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A pumpkin is a cultivar of a squash plant, most commonly of Cucurbita pepo, that is round, with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and deep yellow to orange coloration. The thick shell contains the seeds and pulp. Some exceptionally large cultivars of squash with similar appearance have also been derived from Cucurbita
Cucurbita
maxima. Specific cultivars of winter squash derived from other species, including C. argyrosperma, and C. moschata, are also sometimes called "pumpkin". In New Zealand
New Zealand
and Australian English, the term pumpkin generally refers to the broader category called winter squash elsewhere.[1] Native to North America,[2] pumpkins are widely grown for commercial use and are used both in food and recreation. Pumpkin
Pumpkin
pie, for instance, is a traditional part of Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
meals in Canada
Canada
and the United States, and pumpkins are frequently carved as jack-o'-lanterns for decoration around Halloween, although commercially canned pumpkin puree and pumpkin pie fillings are usually made from different kinds of winter squash than the ones used for jack-o'-lanterns.

Contents

1 Etymology and terminology 2 Description 3 Taxonomy 4 Cultivation

4.1 In the United States 4.2 Giant pumpkins

5 Nutrition 6 Uses

6.1 Cooking 6.2 Leaves 6.3 Seeds

6.3.1 Pumpkin
Pumpkin
seed oil

6.4 Other uses

7 Culture

7.1 Halloween 7.2 Chunking 7.3 Pumpkin
Pumpkin
festivals and competitions 7.4 Folklore and fiction

7.4.1 Folklore 7.4.2 Fiction

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology and terminology The word pumpkin originates from the word pepon (πέπων), which is Greek for "large melon", something round and large.[3] The French adapted this word to pompon, which the British changed to pumpion and to the later American colonists became known as pumpkin.[4] The term pumpkin has no agreed upon botanical or scientific meaning,[5] and is used interchangeably with "squash" and "winter squash" in some areas. In many areas, including North America
North America
and the United Kingdom, pumpkin traditionally refers to only certain round, orange varieties of winter squash, predominantly derived from Cucurbita
Cucurbita
pepo, while in Australian English, pumpkin can refer to winter squash of any appearance.[1] Description

A pumpkin flower attached to the vine

Pumpkins, like other squash, are thought to have originated in North America. The oldest evidence, pumpkin-related seeds dating between 7000 and 5500 BC, was found in Mexico.[4][6] Since some squash share the same botanical classifications as pumpkins, the names are frequently used interchangeably. One often-used botanical classification relies on the characteristics of the stems: pumpkin stems are more rigid, prickly, and angular (with an approximate five-degree angle) than squash stems, which are generally softer, more rounded, and more flared where joined to the fruit.[7][8] Pumpkin
Pumpkin
fruits are a type of botanical berry known as a pepo.[9][10]

Male (top) and female (bottom) pumpkin flowers

Traditional C. pepo pumpkins generally weigh between 3 and 8 kilograms (6 and 18 lb), though the largest cultivars (of the species C. maxima) regularly reach weights of over 34 kg (75 lb).[11] The color of pumpkins derives from orange carotenoid pigments, including beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha and beta carotene, all of which are provitamin A compounds converted to vitamin A in the body.[12] Taxonomy All pumpkins are winter squash: mature fruit of certain species in the genus Cucurbita. Characteristics commonly used to define "pumpkin" include smooth and slightly ribbed skin,[13] and deep yellow to orange[13] color. Circa 2005, white pumpkins had become increasingly popular in the United States.[14] Other colors, including dark green (as with some oilseed pumpkins), also exist. Cultivation Pumpkins are grown all around the world for a variety of reasons ranging from agricultural purposes (such as animal feed) to commercial and ornamental sales.[15] Of the seven continents, only Antarctica
Antarctica
is unable to produce pumpkins; the biggest international producers of pumpkins include the United States, Canada, Mexico, India, and China.[4][16] The traditional American pumpkin used for jack-o-lanterns is the Connecticut Field variety.[15][17][18][19] In the United States

A pumpkin patch in Winchester, Oregon

As one of the most popular crops in the United States, 680,000,000 kilograms (1.5 billion pounds) of pumpkins are produced each year.[20] The top pumpkin-producing states include Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and California.[15] According to the Illinois
Illinois
Department of Agriculture, 95% of the U.S. crop intended for processing is grown in Illinois.[21] Nestlé, operating under the brand name Libby's, produces 85% of the processed pumpkin in the United States, at their plant in Morton, Illinois. In the fall of 2009, rain in Illinois
Illinois
devastated the Nestlé
Nestlé
crop, resulting in a shortage affecting the entire country during the Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
holiday season.[22] Pumpkins are a warm-weather crop that is usually planted in early July. The specific conditions necessary for growing pumpkins require that soil temperatures 8 centimetres (3 in) deep are at least 15.5 °C (60 °F) and soil that holds water well. Pumpkin crops may suffer if there is a lack of water or because of cold temperatures (in this case, below 18 °C or 65 °F; frost can be detrimental), and sandy soil with poor water retention or poorly drained soils that become waterlogged after heavy rain. Pumpkins are, however, rather hardy, and even if many leaves and portions of the vine are removed or damaged, the plant can very quickly re-grow secondary vines to replace what was removed.[20] Pumpkins produce both a male and female flower; honeybees play a significant role in fertilization.[20] Pumpkins have historically been pollinated by the native squash bee Peponapis pruinosa, but this bee has declined, probably at least in part to pesticide (imidacloprid) sensitivity,[23] and today most commercial plantings are pollinated by honeybees. One hive per acre (4,000 m2 per hive, or 5 hives per 2 hectares) is recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. If there are inadequate bees for pollination, gardeners often have to hand pollinate. Inadequately pollinated pumpkins usually start growing but abort before full development. Giant pumpkins

Giant pumpkins at a "heaviest pumpkin" competition

"Giant pumpkins" are a large squash (within the group of common squash Cucurbita
Cucurbita
maxima) that can exceed 1 tonne in weight.[24][25] The variety arose from the large squash of South America through the efforts of botanical societies and enthusiast farmers.[24] See # Pumpkin
Pumpkin
festivals and competitions below. Nutrition

Pumpkin, raw

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 109 kJ (26 kcal)

Carbohydrates

6.5 g

Sugars 2.76 g

Dietary fiber 0.5 g

Fat

0.1 g

Protein

1 g

Vitamins

Vitamin A
Vitamin A
equiv. beta-Carotene lutein zeaxanthin

(53%) 426 μg

(29%) 3100 μg 1500 μg

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(4%) 0.05 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(9%) 0.11 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(4%) 0.6 mg

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5)

(6%) 0.298 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(5%) 0.061 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(4%) 16 μg

Vitamin
Vitamin
C

(11%) 9 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
E

(3%) 0.44 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
K

(1%) 1.1 μg

Minerals

Calcium

(2%) 21 mg

Iron

(6%) 0.8 mg

Magnesium

(3%) 12 mg

Manganese

(6%) 0.125 mg

Phosphorus

(6%) 44 mg

Potassium

(7%) 340 mg

Sodium

(0%) 1 mg

Zinc

(3%) 0.32 mg

Other constituents

Water 91.6 g

Full Link to USDA Database entry

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

In a 100-gram amount, raw pumpkin provides 110 kilojoules (26 kilocalories) of food energy and is an excellent source (20% or more the Daily Value, DV) of provitamin A beta-carotene and vitamin A (53% DV) (table). Vitamin
Vitamin
C is present in moderate content (11% DV), but no other nutrients are in significant amounts (less than 10% DV, table). Pumpkin
Pumpkin
is 92% water, 6.5% carbohydrate, 0.1% fat and 1% protein (table). Uses Cooking

Pumpkin pie
Pumpkin pie
is a popular way of preparing pumpkin.

Pumpkins are very versatile in their uses for cooking. Most parts of the pumpkin are edible, including the fleshy shell, the seeds, the leaves, and even the flowers. In the United States
United States
and Canada, pumpkin is a popular Halloween
Halloween
and Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
staple.[26] Pumpkin
Pumpkin
purée is sometimes prepared and frozen for later use.[27]

A can of pureed pumpkin, typically used as the main ingredient in pumpkin pie

When ripe, the pumpkin can be boiled, steamed, or roasted. In its native North America, it is a very important, traditional part of the autumn harvest, eaten mashed[28] and making its way into soups and purees. Often, it is made into pie, various kinds of which are a traditional staple of the Canadian and American Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
holidays. In Canada, Mexico, the United States, Europe
Europe
and China, the seeds are often roasted and eaten as a snack. Pumpkins that are still small and green may be eaten in the same way as squash or zucchini. In the Middle East, pumpkin is used for sweet dishes; a well-known sweet delicacy is called halawa yaqtin. In South Asian countries such as India, pumpkin is cooked with butter, sugar, and spices in a dish called kadu ka halwa. Pumpkin
Pumpkin
is used to make sambar in Udupi cuisine. In Guangxi
Guangxi
province, China, the leaves of the pumpkin plant are consumed as a cooked vegetable or in soups. In Australia
Australia
and New Zealand, pumpkin is often roasted in conjunction with other vegetables. In Japan, small pumpkins are served in savory dishes, including tempura. In Myanmar, pumpkins are used in both cooking and desserts (candied). The seeds are a popular sunflower seed substitute. In Thailand, small pumpkins are steamed with custard inside and served as a dessert. In Vietnam, pumpkins are commonly cooked in soups with pork or shrimp. In Italy, it can be used with cheeses as a savory stuffing for ravioli. Also, pumpkin can be used to flavor both alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. In the southwestern United States
United States
and Mexico, pumpkin and squash flowers are a popular and widely available food item. They may be used to garnish dishes, and they may be dredged in a batter then fried in oil. Pumpkin
Pumpkin
leaves are a popular vegetable in the Western and central regions of Kenya; they are called seveve, and are an ingredient of mukimo,[29] respectively, whereas the pumpkin itself is usually boiled or steamed. The seeds are popular with children who roast them on a pan before eating them. Pumpkin
Pumpkin
leaves are also eaten in Zambia, where they are called chibwabwa and are boiled and cooked with groundnut paste as a side dish.[30] Other than the traditionally defined pumpkin, commercially canned "pumpkin" puree and pumpkin pie fillings may contain other winter squashes, such as butternut squash. Leaves

Pumpkin
Pumpkin
leaf kimchi

Pumpkin
Pumpkin
leaves, usually of C. moschata varieties, are eaten as a vegetable in Korean cuisine. Seeds

Salted pumpkin seeds

Main article: Pepita Pumpkin
Pumpkin
seeds, also known as pepitas, are edible and nutrient-rich. They are about 1.5 cm (0.5 in) long, flat, asymmetrically oval, light green in color and usually covered by a white husk, although some pumpkin varieties produce seeds without them. Pumpkin seeds are a popular snack that can be found hulled or semi-hulled at most grocery stores. Per ounce serving, pumpkin seeds are a good source of protein, magnesium, copper and zinc.[31] Pumpkin
Pumpkin
seed oil

Pumpkin
Pumpkin
seed oil

Pumpkin
Pumpkin
seed oil, a thick oil pressed from roasted pumpkin seeds, appears red or green in color depending on the oil layer thickness, container properties and hue shift of the observer's vision.[32][33] When used for cooking or as a salad dressing, pumpkin seed oil is generally mixed with other oils because of its robust flavor.[34] Used in cooking in central and eastern Europe, it is considered a delicacy in traditional local cuisines such as for pumpkin soup, potato salad or even vanilla ice cream.[citation needed] Pumpkin seed oil
Pumpkin seed oil
contains fatty acids, such as oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid.[35] Other uses Canned pumpkin is often recommended by veterinarians as a dietary supplement for dogs and cats that are experiencing certain digestive ailments such as constipation, diarrhea, or hairballs. The high fiber content aids proper digestion.[36] Raw pumpkin can be fed to poultry, as a supplement to regular feed, during the winter to help maintain egg production, which usually drops off during the cold months.[37] Pumpkins have been used as folk medicine by Native Americans to treat intestinal worms and urinary ailments, and this Native American remedy was adopted by American doctors in the early nineteenth century as an anthelmintic for the expulsion of worms.[38][qualify evidence] In Germany and southeastern Europe, seeds of C. pepo were also used as folk remedies to treat irritable bladder and benign prostatic hyperplasia.[39][40][qualify evidence] In China, C. moschata seeds were also used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of the parasitic disease schistosomiasis[41] and for the expulsion of tape worms.[42][qualify evidence] Chinese studies have found that a combination of pumpkin seed and areca nut extracts was effective in the expulsion of Taenia spp. tapeworms in over 89% of cases.[43][44][45] Culture Halloween

A pumpkin carved into a jack-o'-lantern for Halloween

Pumpkins are commonly carved into decorative lanterns called jack-o'-lanterns for the Halloween
Halloween
season in North America. Throughout Britain and Ireland, there is a long tradition of carving lanterns from vegetables, particularly the turnip, mangelwurzel, or swede.[46][47] The practice of carving pumpkins for Halloween originated from an Irish myth about a man named "Stingy Jack".[15] The turnip has traditionally been used in Ireland and Scotland at Halloween,[48] but immigrants to North America
North America
used the native pumpkin, which are both readily available and much larger – making them easier to carve than turnips.[48] Not until 1837, does jack-o'-lantern appear as a term for a carved vegetable lantern,[49] and the carved pumpkin lantern association with Halloween
Halloween
is recorded in 1866.[50] In the United States, the carved pumpkin was first associated with the harvest season in general, long before it became an emblem of Halloween.[51] In 1900, an article on Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
entertaining recommended a lit jack-o'-lantern as part of the festivities that encourage kids and families to join together to make their own jack-o'-lanterns.[51] Association of pumpkins with harvest time and pumpkin pie at Canadian and American Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
reinforce its iconic role. Starbucks
Starbucks
turned this association into marketing with its pumpkin spice latte, introduced in 2003.[52] This has led to a notable trend in pumpkin and spice flavored food products in North America.[53] This is despite the fact that North Americans rarely buy whole pumpkins to eat other than when carving jack-o'-lanterns. Illinois
Illinois
farmer Sarah Frey
Sarah Frey
is called "the Pumpkin
Pumpkin
Queen of America" and sells around five million pumpkins annually, predominantly for use as lanterns.[54][55] Chunking Pumpkin chunking
Pumpkin chunking
is a competitive activity in which teams build various mechanical devices designed to throw a pumpkin as far as possible. Catapults, trebuchets, ballistas and air cannons are the most common mechanisms. Some pumpkin chunkers breed and grow special varieties of pumpkin under specialized conditions to improve the pumpkin's chances of surviving a throw. Pumpkin
Pumpkin
festivals and competitions

Giant pumpkins cultivated for size competitions

"Giant pumpkins" are orange variants of the giant squash, Cucurbita maxima. Growers of these "pumpkins" often compete to see whose pumpkins are the most massive. Festivals
Festivals
are often dedicated to the pumpkin and these competitions. The record for the world's heaviest pumpkin, 1,190.5 kg (2,624.6 lb), was established in Belgium
Belgium
in 2016.[25] In the United States, the town of Half Moon Bay, California, holds an annual Art and Pumpkin
Pumpkin
Festival, including the World Champion Pumpkin Weigh-Off.[56] Folklore and fiction There is a strong connection in folklore and popular culture between pumpkins and the supernatural. Famous examples include the following: Folklore

A commonplace motif of people being turned into pumpkins by witches. The jack-o-lantern custom discussed above, which connects to Halloween lore about warding off demons. In the folk tale Cinderella, the fairy godmother turns a pumpkin into a carriage, but at midnight it reverts to a pumpkin.

Fiction

This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances; add references to reliable sources if possible. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2018)

Linus' belief in the Great Pumpkin
Great Pumpkin
in Charles M. Schulz's comic strip Peanuts. Juice from a pumpkin has magical effects in the short story "Pumpkin Juice" by R. L. Stine. In the Harry Potter
Harry Potter
novels, pumpkin juice, a favorite drink of the students of Hogwart's School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, is a recurring element. The pumpkin hurled by the "Headless Horseman" in Washington Irving's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Jack Pumpkinhead, a character in the Oz books of L. Frank Baum, with a pumpkin for a head on a wooden body, brought to life in the second book. In Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas, the main character, Jack Skellington, is "the Pumpkin
Pumpkin
King." Precious Ramotswe, the fictional detective from Botswana
Botswana
in The No. 1 Ladies' Detective Agency series of novels by Scottish author Alexander McCall Smith, often cooks and eats pumpkin. In a short story by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Feathertop
Feathertop
from 1852, a witch turns a scarecrow with a "pumpkinhead" into a man. The Spider-Man
Spider-Man
villains the Green Goblin
Green Goblin
and Hobgoblin use small, handheld "pumpkin bombs" as a signature weapon.

See also

List of culinary fruits List of pumpkin varieties grown in the United States

References

^ a b Ferriol, María; Picó, Belén (2007). "3". Handbook of Plant Breeding: Vegetables I. New York: Springer. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-387-72291-7. The common terms "pumpkin", "squash", "gourd", "cushaw", "ayote", "zapallo", "calabaza", etc. are often applied indiscriminately to different cultivated species of the New World genus Cucurbita
Cucurbita
L. (Cucurbitaceae): C. pepo L., C.  maxima Duchesne, C. moschata Duchesne, C. argyrosperma C. Huber and C. ficifolia Bouché.  ^ Robinson, RW, Decker-Walters, DS (1997). "Cucurbits". Cab International. ISBN 0-85199-133-5. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Paris, Harry S. (1989). "Historical Records, Origins, and Development of the Edible Cultivar
Cultivar
Groups of Cucurbita
Cucurbita
pepo (Cucurbitaceae)". Economic Botany. New York Botanical Garden Press. 43 (4): 423–443. doi:10.1007/bf02935916. JSTOR 4255187.  ^ a b c "The Pumpkin
Pumpkin
Patch". 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2008.  ^ "Horticulture Questions and Answers". Garden Help FAQ. Missouri Botanical Garden.  ^ "Pumpkin". The Columbia Encyclopedia. Credo Reference. 2004. Retrieved 19 February 2008.  ^ cucurbitaceae. (1995). In Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia (8th ed.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. ^ pumpkin. (1992). In The Encyclopedia Americana International Edition. Danbury, Connecticut: Grolier Incorporated. ^ "A Systematic Treatment of Fruit Types". Worldbotanical. Retrieved October 10, 2013.  ^ Schrager, Victor (2004). The Compleat Squash: A Passionate Grower's Guide to Pumpkins, Squash, and Gourds. New York: Artisan. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-57965-251-7.  ^ "Pumpkin". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007. Retrieved November 28, 2007.  ^ Provesi JG, Dias CO, Amante ER (2011). "Changes in carotenoids during processing and storage of pumpkin puree". Food Chemistry. 128 (1): 195–202. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.03.027. PMID 25214348. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b "Pumpkins in Florida". Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.  ^ "White Pumpkins Hit the Halloween
Halloween
Market". NBC News. Associated Press. October 26, 2005. Retrieved October 9, 2013.  ^ a b c d Wolford, Ron; Banks, Drusilla (2008). "Pumpkins and More". University of Illinois
Illinois
Extension. Retrieved 19 Feb 2008.  ^ " Pumpkin
Pumpkin
Seeds". World's Healthiest Foods. The George Mateljan Foundation. 2008. Retrieved 11 Feb 2008.  ^ Richardson, R. W. "Squash and Pumpkin" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant
Plant
Germplasm System. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015. Retrieved November 23, 2014.  ^ Stephens, James M. " Pumpkin
Pumpkin
Cucurbita
Cucurbita
spp". University of Florida. Retrieved November 23, 2014.  ^ Baggett, J. R. "Attempts to Cross Cucurbita
Cucurbita
moschata (Duch.) Poir. 'Butternut' and C. pepo L. 'Delicata'". North Carolina State University. Retrieved November 23, 2014.  ^ a b c Orzolek, Michael D.; Greaser, George L.; Harper, Jayson K. (2000). " Pumpkin
Pumpkin
Production". Agricultural Alternatives. Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved 19 Feb 2008.  ^ Illinois
Illinois
Department of Agriculture (22 Oct 2004). " Illinois
Illinois
Leads Nation in Pumpkin
Pumpkin
Production".  ^ Hirsch, Jerry (18 November 2009). " Pumpkin pie
Pumpkin pie
could become scarce after Thanksgiving". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2 June 2015.  ^ Williams, Roger (2009). "Effects of imidacloprid-based Insecticides on the Native Cucurbit Pollinator, Peponapis pruinosa". US Interagency IPM Projects. Retrieved September 15, 2013.  ^ a b Borrell, Brenda (October 2011). "The Great Pumpkin". The Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 31 October 2016.  ^ a b Barron, Christina (17 October 2016). "Belgian man's pumpkin sets world record at a whopping 2,624 pounds". The Washington Post. Retrieved 31 October 2016.  ^ Hogan, C. Michael (2011). "Thanksgiving". Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment.  ^ Roberts, Tammy. "Many uses for pumpkin". MissouriFamilies. University of Missouri Extension.  ^ Stavely, Keith W.F. and Fitzgerald, Kathleen. America's Founding Food: The Story of New England Cooking. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8078-2894-7 ^ "Cock and Bull Stories". Ngishili.com. Retrieved 2013-08-12.  ^ " Pumpkin
Pumpkin
Leaves Chibwabwa". Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 30 March 2017.  ^ "Nutrition facts for pumpkin seeds, whole, roasted, without salt". SELF Nutritiondata. Condé Nast Publications. Retrieved 1 September 2012.  ^ Kreft, S.; Kreft, M. (2007). "Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour" (PDF). Naturwissenschaften. 94 (11): 935–939. Bibcode:2007NW.....94..935K. doi:10.1007/s00114-007-0272-9. PMID 17534588.  ^ Kaernbach, C.; Dörre, C. (2006). Gula, B.; Vitouch, O., eds. "On the color of transparent substances, in Current Psychological Research in Austria" (PDF). Proceedings of the 7th scientific conference of the Austrian Psychological Society (ÖGP). Klagenfurt. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-11-04.  ^ Tyler Herbst, Sharon (2001). "Pumpkin-Seed Oil". The New Food Lover's Companion (3rd ed.). Barron. p. 550. Retrieved 14 Feb 2008.  ^ Bavec F, Grobelnik Mlakar S, Rozman Č, Bavec M (2007). "Oil Pumpkins: Niche for Organic Producers" (PDF). Issues in new crops and new uses. Purdue University Agriculture, Horticulture and Landscape Architecture. Retrieved 2 September 2012.  ^ "Tip 75 – Pumpkin
Pumpkin
for cats – pumpkin for dogs – Pumpkin
Pumpkin
for diarrhea or constipation". Pets.ca – Canada's Pet Information Centre. Retrieved 1 November 2011.  ^ Jacob, J. P.; Wilson, H. R.; Miles, R. D.; Butcher, G. D.; Mather, F. B. "Factors Affecting Egg Production in Backyard Chicken Flocks". University of Florida IFAS Extension. Retrieved September 15, 2013.  ^ Robert E. Henshaw, ed. (2011). Environmental History of the Hudson River. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-4026-2.  ^ Volker Schulz, ed. (2004). Rational Phytotherapy: A Reference Guide for Physicians and Pharmacists (5th ed.). Munich: Springer. pp. 304–305. ISBN 978-3-540-40832-1.  ^ " Pumpkin
Pumpkin
seed (Cucurbitae peponis semen)". Heilpflanzen-Welt Bibliothek. Retrieved March 25, 2015.  ^ Xiao, S. H.; Keiser, J.; Chen, M. G.; Tanner, M.; Utzinger, J. (2010). "Research and Development of Antischistosomal Drugs in the People's Republic of China
China
a 60-year review". Advances in Parasitology. 73: 231–295. doi:10.1016/S0065-308X(10)73009-8. PMID 20627145.  ^ Wu, Yan; Fischer, Warren (1997). Practical Therapeutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Taos, NM: Paradigm Publications. pp. 282–283. ISBN 978-0-912111-39-1.  ^ Hson-Mou Chang, Paul P. H., eds. (2000). title Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Materia Medica, Volume 2. Singapore: World Scientific Publications. pp. 832–836. ISBN 978-981-02-3692-2. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Xiao, Ning; Yao, Jia-Wen; Ding, Wei; Giraudoux, Patrick; Craig, Philip S.; Ito, Akira (2013). "Priorities for Research and Control of Cstode Zoonoses in Asia". Infectious Diseases of Poverty. 2 (1:16). doi:10.1186/2049-9957-2-16. PMC 3750256 . PMID 23915395.  ^ Ito, Akira; Li, T.; Chen, X.; Long, C.; Yanagida, T.; Nakao, M.; Sako, Y.; Okamoto, M.; Wu, Y.; Raoul, F.; Giraudoux, P.; Craig, P. S. (2013). "Mini Review on Chemotherapy of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis Due to Taenia Solium in Asia, and a Case Report With 20 Tapeworms in China" (PDF). Tropical Biomedicine. 30 (2): 164–73. PMID 23959481.  ^ "Pumpkins Passions". BBC. 31 October 2005. Retrieved 19 October 2006. They continue to be popular choices today as carved lanterns in Scotland and Northern Ireland, although the British purchased a million pumpkins for Halloween
Halloween
in 2004  ^ Fowler, Julian (28 October 2005). " Turnip
Turnip
battles with pumpkin for Hallowe'en". BBC. Retrieved 23 September 2007.  ^ a b The Oxford companion to American food and drink. Oxford University Press. 2007. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-19-530796-2. Retrieved February 17, 2011.  ^ Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1837). "The Great Carbuncle". Twice-Told Tales. Hide it [the great carbuncle] under thy cloak, say'st thou? Why, it will gleam through the holes, and make thee look like a jack-o'-lantern!  ^ Daily News (Kingston, Ontario), November 1, 1866:

The old time custom of keeping up Hallowe'en was not forgotten last night by the youngsters of the city. They had their maskings and their merry-makings, and perambulated the streets after dark in a way [that] was no doubt amusing to themselves. There was a great sacrifice of pumpkins from which to make transparent heads and face, lighted up by the unfailing two inches of tallow candle.

^ a b The Day We Celebrate: Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
Treated Gastronomically and Socially, The New York Times, Nov. 24, 1895, p. 27. "Odd Ornaments for Table," The New York Times, Oct. 21, 1900, p. 12. ^ Christopher Mims. "The untold history of Starbucks' Pumpkin
Pumpkin
Spice Latte". Quartz.  ^ "Considering Pumpkin
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Spice and Seasonal Synesthesia". The American Conservative.  ^ "Pumpkins: from decoration to delicacy". Produce Retailer. August 25, 2017. Retrieved March 20, 2018.  ^ "Elaine Reeves: For love of gourd". The Mercury. Mar 4, 2017. Retrieved March 20, 2018.  ^ "Half Moon Bay Art & Pumpkin
Pumpkin
Festival: A Brief History". Miramar Events. 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2016. 

Further reading

Ott, Cindy (2012). Pumpkin: The Curious History of an American Icon. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-99195-X. 

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Pumpkins

Media related to Pumpkins at Wikimedia Commons Pumpkins at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

v t e

Cucurbita

List of gourds and squashes

Species

C. andreana C. argyrosperma C. californica C. cordata C. cylindrata C. digitata C. ecuadorensis C. ficifolia C. foetidissima C. fraterna C. galeottii C. gracilior C. kellyana C. lundelliana C. martinezii C. maxima C. moorei C. moschata C. okeechobeensis C. palmata C. palmeri C. pedatifolia C. pepo C. radicans C. scabridifolia C. sororia C. texana

Squashes

Summer squash

Aehobak Crookneck squash Gem squash Pattypan squash Straightneck squash Tromboncino Zucchini

Winter squash

Acorn squash Big Max Butternut squash Calabaza Cushaw squash Delicata squash Kabocha Marrow Red kuri squash Spaghetti squash Turban squash

Pumpkins

Connecticut Field pumpkin Giant pumpkin

1068 Wallace

Prizewinner list

Squash-based

Raw materials

Buffalo gourd oil Pumpkin
Pumpkin
seed oil Squash blossoms

Dishes

Bundevara Hitlerszalonna Kabak tatlısı Mashed pumpkin Pepita Pumpkin
Pumpkin
pie Squash soup Soup joumou Stuffed squash

Activities

Pumpkin
Pumpkin
carving Pumpkin
Pumpkin
chucking P

.