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A quarry is a place from which dimension stone, rock, construction aggregate, riprap, sand, gravel, or slate has been excavated from the ground. A quarry is the same thing as an open-pit mine from which minerals are extracted. The only non-trivial difference between the two is that open-pit mines that produce building materials and dimension stone are commonly referred to as quarries. The word quarry can also include the underground quarrying for stone, such as Bath stone.

Contents

1 Types of rock 2 Slabs 3 Problems

3.1 Quarry
Quarry
lakes

4 In Art and Literature 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Types of rock[edit] Types of rock extracted from quarries include:

Chalk China clay Cinder Clay Coal Construction aggregate
Construction aggregate
(sand and gravel) Coquina Diabase Gabbro Granite Gritstone Gypsum Limestone Marble Ores Phosphate rock Sandstone Slate

Slabs[edit] Many quarry stones such as marble, granite, limestone, and sandstone are cut into larger slabs and removed from the quarry. The surfaces are polished and finished with varying degrees of sheen or luster. Polished slabs are often cut into tiles or countertops and installed in many kinds of residential and commercial properties. Natural stone quarried from the earth is often considered a luxury and tends to be a highly durable surface, thus highly desirable. Problems[edit]

Extraction work in a marble quarry in Carrara, Italy.

Quarries in level areas with shallow groundwater or which are located close to surface water often have engineering problems with drainage. Generally the water is removed by pumping while the quarry is operational, but for high inflows more complex approaches may be required. For example, the Coquina
Coquina
quarry is excavated to more than 60 feet (18 m) below sea level. To reduce surface leakage, a moat lined with clay was constructed around the entire quarry. Ground water entering the pit is pumped up into the moat. As a quarry becomes deeper, water inflows generally increase and it also becomes more expensive to lift the water higher during removal; this can become the limiting factor in quarry depth. Some water-filled quarries are worked from beneath the water, by dredging. Many people and municipalities consider quarries to be eyesores and require various abatement methods to address problems with noise, dust, and appearance. One of the more effective and famous examples of successful quarry restoration is Butchart Gardens
Butchart Gardens
in Victoria, BC, Canada. A further problem is pollution of roads from trucks leaving the quarries. To control and restrain the pollution of public roads, wheel washing systems are becoming more common. Quarry
Quarry
lakes[edit] Main article: Quarry
Quarry
lake Many quarries naturally fill with water after abandonment and become lakes. Others are made into landfills. Water-filled quarries can be very deep with water, often 50 feet or more, that is often surprisingly cold. Unexpectedly cold water can cause a swimmer's muscles to suddenly weaken; it can also cause shock and even hypothermia.[1] Though quarry water is often very clear, submerged quarry stones and abandoned equipment make diving into these quarries extremely dangerous. Several people drown in quarries each year.[2][3] However, many inactive quarries are converted into safe swimming sites.

An abandoned limestone quarry in Rummu, Estonia.

In Art and Literature[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: 'Boscastle Waterfall and Quarry', a poem by L. E. L.

In her response to an engraving entitled Waterfall and Stone Quarry, near Boscastle, Letitia Elizabeth Landon
Letitia Elizabeth Landon
ignores the specific and glories in the wonderful structures raised by man from quarried materials, citing in particular, Westminster Abbey. See also[edit]

Mining
Mining
portal

Clay
Clay
pit Coal
Coal
mining Collecting fossils Gravel
Gravel
pit List of minerals List of rock types List of stones Miner Mountaintop removal mining Opencast mining Quarry
Quarry
lake Quarries (biblical)

References[edit]

^ "American Canoe Association explanation of cold shock". Enter.net. Retrieved 2012-05-14.  ^ "US Dept. of Labor list of mine related fatalities". Msha.gov. Retrieved 2012-05-14.  ^ "on quarry drownings". Geology.com. 2007-11-03. Retrieved 2012-05-14. 

External links[edit] Media related to Quarries at Wikimedia Commons

Look up quarry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

v t e

Mining
Mining
techniques

Surface

Open-pit Quarrying Strip Placer Dredging Hydraulic mining Mountaintop removal

Sub-surface

Classes

Hard rock Soft rock

Directions

Drift Slope Shaft Bell pit Borehole

Stoping

Room and pillar Longwall Retreat

v t e

Stonemasonry

Types

Ashlar Rustication Carving Dry stone Letter cutting Masonry Monumental Rubble Sculpture Slipform

Materials

List of stone Artificial stone Brick Cast stone Decorative stones Dimension stone Fieldstone Flagstone Gabion Granite Marble Mortar Sandstone Slate

Tools

Angle grinder Bush hammer Ceramic tile cutter Chisel Diamond blade Lewis (lifting appliance) Non-explosive demolition agents Plug and feather Stonemason's hammer Straightedge

Techniques

Brickwork Flaming Flushwork Knapping Polygonal masonry Repointing Scabbling Tuckpointing

Products

Hardstone carving Headstone
Headstone
(Footstone) Mosaic Sculpture Stone wall

Organizations

International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers Master of Work to the Crown of Scotland Mason Contractors Association of America Operative Plasterers' and Cement Masons' International Association Worshipful Compa

.