HOME
The Info List - Prunus



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i)

see text

SYNONYMS

* Amygdalopersica Daniel
Daniel
* Amygdalophora M.Roem. * Amygdalopsis M.Roem. * Amygdalus L. * Armeniaca Scop.
Scop.
* Cerapadus Buia * Ceraseidos Siebold & Zucc.
Zucc.
* Cerasus Mill. * Emplectocladus Torr. * Lauro-cerasus Duhamel * Laurocerasus M.Roem. * Maddenia Hook.f. flowers in early spring, sessile or nearly so, not on leafed shoots; fruit with a groove along one side; stone deeply grooved; type species: Prunus dulcis (almond). * Subgenus Prunus, plums and apricots : axillary buds solitary; flowers in early spring stalked, not on leafed shoots; fruit with a groove along one side, stone rough; type species: Prunus
Prunus
domestica (plum) * Subgenus Cerasus, cherries : axillary buds single; flowers in early spring in corymbs, long-stalked, not on leafed shoots; fruit not grooved, stone smooth; type species: Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) * Subgenus Lithocerasus: axillary buds in threes; flowers in early spring in corymbs, long-stalked, not on leafed shoots; fruit not grooved, stone smooth; type species: Prunus pumila (sand cherry) * Subgenus Padus, bird cherries : axillary buds single; flowers in late spring in racemes on leafy shoots, short-stalked; fruit not grooved, stone smooth; type species: Prunus padus (European bird cherry) * Subgenus Laurocerasus, cherry-laurels : mostly evergreen (all the other subgenera are deciduous ); axillary buds single; flowers in early spring in racemes, not on leafed shoots, short-stalked; fruit not grooved, stone smooth; type species: Prunus laurocerasus (European cherry-laurel)

Another recent DNA study found that there are two clades : Prunus-Maddenia, with Maddenia basal within Prunus, and Exochorda - Oemleria - Prinsepia , but further refinement shows that Exochorda-Oemleria- Prinsepia is somewhat separate from Prunus-Maddenia-Pygeum, and that, like the traditional subfamily Maloideae with apple-like fruits, all of these genera appear to be best considered within the expanded subfamily Amygdaloideae . Prunus can be divided into two clades: Amygdalus- Prunus
Prunus
and Cerasus-Laurocerasus-Padus. Yet another study adds Emplectocladus as a subgenus to the former.

CULTIVATION

Japanese cherry ( Prunus
Prunus
serrulata) in bloom

The genus Prunus
Prunus
includes the almond , apricot , cherry , peach and plum , all of which have cultivars developed for commercial fruit and nut production. The edible part of the almond is the seed; the almond fruit is a drupe , not a true nut . Many other species are occasionally cultivated or used for their seed and fruit.

FLOWERING CHERRIES

A number of species, hybrids , and cultivars are also grown as ornamental plants , usually for their profusion of flowers, sometimes for ornamental foliage and shape, and occasionally for their bark . These ornamentals include the group that may be collectively called "flowering cherries " (including sakura, the Japanese flowering cherries).

The following hybrid cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society 's Award of Garden Merit . All are described as flowering cherries, and are valued for their spring blossom.

* 'Accolade' * 'Amanogawa' * 'Ichiyo' * \'Kanzan\' * 'Pandora' * 'Pink Perfection' * 'Shirofugen' * 'Shirotae' * 'Shogetsu' * 'Spire' * 'Ukon'

OTHER USES

Species
Species
such as blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa ), are grown for hedging, game cover, and other utilitarian purposes.

The wood of some species (notably black cherry ) is prized as a furniture and cabinetry timber , especially in North America.

Many species produce an aromatic resin from wounds in the trunk; this is sometimes used medicinally. Other minor uses include dye production.

Pygeum , a herbal remedy containing extracts from the bark of Prunus africana , is used as to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by inflammation in patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia .

Because of their considerable value as both food and ornamental plants, many Prunus
Prunus
species have been introduced to parts of the world to which they are not native, some becoming naturalised.

Prunus
Prunus
species are food plants for the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
species (butterflies and moths ); see List of Lepidoptera which feed on Prunus
Prunus
.

Prunus
Prunus
sp. is included in the Tasmanian Fire Service's list of low flammability plants, indicating that it is suitable for growing within a building protection zone.

The Tree
Tree
of 40 Fruit
Fruit
has forty varieties grafted on to one rootstock.

TOXICITY

Many species are cyanogenic ; that is, they contain compounds called cyanogenic glucosides , notably amygdalin , which, on hydrolysis , yield hydrogen cyanide . Although the fruits of some may be edible by humans and livestock (in addition to the ubiquitous fructivory of birds), seeds, leaves and other parts may be toxic, some highly so. The plants contain no more than trace amounts of hydrogen cyanide, but on decomposition after crushing and exposure to air or on digestion, poisonous amounts may be generated. The trace amounts may give a characteristic taste ("bitter almond") with increasing bitterness in larger quantities, less tolerable to people than to birds, which habitually feed on specific fruits.

PESTS AND DISEASES

Cherries are prone to gummosis .

Various Prunus
Prunus
species are winter hosts of the Damson-hop aphid, Phorodon humuli , which is destructive to hops Humulus lupulus just at the time of their maturity, so it is recommended that plum trees not be grown in the vicinity of hop fields.

CORKING is a nutritional disorder in stone fruit caused by a lack of boron and/or calcium .

SPECIES

The lists below are incomplete, but include most of the better-known species.

EASTERN HEMISPHERE

* Prunus africana * Prunus apetala * Prunus arborea * Prunus armeniaca * Prunus avium
Prunus avium
* Prunus bifrons * Prunus brigantina * Prunus
Prunus
buergeriana * Prunus campanulata * Prunus
Prunus
canescens * Prunus cerasifera
Prunus cerasifera
* Prunus cerasoides * Prunus cerasus * Prunus ceylanica * Prunus cocomilia * Prunus
Prunus
cornuta * Prunus
Prunus
crassifolia * Prunus davidiana * Prunus
Prunus
darvasica * Prunus domestica * Prunus dulcis * Prunus fruticosa * Prunus geniculata * Prunus glandulosa * Prunus grayana * Prunus
Prunus
incana * Prunus incisa * Prunus jacquemontii * Prunus japonica * Prunus korshinskyi * Prunus kotschyi * Prunus laurocerasus * Prunus laxinervis * Prunus lusitanica * Prunus maackii * Prunus mahaleb * Prunus mandshurica * Prunus maximowiczii * Prunus mume
Prunus mume
* Prunus murrayana * Prunus myrtifolia * Prunus nipponica * Prunus occidentalis * Prunus padus * Prunus persica * Prunus
Prunus
pleuradenia * Prunus
Prunus
pseudocerasus * Prunus prostrata * Prunus salicina
Prunus salicina
* Prunus sargentii
Prunus sargentii
* Prunus scoparia * Prunus
Prunus
serrula * Prunus serrulata * Prunus sibirica * Prunus simonii * Prunus
Prunus
sogdiana * Prunus speciosa * Prunus spinosa * Prunus
Prunus
spinulosa * Prunus
Prunus
ssiori * Prunus subhirtella * Prunus tenella * Prunus tomentosa * Prunus triloba * Prunus
Prunus
turneriana * Prunus ursina * Prunus
Prunus
vachuschtii * Prunus verecunda * Prunus yedoensis * Prunus zippeliana

WESTERN HEMISPHERE

* Prunus alabamensis * Prunus alleghaniensis * Prunus americana * Prunus andersonii * Prunus angustifolia * Prunus buxifolia * Prunus caroliniana * Prunus cortapico * Prunus cuthbertii * Prunus emarginata * Prunus eremophila * Prunus fasciculata * Prunus fremontii
Prunus fremontii
* Prunus geniculata * Prunus gentryi * Prunus gracilis * Prunus havardii * Prunus hortulana * Prunus huantensis * Prunus ilicifolia * Prunus integrifolia * Prunus maritima * Prunus mexicana * Prunus minutiflora * Prunus murrayana * Prunus munsoniana * Prunus myrtifolia * Prunus nigra * Prunus pensylvanica * Prunus pumila * Prunus rigida * Prunus rivularis * Prunus serotina * Prunus sphaerocarpa * Prunus subcordata
Prunus subcordata
* Prunus subcorymbosa * Prunus texana * Prunus umbellata * Prunus virginiana

PALAEOBOTANICAL MODELS

The development sequence of a nectarine ( Prunus
Prunus
persica) over a 7.5 month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer

The earliest known fossil Prunus
Prunus
specimens are wood, drupe and seed and a leaf from the middle Eocene
Eocene
of the Princeton Chert of British Columbia . Using the known age as calibration data, recent research by Oh and Potter reconstructs a partial phylogeny of some Rosaceae from a number of nucleotide sequences . According to this study, Prunus
Prunus
and its "sister clade" Maloideae (apple subfamily) diverged at 44.3 mya (or 43 million years ago, well before most of the primates existed). This date is within the Lutetian , or older middle Eocene
Eocene
. Stokey and Wehr report: "The Eocene
Eocene
was a time of rapid evolution and diversification in Angiosperm
Angiosperm
families such as the Rosaceae
Rosaceae
...."

The Princeton finds are among a large number of angiosperm fossils from the Okanagan Highlands dating to the late early and middle Eocene. Crataegus
Crataegus
is found at three locations: Mcabee, Republic and Princeton , while Prunus
Prunus
is found at those locations and Quilchena and Chuchua. A recent recapitulation of research on the topic reported that the Rosaceae
Rosaceae
were more diverse at higher altitudes. The Okanagan formations date to as early as 52 mya, but the 44.3 mya date, which is approximate, depending on assumptions, might still apply. The authors state: "... the McAbee flora records a diverse early middle Eocene angiosperm-dominated forest."

ETYMOLOGY

The Online Etymology Dictionary
Online Etymology Dictionary
presents the customary derivations of plum and prune from Latin prūnum, the plum fruit. The tree is prūnus; and Pliny uses prūnus silvestris to mean the blackthorn . The word is not native Latin, but is a loan from Greek προῦνον (prounon), which is a variant of προῦμνον (proumnon), origin unknown. The tree is προύμνη (proumnē). Most dictionaries follow Hoffman, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Griechischen, in making some form of the word a loan from a pre-Greek language of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
, related to Phrygian .

The first use of Prunus
Prunus
as a genus name was by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
in Hortus Cliffortianus of 1737, which went on to become Species Plantarum . In that work, Linnaeus attributes the word to "Varr.", who it is assumed must be Marcus Terentius Varro .

NOTES

* ^ A B C D E F G H I J Potter, D.; Eriksson, T.; Evans, R.C.; Oh, S.; Smedmark, J.E.E.; Morgan, D.R.; Kerr, M.; Robertson, K.R.; Arsenault, M.; Dickinson, T.A.; Campbell, C.S. (2007). " Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae". Plant
Plant
Systematics and Evolution. 266 (1–2): 5–43. doi :10.1007/s00606-007-0539-9 . * ^ European Garden Flora; vol. 4 * ^ Linnaeus Carolus; Sprengel, Curtius (editor) (1830). Genera Plantarum Editio Nona (Genera plantarum, ninth edition). Gottingen: Dieterich page 402 for Amygdalus, page 403 for Prunus. External link in publisher= (help )CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Bailey, Liberty Hyde (1898). Sketch of the Evolution of Our Native Fruits. New York: The MacMillan Company. p. 181. * ^ Bortiri, Esteban, E.; Oh, S. H.; Jiang, J.; Baggett, S.; Granger, A.; Weeks, C.; Buckingham, M.; Potter, D.; Parfitt, D. E.; et al. (2001). " Phylogeny and Systematics of Prunus
Prunus
(Rosaceae) as Determined by Sequence Analysis of ITS and the Chloroplast trnL-trnF Spacer DNA". Systematic Botany. 26 (4): 797–807. JSTOR
JSTOR
3093861 . . Abstract and first page for free. * ^ Do a search in the ITIS database on the scientific name Prunus for its current list. * ^ Other established species appear as well, which for whatever reasons are not yet in ITIS. * ^ A B Lee, Sangtae; Wen, Jun (2001). "A phylogenetic analysis of Prunus
Prunus
and the Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae) using ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA". American Journal of Botany. 88 (1): 150–160. JSTOR 2657135 . PMID 11159135 . doi :10.2307/2657135 . * ^ Okie, William (July 2003). "Stone Fruits". Encyclopedia of Fruits and Nuts. * ^ Bortiri, Esteban; Oh, Sang-Hun; Gao, Fang-You; Potter, Dan (2002). "The phylogenetic utility of nucleotide sequences of sorbitol 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in Prunus
Prunus
(Rosaceae)" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 89 (11): 1697–1708. PMID 21665596 . doi :10.3732/ajb.89.10.1697 . The specification is Emplectocladus (Torr.) Sargent * ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Prunus
Prunus
\'Accolade\'". Retrieved 29 May 2013. * ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Prunus
Prunus
\'Amanogawa\'". Retrieved 29 May 2013. * ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Prunus
Prunus
\'Ichyo\'". Retrieved 29 May 2013.

* ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Prunus
Prunus
\'Kanzan\'". Retrieved 29 May 2013. * ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Prunus
Prunus
\'Pandora\'". Retrieved 29 May 2013. * ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Prunus
Prunus
\'Pink Perfection\'". Retrieved 29 May 2013. * ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Prunus
Prunus
\'Shirofugen\'". Retrieved 29 May 2013. * ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Prunus
Prunus
\'Shirotae\'". Retrieved 29 May 2013. * ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Prunus
Prunus
\'Shogetsu\'". Retrieved 29 May 2013. * ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Prunus
Prunus
\'Spire\'". Retrieved 29 May 2013.

* ^ "RHS Plant
Plant
Selector - Prunus
Prunus
\'Ukon\'". Retrieved 29 May 2013. * ^ Chladil and Sheridan, Mark and Jennifer. "Fire retardant garden plants for the urban fringe and rural areas" (PDF). www.fire.tas.gov.au. Tasmanian Fire Research Fund. * ^ "The Gift Of Graft: New York Artist\'s Tree
Tree
To Grow 40 Kinds Of Fruit". NPR
NPR
. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2015. * ^ "This tree produces 40 different types of fruit". ScienceAlert. Retrieved 3 January 2015. * ^ Armstrong, E. Frankland (1913). "Glucosides". In Davis, W.A.; Sadtler, Samuel S. Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis, etc. (Fourth ed.). Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co. p. 102. Amygdalin ... is found in bitter almonds and in the kernels of peaches, cherries, plums, apples, etc. It is hydrolysed by emulsin to hydrogen cyanide, usually in their leaves and seeds * ^ Cook, Laurence Martin; Callow, Robert S. (1999). Genetic and evolutionary diversity: the sport of nature (2nd ed.). Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. p. 135. * ^ Rothamstead Insect Survey; Rothamstead Research (n.d.). "Damson-hop aphid, Phorodon humuli". * ^ Day, Kevin (1999-01-27). " Peach and Nectarine Cork Spot:A Review of the 1998 Season". University of California, Davis. Retrieved 2010-04-01. * ^ A B Stockey Potter, Daniel
Daniel
(2005). "Molecular phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of tribe Neillieae (Rosaceae) using DNA sequences of cpDNA, rDNA, and LEAFY1". American Journal of Botany. 92 (1): 179–192. PMID 21652396 . doi :10.3732/ajb.92.1.179 . * ^ A date of 76 mya is given for Rosaceae, which is within the late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
. * ^ Dillhoff & Leopold (2005), pp 151–166 * ^ Dillhoff & Leopold (2005), p 165. * ^ "plum". Online Etymological Dictionary. * ^ "prune". Online Etym