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Synonyms

Amygdalopersica Daniel Amygdalophora M.Roem. Amygdalopsis M.Roem. Amygdalus L.[1] Armeniaca Scop.[1] Cerapadus Buia Ceraseidos Siebold
Siebold
& Zucc. Cerasus Mill.[1] Emplectocladus Torr. Lauro-cerasus Duhamel Laurocerasus M.Roem.[1] Maddenia Hook.f.
Hook.f.
& Thomson[1] Padellus Vassilcz. Padus Mill.[1] Persica Mill. Pygeum Gaertn.[1]

Prunus
Prunus
is a genus of trees and shrubs, which includes the plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, apricots and almonds. Around 430 species are spread throughout the northern temperate regions of the globe. Many members of the genus are widely cultivated for fruit and ornament. The fruit from this genus are commonly called the stone fruit.

Contents

1 Botany

1.1 Classification

1.1.1 Linnean classification 1.1.2 Modern classification

2 Cultivation

2.1 Flowering cherries

3 Toxicity 4 Pests and diseases 5 Species

5.1 Eastern Hemisphere 5.2 Western Hemisphere

6 Palaeobotanical models 7 Etymology 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Botany[edit] Members of the genus can be deciduous or evergreen. A few species have spiny stems. The leaves are simple, alternate, usually lanceolate, unlobed, and often with nectaries on the leaf stalk. The flowers are usually white to pink, sometimes red, with five petals and five sepals. There are numerous stamens. Flowers are borne singly, or in umbels of two to six or sometimes more on racemes. The fruit is a fleshy drupe (a "prune") with a single relatively large, hard-coated seed (a "stone").[2] Within the rose family Rosaceae, it was traditionally placed as a subfamily, the Amygdaloideae
Amygdaloideae
(incorrectly "Prunoideae"), but was sometimes placed in its own family, the Prunaceae
Prunaceae
(or Amygdalaceae). More recently, it has become apparent that Prunus
Prunus
evolved from within a much larger clade now called subfamily Amygdaloideae
Amygdaloideae
(incorrectly "Spiraeoideae").[1] Classification[edit] Linnean classification[edit] In 1737, Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
used four genera to include the species of modern Prunus—Amygdalus, Cerasus, Prunus
Prunus
and Padus—but simplified it to Amygdalus and Prunus
Prunus
in 1758.[3] Since then, the various genera of Linnaeus and others have become subgenera and sections, as it is clearer that all the species are more closely related. Liberty Hyde Bailey says: "The numerous forms grade into each other so imperceptibly and inextricably that the genus cannot be readily broken up into species."[4] Modern classification[edit] A recent DNA study of 48 species concluded that Prunus
Prunus
is monophyletic and is descended from some Eurasian ancestor.[5] Historical treatments break the genus into several different genera, but this segregation is not currently widely recognised other than at the subgeneric rank. ITIS recognises just the single genus Prunus, with an open list of species,[a] all of which are shown below, under "Species".[b] One standard modern treatment of the subgenera derives from the work of Alfred Rehder
Alfred Rehder
in 1940. Rehder hypothesized five subgenera: Amygdalus, Prunus, Cerasus, Padus and Laurocerasus.[6] To them C. Ingram added Lithocerasus.[7] The six subgenera are described as follows:

Prunus
Prunus
subgenera:

Subgenus Amygdalus, almonds and peaches: axillary buds in threes (vegetative bud central, two flower buds to sides); flowers in early spring, sessile or nearly so, not on leafed shoots; fruit with a groove along one side; stone deeply grooved; type species: Prunus dulcis (almond). Subgenus Prunus, plums and apricots: axillary buds solitary; flowers in early spring stalked, not on leafed shoots; fruit with a groove along one side, stone rough; type species: Prunus domestica
Prunus domestica
(plum) Subgenus Cerasus, cherries: axillary buds single; flowers in early spring in corymbs, long-stalked, not on leafed shoots; fruit not grooved, stone smooth; type species: Prunus cerasus
Prunus cerasus
(sour cherry) Subgenus Lithocerasus: axillary buds in threes; flowers in early spring in corymbs, long-stalked, not on leafed shoots; fruit not grooved, stone smooth; type species: Prunus pumila
Prunus pumila
(sand cherry) Subgenus Padus, bird cherries: axillary buds single; flowers in late spring in racemes on leafy shoots, short-stalked; fruit not grooved, stone smooth; type species: Prunus padus
Prunus padus
(European bird cherry) Subgenus Laurocerasus, cherry-laurels: mostly evergreen (all the other subgenera are deciduous); axillary buds single; flowers in early spring in racemes, not on leafed shoots, short-stalked; fruit not grooved, stone smooth; type species: Prunus laurocerasus
Prunus laurocerasus
(European cherry-laurel)

Another recent DNA study[6] found that there are two clades: Prunus-Maddenia, with Maddenia basal within Prunus, and Exochorda-Oemleria-Prinsepia, but further refinement[1] shows that Exochorda-Oemleria- Prinsepia
Prinsepia
is somewhat separate from Prunus-Maddenia-Pygeum, and that, like the traditional subfamily Maloideae with apple-like fruits, all of these genera appear to be best considered within the expanded subfamily Amygdaloideae. Prunus can be divided into two clades: Amygdalus- Prunus
Prunus
and Cerasus-Laurocerasus-Padus. Yet another study adds Emplectocladus as a subgenus to the former.[8] Cultivation[edit] The genus Prunus
Prunus
includes the almond, the nectarine and peach (which are the same species), and several species of apricots, of cherries, and of plums, all of which have cultivars developed for commercial fruit and nut production. The almond is not a true nut, the edible part is the seed. Other species are occasionally cultivated or used for their seed and fruit. A number of species, hybrids, and cultivars are grown as ornamental plants, usually for their profusion of flowers, sometimes for ornamental foliage and shape, and occasionally for their bark. The Tree
Tree
of 40 Fruit
Fruit
has forty varieties grafted on to one rootstock.[9][10] Species
Species
such as blackthorn ( Prunus
Prunus
spinosa), are grown for hedging, game cover, and other utilitarian purposes. The wood of some species (notably black cherry) is prized as a furniture and cabinetry timber, especially in North America. Many species produce an aromatic resin from wounds in the trunk; this is sometimes used medicinally. Other minor uses include dye production. Pygeum, a herbal remedy containing extracts from the bark of Prunus africana, is used as to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by inflammation in patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prunus
Prunus
species are food plants for the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
species (butterflies and moths); see List of Lepidoptera which feed on Prunus. Prunus
Prunus
sp. is included in the Tasmanian Fire Service's list of low flammability plants, indicating that it is suitable for growing within a building protection zone.[11] Because of their considerable value as both food and ornamental plants, many Prunus
Prunus
species have been introduced to parts of the world to which they are not native, some becoming naturalised. Flowering cherries[edit]

Japanese cherry ( Prunus
Prunus
serrulata) in bloom

Ornamentals include the group that may be collectively called "flowering cherries" (including sakura, the Japanese flowering cherries). The following hybrid cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. All are described as flowering cherries, and are valued for their spring blossom.

'Accolade'[12] 'Amanogawa'[13] 'Ichiyo'[14] 'Kanzan'[15] 'Pandora'[16] 'Pink Perfection'[17] 'Shirofugen'[18] 'Shirotae'[19] 'Shogetsu'[20] 'Spire'[21] 'Ukon'[22]

Toxicity[edit] Many species are cyanogenic; that is, they contain compounds called cyanogenic glucosides, notably amygdalin, which, on hydrolysis, yield hydrogen cyanide.[23] Although the fruits of some may be edible by humans and livestock (in addition to the ubiquitous fructivory of birds), seeds, leaves and other parts may be toxic, some highly so.[24] The plants contain no more than trace amounts of hydrogen cyanide, but on decomposition after crushing and exposure to air or on digestion, poisonous amounts may be generated. The trace amounts may give a characteristic taste ("bitter almond") with increasing bitterness in larger quantities, less tolerable to people than to birds, which habitually feed on specific fruits. Pests and diseases[edit]

Cherries
Cherries
are prone to gummosis.

Various Prunus
Prunus
species are winter hosts of the Damson-hop aphid, Phorodon humuli, which is destructive to hops Humulus lupulus
Humulus lupulus
just at the time of their maturity,[25] so it is recommended that plum trees not be grown in the vicinity of hop fields. Corking is the drying or withering of fruit tissue.[26] In stone fruit, it is often caused by a lack of boron and/or calcium.[27] Gummosis
Gummosis
is a nonspecific condition of stone fruits (peach, nectarine, plum and cherry) in which gum is exuded and deposited on the bark of trees. Gum is produced in response to any type of wound: insects, mechanical injury or disease.[28] Species[edit] The lists below are incomplete, but include most of the better-known species. Eastern Hemisphere[edit]

P. africana: African cherry P. apetala: Clove cherry P. arborea P. armeniaca: Apricot P. avium: Sweet cherry or Wild cherry P. bifrons P. brigantina: Briançon apricot P. buergeriana P. campanulata: Taiwan cherry P. canescens P. cerasifera: Cherry
Cherry
plum P. cerasoides: Wild Himalayan cherry P. cerasus: Sour cherry P. ceylanica P. cocomilia: Italian plum P. cornuta P. crassifolia P. davidiana: David's peach P. darvasica P. domestica: Plum P. dulcis: Almond P. fruticosa: European dwarf cherry P. glandulosa: Chinese bush cherry P. grayana: Japanese bird cherry P. incana P. incisa: Fuji cherry P. jacquemontii: Afghan bush cherry P. japonica: Japanese bush cherry P. korshinskyi P. kotschyi P. laurocerasus: Cherry
Cherry
laurel P. laxinervis: Portugal laurel P. lusitanica P. maackii: Manchurian cherry P. mahaleb: Mahaleb cherry P. mandshurica: Manchurian apricot P. maximowiczii: Korean cherry P. mume: Chinese plum P. myrtifolia: West Indies cherry P. nipponica: Japanese alpine cherry P. occidentalis: Western cherry laurel P. padus: Bird cherry P. persica: Peach P. pleuradenia P. pseudocerasus P. prostrata: Mountain cherry P. salicina: Japanese plum P. sargentii: North Japanese hill cherry P. scoparia: (Kurdish: چوالە تاڵە) P. serrula P. serrulata: Japanese cherry P. sibirica: Siberian apricot P. simonii: Apricot
Apricot
plum P. sogdiana P. speciosa: Oshima cherry P. spinosa: Blackthorn P. spinulosa P. ssiori P. subhirtella: Winter-flowering cherry P. tenella: Dwarf Russian almond P. tomentosa: Nanking cherry P. triloba: Flowering plum P. turneriana P. ursina: Bear's plum P. vachuschtii P. verecunda P. × yedoensis: Yoshino cherry P. zippeliana: Big leaf cherry (Chinese: 大叶桂樱)

Western Hemisphere[edit]

P. alabamensis: Alabama cherry P. alleghaniensis: Allegheny plum P. americana: American plum P. andersonii: Desert peach P. angustifolia: Chickasaw plum P. buxifolia P. caroliniana: Carolina laurelcherry P. cortapico P. emarginata: Bitter cherry P. eremophila: Mojave Desert plum P. fasciculata: Wild almond P. fremontii: Desert apricot P. geniculata: Scrub plum P. gentryi P. gracilis: Oklahoma plum P. havardii: Havard's plum P. hortulana: Hortulan plum P. huantensis P. ilicifolia: Hollyleaf cherry P. integrifolia P. maritima: Beach plum P. mexicana: Mexican plum P. minutiflora: Texas almond P. murrayana: Murray’s plum P. myrtifolia: West Indies cherry P. nigra: Canada plum P. pensylvanica: Bird cherry P. pumila: Sand cherry P. rigida P. rivularis: Creek plum P. serotina: Black cherry P. sphaerocarpa P. subcordata: Klamath plum P. subcorymbosa P. texana: Peachbush P. umbellata: Flatwoods plum P. virginiana: Chokecherry

Palaeobotanical models[edit]

The development sequence of a nectarine ( Prunus
Prunus
persica) over a 7.5 month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer

The earliest known fossil Prunus
Prunus
specimens are wood, drupe and seed and a leaf from the middle Eocene
Eocene
of the Princeton Chert of British Columbia.[29] Using the known age as calibration data, recent research by Oh and Potter[30] reconstructs a partial phylogeny of some Rosaceae from a number of nucleotide sequences. According to this study, Prunus and its "sister clade" Maloideae (apple subfamily) diverged at 44.3 mya (or 43 million years ago, well before most of the primates existed). This date is within the Lutetian, or older middle Eocene.[c] Stockey and Wehr report: "The Eocene
Eocene
was a time of rapid evolution and diversification in Angiosperm
Angiosperm
families such as the Rosaceae
Rosaceae
...."[29] The Princeton finds are among a large number of angiosperm fossils from the Okanagan Highlands
Okanagan Highlands
dating to the late early and middle Eocene. Crataegus
Crataegus
is found at three locations: Mcabee Falls, Idaho; Republic, Washington
Republic, Washington
and Princeton, British Columbia, while Prunus
Prunus
is found at those locations and Quilchena, British Columbia
British Columbia
and Chu Chua, British Columbia. A recent recapitulation of research on the topic[31] reported that the Rosaceae
Rosaceae
were more diverse at higher altitudes. The Okanagan formations date to as early as 52 mya, but the 44.3 mya date, which is approximate, depending on assumptions, might still apply. The authors state: "... the McAbee flora records a diverse early middle Eocene
Eocene
angiosperm-dominated forest."[31]:165 Etymology[edit] The Online Etymology Dictionary
Online Etymology Dictionary
presents the customary derivations of plum[32] and prune[33] from Latin prūnum,[34] the plum fruit. The tree is prūnus;[35] and Pliny uses prūnus silvestris to mean the blackthorn. The word is not native Latin, but is a loan from Greek προῦνον (prounon), which is a variant of προῦμνον (proumnon),[36] origin unknown. The tree is προύμνη (proumnē).[37] Most dictionaries follow Hoffman, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Griechischen, in making some form of the word a loan from a pre-Greek language of Asia Minor, related to Phrygian. The first use of Prunus
Prunus
as a genus name was by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
in Hortus Cliffortianus of 1737,[38] which went on to become Species
Species
Plantarum. In that work,[clarification needed] Linnaeus attributes the word to "Varr.", who it is assumed must be Marcus Terentius Varro.[dubious – discuss] Notes[edit]

^ Do a search in the ITIS database on the scientific name Prunus
Prunus
for its current list. ^ Other established species appear as well, which for whatever reasons are not yet in ITIS. ^ A date of 76 mya is given for Rosaceae, which is within the late Cretaceous.

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j Potter, D.; Eriksson, T.; Evans, R.C.; Oh, S.; Smedmark, J.E.E.; Morgan, D.R.; Kerr, M.; Robertson, K.R.; Arsenault, M.; Dickinson, T.A.; Campbell, C.S. (2007). " Phylogeny
Phylogeny
and classification of Rosaceae". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266 (1–2): 5–43. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0539-9.  [Referring to the subfamily by the name "Spiraeoideae"] ^ Cullen, J.; et al., eds. (1995). European Garden Flora. 4. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521420952.  ^ Linnaeus Carolus (1830). Sprengel, Curtius, ed. Genera Plantarum Editio Nona [Plant Categories, Ninth Edition]. Gottingen: Dieterich. pp. 402–403.  ^ Bailey, Liberty Hyde (1898). Sketch of the Evolution of Our Native Fruits. New York: The MacMillan Company. p. 181.  ^ Bortiri, E.; Oh, S. H.; Jiang, J.; Baggett, S.; Granger, A.; Weeks, C.; Buckingham, M.; Potter, D.; Parfitt, D. E. (2001). " Phylogeny
Phylogeny
and Systematics of Prunus
Prunus
(Rosaceae) as Determined by Sequence Analysis of ITS and the Chloroplast trnL-trnF Spacer DNA". Systematic Botany. 26 (4): 797–807. JSTOR 3093861.  ^ a b Lee, Sangtae; Wen, Jun (2001). "A phylogenetic analysis of Prunus
Prunus
and the Amygdaloideae
Amygdaloideae
(Rosaceae) using ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA". American Journal of Botany. 88 (1): 150–160. doi:10.2307/2657135. JSTOR 2657135. PMID 11159135.  ^ Okie, William (July 2003). "Stone Fruits". In Janick, J.; Paulii, R.E. Encyclopedia of Fruits and Nuts. C A B Intl (published 2008).  ^ Bortiri, Esteban; Oh, Sang-Hun; Gao, Fang-You; Potter, Dan (2002). "The phylogenetic utility of nucleotide sequences of sorbitol 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in Prunus
Prunus
(Rosaceae)" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 89 (11): 1697–1708. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.10.1697. PMID 21665596.  [The specification is ''Emplectocladus'' (Torr.) Sargent] ^ "The Gift Of Graft: New York Artist's Tree
Tree
To Grow 40 Kinds Of Fruit". NPR. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2015.  ^ "This tree produces 40 different types of fruit". ScienceAlert. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2015.  ^ Chladil, Mark; Sheridan, Jennifer (2006). "Fire retardant garden plants for the urban fringe and rural areas" (PDF). www.fire.tas.gov.au. Retrieved 5 December 2017.  ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus
Prunus
'Accolade'". Retrieved 29 May 2013.  ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus
Prunus
'Amanogawa'". Retrieved 29 May 2013.  ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus
Prunus
'Ichyo'". Retrieved 29 May 2013.  ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus
Prunus
'Kanzan'". Retrieved 29 May 2013.  ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus
Prunus
'Pandora'". Retrieved 29 May 2013.  ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus
Prunus
'Pink Perfection'". Retrieved 29 May 2013.  ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus
Prunus
'Shirofugen'". Retrieved 29 May 2013.  ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus
Prunus
'Shirotae'". Retrieved 29 May 2013.  ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus
Prunus
'Shogetsu'". Retrieved 29 May 2013.  ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus
Prunus
'Spire'". Retrieved 29 May 2013.  ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus
Prunus
'Ukon'". Retrieved 29 May 2013.  ^ Armstrong, E. Frankland (1913). "Glucosides". In Davis, W.A.; Sadtler, Samuel S. Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis. VII (Fourth ed.). Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co. p. 102. Retrieved 5 December 2017.  ^ Cook, Laurence Martin; Callow, Robert S. (1999). Genetic and evolutionary diversity: the sport of nature (2nd ed.). Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. p. 135.  ^ "Damson-hop aphid, Phorodon humuli". Rothamstead Insect Survey. Rothamstead Research. Archived from the original on 26 June 2012.  ^ Benson, N.R.; Woodbridge, C.G.; Bartram, R.D. (1994). "Nutrient Disorders in Tree
Tree
Fruits" (PDF). Pacific Northwest Extension Publications. Retrieved 9 September 2017.  ^ Day, Kevin (27 January 1999). " Peach
Peach
and Nectarine
Nectarine
Cork Spot:A Review of the 1998 Season" (PDF). University of California Cooperative Extension - Tulare County. University of California, Davis. Retrieved 9 September 2017.  ^ Hartman, John; Bachi, Paul (November 2005). " Gummosis
Gummosis
and Perennial Canker of Stone Fruits" (PDF). Plant Pathology. University of Kentucky. Retrieved 9 September 2017.  ^ a b Stockey, Ruth A.; Wehr, Wesley C. (1996). "Flowering Plants in and around Eocene
Eocene
Lakes of the Interior". In Ludvigson, Rolf. Life in Stone: a Natural History of British Columbia's Fossils. Vancouver: UBCPress. pp. 234, 241, 245. ISBN 0-7748-0578-1.  ^ Oh, Sang-Hun; Potter, Daniel
Daniel
(2005). "Molecular phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of tribe Neillieae (Rosaceae) using DNA sequences of cpDNA, rDNA, and LEAFY1". American Journal of Botany. 92 (1): 179–192. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.1.179. PMID 21652396.  ^ a b Dillhoff, Richard M; Leopold, Estella B.; Manchester, Steven R. (February 2005). "The McAbee flora of British Columbia
British Columbia
and its relation to the Early-Middle Eocene
Eocene
Okanagan Highlands
Okanagan Highlands
flora of the Pacific Northwest" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 42 (2): 151–166. doi:10.1139/e04-084.  ^ "plum". Online Etymological Dictionary.  ^ "prune". Online Etymological Dictionary.  ^ "prūnum". Lewis's Elementary Latin Dictionary. Perseus Digital Library. 1890.  ^ "prūnus". Lewis's Elementary Latin Dictionary. Perseus Digital Library. 1890.  ^ "προῦμνον". Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.  ^ "προύμνη". Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.  ^ Linnaeus, Carolus (1737). Hortus Cliffortianus. Amsterdam. p. 186. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.690. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Prunus

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Prunus.

"GRIN Species
Species
Records of Prunus". Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Retrieved 13 November 2009.  "Our Cherries
Cherries
Collection — Prunus". Missouri Botanical Garden: Kemper Center for Home Gardening. 2001–2009. Retrieved 13 November 2009.  Tree
Tree
of 40 fruit website

v t e

Hybrid Prunus

Aprium Nectaplum Peacotum Pluot
Pluot
(including Plumcot) Prunus
Prunus
'Climax' Prunus
Prunus
× dasycarpa Prunus
Prunus
domestica Prunus persica
Prunus persica
× Prunus
Prunus
americana Prunus
Prunus
× yedoensis

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q190545 APDB: 194043 EoL: 29913 EPPO: 1PRNG FloraBase: 21506 FoC: 126865 Fossilworks: 157342 GBIF: 3020559 GRIN: 9887 IPNI: 33984-1 ITIS: 24762 NCBI: 3754 PLANTS: PRUNU Tropicos: 400

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