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Deities: Ehecatl, Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, Kukulkan
Kukulkan
(Maya) Nicknames: "Feathered Serpent", "Precious Twin"[1]

Major cult center Temple of the Feathered Serpent, Teotihuacan

Planet Venus

Animals Snake

Region Mesoamerica

Ethnic group Aztec

Festivals Several

Personal information

Parents Mixcoatl
Mixcoatl
and Xochiquetzal

Siblings Xolotl

Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis

Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
in feathered serpent form as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis

Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
(English: /ˌkɛtsɑːlˈkoʊɑːtəl/; Spanish pronunciation: [ketsalˈkoatɬ] ( listen)) (Classical Nahuatl: Quetzalcohuātl [ket͡saɬˈkowaːt͡ɬ],  modern Nahuatl
Nahuatl
pronunciation (help·info)) forms part of Mesoamerican literature and is a deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
language and means "feathered serpent".[2] The worship of a feathered serpent is first documented in Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
in the first century BC or first century AD.[3] That period lies within the Late Preclassic to Early Classic period (400 BC – 600 AD) of Mesoamerican chronology, and veneration of the figure appears to have spread throughout Mesoamerica by the Late Classic period (600–900 AD).[4] In the Postclassic period (900–1519 AD), the worship of the feathered serpent deity was based in the primary Mexican religious center of Cholula. It is in this period that the deity is known to have been named "Quetzalcoatl" by his Nahua followers. In the Maya area, he was approximately equivalent to Kukulkan
Kukulkan
and Gukumatz, names that also roughly translate as "feathered serpent" in different Mayan languages. Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec
Aztec
god of wind and learning, wears around his neck the "wind breastplate" ehecailacocozcatl, "the spirally voluted wind jewel" made of a conch shell. This talisman was a conch shell cut at the cross-section and was likely worn as a necklace by religious rulers, as they have been discovered in burials in archaeological sites throughout Mesoamerica, and potentially symbolized patterns witnessed in hurricanes, dust devils, seashells, and whirlpools, which were elemental forces that had significance in Aztec
Aztec
mythology. In codex drawings, Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
and Xolotl
Xolotl
were both pictured as wearing an ehecailacocozcatl around each of their necks.[5] There has additionally been at least one major cache of offerings with knives and idols adorned with the symbols of more than one god, some of which were adorned with wind jewels.[6] In the era following the 16th-century Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, a number of sources were written that conflate Quetzalcoatl with Ce Acatl Topiltzin, a ruler of the mythico-historic city of Tollan. It is a matter of much debate among historians to which degree, or whether at all, these narratives about this legendary Toltec
Toltec
ruler describe historical events.[7] Furthermore, early Spanish sources written by clerics tend to identify the god-ruler Quetzalcoatl of these narratives with either Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
or Thomas the Apostle—an identification which is also a source of diversity of opinions about the nature of Quetzalcoatl.[8] Among the Aztecs, whose beliefs are the best-documented in the historical sources, Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
was related to gods of the wind, of the planet Venus, of the dawn, of merchants and of arts, crafts and knowledge. He was also the patron god of the Aztec
Aztec
priesthood, of learning and knowledge.[9] Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
was one of several important gods in the Aztec
Aztec
pantheon, along with the gods Tlaloc, Tezcatlipoca and Huitzilopochtli. Two other gods represented by the planet Venus are Quetzalcoatl's ally Tlaloc
Tlaloc
who is the god of rain, and Quetzalcoatl's twin and psychopomp, who is named Xolotl. Animals thought to represent Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
include resplendent quetzals, rattlesnakes (coatl meaning serpent in Nahuatl), crows, and macaws. In his form as Ehecatl
Ehecatl
he is the wind, and is represented by spider monkeys, ducks, and the wind itself.[10] In his form as the morning star, Venus, he is also depicted as a harpy eagle.[11] In Mazatec legends, the astrologer deity Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, who is also represented by Venus, bears a close relationship with Quetzalcoatl.[12]

Contents

1 Feathered serpent deity
Feathered serpent deity
in Mesoamerica

1.1 Iconographic depictions 1.2 Interpretations

2 In Aztec
Aztec
culture 3 Myths

3.1 Attributes

4 Belief in Cortés as Quetzalcoatl 5 Contemporary use

5.1 Mormonism 5.2 In media 5.3 New Age

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References

Feathered serpent deity
Feathered serpent deity
in Mesoamerica[edit] Main article: Feathered Serpent (deity) A feathered serpent deity has been worshiped by many different ethnopolitical groups in Mesoamerican history. The existence of such worship can be seen through studies of the iconography of different Mesoamerican cultures, in which serpent motifs are frequent. On the basis of the different symbolic systems used in portrayals of the feathered serpent deity in different cultures and periods, scholars have interpreted the religious and symbolic meaning of the feathered serpent deity in Mesoamerican cultures. Iconographic depictions[edit]

Feathered Serpent head at the Ciudadela complex in Teotihuacan

The earliest iconographic depiction of the deity is believed to be found on Stela
Stela
19 at the Olmec
Olmec
site of La Venta, depicting a serpent rising up behind a person probably engaged in a shamanic ritual. This depiction is believed to have been made around 900 BC. Although probably not exactly a depiction of the same feathered serpent deity worshipped in classic and post-classic periods, it shows the continuity of symbolism of feathered snakes in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
from the formative period and on, for example in comparison to the Mayan Vision Serpent shown below.

Vision Serpent depicted on lintel 15 from Yaxchilan.

The first culture to use the symbol of a feathered serpent as an important religious and political symbol was Teotihuacan. At temples such as the aptly named " Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
temple" in the Ciudadela complex, feathered serpents figure prominently and alternate with a different kind of serpent head. The earliest depictions of the feathered serpent deity were fully zoomorphic, depicting the serpent as an actual snake, but already among the Classic Maya, the deity began acquiring human features. In the iconography of the classic period, Maya serpent imagery is also prevalent: a snake is often seen as the embodiment of the sky itself, and a vision serpent is a shamanic helper presenting Maya kings with visions of the underworld. The archaeological record shows that after the fall of Teotihuacan that marked the beginning of the epi-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology around 600 AD, the cult of the feathered serpent spread to the new religious and political centers in central Mexico, centers such as Xochicalco, Cacaxtla
Cacaxtla
and Cholula.[4] Feathered serpent iconography is prominent at all of these sites. Cholula is known to have remained the most important center of worship to Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec/Nahua version of the feathered serpent deity, in the post-classic period. During the epi-classic period, a dramatic spread of feathered serpent iconography is evidenced throughout Mesoamerica, and during this period begins to figure prominently at sites such as Chichén Itzá, El Tajín, and throughout the Maya area. Colonial documentary sources from the Maya area frequently speak of the arrival of foreigners from the central Mexican plateau, often led by a man whose name translates as "Feathered Serpent." It has been suggested that these stories recall the spread of the feathered serpent cult in the epi-classic and early post-classic periods.[4] The Plumed Serpent, an ideogram of the metaphor of Quetzalcoatl, alludes to one of the most powerful forces of nature. A Said metaphor is recorded in the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
language:

Quetzalcoatl: he was the wind; he was the guide, the road sweeper of the rain gods, of the masters of the water, of those who Brough rain. And when the wind increased, it was said, the dust swirled up, it roared, howled, became dark, blew in all directions; there was lightning; it grew wrathful.[13]

The metaphor served to not only describe a powerful seasonal phenomenon, but was also the title of rulership and priestly office; additionally, the name figured in Toltec
Toltec
ties as a military title and emblem.[14] In the post-classic Nahua civilization of central Mexico
Mexico
(Aztec), the worship of Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
was ubiquitous. Art depicting the worship of Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
from this time also depicts mushrooms, and possibly the ingestion of sacred hallucinogenic species during worship.[15] The most important center was Cholula where the world's largest pyramid was dedicated to his worship. In Aztec
Aztec
culture, depictions of Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
were fully anthropomorphic. Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
was associated with the wind god Ehecatl
Ehecatl
and is often depicted with his insignia: a beak-like mask. Interpretations[edit]

Temple of the Feathered Serpent at Xochicalco, adorned with a fully zoomorphic feathered Serpent.

On the basis of the Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
iconographical depictions of the feathered serpent, archaeologist Karl Taube has argued that the feathered serpent was a symbol of fertility and internal political structures contrasting with the War Serpent symbolizing the outwards military expansion of the Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
empire.[16] Historian Enrique Florescano also analyzing Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
iconography argues that the Feathered Serpent was part of a triad of agricultural deities: the Goddess of the Cave symbolizing motherhood, reproduction and life, Tlaloc, god of rain, lightning and thunder and the feathered serpent, god of vegetational renewal. The feathered serpent was furthermore connected to the planet Venus
Venus
because of this planet's importance as a sign of the beginning of the rainy season. To both Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
and Mayan cultures, Venus
Venus
was in turn also symbolically connected with warfare.[17] While not usually feathered, classic Maya serpent iconography seems related to the belief in a sky-, Venus-, creator-, war- and fertility-related serpent deity. In the example from Yaxchilan, the Vision Serpent has the human face of the young maize god, further suggesting a connection to fertility and vegetational renewal; the Mayan Young Maize
Maize
god was also connected to Venus. In Xochicalco, depictions of the feathered serpent are accompanied by the image of a seated, armed ruler and the hieroglyph for the day sign 9 Wind. The date 9 Wind is known to be associated with fertility, Venus
Venus
and war among the Maya and frequently occurs in relation to Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
in other Mesoamerican cultures. On the basis of the iconography of the feathered serpent deity at sites such as Teotihuacan, Xochicalco, Chichén Itzá, Tula and Tenochtitlan combined with certain ethnohistorical sources, historian David Carrasco
David Carrasco
has argued that the preeminent function of the feathered serpent deity throughout Mesoamerican history was the patron deity of the Urban center, a god of culture and civilization.[18] In Aztec
Aztec
culture[edit]

Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
as depicted in the Codex Borbonicus.

To the Aztecs, Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
was, as his name indicates, a feathered serpent, a flying reptile (much like a dragon), who was a boundary-maker (and transgressor) between earth and sky. He was a creator deity having contributed essentially to the creation of Mankind. He also had anthropomorphic forms, for example in his aspects as Ehecatl
Ehecatl
the wind god. Among the Aztecs, the name Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
was also a priestly title, as the two most important priests of the Aztec Templo Mayor
Templo Mayor
were called " Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
Tlamacazqui". In the Aztec ritual calendar, different deities were associated with the cycle-of-year names: Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
was tied to the year Ce Acatl (One Reed), which correlates to the year 1519.[19] Myths[edit] Attributes[edit]

Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
as depicted in the Codex Magliabechiano.

The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. There are several stories about the birth of Quetzalcoatl. In a version of the myth, Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
was born by a virgin named Chimalman, to whom the god Onteol appeared in a dream.[20] In another story, the virgin Chimalman conceived Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
swallowing an emerald.[21] A third story narrates that Chimalman
Chimalman
was hit in the womb by an arrow shot by Mixcoatl
Mixcoatl
and nine months later she gave birth to a child which was called Quetzalcoatl.[22] A fourth story narrates that Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
was born from Coatlicue, who already had four hundred children who formed the stars of the Milky Way.[23] According to another version of the myth, Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
is one of the four sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, the four Tezcatlipocas, each of whom presides over one of the four cardinal directions. Over the West presides the White Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, the god of light, justice, mercy and wind. Over the South presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli, the god of war. Over the East presides the Red Tezcatlipoca, Xipe Totec, the god of gold, farming and springtime. And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca, known by no other name than Tezcatlipoca, the god of judgment, night, deceit, sorcery and the Earth.[24] Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
was often considered the god of the morning star, and his twin brother Xolotl
Xolotl
was the evening star (Venus). As the morning star, he was known by the title Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, meaning "lord of the star of the dawn." He was known as the inventor of books and the calendar, the giver of maize (corn) to mankind, and sometimes as a symbol of death and resurrection. Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
was also the patron of the priests and the title of the twin Aztec
Aztec
high priests. Some legends describe him as opposed to human sacrifice[25] while others describe him practicing it.[26][27] Most Mesoamerican beliefs included cycles of suns. Often our current time was considered the fifth sun,[citation needed] the previous four having been destroyed by flood, fire and the like. Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
went to Mictlan, the underworld, and created fifth-world mankind from the bones of the previous races (with the help of Cihuacoatl), using his own blood, from a wound he inflicted on his earlobes, calves, tongue, and penis, to imbue the bones with new life. It is also suggested that he was a son of Xochiquetzal
Xochiquetzal
and Mixcoatl.[citation needed] In the Codex Chimalpopoca, it is said Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
was coerced by Tezcatlipoca
Tezcatlipoca
into becoming drunk on pulque, cavorting with his sister, Quetzalpetlatl, a celibate priestess, and neglecting their religious duties. (Many academics conclude this passage implies incest.) The next morning, Quetzalcoatl, feeling shame and regret, had his servants build him a stone chest, adorn him in turquoise, and then, laying in the chest, set himself on fire. His ashes rose into the sky and then his heart followed, becoming the morning star (see Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli).[28] Belief in Cortés as Quetzalcoatl[edit]

Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
in human form, using the symbols of Ehecatl, from the Codex Borgia.

Since the sixteenth century, it has been widely held that the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II
Moctezuma II
initially believed the landing of Hernán Cortés in 1519 to be Quetzalcoatl's return. This view has been questioned by ethno-historians who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl's return.[29][30][31][32][33] Most documents expounding this theory are of entirely Spanish origin, such as Cortés's letters to Charles V of Spain, in which Cortés goes to great pains to present the naive gullibility of the Aztecs in general as a great aid in his conquest of Mexico. Much of the idea of Cortés being seen as a deity can be traced back to the Florentine Codex
Florentine Codex
written down some 50 years after the conquest. In the Codex's description of the first meeting between Moctezuma and Cortés, the Aztec
Aztec
ruler is described as giving a prepared speech in classical oratorial Nahuatl, a speech which, as described in the codex written by the Franciscan
Franciscan
Bernardino de Sahagún
Bernardino de Sahagún
and his Tlatelolcan informants, included such prostrate declarations of divine or near-divine admiration as:

You have graciously come on earth, you have graciously approached your water, your high place of Mexico, you have come down to your mat, your throne, which I have briefly kept for you, I who used to keep it for you.

and:

You have graciously arrived, you have known pain, you have known weariness, now come on earth, take your rest, enter into your palace, rest your limbs; may our lords come on earth.

Subtleties in, and an imperfect scholarly understanding of, high Nahuatl
Nahuatl
rhetorical style make the exact intent of these comments tricky to ascertain, but Restall argues that Moctezuma's politely offering his throne to Cortés (if indeed he did ever give the speech as reported) may well have been meant as the exact opposite of what it was taken to mean: politeness in Aztec
Aztec
culture was a way to assert dominance and show superiority. This speech, which has been widely referred to, has been a factor in the widespread belief that Moctezuma was addressing Cortés as the returning god Quetzalcoatl. Other parties have also promulgated the idea that the Mesoamericans believed the conquistadors, and in particular Cortés, to be awaited gods: most notably the historians of the Franciscan
Franciscan
order such as Fray Gerónimo de Mendieta.[34] Some Franciscans at this time held millennarian beliefs[35] and some of them believed that Cortés' coming to the New World ushered in the final era of evangelization before the coming of the millennium. Franciscans such as Toribio de Benavente "Motolinia" saw elements of Christianity in the precolumbian religions and therefore believed that Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
had been evangelized before, possibly by St. Thomas whom legend had it had "gone to preach beyond the Ganges". Franciscans then equated the original Quetzalcoatl with St. Thomas and imagined that the Indians had long-awaited his return to take part once again in God's kingdom. Historian Matthew Restall concludes that:

The legend of the returning lords, originated during the Spanish-Mexica war in Cortés' reworking of Moctezuma's welcome speech, had by the 1550's merged with the Cortés-as-Quetzalcoatl legend that the Franciscans had started spreading in the 1530s. (Restall 2001:114 )

Some scholarship maintains the view that the Aztec
Aztec
Empire's fall may be attributed in part to the belief in Cortés as the returning Quetzalcoatl, notably in works by David Carrasco
David Carrasco
(1982), H. B. Nicholson (2001 (1957)) and John Pohl (2016). However, a majority of Mesoamericanist scholars such as Matthew Restall (2003), James Lockhart (1994), Susan D. Gillespie (1989), Camilla Townsend (2003a, 2003b), Louise Burkhart, Michel Graulich and Michael E. Smith (2001) among others, consider the "Quetzalcoatl/Cortés myth" as one of many myths about the Spanish conquest which have risen in the early post-conquest period. It should be furthered noted that the idea that Cortes or Spaniards as a group or specific other individuals were a specific god (e.g., Quetzalcoatl) or gods in general is not present among any other Mesoamerican peoples (Zapotecs, Mixtecs, Maya, Quiche, Tzeltal, Tzotzil, etc.).

Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
as depicted in the post-Conquest Tovar Codex.

There is no question that the legend of Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
played a significant role in the colonial period. However, this legend likely has a foundation in events that took place immediately prior to the arrival of the Spaniards. A 2012 exhibition at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and the Dallas Museum of Art, "The Children of the Plumed Serpent: the Legacy of Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
in Ancient Mexico," demonstrated the existence of a powerful confederacy of Eastern Nahuas, Mixtecs and Zapotecs, along with the peoples they dominated throughout southern Mexico
Mexico
between 1200-1600 (Pohl, Fields, and Lyall 2012, Harvey 2012, Pohl 2003). They maintained a major pilgrimage and commercial center at Cholula, Puebla which the Spaniards compared to both Rome and Mecca because the cult of the god united its constituents through a field of common social, political, and religious values without dominating them militarily. This confederacy engaged in almost seventy-five years of nearly continuous conflict with the Aztec
Aztec
Empire of the Triple Alliance until the arrival of Cortés. Members of this confederacy from Tlaxcala, Puebla, and Oaxaca provided the Spaniards with the army that first reclaimed the city of Cholula from its pro- Aztec
Aztec
ruling faction, and ultimately defeated the Aztec
Aztec
capital of Tenochtitlan ( Mexico
Mexico
City). The Tlaxcalteca, along with other city-states across the Plain of Puebla, then supplied the auxiliary and logistical support for the conquests of Guatemala and West Mexico
Mexico
while Mixtec and Zapotec caciques (Colonial indigenous rulers) gained monopolies in the overland transport of Manila galleon trade through Mexico, and formed highly lucrative relationships with the Dominican order in the new Spanish imperial world economic system that explains so much of the enduring legacy of indigenous life-ways that characterize southern Mexico
Mexico
and explain the popularity of the Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
legends that continued through the colonial period to the present day. Contemporary use[edit]

Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
Mural in Acapulco
Acapulco
by Diego Rivera

Mormonism[edit] See also: Archaeology and the Book of Mormon, Proposed Book of Mormon geographical setting, and Mormon
Mormon
folklore Some Mormons believe that Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
was historically Jesus Christ, but believe His name and the details of the event were gradually lost over time. According to the Book of Mormon, the resurrected Christ came down from the clouds and visited the people of the American continent, shortly after his resurrection. Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
is not a religious symbol in the Mormon
Mormon
faith, and is not taught as such, nor is it in their doctrine.[36] LDS Church
LDS Church
President John Taylor wrote:[37]

The story of the life of the Mexican divinity, Quetzalcoatl, closely resembles that of the Savior; so closely, indeed, that we can come to no other conclusion than that Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
and Christ are the same being. But the history of the former has been handed down to us through an impure Lamanitish source, which has sadly disfigured and perverted the original incidents and teachings of the Savior's life and ministry." (Mediation and Atonement, p. 194.)

Latter-day Saint scholar Brant Gardner, after investigating the link between Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
and Jesus, concluded that the association amounts to nothing more than folklore.[38] In a 1986 paper for Sunstone, he noted that during the Spanish Conquest, the Native Americans and the Catholic priests who sympathized with them felt pressure to link Native American beliefs with Christianity, thus making the Native Americans seem more human and less savage. Over time, Quetzalcoatl's appearance, clothing, malevolent nature, and status among the gods were reshaped to fit a more Christian framework.[39] In media[edit] Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
was fictionalized in the 1982 film Q as a monster that terrorizes New York City.[40][41] The deity has been featured as a character in the manga and anime series Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's
Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's
, Beyblade
Beyblade
and Miss Kobayashi's Dragon
Dragon
Maid (portrayed as a female in the latter); the Persona video game franchise; the video games Fate/Grand Order, Final Fantasy VIII, Final Fantasy XV, Smite (as an alternate costume for his Mayan counterpart, Kukulkan), and Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine; and in the last of The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel books. Quetzelcoatl also appeared on (Season 3) of the Animal Planet
Animal Planet
mockumentary Lost Tapes
Lost Tapes
in an episode entitled Q the Serpent God.[42]

New Age[edit]

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Various theories about Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
are popular in the New Age movement, especially since the publication of Tony Shearer's 1971 book Lord of the dawn: Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
and the Tree of Life. Shearer's book was subsequently republished under the title Lord of the dawn: Quetzalcoatl, the plumed serpent of Mexico. See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Quetzalcoatl.

Aztec
Aztec
mythology in popular culture Dragon Five Suns, one of Quetzalcōātl and his brothers' legend. Quetzalcoatlus, a pterosaur from the Late Cretaceous named after Quetzalcoatl Xipe Totec Topiltzin Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl Tohil

Notes[edit]

^ Jacques Soustelle (1997). Daily Life of the Aztecs. p. 1506.  ^ The Nahuatl
Nahuatl
nouns compounded into the proper name "Quetzalcoatl" are: quetzalli, signifying principally "plumage", but also used to refer to the bird—resplendent quetzal—renowned for its colourful feathers, and cohuātl "snake". Some scholars have interpreted the name as having also a metaphorical meaning of "precious twin" since the word for plumage was also used metaphorically about precious things and cohuātl has an additional meaning of "twin" ^ "Teotihuacan: Introduction". Project Temple of Quetzalcoatl, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico/ ASU. 2001-08-20. Retrieved 2009-05-17.  ^ a b c Ringle et al. 1998 ^ http://www.penn.museum/documents/publications/expedition/PDFs/8-4/The%20Wind.pdf ^ http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/aztecs/artefacts/personified-knives ^ Nicholson 2001, Carrasco 1992, Gillespie 1989, Florescano 2002 ^ Lafaye 1987, Townsend 2003, Martínez 1980, Phelan 1970 ^ Smith 2001:213 ^ http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/aztecs/gods/study-the-wind-god ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 12, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2014.  ^ http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/aztecs/aztefacts/god-with-the-longest-name ^ Maudslay, Alfred P. (1909). "Plano hecho en papel de maguey que se conserva en el Museo Nacional de México". Anales del Museo Nacional de México.  ^ Townsend, Richard F. (2009). The Aztecs. Thames & Hudson. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-500-28791-0.  ^ Guzman, Gaston (2012). "New Taxonomical and Ethnomycological Observations on Psilocybe S.S. (Fungi, Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetidae, Agaricales, Strophariaceae) From Mexico, Africa, and Spain" (PDF). Acta Botanica Mexicana. 100: 88-90. Retrieved 4 September 2017.  ^ Florescano 2002:8 ^ Florescano 2002:821 ^ Carrasco 1982 ^ Townsend 2003:668 ^ J. B. Bierlein, Living Myths. How Myth Gives Meaning to Human Experience, Ballantine Books, 1999 ^ Carrasco, 1982 ^ J. F. Bierlein, 1999 ^ J. F. Bierlein 1999 ^ Smith,Michael E. The Aztecs 2nd Ed. Blackwell Publishing, 2005 ^ LaFaye, Jacques (1987). Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
and Guadalupe: The Formation of Mexican National Consciousness, 1531–1813 (New ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-0226467887.  ^ Carrasco, David (1982). Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
and the Irony of Empire: Myths and Prophecies in the Aztec
Aztec
Tradition. University of Chicago Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0226094908.  ^ Read, Kay Almere (2002). Mesoamerican Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs of Mexico
Mexico
and Central America. Oxford University Press. p. 225. ISBN 978-0195149098.  ^ "Readings in Classical Nahuatl: The Death of Quetzalcoatl". pages.ucsd.edu. Retrieved 2017-01-26.  ^ Gillespie 1989 ^ Townsend 2003a ^ Townsend 2003b ^ Restall 2003a ^ Restall 2003b ^ Martinez 1980 ^ Phelan 1956 ^ Wirth 2002 ^ Taylor 1892:201 ^ Blair 2008 ^ Gardner 1986 ^ Ebert, Roger (1 January 1982). "Q Movie Review & Film Summary (1982)". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved 22 October 2016.  ^ Carr, Nick (29 October 2010). "The Complete New York City Horror Movie Marathon! Huffington Post". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 22 October 2016.  ^ http://animal.discovery.com/tv/lost-tapes/

References[edit]

Boone, Elizabeth Hill (1989). Incarnations of the Aztec
Aztec
Supernatural: The Image of Huitzilopochtli
Huitzilopochtli
in Mexico
Mexico
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v t e

Aztec
Aztec
religion and mythology

Primordials

Ometeotl ( Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl) or Tonacatecuhtli
Tonacatecuhtli
and Tonacacihuatl

Creator gods

Huitzilopochtli Quetzalcoatl Tezcatlipoca Tlaloc Xipe Totec

Deities

Lords of the Night

Centeotl Chalchiuhtlicue Mictlantecuhtli Piltzintecuhtli Tepeyollotl Tezcatlipoca Tlaloc Tlazolteotl Xiuhtecuhtli

Lords of the Day

Centeotl Chalchiuhtlicue Citlalicue Mictecacihuatl Mictlantecuhtli Quetzalcoatl Tezcatlipoca Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli Tlaloc Tlaltecuhtli Tlazolteotl Tonatiuh Xiuhtecuhtli

Patrons of War

Huitzilopochtli Mixcoatl Tlaloc Xiuhtecuhtli

Patrons of Travellers

Tlazolteotl Tonatiuh Xolotl Yacatecuhtli Zacatzontli

Matron goddesses

Chimalma Coatlicue

Others

Atlacoya Centeotl Chalchiuhtlicue Chicomecoatl
Chicomecoatl
(Centeotl) Chimalma Cihuacoatl Cipactonal Citlalicue Coatlicue Coyolxauhqui Ehecatl Huehuecoyotl Itzpapalotl Itzpapalotlcihuatl Itzpapalotltotec Itztlacoliuhqui Ixtlilton Macuiltochtli Mayahuel Metztli Mictecacihuatl Mictlantecuhtli Mixcoatl Opochtli Oxomoco Patecatl Piltzintecuhtli Temazcalteci (Toci) Tepeyollotl Tezcatzoncatl Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli Tlalcihuatl Tlaltecuhtli Tlazolteotl Tlilhua Toltecatl Tonatiuh Xantico Xiuhtecuhtli Xochipilli Xochiquetzal Xolotl Zacatzontli

Groups

Ahuiateteo Centzon Mimixcoa Centzon Huitznahuac Centzon Totochtin Cinteteo Cihuateteo Tianquiztli Tzitzimitl

Places

Aztlán Chicomoztoc Mictlan Tamoanchan Thirteen Heavens Tlalocan Tlillan-Tlapallan Tollan

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 77111

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