Rameswaram, (also spelt as Ramesvaram, Rameshwaram) is a town and a
second grade municipality in the
Ramanathapuram district in the South
Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is on
Pamban Island separated from
India by the
Pamban channel and is about 40 kilometres from
Mannar Island, Sri Lanka. It is in the Gulf of Mannar, at the tip of
the Indian peninsula. Pamban Island, also known as Rameswaram
Island, is connected to mainland
India by the Pamban Bridge.
Rameswaram is the terminus of the railway line from
Madurai. Together with Varanasi, it is considered to be one of the
holiest places in
India to Hindus, and part of the Char Dham
It is said the
Rama built a bridge from here across the sea
Lanka to rescue his wife
Sita from her abductor Ravana. The
Ramanathaswamy Temple, dedicated to the
Hindu god Shiva, is at the
centre of the town and is closely associated with Rama. The temple and
the town are considered a holy pilgrimage site for Shaivas and
Rameswaram is the closest point from which to reach Sri
India, and geological evidence suggests that the
Rama Sethu was a
former land connection between
India and Sri Lanka.
The town has been in the news over the
Sethusamudram Shipping Canal
Project, Kachchatheevu, Sri Lankan Tamil refugees and capturing local
fishermen for alleged cross-border activities by Sri Lankan Forces.
Rameswaram is administered by a municipality established in 1994. The
town covers an area of 53 km2 (20 sq mi) and had a
population of 44,856 as of 2011. Tourism and fishery employ the
majority of workforce in Rameswaram.
5 Municipal Administration and politics
7 Transport and Communication
8 Education and utility services
9.1 Ramanathaswamy Temple
9.2 Temple Tanks
9.3 Gandhamathana Parvatham
10 Interaction with Sri Lanka
10.1 Sri Lankan Tamil Refugees
Sethusamudram Canal Project
13 External links
Map of Ramsetu's Bridge (a chain of limestone shoals) and environs,
prior to the cyclone of 1964.
Rameswara means "One who is lord of Rama" (Ram yasy Eashwarah) in
Sanskrit, an epithet of Shiva, the presiding deity of the
Ramanathaswamy Temple. According to
Hindu epic Ramayana, Rama, the
seventh avatar of the god Vishnu, prayed to
Shiva here to absolve any
sins that he might have committed during his war against the
Ravana in Sri Lanka. According to the
scriptures), upon the advice of sages,
Rama along with his wife Sita
and his brother Lakshmana, installed and worshipped the lingam (an
iconic symbol of Shiva) here to expiate the sin of Brahmahatya
incurred while killing of the
Brahmin Ravana. To worship Shiva,
Rama wanted to have a lingam and directed his monkey lieutenant
Hanuman to bring it from Himalayas. Since it took longer to
bring the lingam,
Sita built a lingam, made of just Sands of the
shores, which is also believed to be the one in the sanctum of the
temple. This account is not supported by the original Ramayana
authored by Valmiki, nor in the Tamil version of the Ramayana
authored by Tamil poet, Kambar (1180–1250 CE). Support for this
account is found in some of the later versions of the Ramayana, such
as the one penned by
Tulasidas (15th century). Sethu Karai is
a place 22 km before the island of
Rameswaram from where
believed to have built a floating stone bridge, the Ramsetu bridge,
that further continued to
Rameswaram till Talaimannar
in Sri Lanka. According to another version, as quoted in
Rama installed the lingam before the construction
of the bridge to Lanka.
The history of
Rameswaram is centred around the island being a transit
point to reach Sri
Ceylon historically) and the presence of
Ramanathaswamy Temple. Tevaram, the 7th–8th century Tamil
Shiva by the three prominent
Sundarar and Thirugnanasambandar. The Chola king
Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I (1012 – 1040 CE) had a control of the town for a
short period. The
Jaffna kingdom (1215–1624 CE) had close
connections with the island and claimed the title Setukavalan meaning
custodians of the Rameswaram.
Hinduism was their state religion
and they made generous contribution to the temple. Setu was used
in their coins as well as in inscriptions as marker of the
According to Firishta, Malik Kafur, the head general of Alauddin
Khalji, the ruler of
Delhi Sultanate, reached
Rameswaram during his
political campaign in spite of stiff resistance from the Pandyan
princes in the early 14th century. He erected a mosque by
name Alia al-Din Khaldji in honour of victory of Islam. During
the early 15th century, the present day Ramanathapuram,
Rameswaram were included in the Pandya dynasty. In 1520 CE, the
town came under the rule of Vijayanagara Empire. The Sethupathis,
the breakaway from
Madurai Nayaks, ruled
contributed to the Ramanathaswamy temple. The most notable of
them are the contributions of Muthu Kumara Ragunatha and Muthu
Ramalinga Sethupathi, who transformed the temple to an architectural
ensemble. The region was repeatedly captured several times by
Chanda Sahib (1740 – 1754 CE), Arcot Nawab and Muhammed Yusuf Khan
(1725 – 1764 CE) in the middle of 18th century. In 1795 CE,
Rameswaram came under the direct control of the British East India
Company and was annexed to the Madras Presidency. After 1947, the town
became a part of Independent India.
An aerial view of Dhanushkodi, at the tip of Rameswaram
Rameswaram has an average elevation of 10 m (33 ft). The
island is spread across an area of 61.8 km2
(23.9 sq mi) and is in the shape of a conch. 74% of the area
has sandy soil due to the presence of sea and it has many islands
surrounding it, the
Palk Strait in the north west and Gulf of Mannar
in the south East. The
Ramanathaswamy Temple occupies major area
of Rameswaram. The beach of
Rameswaram is featured with no waves at
all – the sea waves rise to a maximum height of 3 cm
(0.10 ft) and the view looks like a very big river. Rameswaram
has dry tropical climate with low humidity, with average monthly
rainfall of 75.73 mm (2.981 in), mostly from North-East
monsoon from October to January. The highest ever temperature recorded
at Pamban station was 37 °C and the lowest was 17 °C.
Ramsetu Bridge is a chain of limestone shoals, between
Mannar Island, off the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka. Geological
evidence suggests that this bridge is a former land connection between
India and Sri Lanka. The bridge is 29 km (18 mi) long
and separates the
Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar (North-East) from the Palk Strait
(South-West). It was reportedly passable on foot up to the 15th
century until storms deepened the channel. The temple records record
that Rama’s Bridge was completely above sea level until it broke in
a cyclone in 1480 CE. The bridge was first mentioned in the
Ramayana of Valmiki. The name Rama's
Rama Setu (Sanskrit; setu: bridge) refers to the bridge
built by the
Vanara (ape men) army of
Hindu mythology, which
he used to reach
Lanka and rescue his wife
Sita from the demon king
Ramayana attributes the building of this bridge to
Rama in verse 2-22-76, naming it as Setubandhanam. The sea
India and Sri
Lanka is called
Sethusamudram meaning "Sea of
the Bridge". Maps prepared by a Dutch cartographer in 1747 CE,
available at the
Saraswathi Mahal Library
Saraswathi Mahal Library show this area as
Ramancoil, a colloquial form of the Tamil Raman Kovil (or Rama's
Temple). Many other maps in Schwartzberg's historical atlas
and other sources such as travel texts by
Marco Polo call this area by
various names such as Adam's Bridge, Sethubandha and Sethubandha
According to 2011 census,
Rameswaram had a population of 44,856 with a
sex-ratio of 969 females for every 1,000 males, much above the
national average of 929. A total of 5,022 were under the age of
six, constituting 2,544 males and 2,478 females. Scheduled Castes and
Scheduled Tribes accounted for 6.8% and .03% of the population
respectively. The average literacy of the town was 73.36%, compared to
the national average of 72.99%. The town had a total of 10579
households. There were a total of 16,645 workers, comprising 69
cultivators, 20 main agricultural labourers, 148 in house hold
industries, 15,130 other workers, 1,278 marginal workers, 11 marginal
cultivators, 26 marginal agricultural labourers, 44 marginal workers
in household industries and 1,197 other marginal workers. The
total number of households below poverty lane (BPL) in 2003 were 976,
which is 10.45% of the total households in the town and these were
raised to 3003 (29.12%) in 2007.
As per the religious census of 2011,
Rameswaram had 87.4% Hindus,
4.36% Muslims, 8.13% Christians, 0.03% Sikhs, 0.01% Buddhists, and
0.07% following other religions.
Municipal Administration and politics
A street in Rameswaram
P.M.N. Mujibur Rahman
Member of Legislative Assembly
Member of Parliament
A. Anwhar Raajhaa
According to the
Madras Presidency Panchayat Act of 1885, Rameswaram
was declared a panchyat union during British times. It became a
township during 1958 and was declared a municipality in 2004.
Rameswaram is a 3rd grade municipality having 21 wards, out of which 6
are General wards for women and one is reserved for SC (Scheduled
Caste) women. The major sources of budgeted income for Rameswaram
municipality comes from Devolution Fund of ₹ 17 million (US$0.3
million) and property tax of ₹ 2.4 million (US$43,000). The
major expense heads are for salaries of ₹ 06 million (US$0.1
million), operating expenses of ₹ 03.7 million (US$65,000) and
repair & maintenance expenditure of ₹ 02.3 million
(US$42,000). The functions of the municipality are devolved into
six departments: General, Engineering, Revenue, Public Health, Town
planning and the Computer Wing. All these departments are under
the control of a Municipal Commissioner who is the supreme executive
head. The legislative powers are vested in a body of 21 members,
one each from the 21 wards. The legislative body is headed by an
elected Chairperson assisted by a Deputy Chairperson.
Rameswaram comes under the
Ramanathapuram assembly constituency and it
elects a member to the
Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly once every five
years. The current MLA of the constituency is Dr. Manikandan from
Rameswaram is a part of the
Ramanathapuram (Lok Sabha constituency)
– it has been realigned in 2008 to have the following assembly
Paramakudi (SC), Ramanathapuram, Mudukulathur,
Aranthangi, Tiruchuli (newly created). The constituency was
traditionally a stronghold of the
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress that won 6
times till the 1991 elections, after which it was won twice each by
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK) and the Dravida
Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). The current Member of Parliament from the
A. Anwhar Raajhaa from the
Rameswaram Island Aerial view from Pamban Bridge
India's renowned scientist and former President of India, A. P. J.
Abdul Kalam, was born in Rameswaram.
Being a pilgrimage town, the majority of the population is involved in
tourism related industry consisting of trade and services. Service
sector increased from 70% in 1971 to 98.78% in 2001, while the
agricultural sector reduced from 23% in 1971 to 0.13% in 2001.
Rameswaram is an industrially backward town – there has been no
demarcation for industrial land due to the pilgrim sanctity and
ecological fragile geography. Being an island town, the
traditional occupation was fishing, but due to poor returns, the
people in fishing community have gradually shifted to other
professions. Banks such as State Bank of India,
Indian Bank and
RDCC Bank have their branches in Rameswaram.
Transport and Communication
Road and rail bridge
Pamban Bridge is a cantilever bridge on the
Palk Strait that connects
Rameswaram to mainland India. The railway bridge is 6,776 ft
(2,065 m) and was opened to traffic in 1914. The railroad
bridge is a double-leaf bascule bridge section that can be raised to
let ships pass under it . The railway bridge historically carried
metre-gauge trains on it, but
Indian Railways upgraded the bridge to
carry broad-gauge trains in a project that finished on 12 August 2007.
Historically, the two leaves of the bridge were opened manually using
levers by workers. About 10 ships – cargo carriers, coast guard
ships, fishing vessels and oil tankers pass through the bridge every
month. After completion of bridge, metre-gauge lines were laid from
Mandapam up to Pamban Station, from where the railway lines bifurcated
into two directions, one towards
Rameswaram about 6.25 miles
(10.06 km) up and another branch line of 15 miles (24 km)
terminating at Dhanushkodi. The noted
Boat Mail ran on this track
between 1915 and 1964 from
Chennai Egmore up to Dhanushkodi, from
where the passengers were ferried to
Talaimannar in Ceylon. The
metre-gauge branch line from Pamban Junction to
abandoned after it was destroyed in a cyclone in 1964.
Pamban lighthouse, Rameswaram
There are daily express trains connecting major cities in Tamil Nadu
like Chennai, Madurai,
Trichy and Coimbatore. There are weekly
express trains connecting Coimbatore,
Varanasi and Bhubaneswar.
Passenger trains ply from
making railways as the major mode of transportation. The
Rameswaram National Highway is the main connecting
Rameswaram to the mainland. Prior to the 1914 train
service linking the mainland with Rameswaram, boats were the only mode
of transport to
Rameswaram TV tower
The National highway NH 49 connects
Madurai to Dhanushkodi, linking
major towns like Manamadurai, Paramakkudi, and
Ramanathapuram in the
Ramanathapuram district. The
Rameswaram municipality covers a
total road length of 52 km and 20 km of national highway
covering about 80 percent of the town. The
Tamil Nadu State
Transport Corporation runs daily services connecting various cities to
Rameswaram and operates a computerised reservation centre in the
municipal bus stand of Rameswaram.
Rameswaram is the important port among all the ports in the district,
having a ferry service to
Talaimannar of Sri Lanka, though not
operational throughout the year. Limited foreign trade is
conducted with Jaffna, Kaits,
Talaimannar and Colombo.
Rameswaram TV Tower
Rameswaram TV Tower is the tallest tower in India. The tower
is a 323m tall circular concrete tower with a square steel mast of 45m
height, diameter of 24m at the bottom tapering to 6.5m at top. The
tower has been designed for a wind velocity of 160 km/h.
There are two lighthouses in Rameswaram, the
Pamban lighthouse and
Education and utility services
Ramanathapuram district has one of the lowest literacy rates in the
Tamil Nadu and Rameswaram, following the district statistics
has a lower literacy rate. There are a couple of Government high
schools, one each for boys and girls. There are seven other
schools namely, Swami. Vivekananda vidyalaya Matriculation School(
which provide excellent education in the island and secure district
and state level ranks in board exams frequently), St. Joseph Higher
Mandapam Panchayat Union 9 – School, Micro
Matriculation School, Sri Sankara Vidhyalaya, Holy Island Little
Flower School and Kendriya Vidhyalaya School. Alagappa University
Evening College is the only college present in the town and all
the nearest colleges are located in
Electricity supply to the town is regulated and distributed by the
Ramanathapuram circle of
Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB).
Water supply is provided by the
Municipality – the head
works is located at Nambunayaki Amman Kovil, Meyyambuli, Semmamadam
& Natarajapuram and distributed through four over head tanks
having a total capacity of 1430,000 litres. About 6 metric tonnes
of solid waste are collected from the town every day in the four zones
covering the whole of the town.
Rameswaram does not have a
sewerage system for disposal of sullage and the disposal system
consists of septic tanks and public conveniences. Roadside drains
carry untreated sewage out of the town to let out raw into the sea or
accumulates in low-lying area.
Rameswaram comes under the
Karaikudi Telecom circle of the Bharat
Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet
services provider. Apart from telecom, BSNL also provides broadband
internet service along with other major internet service provider
Hindu pilgrimage centre,
Hindus form the visitor base of the
city. There is a minority of
Christians belonging to the fishing
community. C.S.I island mission church and St Antony's Church at
Oriyur on the eastern shore of the island are prominent Churches in
Main article: Ramanathaswamy Temple
Corridor of 1000 pillars
Ramanathaswamy Temple is the most notable historic landmark of the
town. Located in the centre of town,
Ramanathaswamy Temple is a famous
Hindu temple dedicated to the god Shiva. The temple is one of the 12
Jyotirlinga shrines, where
Shiva is worshipped in the form of a
Jyotirlinga meaning "pillar of light". It is also one of the 275
Paadal Petra Sthalam
Paadal Petra Sthalam temples and is glorified in hymns by the three of
the most revered Nayanar saints (7th century
Saivite saints), Appar,
Sundarar and Tirugnana Sambandar. The temple in its current structure
was built during the 12th century by Pandya Dynasty. The temple has
the longest corridor among all
Hindu temples in India. The breadth of
these columned corridors varies from 17 to 21 feet with a height of 25
feet. Each pillar is sculpted in Nayak style as in Madurai
Meenakshi Amman Temple. The contribution of the kings of the
Sethupathy dynasty (17th century) to the temple was
considerable. Large amount of money was spent during the
Pradani Muthirulappa Pillai towards the restoration of the
pagodas which were falling into ruins – the Chockattan Mantapam or
the cloistered precincts of the temple was reconstructed by him. The
rulers of Sri
Lanka contributed to the temple – Parakrama Bahu
(1153–1186 CE) was involved in the construction of the sanctum
sanctorum of the temple. The eastern tower and shrine of
Nataraja were built by Dalavai Sethupathy in 1649 CE. The second
enclosure is ascribed to Chinna Udayar Sethupathy and his son
Ragunatha Thirumalai (1500–1540 CE). The third enclosure was
constructed by Muthu Ramalinga Sethupathy (1725–1771 CE) – his
statue is located in the entrance of the corridor.
Kothandaramar Temple, Rameswaram
There are sixty-four Tīrthas or Theerthams (holy water bodies) in and
around Rameswaram. According to the Skanda Purana, twenty-four of them
are important. Of the 24, 14 are in the form of tanks and wells within
the precincts of the temple. Bathing in these tanks is a major
aspect of the pilgrimage to
Rameswaram and is considered equivalent to
penance. Twenty-two of the tanks are within the Ramanathaswamy Temple.
The foremost one is called Agni Theertham, the sea (Bay of Bengal).
Jatayu, King of the Birds, who fought in vain with the demon-king
Ravana to save Sita, is said to have fallen down at Jadayu Theertham
as his wings were severed. Villoondi Theertham literally
translates to 'buried bow', is located around 7 kilometres from the
main temple on the way to Pamban. It is believed to be the place
Rama quenched the thirst of
Sita by dipping the bow into the sea
water. Other major holy bodies are
Hanuman Theertham, Sugreeva
Gandhamathan Parvatham, a hillock situated 3 km to the north of
the temple is the highest point in the island. There is a two
storeyed hall, where Rama's feet is found as an imprint on a chakra
(wheel). The Ramarpatham Temple is located on the hillock.
Dhanushkodi is the southernmost tip of the island and houses the
Kothandaramaswamy Temple dedicated to Rama. Though
washed away during the 1964 cyclone, the temple alone remained intact.
It is 18 km way from the centre of the town and can be reached by
road. A popular belief is that,
Dhanushkodi is where Vibishana, a
Ravana surrendered before
Rama in the epic Ramayana.
People taking a holy dip in Agni theerth, Bay of Bengal
Rameswaram is significant for many
Hindus as a pilgrimage to Varanasi
is considered to be incomplete without a pilgrimage to Rameswaram. The
town along with the Ramanathaswamy temple is one of the holiest Hindu
Char Dham (four divine sites) sites comprising Badrinath,
Dwarka. Though the origins are not clearly known, the Advaita
Hinduism established by Sankaracharya, attributes the origin
Char Dham to the seer. The four monasteries are located across
the four corners of
India and their attendant temples are Badrinath
Badrinath in the North, Jagannath Temple at
Puri in the
East, Dwarakadheesh Temple at
Dwarka in the West and Ramanathaswamy
Rameswaram in the South. Though ideologically the temples
are divided between the sects of Hinduism, namely
Char Dham pilgrimage is an all
Hindu affair. The
journey across the four cardinal points in
India is considered sacred
Hindus who aspire to visit these temples once in their
lifetime. Traditionally the trip starts at the eastern end from
Puri, proceeding in clockwise direction in a manner typically followed
for circuambulation in
Hindu temples. The temple is one of the
famous pilgrimage sites historically – the Maratha kings who ruled
Thanjavur established chatrams or rest houses all through
Rameswaram between 1745 and 1837 CE and donated
them to the temple.
Interaction with Sri Lanka
Rameswaram is frequently in headlines over fishermen issues like
attack, arrest and alleged harassment by Sri Lankan navy for alleged
cross border activities,
Sethusamudram canal project, Kachchatheevu,
Sri Lankan Tamil refugees and also on intercountry smuggling between
India and Sri Lanka. As an initial step to curb enhanced smuggling,
Tamil Nadu government has set up 30 more marine police stations to
bring the state’s entire coastal belt under close vigil.
Sri Lankan Tamil Refugees
During the intense civil war of Sri Lanka, post 1980,
as one of the focal points of smuggling and intense patrolling was
carried out during the period. There are a total of 65,940
registered destitute Sri Lankan refugees dwelling in 129 Refugee camps
situated in different parts of
Tamil Nadu as of Apr 2000 and a
majority of them enter via Rameswaram. There are an additional
20,667 non-camp refugees who entered via Rameswaram, registered in
Mandapam transit camp and opted to reside outside the camps in various
parts of Tamil Nadu. On 11 March 1990, a record number of 2,337
refugees in 38 boats arrived from
Talaimannar in Sri
Rameswaram – this was the largest number of refugees arriving in a
single day since the ethnic violence from July 1983. As of October
2006, an estimated 200,000 refugees have been reported in Mandapam
Camp. Sivarasan, one of the mastermind behind the Assassination of
Rajiv Gandhi, the ex-prime minister of
India registered as refugee in
Rameswaram camp on 12 September 1990.
Fishing boats in Rameswaram
Being an island, a significant population is involved in fishery
traditionally. There have been incremental cases of Rameswaram
fishermen allegedly killed or arrested by Sri Lankan navy along the
maritime borders of
India and Sri
Lanka from the time of Sri Lankan
civil war during 1983. In the face of simmering tension after the
Colombo bound Yaldevi train attack in which 22 Sri Lankan
soldiers and 16 civilians were killed,
Rameswaram fishermen dared to
venture to seas spelling acute hardship for the 10,000 fishermen
family. An estimated 381 fishermen have been killed in the sea due
to shoot outs from 1983 to 2009. The Sri Lankan army attributed
the killings to the
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), but the
casualty continues even after the end of LTTE in the region. The
Tamil Nadu state government has increased the compensation of casualty
from the original ₹ 100,000 to 500,000 (US$1,800 to $9,000).
There has not been a single prosecution in any of the 381 killings
committed so far from the Indian judiciary. The cases not being
filed is attributed to the fact that people killed beyond the maritime
India are not eligible for compensation and not many file
complaints against the Sri Lankan navy. Though the Indian
judiciary has provisions to prosecute foreigners, there is little
progress due to the diplomatic overheads involved. Indian
government has also ventured into the use of technology like use of
Global positioning system (GPS) by the fishermen and enabling
cellphone blips to alert their mobile phones whenever they are
crossing into Sri Lankan waters. The Sri Lankan navy has confirmed
reports on Indian fishermen risking the international boundary due to
depleted catch in Indian waters.
There is a yearly 45-day ban on fishery with motorboats in the
region. The fishing ban for the year 2012 was effective during the
months of April–May. The jetty at
Rameswaram is the largest
landing centre for fishing boats in the region and it usually comes
alive after the ban, with the arrival of fishermen, boat captains,
shore workers and others from their native places.
Sea World Aquarium is a natural habitat lying opposite to the
Rameswaram Bus Stand, having an assortment of underwater creatures –
it is the only one of its kind in the state, filled with such varied
marine life forms including exotic species.
NASA satellite photo:
Rameswaram on top, Sri
Lanka at the bottom of
Another focal point on the simmering tension between Indian and Sri
Lankan governments is over the use of Kachchatheevu, an uninhabited
island 15 km north of Rameswaram, belonging to Sri Lanka. The
accord of 1974 allows fishermen of both the countries for resting and
soaking the nets in the island. Repeated allegations on attacks by
the Lankan navy, which on many occasions killed Indian fishermen,
prevented them from making it to the island. The annual two-day
Saint Anthony fest at the island draws huge number of people from the
fishermen community of both the countries. The number of
pilgrims for the 2012 function crossed 4,000, the largest attendance
in the past two decades. The feast also provides an opportunity
for the Indian fishermen to meet their Sri Lankan counterparts and
exchange views on their mutual problems. The event served as a
meeting point to find brides and grooms from both countries, but this
practice has now been stopped from the 90s due to political constraint
of fishermen family living in different countries.
Sethusamudram Canal Project
Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project
Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project proposes linking the
Palk Bay and
Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar between
India and Sri
Lanka by creating a shipping
canal through the shallow sea sometimes called Setu Samudram, and
through the chain of islands variously known as Ram Sethu or the
Rama's Bridge. A few organisations are opposing the dredging of
Ramasethu on religious, environmental and economical grounds. Many of
these parties and organisations support implementation of this project
using one of the five alternative alignments considered earlier
without damaging the structure considered sacred by Hindus. With
22 km (14 mi) of dredging remaining, the project is held
from March 2010 by a Supreme Court order seeking the Central
Government to clarify the status of the bridge as a national
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^ a b c d e Ayyar 1991, pp. 492–495.
^ a b c Sunday Observer & 13 May 2012.
^ Caldwell 1881, p. 21.
^ a b De Silva & Beumer 1988, p. 291.
^ Mukundan 1992, p. 23.
^ a b Singh 2009, p. 443.
Hindu & 3 November 2011.
^ Ohja 2003, p. 17.
^ Dodiya 2001, p. 2277.
^ Guruge 1991, p. 68.
^ a b c d e f g h Bajpai 2002, pp. 482–485.
^ Thirunavukkarasar 2004, pp. 18–19.
^ Tirugnanasambandar 2004, pp. 102–103.
^ a b c d e
Ramanathapuram district history 2011.
^ a b c Gunasingam 1999, p. 63.
^ a b Mehta 1986, p. 157.
^ a b Sharon et al. 1987, p. 271.
^ Aiyangar 1991, p. 112.
^ Michell 1995, p. 116.
^ Harman 1992, pp. 30–36.
^ a b c d e f Directorate of Municipal Administration 2009,
^ Weather Base 2006.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica 2007.
^ Garg 1992, p. 42.
^ a b Room 2006, p. 16.
Valmiki Ramayan 2004.
Hindu & 14 September 2007.
^ Schwartzberg Atlas 2009.
^ Polo 1854, p. 380.
^ a b
Rameswaram 2011 census.
^ a b National Sex Ratio 2011.
^ Religious Census 2011.
Municipality Chairman 2011.
Municipality Commissioner 2011.
Municipality Vice Chairman 2011.
^ a b MLA of
^ a b MP of
Municipality features 2007.
^ a b
Municipality budget 2010.
^ a b Commissionerate of Municipal Administration 2006.
^ Economic and political weekly 1995.
^ List of Assembly constituencies 2010.
Hindu & 4 March 2009.
Hindu & 27 July 2015.
^ a b c d Directorate of Municipal Administration 2009,
Rameswaram City Banks 2011.
^ a b The
Hindu & 21 November 2003.
Hindu & 17 July 2007.
^ a b c Train information 2012.
^ a b c d
Ramanathapuram District tourism 2004.
^ Smith 1882, p. 371.
^ a b c Directorate of Municipal Administration 2009, p. 23.
^ Directorate of Municipal Administration 2009, p. 61.
^ SETC Computer reservation centres 2004.
^ The Indian Express & 7 October 2011.
^ a b Dhir 1996, p. 167.
^ a b
Rameswaram schools 2007.
^ a b Affiliated colleges 2012.
^ Ramnad district education profile 2011.
^ TNEB region details 2011.
Rameswaram water supply 2007.
^ Waste management programme 2007.
^ a b Directorate of Municipal Administration 2009, p. 52.
^ BSNL 2011.
^ Reliance Netconnect+ Coverage.
^ Chakravarti 1994, p. 139.
^ a b Bandopadhyay 2010, pp. 88–89.
^ a b c d e f g h i Places of interest in
^ Chakravarti 1994, p. 140.
^ Gopal 1990, p. 184.
^ Melton & Baumann 2010, p. 540.
^ Brockman 2011, p. 94-96.
^ a b Gwynne 2007, p. 271 section on Char Dham.
^ M. 2003, p. 54.
^ Das 2005, p. 67.
^ a b Das 2005, p. 65.
^ Chattopadhyaya 1994, p. 172.
^ Rajamanickam 2009, p. 175.
^ Kaarthikeyan & Radhavinod Raju 2004, p. 71.
^ a b c d e f g The Times of
India & 23 February 2012.
^ Chattopadhyaya 1994, p. 77.
^ News Line & 22 February 2011.
^ a b The Times of
India & 30 May 2012.
^ a b The
Hindu & 28 May 2012.
^ The Times of
India & 5 March 2012.
^ a b c d e f g The
Hindu & 5 March 2012.
^ Asia News & 3 June 2010.
^ The Nation & 22 April 2007.
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Hindu holy cities
Chota Char Dham
Six Abodes of Murugan
Thillai Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram
Jambukeswarar Temple, Thiruvanaikaval
Pushpagiri Temple Complex
Dakshineswar Kali Temple
Katra Vaishno Devi
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Thambiluvil Sri Sivalinga Pillayar Temple
Thirukkovil Sithira Velayutha Swami Kovil
Places of Worship
State of Tamil Nadu
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Tree: Palm tree
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