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Rainbow/PUSH
Rainbow/PUSH
is a non-profit organization formed as a merger of two non-profit organizations founded by Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
— Operation PUSH (People United to Save Humanity) and the National Rainbow Coalition. The organizations pursue social justice, civil rights and political activism. In December 1971, Jackson resigned from Operation Breadbasket after clashing with Rev. Ralph Abernathy
Ralph Abernathy
and founded Operation PUSH. Jackson founded the National Rainbow Coalition in 1984 which merged with PUSH in 1996. The combined organization keeps its national headquarters on the South Side of Chicago
Chicago
and has branches in Washington, D.C., New York City, Los Angeles, Detroit, Houston, Atlanta, the Silicon Valley, and New Orleans and Boston. Operation PUSH was successful at raising public awareness to initiate corporate action and government sponsorship. The National Rainbow coalition became a prominent political organization that raised public awareness on numerous political issues and consolidated a large voting block. The merged entity has undertaken numerous social initiatives.

Contents

1 PUSH 2 National Rainbow Coalition 3 Merger 4 Involvement in the Duke Lacrosse team controversy 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

PUSH[edit]

Rainbow/PUSH
Rainbow/PUSH
Headquarters
Headquarters
in the Kenwood community area of Chicago

Operation PUSH, an acronym for People United to Save (later Serve) Humanity, was an organization which advocated black self-help and achieved a broad audience for its liberal stances on issues of social justice and civil rights.[1] The origins of Operation PUSH can be traced to a factional split in Operation Breadbasket, an affiliate of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.[2] In 1966, Martin Luther King Jr., the head of the SCLC, appointed Jackson to head the Chicago
Chicago
chapter of Operation Breadbasket, which became a coalition of black ministers and entrepreneurs.[3] After 1968, however, Jackson increasingly clashed with King's successor at SCLC, Rev. Ralph Abernathy. The break became complete in December 1971 when Abernathy suspended Jackson for “administrative improprieties and repeated acts of violation of organizational policy.” Jackson resigned from Operation Breadbasket, called together his allies, and Operation PUSH was born. From its inception, Jackson referred to its membership as a "Rainbow Coalition."[3] The name "Rainbow Coalition" was originated in 1968 by Chicago
Chicago
Black Panther leader Fred Hampton
Fred Hampton
to describe the multi-ethnic revolutionary federation he founded. Jackson was not part of the Hampton Rainbow Coalition, and had a difficult relationship with the Panthers. Some former members of Hampton's coalition are resentful of Jackson appropriating the name, partly because Jackson's politics are reformist, and partly because Jackson copyrighted the name, preventing others from using it.[4] Although money was a problem at first, initial backing came from Manhattan Borough President
Manhattan Borough President
Percy Sutton, Gary, Indiana
Gary, Indiana
Mayor Richard Hatcher, Aretha Franklin, Jim Brown, and Ossie Davis.[3]

Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
speaks at 1973 PUSH National Convention

The organizational meeting of PUSH was in the Chicago
Chicago
home of Dr. T.R.M. Howard, a prominent black doctor and community leader on the South Side. Before he moved to Chicago
Chicago
in 1956, Howard had developed a national reputation as a Mississippi
Mississippi
civil rights leader, surgeon, and entrepreneur. Howard served on PUSH's board of directors and chaired the finance committee.[5] Through PUSH Jackson was able to continue pursuit of the same economic objectives that Operation Breadbasket had pursued. In addition, his new organization was able to expand into areas of social and political development for blacks in Chicago
Chicago
and across the nation. The 1970s saw various tactics to pursue the organization's objectives including direct action campaigns, weekly radio broadcasts,[6] and awards through which Jackson protected black homeowners, workers, and businesses, and honored prominent blacks in the US and abroad. He also started a push campaign against the legalization of abortion after the Roe vs Wade decision in 1973. The organization was concerned with minority youth reading,[7] and it championed education through PUSH-Excel, a spin-off program that emphasized keeping inner-city youths in school while assisting them with job placement.[8] The program, which persuaded inner city youth to pledge in writing to study two hours per night and which involves parental monitoring,[9] impressed Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
whose administration became a large sponsor after Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
Joseph Califano
Joseph Califano
and Secretary of Labor
Secretary of Labor
Ray Marshall
Ray Marshall
courted Jackson.[10][11]

Lake Shore Drive
Lake Shore Drive
Senior Citizens March (July 1973)

The organization was very successful at committing major corporations with large presences in the black community to adopt affirmative action programs in which they hired more black executives and supervisors and to buy from black suppliers, wholesalers, and distributors.[10] The organization employed prayer vigils as a technique to call attention to issues.[12] The organization opposed Ronald Reagan's workfare initiative to compel that welfare recipients work for part of their benefits.[13] The organization staged several boycotts including early 1980s boycotts of Anheuser Busch
Anheuser Busch
and Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
as well as a 1986 boycott of CBS
CBS
television affiliates.[14][15] The boycotts became so well known that at one point David Duke
David Duke
supporters referred to a boycott of Nike, Inc. as if whites were being oppressed by blacks.[16] Nike spokesperson, Michael Jordan, disavowed the Nike boycott.[17] The boycotts of Budweiser, and Coke as well as one against Kentucky Fried Chicken were touted for having won minority job concessions from white businesses.[18] National Rainbow Coalition[edit]

Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
was a Presidential candidate in both 1984 and 1988.

The National Rainbow Coalition (Rainbow Coalition for short) was a political organization that grew out of Jesse Jackson's 1984 presidential campaign. During the campaign, Jackson began speaking about a "Rainbow Coalition", an idea created by Fred Hampton, regarding the disadvantaged and welcomed voters from a broad spectrum of races and creeds.[10] The goals of the campaign were to demand social programs, voting rights, and affirmative action for all groups that had been neglected by Reaganomics.[8] Jackson's campaign blamed President Ronald Reagan's policies for reduction of government domestic spending, causing new unemployment and encouraging economic investment outside of the inner cities, while they discouraged the rebuilding of urban industry. The industrial layoffs caused by these policies hit the black and other minority populations particularly hard.[10] At the 1984 Democratic National Convention
1984 Democratic National Convention
on July 18, 1984, in San Francisco, California, Jackson delivered an address entitled "The Rainbow Coalition".[19] The speech called for Arab Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, youth, disabled veterans, small farmers, lesbians and gays to join with African Americans and Jewish Americans for political purpose. Whereas the purpose of PUSH had been to fight for economic and educational opportunities, the Rainbow Coalition was created to address political empowerment and public policy issues.[20] After his unsuccessful bid for the Democratic nomination in 1984, Jackson attempted to build a broad base of support among groups that "were hurt by Reagan administration policies" - racial minorities, the poor, small farmers, working mothers, the unemployed, some labor union members, gays, and lesbians.[10] Merger[edit] Jackson moved from Chicago
Chicago
to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
to serve as shadow senator from 1991 to 1996. When he returned to Chicago
Chicago
in 1996 he merged his organizations.[21] The merged entity advocates for African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, other minorities, and women. Its main economic goal is to have more minorities on the payrolls, in the boardrooms, and on the supplier lists of major corporations. The industries it most aggressively pursues are the financial sector on Wall Street, the telecommunications field and high-tech firms in Silicon Valley.[20] The Wall Street
Wall Street
activities are organized under sub-organization "The Wall Street
Wall Street
Project".[8] The organization has been active in pursuit of increase minority representation in other industries, most notably the broadcast media, the entertainment industry, and the automobile industry. It has also sought increased representation by minority administrators in college and professional sports under the leadership of Jesse Jackson, Jr.[22] For Hispanic issues the merged entity works closely with the League of United Latin American Citizens and the National Council of La Raza.[20] In 1998 the organization admonished Freddie Mac
Freddie Mac
for its lending and employment practices, which led to its pledge to earmark $1 billion in mortgage loans specifically for minorities, to donate more than $1 million directly to Rainbow/PUSH
Rainbow/PUSH
and to become a sponsor of Jackson's annual Wall Street
Wall Street
Project. In 2000, the organization investigated the case of Raynard Johnson, who was found hanged by a belt from a tree in front of his home in Kokomo, Mississippi.[8] Jackson labelled it a "lynching", although two autopsies both concluded that the death was a suicide.[23] In the early 2000s (decade), Rainbow/PUSH
Rainbow/PUSH
worked with NASCAR
NASCAR
to increase the number of minorities involved in auto racing, through direct financial support and projects to find talented African-American racing drivers.[24] This initiative was ended in 2003, after the racing sanctioning body was criticized by conservative groups for the partnership.[25] Among the smaller campaigns it has undertaken are the HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
Initiative for funding for AIDS
AIDS
programs; the National Field Department support of "constructive agitation to bring about societal change"; and the Prison Outpost project, whose ultimate goal is "to eliminate the need for prisons." Through his organization and its predecessors Jackson has advocated universal health care, a war on drugs, direct peace negotiations between Palestinians and Israelis, ending apartheid in South Africa and advancing democracy in Haiti.[26] The following is the organization's list of major issues:

1% Student Loans Jobs and Economic Empowerment Employee Rights and Livable Wages Educational Access Fair and Decent Housing Voter Registration and Civic Education Election Law Reform Fairness in the Media, Sports, and Criminal Justice System Political Empowerment Trade and Foreign Policy Affirmative Action and Equal Rights Gender Equality Environmental Justice

Former congressman Mel Reynolds, who served a sentence in prison for sexual assault and bank fraud, was hired by Rainbow/PUSH
Rainbow/PUSH
as its resident scholar on prison reform after his release in 2001.[27] The organization is a member of several anti-war coalitions including Win Without War, United for Peace and Justice, and After Downing Street. Involvement in the Duke Lacrosse team controversy[edit] Main article: Duke lacrosse case In 2006, Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
promised the Rainbow/Push Coalition would pay the college tuition for Crystal Mangum. Mangum made false rape allegations against members of Duke University's men's lacrosse team who had hired her as a stripper. Jackson said it would not matter if Mangum fabricated her story; the tuition offer would still be good.[28] Notes[edit]

^ "National Rainbow Coalition (American organization)". Encyclopædia Britannica online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved September 5, 2007.  ^ Ralph, James (2005). "Operation PUSH". Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago
Chicago
Historical Society. Retrieved September 5, 2007.  ^ a b c "Jackson PUSHes On". Time. Time Inc.
Time Inc.
January 3, 1972. Retrieved May 1, 2008.  ^ Jakobi Williams, From the Bullet to the Ballot: The Illinois Chapter of the Black Panther Party and Racial Coalition Politics in Chicago, (University of North Carolina Press, 2013), pp. 198–204 ^ David T. Beito and Linda Royster Beito, Black Maverick: T.R.M. Howard's Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009), 209–10. ^ "TV and radio broadcasts". RainbowPUSH Coalition website. Archived from the original on October 27, 2007. Retrieved January 29, 2009.  ^ "Needed: Strong Soldiers". Time. Time Inc.
Time Inc.
May 22, 1976. Retrieved May 1, 2008.  ^ a b c d "Black History: Jesse Jackson". Gale Cengage Learning. Retrieved September 7, 2007.  ^ "The American Underclass (page 10)". Time. Time Inc.
Time Inc.
August 29, 1977. Retrieved May 1, 2008.  ^ a b c d e "Jesse Jackson". Encarta. Microsoft Corporation. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009. Retrieved September 7, 2007.  ^ Shapiro, Walter (April 11, 1988). "Taking Jesse Seriously (page 9)". Time. Time Inc.
Time Inc.
Retrieved May 1, 2008.  ^ "A Fallout Between Friends". Time. Time Inc.
Time Inc.
August 8, 1977. Retrieved May 1, 2008.  ^ "Putting the Poor to Work". Time. Time Inc.
Time Inc.
March 23, 1981. Retrieved May 1, 2008.  ^ Thomas, Evan (December 19, 1983). "Sniping". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved May 1, 2008.  ^ Kelly, James (April 14, 1986). "When Push Gives a Shove". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved May 1, 2008.  ^ Wills, Garry (October 1, 1990). "David Duke's Addictive Politics". Time. Time Inc.
Time Inc.
Retrieved May 1, 2008.  ^ Gray, Paul (August 27, 1990). "Who's Boycotting Whom?". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved May 1, 2008.  ^ Thomas, Evan (May 7, 1984). "Pride and Prejudice (Page 7)". Time. Time Inc.
Time Inc.
Retrieved May 1, 2008.  ^ "Top 100 Speeches". American Rhetoric. 2007. Retrieved September 5, 2007.  ^ a b c "Jesse Jackson's Rainbow/PUSH
Rainbow/PUSH
Reaches Hispanics". HispanicBusiness.com. Hispanic Business Inc. November 2, 2000. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved September 7, 2007.  ^ "The Pilgrimage of Jesse Jackson". pbs.org. WGBH educational foundation. Retrieved September 7, 2007.  ^ "Sports people: pro basketball; Survey Shows Lack of Jobs for Blacks". The New York Times. The New York Times
The New York Times
Company. June 29, 1993. Retrieved May 1, 2008.  ^ Burden of Proof: Hanging Death Mystery in Mississippi: Suicide or Murder? Archived August 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., CNN transcript, July 21, 2000 ^ NASCAR
NASCAR
is trying to change its image, Rupen Fofaria, ESPN.com, February 12, 2002 ^ NASCAR
NASCAR
ends donations to Jackson's Rainbow/PUSH, Chris Jenkins, USA Today, July 28, 2003 ^ "Jesse Jackson". Global Leaders. Retrieved September 7, 2007.  ^ Dodge, Susan (January 29, 2001). "Reynolds finds work with S. Side church". Chicago
Chicago
Sun-Times. Newsbank.  ^ " Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
Says Organization Will Pay Alleged Rape Victim's Tuition". Retrieved January 7, 2007. 

References[edit]

David T. Beito and Linda Royster Beito. T.R.M. Howard
T.R.M. Howard
M.D.: A Mississippi
Mississippi
Doctor in Chicago
Chicago
Civil Rights, A.M.E. Church Review (July–September 2001), 50-59.

External links[edit]

Rainbow/Push Coalition [1] Rosalinda Guillen and Joseph Moore Papers. 1982–2011. 20.54 cubic feet

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