. This version of the recall involved one elected body removing another official. During the American Revolution, the Articles of Confederation stipulated that state legislatures might recall delegates from the Continental Congress. According to New York Delegate John Lansing, the power was never exercised by any state. The Virginia Plan, issued at the outset of the Philadelphia Convention of 1787, proposed to pair recall with rotation in office and to apply these dual principles to the lower house of the national legislature. The recall was rejected by the Constitutional Convention. However, the anti-Federalists used the lack of recall provision as a weapon in the ratification debates. Several states proposed adopting a recall for US senators in the years immediately following the adoption of the Constitution. However, it did not pass. Only two governors have ever been successfully recalled. In 1921, Governor Lynn Frazier of North Dakota was recalled during a dispute about state-owned industries. In 2003, Governor Gray Davis of
California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, located along the West Coast of the United States, Pacific Coast. With nearly 39.2million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territori ...
was recalled over the state budget. Additionally, in 1988, a recall was approved against Governor Evan Mecham of Arizona, but he was impeached and convicted before it got on the ballot. In Alaska, Georgia, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana,
Rhode Island Rhode Island (, like ''road'') is a state in the New England region of the Northeastern United States. It is the smallest U.S. state by area and the seventh-least populous, with slightly fewer than 1.1 million residents as of 2020, but ...
, and Washington, specific grounds are required for a recall. Some form of malfeasance or misconduct while in office must be identified by the petitioners. The target may choose to dispute the validity of the grounds in court, and a court then judges whether the allegations in the petition rise to a level where a recall is necessary. In the November 2010 general election,
Illinois Illinois ( ) is a state in the Midwestern United States. Its largest metropolitan areas include the Chicago metropolitan area, and the Metro East section, of Greater St. Louis. Other smaller metropolitan areas include, Peoria and Ro ...
passed a referendum to amend the state constitution to allow a recall of the state's governor, in light of former Governor Rod Blagojevich's corruption scandal. In the other eleven states that permit statewide recall, no grounds are required and recall petitions may be circulated for any reason. However, the target is permitted to submit responses to the stated reasons for recall. The minimum number of signatures to qualify a recall, and the time limit to do so, vary among the states. In addition, the handling of recalls, once they qualify, differs. In some states a recall triggers a simultaneous special election, where the vote on the recall, as well as the vote on the replacement if the recall succeeds, are on the same ballot. In the 2003 California recall election, over 100 candidates appeared on the replacement portion of the ballot. In other states, a separate special election is held after the target is recalled, or a replacement is appointed by the Governor or some other state authority. The largest amount of recalls in the United States were held in 2021, as 529 officials faced recalls, but it had the lowest amount of successful recalls as only 25 were removed.


2011 recalls

In 2011, there were at least 150 recall elections in the United States. Of these, 75 officials were recalled, and nine officials resigned under threat of recall. Recalls were held in 17 states in 73 different jurisdictions.
Michigan Michigan () is a state in the Great Lakes region of the upper Midwestern United States. With a population of nearly 10.12 million and an area of nearly , Michigan is the 10th-largest state by population, the 11th-largest by area, and t ...
had the most recalls (at least 30). The year set a record for number of state legislator recall elections (11 elections) beating the previous one-year high (three elections). Three jurisdictions adopted the recall in 2011. Of recall elections, 52 were for
city council A municipal council is the legislative body of a municipality or local government area. Depending on the location and classification of the municipality it may be known as a city council, town council, town board, community council, rural cou ...
, 30 were for
mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than cities, though the criteri ...
, 17 were for school board, 11 were for state legislators, and one was for a prosecuting attorney ( York County, Nebraska). The largest municipality to hold a recall was Miami-Dade County, Florida, for mayor. The busiest day was November 8 ( Election Day) with 26 recalls. In 34 jurisdictions, recalls were held over multiple days.


Successful recalls


Alaska

*1998 recall of Tim Peters, mayor of North Pole, Alaska.


Arizona

* 2011 recall of Arizona State Senator Russell Pearce. *1988 recall of Arizona Governor Evan Mecham. Almost 390,000 signatures were collected to recall Governor Evan Mecham from the governorship of Arizona. Only 216,746 valid signatures were required.


California

*1913 recall of a judge in
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish for " Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the commercial, financial, and cultural center of Northern California. The city proper is the fourth most populous in California and 17t ...
*1928 recall of Lester R. Rice-Wray, Los Angeles, California, City Council member *1932 recalls of three judges in
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; es, Los Ángeles, link=no , ), often referred to by its initials L.A., is the largest city in the state of California and the second most populous city in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. o ...
*1938 recall of Mayor Frank L. Shaw in Los Angeles, California *1995 recall of California State Assemblyman Paul Horcher *1995 recall of California State Assembly Speaker Doris Allen * 2003 recall of Gray Davis, Governor of California * 2012 recall of Fullerton, California City Council members Don Bankhead, F. Richard "Dick" Jones and Patrick McKinley. * 2018 recall of California superior court judge Aaron Persky of Santa Clara County over his sentencing decision in '' People v. Turner'' * 2018 recall of California State Senator Josh Newman over his vote to raise the gas tax *2020 recall of Santa Cruz, California city council members Chris Krohn and Drew Glover for workplace misconduct. *2020 recall of McKinney, Texas city council member La'shadion Shemwell for conduct unbecoming of a council member. * 2022 recall of San Francisco Unified School District Commissioners Gabriela López, Alison Collins, and Faauuga Moliga. * 2022 recall of San Francisco District Attorney Chesa Boudin. *2022 recall of Big Bear Lake, California city council member Alan Lee.


Colorado

* 2012 recall of Melinda Myers, Clerk & Recorder of Saguache County, Colorado. * 2013 recall of Colorado Democratic State Senator John Morse * 2013 recall of Colorado Democratic State Senator Angela Giron *2015 recall of three school board members in Jefferson County, ColoradoAguilar, John and Yesenia Robles
"Jeffco voters choose recall; incumbents losing in DougCo school race"
'' The Denver Post'', November 3, 2015. (accessed 8 November 2015)


Florida

*2011 recall of Carlos Alvarez, Mayor of Miami-Dade County, Florida. *2011 recall of Natacha Seijas, Miami-Dade County Commissioner. *2020 recall of Sebastian, Florida vice mayor Charles Mauti and city council members Damien Gilliams and Pamela Parris over allegations of malfeasance and alleged Sunshine Law violations.


Idaho

*1916 recall of J. W. Robinson, Mayor of Boise, Idaho


Louisiana

* 2013 recall of Deedy Slaughter, Mayor of Port Allen, Louisiana


Maine

*2013 recall of six of the seven city council members in Old Orchard Beach, Maine


Maryland

* 2018 recall of Bowie, Maryland city councilwoman Diane Polangin, over her vote to approve a controversial development project located in her district


Massachusetts

*2014 recall of Fall River, Massachusetts Mayor William A. Flanagan *2015 recall of four selectmen in Saugus, Massachusetts


Michigan

*1983 recall of Michigan state senators Phil Mastin and David Serotkin due to their support for a state income tax hike. Loss of these two Democratic lawmakers, along with two special elections won by Republicans, flipped the state senate to GOP control, where it remained until the 2022 Michigan elections. *2002 recall of Woodrow Stanley, mayor of Flint, Michigan. * 2011 recall of Michigan State Representative Paul Scott * 2012 recall of Janice Daniels, Mayor of Troy, Michigan


Minnesota

* 2022 recall of Two Harbors mayor Chris Swanson


Nebraska

*1987 recall of Mike Boyle, Mayor of Omaha, Nebraska.


New Jersey

*1994 recall of officials in River Vale, New Jersey: Mayor Walter Jones, Councilwoman Patricia Geier, and Councilman Bernard Salmon *2018 recall of Mahwah, New Jersey mayor William Laforet.


North Dakota

* 1921 recall of Lynn Frazier, Governor of North Dakota


Ohio

*2016 recall of Mayor and City Council President in East Cleveland,
Ohio Ohio () is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists ...
Morice, Jan
"East Cleveland mayor, City Council president recalled in special election"
'' cleveland.com'', December 6, 2016. (accessed 13 December 2016)
*2010 recall of Jane Murray, Mayor of Portsmouth, Ohio


Oregon

*2011 recall of Neal Knight, Mayor of Cornelius, Oregon, and city councilors Mari Gottwald and Jamie Minshall, less than a year after their election, due to unhappiness over their votes to fire the city manager. *2008 recall of Carmen Kontur-Gronquist, Mayor of Arlington, Oregon. *2018 recall of Toledo, Oregon mayor Billie Jo Smith and two City Council members over allegations of malfeasance, wrongful termination of city employees, and conducting city business at secret meetings


Texas

*1996 recall of Carrollton Texas Mayor Gary Blanscet and council members Linda Caldwell, Bernis Francis, Stan Hampton, Bob Novinsky, Bert Colter, and Stan Sewell. *2011 recall of multiple Killeen, Texas elected city officials including Mayor Pro Tem Scott Cosper and four city council members. *2019 recall of Rusk, Texas city council members Jan Pate and Ken Ferrara for conduct unbecoming of a council member


Virginia

*1987 recall of James Holley, Mayor of Portsmouth, Virginia *2010 recall of James Holley, Mayor of Portsmouth, Virginia.


Washington

*1911 recall of Hiram Gill, Mayor of Seattle, Washington *2005 recall of James E. West, Mayor of Spokane, Washington. *2014 recall of Mayor Marilynn Lynn of Bridgeport, WA


Wisconsin

*1977 recall of County Judge Archie Simonson, Madison, Wisconsin *1977 recall of five members of the La Crosse School Board, La Crosse, Wisconsin *1992 recall of four members of the La Crosse School Board *1996 recall of Wisconsin State Senator George Petak *2002 recall of multiple Milwaukee County, Wisconsin elected county officials including Executive F. Thomas Ament (resigned before election); Board Chair Karen Ordinans; and Board Supervisors Penny Podell, LeAnn Launstein, David Jasenski, Kathy Arciszewski, James McGuigan, and Linda Ryan. All were recalled due to a retirement pension controversy. *2003 recall of Wisconsin State Senator Gary George * 2011 recall of Wisconsin State Senator Randy Hopper *2011 recall of Wisconsin State Senator Dan Kapanke * 2012 recall of Bob Ryan, Mayor of Sheboygan, Wisconsin * 2012 recall of Wisconsin State Senator Van H. Wanggaard


Unsuccessful recalls

*1932 recall election of Wisconsin State Senator Otto Mueller * 1978 recall of Cleveland Mayor Dennis Kucinich * 1982 recall of Grant County, Wisconsin Judge William L. Reinecke *1983 recall of San Francisco Mayor Dianne Feinstein *1990 recall of Wisconsin State Assemblyman Jim Holperin *2008 recall of California State Senator Jeff Denham *2008 recall of Michigan House of Representatives Speaker Andy Dillon *2009 recall of San Jose, California City Council member Madison Nguyen *2009 recall of Akron Mayor Don Plusquellic *2010 recall of Mayor Doug Isaacson in North Pole, Alaska *2010 recall of Mayor Anthony R. Suarez in Ridgefield, New Jersey *2011 recall of Omaha, Nebraska Mayor Jim Suttle *2011 recall of Wisconsin State Senator Dave Hansen *2011 recall of Wisconsin State Senator Robert Cowles *2011 recall of Wisconsin State Senator Sheila Harsdorf *2011 recall of Wisconsin State Senator Luther Olsen *2011 recall of Wisconsin State Senator Alberta Darling *2011 recall of Wisconsin State Senator Robert Wirch *2011 recall of Wisconsin State Senator Jim Holperin * 2012 recall of Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker *2012 recall of Wisconsin Lieutenant Governor Rebecca Kleefisch *2012 recall of
Wisconsin Wisconsin () is a state in the upper Midwestern United States. Wisconsin is the 25th-largest state by total area and the 20th-most populous. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois Illinois ( ...
State Senator Scott L. Fitzgerald *2012 recall of Wisconsin State Senator Terry Moulton *2013 recall of
La Crosse, Wisconsin La Crosse is a city in the U.S. state of Wisconsin and the county seat of La Crosse County. Positioned alongside the Mississippi River, La Crosse is the largest city on Wisconsin's western border. La Crosse's population as of the 2020 censu ...
City Council President Audrey Kader *2014 recall of Port Orford, Oregon Mayor Jim Aubornn * 2017 recall of Flint, Michigan mayor Karen Weaver * 2021 recall of Gavin Newsom, Governor of California Note: Wisconsin's Jim Holperin has the distinction of being the only U.S. politician to have been subjected to recall from service in two different legislative bodies: the Wisconsin State Assembly in 1990 and the Wisconsin State Senate in 2011. Both attempts were unsuccessful.


Unsuccessful attempts to qualify recall elections

* 1967 United States Senator Frank Church of
Idaho Idaho ( ) is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canada–United States border with the province of British Columbia. It borders the states of Montana and ...
was the subject of an unsuccessful recall effort. Courts ruled that a federal official is not subject to state recall laws. * 1988 Evan Mecham, Governor of Arizona, was scheduled for a recall election on May 17 of that year, after a successful petition drive (301,000 signatures). However, the Supreme Court of Arizona canceled the election, since Mecham had already been removed from office (via impeachment conviction) by the Senate on April 4. *1992–93 Pete Wilson, Governor of
California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, located along the West Coast of the United States, Pacific Coast. With nearly 39.2million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territori ...
was targeted for recall by the '' Bite 'Em Back'' campaign, which was a grassroots effort that came about as a result of a piece by '' San Jose Mercury News'' columnist Pat Dillon, in response to the then-ongoing California budgetary crisis. The ''Bite 'Em Back'' campaign also intended to recall then- Speaker of the Assembly Willie L. Brown, and then- President Pro Tem of the state Senate, David Roberti. *2003 H. Brent Coles, mayor of Boise, Idaho, was the subject of a recall petition drive. Coles resigned on February 14, 2003, before the recall drive could proceed."Charged With Getting Free Olympics Trip, Boise Mayor Resigns"
''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''the Times'', ''NYT'', or the Gray Lady) is a daily newspaper based in New York City New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the most populous city in the United States. With ...
'', February 15, 2003. (accessed 8 November 2015)
*2009 Joseph Cao U.S. representative for Louisiana's 2nd congressional district, was determined to be not subject to recall because of his status as a Federal office holder. *2009 a petition failed to garner sufficient signatures to oblige an election for recall of Eddie Price III, mayor of Mandeville, Louisiana. *2009 a petition for recall of Stacy Head, New Orleans city councilwoman, likewise failed to gain the requisite number of signatures. *2010 there were two unsuccessful recall petitions for Sam Adams mayor of Portland, OR. *2010 there was one unsuccessful recall petition for Lisa Poppaw city council member of Fort Collins, CO. *2010 there was one unsuccessful recall petition for Antonio Villaraigosa mayor of
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; es, Los Ángeles, link=no , ), often referred to by its initials L.A., is the largest city in the state of California and the second most populous city in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. o ...
. *2010, a recall proposal aimed at mayor Ron Littlefield of
Chattanooga, Tennessee Chattanooga ( ) is a city in and the county seat of Hamilton County, Tennessee, United States. Located along the Tennessee River The Tennessee River is the largest tributary of the Ohio River. It is approximately long and is loc ...
failed after a judge of the
Hamilton County, Tennessee Hamilton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Tennessee Tennessee ( , ), officially the State of Tennessee, is a landlocked U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Tenne ...
circuit court ruled that too many of the petition signatures were invalid and that the petitioners had failed to properly adhere to the state's recall law, leaving "pages without dates." *2011, the Tennessee Court of Appeals ruled in November that the Hamilton County Circuit Court Judge Jeff Hollingsworth did not have the jurisdiction in entering an injunction against the Hamilton County Election Commission. In its judgment summary the Appeals Court said, "The trial court acted without jurisdiction in entering an injunction against the Election Commission. The judgment of the trial court is vacated and the complaint dismissed." Mayor Littlefield is continuing legal action to stop the recall. *2011, as part of the 2011 Wisconsin Senate recall elections, there were a number of failed recall petitions. Petitions against senators Lena Taylor (D), Spencer Coggs (D), Mark Miller (D), Glenn Grothman (R), Julie Lassa (D), Fred Risser (D), and Mary Lazich (R), were unsuccessful. Many senators had multiple recall petitions filed against them, and in the case of both Wirch and Hansen, one succeeded while others failed. *2011, an effort to recall
Michigan Michigan () is a state in the Great Lakes region of the upper Midwestern United States. With a population of nearly 10.12 million and an area of nearly , Michigan is the 10th-largest state by population, the 11th-largest by area, and t ...
Governor
Rick Snyder Richard Dale Snyder (born August 19, 1958) is an American business executive, venture capitalist, attorney, accountant, and politician who served as the 48th governor of Michigan from 2011 to 2019. A member of the Republican Party, Snyder prev ...
was ended after organizers did not obtain enough petition signatures to appear on the ballot. *2011, a petition to recall Idaho Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Luna failed to obtain the necessary signatures to force a recall election."Tom Luna reacts to failure of recall efforts"
Bryan Dooley, '' The Idaho Press-Tribune'', June 28, 2011
*2011, an attempt to prompt recall election of Trenton, New Jersey mayor Tony F. Mack failed to obtain enough support. *2011 recall of Alaska State Representative Kyle Johansen, rejected by the state's Division of Elections on October 10. Republicans in his district sponsored the recall when Johansen and fellow representative Charisse Millett left the House's majority caucus in a dispute over Johansen's role in the 27th Legislature. In 2012, Johansen ran for reelection as an independent and lost by a wide margin; Millett was reelected. *2012 recall of
Wisconsin Wisconsin () is a state in the upper Midwestern United States. Wisconsin is the 25th-largest state by total area and the 20th-most populous. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois Illinois ( ...
State Senator Pam Galloway. On March 16, 2012, Galloway announced her resignation from office due to health issues in her family. *2017: In Loveland, Ohio, Mayor Mark Fitzgerald resigned under pressure from a recall effort, and a move to replace him was declared invalid, leaving the city with no mayor for several months. *2019: Kate Brown, Governor of
Oregon Oregon () is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Id ...
, was the subject of a recall petition due to her support of Oregon House Bill 2020 which also resulted in the 2019 Oregon Senate Republican walkouts. *2020: Norman, Oklahoma Mayor and four of the eight city councilmembers were the subject of unsuccessful recall initiatives spearheaded by a local at a public City Council meeting.


Venezuela

Article 72 of the Constitution of Venezuela enables the recall of any elected representative, including the President. This provision was used in the 2004 Venezuelan recall referendum, which attempted to remove President Hugo Chávez: :Article 72: All ../nowiki> offices filled by popular vote are subject to revocation. :Once one-half of the term of office to which an official has been elected has elapsed, a number of voters representing at least 20% of the registered voters in the affected constituency may petition for the calling of a referendum to revoke that official's mandate. :When a number of voters equal to or greater than the number of those who elected the official vote in favour of the recall, provided that a number of voters equal to or greater than 25% of the total number of registered voters vote in the recall referendum, the official's mandate shall be deemed revoked and immediate action shall be taken to fill the permanent vacancy as provided for by this Constitution and by law.


See also

* Initiative * Legislative referral * Motion of no confidence * Popular referendum * Snap election


Bibliography


SANTANA, Alexander. ''O direito de revogação do mandato político representativo.'' Curitiba, 2004. 146 f. Monografia (Graduação em Direito) - Setor de Ciências Jurídicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná.
(wrote in
Brazilian Portuguese Brazilian Portuguese (' ), also Portuguese of Brazil (', ) or South American Portuguese (') is the set of varieties of the Portuguese language native to Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portug ...
) English Title: ''The right of recall elected officials.''
Recall elections in the United Kingdom
* WELP, Yanina. "Recall referendum around the world: origins, institutional designs and current debates", in Morel, Laurence & Qvortrup, Matt.
The Routledge Handbook to Referendums and Direct Democracy
'. London: Routledge, 2018.


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Recall Election Right to petition Ballot measures