Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a caste from the
Indian subcontinent. The term
Rajput covers various patrilineal clans
historically associated with warriorhood: several clans claim Rajput
status, although not all claims are universally accepted.
The term "Rajput" acquired its present meaning only in the 16th
century, although it is also anachronistically used to describe the
earlier lineages that emerged in northern India from 6th century
onwards. In the 11th century, the term "rajaputra" appeared as a
non-hereditary designation for royal officials. Gradually, the Rajputs
emerged as a social class comprising people from a variety of ethnic
and geographical backgrounds. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the
membership of this class became largely hereditary, although new
Rajput status continued to be made in the later centuries.
Several Rajput-ruled kingdoms played a significant role in many
regions of central and northern India until the 20th century.
Rajput population and the former
Rajput states are found in north,
west and central India. These areas include Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar
Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Jammu, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Madhya
Pradesh and Bihar. In
Pakistan they are found on the eastern parts of
Punjab and Sindh.
1.2 Emergence as a community
1.4 Mughal period
1.4.1 Akbar's policy (
Akbar - Shah Jahan)
1.4.2 Aurangzeb's policy
1.5 British colonial period
1.6 Independent India
3 Culture and ethos
4 See also
6 External links
The origin of the Rajputs has been a much-debated topic among the
historians. Colonial-era writers characterised them as descendants of
the foreign invaders such as the
Scythians or the Hunas, and believed
Agnikula myth was invented to conceal their foreign
origin. According to this theory, the Rajputs originated when these
invaders were assimilated into the
Kshatriya category during the 6th
or 7th century, following the collapse of the Gupta Empire.
While many of these colonial writers propagated this foreign-origin
theory in order to legitimise the colonial rule, the theory was also
supported by some Indian scholars, such as D. R. Bhandarkar. The
Indian nationalist historians, such as C. V. Vaidya, believed the
Rajputs to be descendants of the ancient
Vedic Aryan Kshatriyas. A
third group of historians, which includes Jai Narayan Asopa, theorized
that the Rajputs were Brahmins who became rulers.
However, recent research suggests that the Rajputs came from a variety
of ethnic and geographical backgrounds. The root word "rajaputra"
(literally "son of a king") first appears as a designation for royal
officials in the 11th century
Sanskrit inscriptions. According to some
scholars, it was reserved for the immediate relatives of a king;
others believe that it was used by a larger group of high-ranking
men. Over time, the derivative term "Rajput" came to denote a
hereditary political status, which was not necessarily very high: the
term could denote a wide range of rank-holders, from an actual son of
a king to the lowest-ranked landholder. Before the 15th century,
the term "Rajput" was associated with people of mixed-caste origin,
and was therefore considered inferior in rank to "Kshatriya".
Gradually, the term
Rajput came to denote a social class, which was
formed when the various tribal and nomadic groups became landed
aristocrats, and transformed into the ruling class. These groups
assumed the title "Rajput" as part of their claim to higher social
positions and ranks. The early medieval literature suggests that
this newly formed
Rajput class comprised people from multiple
castes. Thus, the
Rajput identity is not the result of a shared
ancestry. Rather, it emerged when different social groups of medieval
India sought to legitimize their newly acquired political power by
Kshatriya status. These groups started identifying as Rajput
at different times, in different ways.
Emergence as a community
Chandramahal in City Palace, Jaipur, built by
Scholarly opinions differ on when the term
Rajput acquired hereditary
connotations and came to denote a clan-based community. Historian
Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya, based on his analysis of inscriptions
(primarily from Rajasthan), believed that by the 12th century, the
term "rajaputra" was associated with fortified settlements, kin-based
landholding, and other features that later became indicative of the
Rajput status. According to Chattopadhyaya, the title acquired "an
element of heredity" from c. 1300. A later study by of 11th-14th
century inscriptions from western and central India, by Michael B.
Bednar, concludes that the designations such as "rajaputra",
"thakkura" and "rauta" were not necessarily hereditary during this
During its formative stages, the
Rajput class was quite assimilative
and absorbed people from a wide range of lineages. However, by the
late 16th century, it had become genealogically rigid, based on the
ideas of blood purity. The membership of the
Rajput class was now
largely inherited rather than acquired through military
achievements. A major factor behind this development was the
consolidation of the Mughal Empire, whose rulers had great interest in
genealogy. As the various
Rajput chiefs became Mughal feduatories,
they no longer engaged in major conflicts with each other. This
decreased the possibility of achieving prestige through military
action, and made hereditary prestige more important.
The word "Rajput" thus acquired its present-day meaning in the 16th
century. During 16th and 17th centuries, the
Rajput rulers and
their bards (charans) sought to legitimize the
status on the basis of descent and kinship. They fabricated
genealogies linking the
Rajput families to the ancient dynasties, and
associated them with myths of origins that established their Kshatriya
status. This led to the emergence of what Indologist Dirk
Kolff calls the "
Rajput Great Tradition", which accepted only
hereditary claims to the
Rajput identity, and fostered a notion of
eliteness and exclusivity. The legendary epic poem Prithviraj
Raso, which depicts warriors from several different
Rajput clans as
associates of Prithviraj Chauhan, fostered a sense of unity among
these clans. The text thus contributed to the consolidation of the
Rajput identity by offering these clans a shared history.
Despite these developments, migrant soldiers made new claims to the
Rajput status until as late as the 19th century. In the 19th
century, the colonial administrators of India re-imagined the Rajputs
as similar to the Anglo-Saxon knights. They compiled the Rajput
genealogies in the process of settling land disputes, surveying castes
and tribes, and writing history. These genealogies became the basis of
distinguishing between the "genuine" and the "spurious" Rajput
During their centuries-long rule, the Rajputs constructed several
palaces. Shown here is the
Junagarh Fort in Bikaner, Rajasthan, which
was built by the
Amarkot Fort built by Rana Amar Singh in present-day Sindh, Pakistan
Rajput kingdoms were disparate: loyalty to a clan was more
important than allegiance to the wider
Rajput social grouping, meaning
that one clan would fight another. This and the internecine jostling
for position that took place when a clan leader (raja) died meant that
Rajput politics were fluid and prevented the formation of a coherent
The first major
Rajput kingdom was the Sisodia-ruled kingdom of
Mewar. However, the term "Rajput" has also been used as an
anachronistic designation for the earlier
Hindu dynasties that
succeeded the Gurjara-Pratiharas, such as the Chahamanas (of
Shakambhari, Nadol and Jalor), the Tomaras, the Chaulukyas, the
Paramaras, the Gahadavalas, and the Chandelas. These dynasties
Ghurid invaders during the 11th and 12th
centuries. Although the
Rajput identity did not exist at this time,
these lineages were classified as aristocratic
Rajput clans in the
Chittor Fort, built by a dynasty of
Sisodia Rajputs, is one of the
largest forts in India.
In the 15th century, the Muslim sultans of
Gujarat put a
joint effort to overcome the
Rana Kumbha but both the
sultans were defeated. Subsequently, in 1518 the
Rana Sanga achieved a major victory over Sultan Ibrahim
Lodhi of Delhi Sultanate and afterwards Rana's influence extended up
to the striking distance of Pilia Khar in Agra. Accordingly,
Rana Sanga came to be the most distinguished indigenous contender for
supremacy but was defeated by the Mughal invader
Babur at Battle of
Khanwa in 1527.
From as early as the 16th century,
Rajput soldiers from the
eastern regions of
Bihar and Awadh, were recruited as mercenaries for
Rajputs in the west, particularly in the
Akbar's policy (
Akbar - Shah Jahan)
After the mid-16th century, many
Rajput rulers formed close
relationships with the Mughal emperors and served them in different
capacities. It was due to the support of the Rajputs that
Akbar was able to lay the foundations of the Mughal empire in
Rajput nobles gave away their daughters in marriage to
Mughal emperors and princes for political motives. For
Akbar accomplished 40 marriages for him, his sons and
grandsons, out of which 17 were Rajput-Mughal alliances. Akbar's
successors as Mogul emperors, his son
Jahangir and grandson Shah Jahan
Rajput mothers. The ruling
Rajput family of
it a point of honour not to engage in matrimonial relationships with
Mughals and thus claimed to stand apart from those
Rajput clans who
Akbar's diplomatic policy regarding the Rajputs was later damaged by
the intolerant rules introduced by his great-grandson Aurangzeb. A
prominent example of these rules included the re-imposition of Jaziya,
which had been abolished by Akbar. However,despite imposition of
Jaziya Aurangzeb's army had a high proportion of
Rajput officers in
the upper ranks of the imperial army and they were all exempted from
paying Jaziya The Rajputs then revolted against the Mughal empire.
Aurangzeb's conflicts with the Rajputs, which commenced in the early
1680s, henceforth became a contributing factor towards the downfall of
the Mughal empire.
In the 18th century, the Rajputs came under influence of the Maratha
empire. By the late 18th century, the
Rajput rulers begin
negotiations with the
East India Company
East India Company and by 1818 all the Rajput
states had formed an alliance with the company.
British colonial period
Mayo College was established by the British government in 1875 at
Rajputana to educate
Rajput princes and other nobles.
The medieval bardic chronicles (kavya and masnavi) glorified the
Rajput past, presenting warriorhood and honour as
Rajput ideals. This
later became the basis of the British reconstruction of the Rajput
history and the nationalist interpretations of Rajputs' struggles with
the Muslim invaders. James Tod, a British colonial official, was
impressed by the military qualities of the Rajputs but is today
considered to have been unusually enamoured of them. Although the
group venerate him to this day, he is viewed by many historians since
the late nineteenth century as being a not particularly reliable
commentator. Jason Freitag, his only significant biographer,
has said that Tod is "manifestly biased".
Derawar Fort built by a
Hindu dynasty of
Bhatti Rajputs, in
modern-day Bahawalpur, Pakistan
Rajput practices of female infanticide and sati (widow immolation)
were other matters of concern to the British. It was believed that the
Rajputs were the primary adherents to these practices, which the
British Raj considered savage and which provided the initial impetus
for British ethnographic studies of the subcontinent that eventually
manifested itself as a much wider exercise in social engineering.
In reference to the role of the
Rajput soldiers serving under the
British banner, Captain A. H. Bingley wrote:
Rajputs have served in our ranks from Plassey to the present day
(1899). They have taken part in almost every campaign undertaken by
the Indian armies. Under Forde they defeated the French at Condore.
Under Monro at Buxar they routed the forces of the Nawab of Oudh.
Under Lake they took part in the brilliant series of victories which
destroyed the power of the Marathas.
On India's independence in 1947, the princely states, including those
of the Rajput, were given three choices: join either India or
Pakistan, or remain independent.
Rajput rulers of the 22 princely
Rajputana acceded to newly independent India, amalgamated
into the new state of
Rajasthan in 1949–1950. Initially the
maharajas were granted funding from the Privy purse in exchange for
their acquiescence, but a series of land reforms over the following
decades weakened their power, and their privy purse was cut off during
Indira Gandhi's administration under the 1971 Constitution 26th
Amendment Act. The estates, treasures, and practices of the old Rajput
rulers now form a key part of Rajasthan's tourist trade and cultural
In 1951, the
Rana dynasty of Nepal came to an end, having been
the power behind the throne of the
Shah dynasty figureheads since
Dogra dynasty of Kashmir and Jammu also came to an end in
1947. though title was retained until monarchy was abolished in
1971 by the 26th amendment to the Constitution of India.
The Rajputs are today considered to be a Forward
Caste in India's
system of positive discrimination. This means that they receive no
special treatment by government bodies because forward castes are
considered to be inherently privileged groups.  However, some
Rajputs too like other agricultural castes demand reservations in
Government jobs, which so far is not heeded to by the Government of
"Rajput" is a vaguely-defined term, and there is no universal
consensus on which clans make up the
Rajput community. In medieval
Rajasthan (the historical Rajputana) and its neighbouring areas, the
Rajput came to be restricted to certain specific clans, based on
patrilineal descent and intermarriages. On the other hand, the Rajput
communities living in the region to the east of
Rajasthan had a fluid
and inclusive nature. The Rajputs of
Rajasthan eventually refused to
Rajput identity claimed by their eastern
counterparts, such as the Bundelas. The Rajputs claim to be
Kshatriyas or descendants of Kshatriyas, but their actual status
varies greatly, ranging from princely lineages to common
There are several major subdivisions of Rajputs, known as vansh or
vamsha, the step below the super-division jāti These vansh
delineate claimed descent from various sources, and the
generally considered to be divided into three primary vansh:
Suryavanshi denotes descent from the solar deity Surya,
Chandravanshi(Somavanshi) from the lunar deity Chandra, and Agnivanshi
from the fire deity Agni. The
Agnivanshi clans include Parmar,
Parihar and Chauhan.
Lesser-noted vansh include Udayvanshi, Rajvanshi, and
Rishivanshi. The histories of the various vanshs were later
recorded in documents known as vamshāavalīis; André Wink counts
these among the "status-legitimizing texts".
A contingent of the
Rajput Regiment of the Indian Army, during the
Republic day parade
Beneath the vansh division are smaller and smaller subdivisions: kul,
shakh ("branch"), khamp or khanp ("twig"), and nak ("twig tip").
Marriages within a kul are generally disallowed (with some flexibility
for kul-mates of different gotra lineages). The kul serves as the
primary identity for many of the
Rajput clans, and each kul is
protected by a family goddess, the kuldevi. Lindsey Harlan notes that
in some cases, shakhs have become powerful enough to be functionally
kuls in their own right.
Culture and ethos
Rajput bride, illustration in The Oriental Annual, or Scenes of
The Rajputs were designated as a
Martial Race in the period of the
British Raj. This was a designation created by administrators that
classified each ethnic group as either "martial" or "non-martial": a
"martial race" was typically considered brave and well built for
fighting, whilst the remainder were those whom the British
believed to be unfit for battle because of their sedentary
Khanda (sword) of Rajputs developed in the Rana Pratap's
The double-edged scimitar known as the khanda was a popular weapon
among the Rajputs of that era. On special occasions, a primary chief
would break up a meeting of his vassal chiefs with khanda nariyal, the
distribution of daggers and coconuts. Another affirmation of the
Rajput's reverence for his sword was the Karga Shapna ("adoration of
the sword") ritual, performed during the annual
after which a
Rajput is considered "free to indulge his passion for
rapine and revenge". The
Rajasthan also offer a
sacrifice of water buffalo or goat to their family Goddess ( Kuldevta)
during Navaratri. The ritual requires slaying of the animal with a
single stroke. In the past this ritual was considered a rite of
passage for young
Rajputs generally have adopted the custom of purdah (seclusion of
By the late 19th century, there was a shift of focus among Rajputs
from politics to a concern with kinship. Many Rajputs of Rajasthan
are nostalgic about their past and keenly conscious of their
genealogy, emphasising a
Rajput ethos that is martial in spirit, with
a fierce pride in lineage and tradition.
The Anthropological Survey of India identified that in Gujarat,
Rajputs are 'by and large' non-vegetarians, regular drinkers of
alcohol, and also smoke and chew betel leaves. These traits are
also followed by Rajputs of Maharashtra with mutton, chicken and fish
being consumed; and also pork (which historically dates back to the
Rajput warriors and princes to hone their fighting
skills by hunting and eating wild-pig).
Rajput procession, depicted on a mural at the Mehrangarh Fort
Rajput politics refers to the role played by the
Rajput community in
the electoral politics of India. In states such as Rajasthan,
Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttrakhand, Jammu, Himachal
Pradesh, and Gujarat, the large populations of Rajputs gives them a
Rajput painting refers to works of art created at the
Rajput-ruled courts of Rajasthan, Central India, and the
The term is also used to describe the style of these paintings,
distinct from the
Mughal painting style.
According to Ananda Coomaraswamy,
Rajput painting symbolised the
divide between Muslims and Hindus during Mughal rule. The styles of
Rajput painting are oppositional in character. He
Rajput painting as "popular, universal and mystic".
Rajput painting varied geographically, corresponding to each of the
Rajput kingdoms and regions. The Delhi area, Punjab,
Rajasthan, and Central India each had its own variant.[not in
Rajput dynasties and states
List of Rajputs
^ Singh, K.S. (General editor) (1998). People of India.
Anthropological Survey of India. pp. 489, 880, 656.
ISBN 9788171547661. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
^ Cohen, Stephen Philip (2006). The idea of
Pakistan (Rev. ed.).
Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. pp. 35–36.
ISBN 978-0815715030. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
^ Lieven, Anatol (2011).
Pakistan a hard country (1st ed.). New York:
PublicAffairs. ISBN 9781610390231. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
^ "Folk-lore, Volume 21". p. 79. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
^ "Samaskaras in Indian Tradition and Culture". p. 195. Retrieved
4 March 2017.
^ a b
Alf Hiltebeitel 1999, pp. 439-440.
^ Bhrigupati Singh 2015, p. 38.
^ Pradeep Barua 2005, p. 24.
Alf Hiltebeitel 1999, pp. 440-441.
Alf Hiltebeitel 1999, pp. 441-442.
^ a b Catherine B. Asher & Cynthia Talbot 2006, p. 99.
^ a b c Cynthia Talbot 2015, p. 119.
^ Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya 1994, pp. 79-80.
Chandra 1982, p. 92.
^ a b Tanuja Kothiyal 2016, p. 8.
^ Richard Gabriel Fox 1971, p. 16.
^ Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya 1994, p. 60.
^ Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya 1994, p. 59.
^ a b c d Cynthia Talbot 2015, p. 120.
^ a b Tanuja Kothiyal 2016, pp. 8-9.
^ Cynthia Talbot 2015, p. 121.
^ Irfan Habib 2002, p. 90.
^ David Ludden 1999, p. 4.
^ Barbara N. Ramusack 2004, p. 13.
^ André Wink 1990, p. 282.
^ Cynthia Talbot 2015, pp. 121-122.
^ Cynthia Talbot 2015, p. 121-125.
^ Tanuja Kothiyal 2016, p. 11.
^ Pradeep Barua 2005, p. 25.
^ Peter Jackson 2003, p. 9.
^ Cynthia Talbot 2015, p. 33.
^ Cynthia Talbot 2015, p. 33-35.
^ Naravane, M.S (1999). The Rajputs of Rajputana: A Glimpse of
Medieval Rajasthan. APH Publishing. p. 95.
^ Chandra, Satish (2004). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the
Mughals-Delhi Sultanat (1206–1526) - Part One. Har-Anand
Publications. p. 224. ISBN 81-241-1064-6.
^ Sarda, Har Bilas (1970). Maharana Sāngā, the Hindupat: The Last
Great Leader of the
Rajput Race. Kumar Bros. p. 1.
^ Pradeep Barua 2005, pp. 33-34.
^ Farooqui, Amar (2007). "The Subjugation of the Sindia State". In
Ernst, Waltraud; Pati, Biswamoy. India's Princely States: People,
Princes and Colonialism. Routledge. p. 57.
^ Richards, John F. (1995). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University
Press. pp. 22–24. ISBN 0-521-25119-2.
^ Bhadani, B. L. (1992). "The Profile of
Akbar in Contemporary
Literature". Social Scientist. 20 (9/10): 48–53. JSTOR 3517716.
(Subscription required (help)).
^ a b c Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002). History of Medieval India:
From 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D. Atlantic Publishers & Dist.
pp. 272–273. ISBN 81-269-0123-3.
^ Dirk H. A. Kolff 2002, p. 132.
^ Smith, Bonnie G. (2008). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World
History. Oxford University Press,. p. 656.
^ Richards, John F. (1995). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University
Press,. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-521-56603-2.
^ Lal, Ruby (2005). Domesticity and Power in the Early Mughal World.
Cambridge University Press,. p. 174.
^ Vivekanandan, Jayashree (2012). Interrogating International
Relations: India's Strategic Practice and the Return of History War
and International Politics in South Asia. Routledge.
^ Hansen, Waldemar (1972). The peacock throne : the drama of
Mogul India (1. Indian ed., repr. ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
pp. 12, 34. ISBN 978-81-208-0225-4.
^ Barbara N. Ramusack 2004, pp. 18-19.
^ Bayly, Susan (2000). Caste, society and politics in India from the
eighteenth century to the modern age (1. Indian ed.). Cambridge
[u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 35.
^ a b c "Rajput". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 November
^ Naravane, M. S. (1999). The Rajputs of Rajputana: A Glimpse of
Medieval Rajasthan. APH Publishing. pp. 70–.
Jadunath Sarkar (1994). A History of Jaipur 1503–1938. Orient
Longman. ISBN 81-250-0333-9.
^ Naravane, M.S (1999). The Rajputs of Rajputana: A Glimpse of
Medieval Rajasthan. APH Publishing. p. 73.
^ Tanuja Kothiyal 2016, pp. 9-10.
^ Srivastava, Vijai Shankar (1981). "The story of archaeological,
historical and antiquarian researches in
independence". In Prakash, Satya; Śrivastava, Vijai Shankar. Cultural
contours of India: Dr. Satya Prakash felicitation volume. Abhinav
Publications. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-391-02358-1. Retrieved 9
^ Meister, Michael W. (1981). "Forest and Cave: Temples at
Candrabhāgā and Kansuāñ". Archives of Asian Art. Asia Society. 34:
56–73. JSTOR 20111117. (subscription required)
^ Freitag, Jason (2009). Serving empire, serving nation:
James Tod and
the Rajputs of Rajasthan. BRILL. pp. 3–5.
Derawar Fort – Living to tell the tale". DAWN. Karachi. 20 June
^ Bates, Crispin (1995). "Race,
Caste and Tribe in Central India: the
early origins of Indian anthropometry". In Robb, Peter. The Concept of
Race in South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 227.
ISBN 978-0-19-563767-0. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
^ Bingley, A. H. (1986) . Handbook on Rajputs. Asian Educational
Services. p. 20. ISBN 978-81-206-0204-5.
^ Markovits, Claude, ed. (2002) [First published 1994 as Histoire de
l'Inde Moderne]. A History of Modern India, 1480–1950 (2nd ed.).
London: Anthem Press. p. 406. ISBN 978-1-84331-004-4. The
twenty-two princely states that were amalgamated in 1949 to form a
political entity called Rajasthan ...
^ Gerald James Larson (2001). Religion and Personal Law in Secular
India: A Call to Judgment. Indiana University Press. pp. 206–.
ISBN 978-0-253-21480-5. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
^ Bishnu Raj Upreti (2002). Management of Social and Natural Resource
Conflict in Nepal. Pinnacle Technology. p. 123.
ISBN 978-1-61820-370-0. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
^ "Dogra dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica.
^ "The Constitution (26 Amendment) Act, 1971", indiacode.nic.in,
Government of India, 1971, retrieved 30 October 2014
^ Basu, Pratyusha (2009). Villages, Women, and the Success of Dairy
Cooperatives in India: Making Place for Rural Development. Cambria
Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-60497-625-0.
Rajput youths rally for reservations - Times of India". The Times
of India. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
^ Mudgal, Vipul (22 February 2016). "The Absurdity of Jat
Reservation". The Wire. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
^ "Rajputs demanding reservation threaten to disrupt chintan shivir".
The Hindu. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
^ "After Jats, Rajputs of western UP want reservation in govt posts".
Hindustan Times. 28 April 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
^ Ayan Shome 2014, p. 196.
^ Catherine B. Asher & Cynthia Talbot 2006, p. 99 (Para 3):
"...Rajupt did not originally indicate a hereditary status but rather
an occupational one: that is, it was used in reference to men from
diverse ethnic and geographical backgrounds, who fought on horseback.
Rajasthan and its vicinity, the word
Rajput came to have a more
restricted and aristocratic meaning, as exclusive networks of warriors
related by patrilineal descent and intermarriage became dominant in
the fifteenth century. The Rajputs of
Rajasthan eventually refused to
Rajput identity of the warriors who lived farther to
the east and retained the fluid and inclusive nature of their
communities far longer than did the warriors of Rajasthan."
^ Cynthia Talbot 2015, p. 120 (Para 4): "Kolff's provocative
thesis certainly applies to more peripheral groups like the Bundelas
of Cenral India, whose claims to be
Rajput were ignored by the Rajput
clans of Mughal-era Rajasthan, and to other such lower-status martial
^ "Rajput". Encyclopædia Britannica.
^ a b Shail Mayaram 2013, p. 269.
^ Rolf Lunheim (1993). Desert people: caste and community—a
Rajasthani village. University of Trondheim & Norsk Hydro AS.
Retrieved 24 August 2013.
^ Maya Unnithan-Kumar (1997). Identity, Gender, and Poverty: New
Caste and Tribe in Rajasthan. Berghahn Books.
p. 135. ISBN 978-1-57181-918-5. Retrieved 24 August
^ Makhan Jha (1 January 1997). Anthropology of Ancient
A Study in Civilizational Perspective. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd.
pp. 33–. ISBN 978-81-7533-034-4. Retrieved 24 August
^ K. S. Singh (1 January 1998). Rajasthan. Popular Prakashan.
pp. 276–. ISBN 978-81-7154-766-1. Retrieved 24 August
^ André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World:
Early Medieval India and the Expansion of
Islam 7Th-11th Centuries.
BRILL. pp. 282–. ISBN 978-0-391-04173-8. Retrieved 24
^ Lindsey Harlan 1992, p. 31.
^ Mazumder, Rajit K. The
Indian Army and the Making of Punjab.
pp. 99, 105.
^ Rand, Gavin (March 2006). "Martial Races and Imperial Subjects:
Violence and Governance in Colonial India 1857–1914". European
Review of History. Routledge. 13 (1): 1–20.
^ Streets, Heather (2004). Martial Races: The military, race and
masculinity in British Imperial Culture, 1857–1914. Manchester
University Press. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-7190-6962-8. Retrieved
20 October 2010.
^ Narasimhan, Sakuntala (1992). Sati: widow burning in India
(Reprinted ed.). Doubleday. p. 122.
^ Hiltebeitel, Alf; Erndl, Kathleen M. (2000). Is the Goddess a
Feminist?: The Politics of South Asian Goddesses. Sheffield, England:
Sheffield Academic Press. p. 77.
^ Lindsey Harlan 1992, p. 88.
^ Kasturi, Malavika (2002). Embattled Identities
Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-19-565787-X.
^ Lindsey Harlan 1992, p. 27.
^ Singh K.S. (2002) People of India:
Gujarat Part 3 Vol XXII
Anthropological Survey of India. P.1174 .
^ Singh K.S. (2004) People of India: Maharashtra Part 3 Vol XXX
Anthropological Survey of India. P.1636 .
Rajput procession, Encyclopædia Britannica Archived 9 November 2014
at the Wayback Machine.
Caste politics in North, West and South India before Mandal :
The low caste movements between sanskritisation and ethnicisation"
(PDF). Kellogg.nd.edu. Retrieved 2015-03-18.
^ Dipankar Gupta. "The caste bogey in election analysis". The Hindu.
Retrieved 17 March 2015.
^ "Changing Electoral Politics in Delhi". google.co.in. Retrieved 17
^ "Elections in India: The vote-bank theory has run its course".
Asiancorrespondent.com. 2012-02-07. Retrieved 2015-03-18.
Rajasthan polls: It's caste politics all the way". The Times of
India. 13 October 2013.
^ Karine Schomer 1994, p. 338.
^ Saleema Waraich (2012). "Competing and complementary visions of the
court of the Great Mogor". In Dana Leibsohn; Jeanette Favrot Peterson.
Seeing Across Cultures in the Early Modern World. Ashgate.
^ Leibsohn, Dana; Peterson, Jeanette (2012). Seeing Across Cultures in
the Early Modern World. Ashgate Publishing. p. 3.
Alf Hiltebeitel (1999). Rethinking India's Oral and Classical Epics:
Draupadi among Rajputs, Muslims, and Dalits. University of Chicago
Press. ISBN 978-0-226-34055-5.
André Wink (1990). Al- Hind: The slave kings and the Islamic
conquest. 1. BRILL. p. 269. ISBN 9789004095090.
Ayan Shome (2014). Dialogue & Daggers: Notion of Authority and
Legitimacy in the Early Delhi Sultanate (1192 C.E. – 1316 C.E.). Vij
Books. ISBN 978-93-84318-46-8.
Barbara N. Ramusack (2004). The Indian Princes and their States.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139449083.
Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya (1994). "Origin of the Rajputs: The
Political, Economic and Social Processes in Early Medieval Rajasthan".
The Making of Early Medieval India. Oxford University Press.
Bhrigupati Singh (2015). Poverty and the Quest for Life. University of
Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-19468-4.
Catherine B. Asher; Cynthia Talbot (2006). India Before Europe.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80904-7.
Cynthia Talbot (2015). The Last
Hindu Emperor: Prithviraj Cauhan and
the Indian Past, 1200–2000. Cambridge University Press.
David Ludden (1999). An Agrarian History of South Asia. Cambridge
University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-521-36424-9.
Dirk H. A. Kolff (2002). Naukar, Rajput, and Sepoy. Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52305-9.
Irfan Habib (2002). Essays in Indian History. Anthem Press.
p. 90. ISBN 978-1-84331-061-7.
Karine Schomer (1994). Idea of Rajasthan: Constructions. South Asia
Publications. ISBN 978-0-945921-25-7.
Lindsey Harlan (1992). Religion and
Rajput Women: The Ethic of
Protection in Contemporary Narratives. Berkeley, California:
University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07339-5.
Pradeep Barua (2005). The State at War in South Asia. University of
Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1344-1.
Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military
History. Cambridge University Press.
Richard Gabriel Fox (1971). Kin, Clan, Raja, and Rule: Statehinterland
Relations in Preindustrial India. University of California Press.
Chandra (1982). Medieval India: Society, the Jagirdari Crisis,
and the Village. Macmillan.
Shail Mayaram (2013). Against History, Against State:
Counterperspectives from the Margins. Columbia University Press.
Tanuja Kothiyal (2016). Nomadic Narratives: A History of Mobility and
Identity in the Great Indian Desert. Cambridge University Press.
Media related to
Rajput people at Wikimedia Commons
Clans of the